effects of larval population density on rates of development and interactions between two species of chrysomya (diptera: calliphoridae) in laboratory culture.rearing of chrysomya megacephala (f.) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) in pure cultures at seven different population densities (larvae per gram of liver) demonstrated an inverse relationship between density and the duration of the larval stage. in pure cultures, larval mortality rates decreased with increasing density until an optimum density was reached (8 larvae/g liver for c. megacephala and 10 larvae/g liver for c. rufifacies), then decreased directly with density. puparial and adult wei ...19902332878
polytene chromosomes of monogenic and amphogenic chrysomya species (calliphoridae, diptera): analysis of banding patterns and in situ hybridization with drosophila sex determining gene sequences.standard maps for the five banded polytene chromosomes found in trichogen cell nuclei of the monogenic blowfly chrysomya rufifacies and the amphogenic chrysomya pinguis are presented. the chromosomes are highly homologous in the two species; differences in banding patterns are predominantly caused by one pericentric and ten paracentric inversions. in chromosome 5 of the amphogenic chrysomya phaonis, also analysed in this paper, an additional paracentric inversion was observed. the distribution o ...19948013251
efficacy of ivermectin jetting fluid against strike by some primary and secondary blowflies of sheep.merino sheep, which were hand jetted with ivermectin jetting fluid, and untreated sheep were challenged with larval implants of lucilia cuprina, lucilia sericata, calliphora nociva and chrysomya rufifacies at intervals of about 2 weeks from 6 to 16 weeks after treatment. both lucilia species produced strike rates of about 90% in untreated sheep; the respective rates were lower for chr rufifacies (55%) and c nociva (60%). strike rates for the treated group were about 17, 11, and 9% for l cuprina, ...19938343088
effects of temperature on chrysomya rufifacies (diptera:calliphoridae) development.growth curves were studied for the egg, larva, and pupa of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) under mean cyclic temperatures of 15.6, 21.1, 26.7, and 35.0 degrees c and a constant temperature of 25.0 degrees c. development from egg to adult under all regimes ranged from 190 to 598 h. a constant temperature of 25 degrees c produced a range of pupation times from 134 to 162 h, with adult emergence ranging from 237 to 289 h. the maximal preferential temperature of 35.1 degrees c was determined for mag ...19979151502
isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown kuala lumpur.four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown kuala lumpur: chrysomya megacephala, chrysomya rufifacies, musca domestica, and musca sorbens. burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from chrysomya megacephala. klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from chrysomya megacephala, musca domestica, and musca sorbens. aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was pre ...200010925800
larval morphology of chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) (diptera: calliphoridae) using scanning electron microscopy.the larval morphology of chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) is presented using scanning electron microscopy (sem). extreme similarity of this species to chrysomya rufifacies (macquart), a species usually found concurrently inhabiting decomposing human corpses in thailand, is seen only in the first-instar larvae. the relative thickness of the branches of the posterior spiracular hairs in these species could be used to differentiate them in this developmental stage. in contrast, the "hairy" appeara ...200312831128
hairy maggot of chrysomya villeneuvi (diptera: calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.we reported on the hairy maggot of chrysomya villeneuvi patton, collected from a human corpse in thailand. although the general morphology of the third instar closely resembled the more common hairy maggot blow fly, chrysomya rufifacies (macquart), the spines along the tubercles of each body segment could be used as a feature to distinguish between these species, with those of c. villeneuri bearing sharp-ended spines that encircle the entire tubercle. not only has the resemblance of a hairy appe ...200314765679
[identification of the genetic sex chromosomes in the monogenic blowfly chrysomya rufifacies (calliphoridae, diptera)].previous investigations have shown the sex determination in the monogenic blowfly chrysomya rufifacies to be controlled by a cytologically not discernible homogametry-heterogamety mechanism in the female. female-producing (thelygenic) females are assumed to be heterozygous for a dominant female sex realizer (f') with sex-predetermining properties, while male-producing (arrhenogenic) females as well as males are supposed to be homozygous for the recessive allele (f). in order to identify the gene ...19751097215
sequence homology between a polytene band in the genetic sex chromosomes of chrysomya rufifacies and the daughterless gene of drosophila melanogaster. 19902111467
larval morphology of chrysomya nigripes (diptera: calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.the morphology of all instars of chrysomya nigripes aubertin, a blow fly species of forensic importance, is presented with the aid of both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (sem). morphological features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, and dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax are highlighted. no consistent features were found, even using sem, for distinguishing the first instar of c. nigripes from that of chrysomya megacephal ...200515962769
determination of postmortem interval by arthropod succession: a case study from the hawaiian islands.a postmortem interval of 34 to 36 days was established for remains recovered on the island of oahu, hawaii, based on interpretations of patterns of arthropod succession on the remains. this interval was primarily based on the presence of adult specimens of philonthus longicornis (family staphylinidae), mature larvae of piophila casei (family piophilidae), and empty puparial cases of chrysomya rufifacies (family calliphoridae). species and developmental stages of two additional coleoptera species ...19912066736
insect succession and decomposition of wildlife carcasses during fall and winter in louisiana.fourteen fresh animal carcasses were monitored throughout decomposition in a mixed flatwood forest in east baton rouge parish, la, from 5 october to 7 december 1999 (fall) and from 18 january to 30 march 2000 (winter). species composition and residency patterns of necrophilous insects were documented for four animal species per seasonal experiment: one louisiana black bear (threatened species), two white-tailed deer, two alligators, and two swine (experimental reference). results suggested varia ...200515799530
antennal sensilla of some forensically important flies in families calliphoridae, sarcophagidae and muscidae.antennal sensilla of some forensically important fly species in the families calliphoridae (chrysomya megacephala, chrysomya rufifacies, chrysomya nigripes and lucilia cuprina), sarcophagidae (parasarcophaga dux) and muscidae (musca domestica) were studied using scanning electron microscopy. five types of sensilla were observed: trichoid, basiconic, coeloconic, styloconic and sensory pit. only trichoid sensilla are found on the scape of the antenna, while both trichoid and styloconic sensilla ar ...200415288645
identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining eggs found in corpses can be utilized as entomological evidence in forensic investigations of deaths if the species of fly and the developmental rate at a temperature similar to the death scene are known. the species identification of fly eggs is particularly important, and previously, scanning electron microscope has been used for this purpose. herein, we report a simple technique, using light microscopy, to identify forensically important eggs of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart), chrysomya ...200415006363
observations of the third instar larva and puparium of chrysomya bezziana (diptera: calliphoridae).observations on the ultrastructure of the third instar larva and puparium of the old world screw-worm fly, chrysomya bezziana, are presented utilizing both light microscopy (lm) and scanning electron microscopy (sem). results of this study indicate that the shape of the intersegmental spines between the pro- and mesothorax markedly differ from other blow fly species (chrysomya megacephala, chrysomya rufifacies, chrysomya nigripes, lucilia cuprina) in being broad-based with sharp recurved tips. o ...200616732438
molecular identification of forensically important blow fly species (diptera: calliphoridae) in taiwan.forensic entomology is a discipline that mainly uses insects collected in and around corpses to estimate the post-mortem interval in medicocriminal investigations. among all scavenger and necrophagous insect groups that are related to corpses, blow flies (diptera: calliphoridae) are probably most important, not only because they occur in abundant numbers but also because they are one of the earliest groups to find corpses. however, most entomological evidence is strongly dependent on accurate sp ...200414989345
prestomal teeth of some flies of medical importance.comparison of prestomal teeth of adult chrysomya megacephala, chrysomya rufifacies, chrysomya nigripes, lucilia cuprina, parasarcophaga dux and musca domestica was accomplished by use of scanning electron microscopy. the prestomal teeth of c. megacephala, c. rufifacies, l. cuprina and p. dux are all similar in appearance in having various degrees of bifurcation at their tips. in contrast, the tips of the prestomal teeth in c. nigripes are very shallowly serrated, but are comparatively more deepl ...200314680932
surface ultrastructure of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) larvae (diptera: calliphoridae).the surface ultrastructure of all larval instars of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) is described by means of scanning electron microscopy (sem). morphological changes were greatest from the first to the second instar, but less from the second to the third instar. most of these changes involved the structure of the anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, integument of the body, and mouthhooks. modification of the mouthhooks, especially in the third instar, are helpful in explaining the ferocious f ...200312943102
mitochondrial dna cytochrome oxidase i gene: potential for distinction between immature stages of some forensically important fly species (diptera) in western australia.forensic entomology requires the fast and accurate identification of insects collected from a corpse for estimation of the postmortem interval (pmi). identification of specimens is traditionally performed using morphological features of the insect. morphological identification may be complicated however by the numerical diversity of species and physical similarity between different species, particularly in immature stages. in this study, sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial dna (m ...200312590052
sex determination in flies, fruitflies and determination mechanisms, differing in their modality, are widely represented in all the various animal taxa, even at the intraspecific level. within the highly diversified class insecta, drosophila has been used to unravel the mechanistic molecular and genetic interactions that are involved in sex determination. indeed, the molecularly characterized genes of the drosophila sex determination hierarchy x:a > sxl > tra > dsx have been fruitful starting points in the cloning of homologous genes ...200212484523
identification of screwworms, cochliomyia hominivorax (coquerel) (diptera: calliphoridae), with a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mab-elisa).myiasis caused by screwworms, cochliomyia hominivorax (coquerel), is devastating to warm-blooded animals and economically important to livestock producers. it is difficult to distinguish these pests, immature screwworms, from immatures of other non-pest fly species that often occur in animal wounds; it would be helpful to have tools available that do not rely on morphological characteristics. we developed two monoclonal antibodies (mabs), highly specific for the screwworm, and used them in an en ...200111731077
the utility of mitochondrial dna sequences for the identification of forensically important blowflies (diptera: calliphoridae) in southeastern australia.the applicability of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequencing was investigated for the identification of the following forensically important species of blowflies from southeastern australia: calliphora albifrontalis, c. augur, c. dubia, c. hilli hilli, c. maritima, c. stygia, c. vicina, chrysomya rufifacies, ch. varipes and onesia tibialis. all breed in carrion except o. tibialis, which is an earthworm parasitoid. emphasis was placed on calliphora species because they predominate among the carrion- ...200111457611
chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) established in the vicinity of knoxville, tennessee, usa.the hairy maggot blow fly, chrsomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the knoxville, tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. the distribution of this species in the old world, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the u.s. the forensic importance of c. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number ...200010914593
incidence of myiasis in panama during the eradication of cochliomyia hominivorax (coquerel 1858, diptera: calliphoridae) (2002-2005).we present the results of a study on myiasis in panama during the first years of a cochliomyia hominivorax eradication program (1998-2005), with the aim of investigating the behavior of the flies that produce myiasis in animals and human beings. the hosts that registered positive for myiasis were cattle (46.4%), dogs (15.3%), humans (14.7%), birds (12%), pigs (6%), horses (4%), and sheep (1%). six fly species caused myiasis: dermatobia hominis (58%), phaenicia spp. (20%), cochliomyia macellaria ...200717923994
expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxydipeptidases in the larvae of four species of fly.hieace, a soluble 70 kda protein related to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) has recently been identified, characterized and cloned from the adult buffalo fly (haematobia irritans exigua). hieace is enzymatically similar to the mammalian aces and its predicted amino acid sequence has 42% identity with the mammalian testicular aces. in adult h.i. exigua, hieace expression is restricted to the compound ganglion and posterior midgut, and the maturing male reproductive system. western blot an ...19979219369
inheritance patterns of new genetic markers and occurrence of spontaneous mosaicism in the monogenic blowfly chrysomya rufifacies (diptera:calliphoridae).four new genetic markers for chrysomya rufifacies, a fly with maternal sex determination, were characterized. the markers include one body colour mutant, black body (bl), and three eye colour mutants, brown eye (br), apricot eye (ap), and red eye (wr). two of the latter, br and wr, turn out to be sex linked, the others behave as autosomal genes belonging to different linkage groups. wr is a hypomorphic and w an apomorphic mutation of the white gene, w/w is epistatic to br/br and to ap/ap. a prel ...19969003308
chrysomya albiceps and c. rufifacies (diptera: calliphoridae): contribution to an ongoing taxonomic problem.until recently, the two biologically equivalent blow flies chrysomya albiceps (wiedemann) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) had disjunct distributions outside the americas; the former was palaearctic, the latter australasian and oriental. the two species are now spreading throughout the americas and coexist in argentina. the predatory "hairy" larvae of both species are difficult to separate, which could result in taxonomic errors. new diagnostic characters are presented to differentiate the th ...19938510128
review of chrysomya rufifacies (diptera: calliphoridae).the taxonomy, distribution, bionomics, and medical and veterinary importance of c. rufifacies are reviewed and summarized. late instars are beneficial as predators of the maggots of pathogen-transmitting and myiasis-producing flies, but strains from parts of australia, india, and hawaii are harmful as secondary myiasis agents. the effects of invasions, possible competition, and displacement of native calliphorids are discussed. the developmental duration of the immature stadia at different tempe ...19938459410
effect of the red imported fire ant (hymenoptera: formicidae) and carcass type on the daily occurrence of postfeeding carrion-fly larvae (diptera: calliphoridae, sarcophagidae).red imported fire ants, solenopsis invicta buren, caused an increased in the proportion of gaps in the daily occurrence of postfeeding larvae of cochliomyia macellaria (f.) in carrion-baited traps. chrysomya rufifacies appeared later in the decomposition process and over a wider period of days in goat than in rabbit carcasses. the dependence of presence or absence of a carrion arthropod taxon at a given point in succession on interactions between other arthropods or carcass type must be consider ...19948158622
the sex-lethal gene homologue in chrysomya rufifacies is highly conserved in sequence and exon-intron organization.a great variety of sex determination mechanisms exists in insect species. in drosophila melanogaster sex is determined by the ratio between x chromosomes and autosomes, while in the blowfly chrysomya rufifacies it is maternally determined. a cascade of genes which are involved in sex determination has been identified in d. melanogaster with the sex-lethal gene (sxl) as the key gene. we screened genomic libraries of c. rufifacies with a probe of the sxl gene from d. melanogaster and isolated a ge ...19957563134
the role of some cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human helminths in malaysia.the role of some adult flies (diptera: cyclorrhapha) as carriers of helminth parasites of man was studied at four sites in malaysia: a refuse dump, where no helminth-positive flies were detected, and in three peri-domestic situations where four species of flies carried up to three types of nematodes. the dominant fly species chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) carried eggs of the roundworm ascaris lumbricoides l., the pinworm trichuris trichiura (l.) and hookworm on the adult external body surface ...19882980156
gata tandem repeats detect minisatellite regions in blowfly dna (diptera: calliphoridae).a dna probe containing gata tandem repeats detected numerous dispersed minisatellite regions in the genomes of the blowflies chrysomya rufifacies and calliphora erythrocephala. these regions seemed to be actively transcribed into poly(a)+ rna in a tissue-specific manner. when genomic dna of blastoderm embryos was compared with adult genomic dna some loci hybridizing to gata displayed a marked stage-specific variation in length. in calliphora, a small sex-linked dimorphism of gata mini-satellite- ...19882894926
detection of organophosphate poisoning in a putrefying body by analyzing arthropod larvae.deaths as a result of organophosphate poisoning are usually detected by analysis of body fluids and tissues for the presence of the toxic agent. these procedures present particular difficulties when performed on remains in an advanced stage of decomposition. malathion poisoning was suspected in a case in which the remains were in an advanced stage of decomposition and the presence of malathion was confirmed by analyses of gastric content and body fat. two species of fly larvae, chrysomya megacep ...19892738573
black soldier fly (diptera: stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south georgia.the black soldier fly, hermetia illucens (l.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. however, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern georgia from 20 september through 21 february. our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. knowing this information could preve ...200515831010
production of male and female offspring in the strictly monogenic fly chrysomya rufifacies after ovary transplantation. 1977882136
forensically important fly maggots in a floating corpse: the first case report in thailand.the authors report herein the entomological evidence from the first documented forensic floating corpse in thailand. the male remains of unknown name and age was found in the waterside of a reservoir in lampang province, northern thailand. approximately 13-16 wounds resulting from sharp-edged material were found on the body. numerous third-instar of blowflies chrysomya megacephala (f) and chrysomya rufifacies macquart (diptera: calliphoridae) were collected, and the entomological evidence of the ...200516519397
morphological comparison between chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) and chrysomya villeneuvi patton (diptera: calliphoridae) puparia, forensically important blow thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) and chrysomya villeneuvi patton, are of forensic importance. both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. in our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. in this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the pupa ...200616527437
the effect of starvation on the larval behavior of two forensically important species of blow flies (diptera: calliphoridae).the postfeeding larval stage in blow flies is generally an irreversible condition when the fully grown third instar larvae stop feeding and give no response towards food. the larvae of most species then disperse away from their feeding medium and pupariate. there are several cases reported about the use of postfeeding larvae as forensic evidence. it is a matter of common observation that the postfeeding stage can be reached earlier than the expected time if food becomes unavailable. however, no ...200919892500
interdisciplinary workshop yields new entomological data for forensic sciences: chrysomya rufifacies (diptera: calliphoridae) established in north carolina.abstract workshops are used for educating law enforcement personnel on the application of entomological, anthropological, and botanical techniques to gather forensically important information from a body recovery site. from 8 to 11 june 2004, such a workshop was conducted in the metropolitan area of charlotte, nc, by the american academy of applied forensics at central piedmont community college. for this workshop, three pig carcasses weighing individually between 40 and 60 kg were placed in the ...200617162965
development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. to explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. this study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typi ...200617199755
blowfly succession from possum (trichosurus vulpecula) carrion in a sheep-farming zone.the significance of brushtail possum, trichosurus vulpecula kerr (diprotodontia: phalangeridae) carcasses to the succession and production of diptera species and its relevance to fly strike management in tasmania, australia was examined. calliphora stygia (fabricius), lucilia sericata (meigen) and calliphora vicina robineau-desvoidy (diptera: calliphoridae) were found to be the most abundant and lucilia cuprina (wiedemann) (diptera: calliphoridae) always the least abundant (< 1%) of the putative ...200617199756
cuticular hydrocarbon composition in pupal exuviae for taxonomic differentiation of six necrophagous flies.gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze the cuticular hydrocarbons extracted from the pupal exuviae of six necrophagous flies: aldrichina grahami (aldrich), chrysomya megacephala (f.), lucilia sericata (meigen), achoetandrus rufifacies (macquart), boettcherisca peregrina (robineau-desvoidy), and parasarcophaga crassipalpis (macquart). a discriminant model including the variables of peak 1 (tricosane), peak 7 (9-,11-,13-methyl-pentacosane), peak 21 (11,12-;9,13-dimethyl-hexacosan ...200717547230
chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) as a forensically-important fly species in thailand: a case report.the first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (pmi) of a decomposing human corpse in thailand is reported. a honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage c. rufifacies larvae. based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investiga ...200111813652
identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (pmi), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. however, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is cr ...200717687570
a report on the pupae of desmometopa sp. (diptera: milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in malaysia.the pupae of desmometopa sp. (diptera: milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of sarcophagidae, synthesiomyia nudiseta (wulp), chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart). this research note is the first report of the desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in malaysia.201020562823
morphology and developmental rate of blowflies chrysomya megacephala and chrysomya rufifacies in thailand: application in forensic entomology.the larval morphology and developmental rate of chrysomya megacephala (f.) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in thailand, are presented. morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. a data analysis ...200818264799
first report of human myiasis caused by chrysomya megacephala and chrysomya rufifacies (diptera: calliphoridae) in thailand, and its implication in forensic entomology.we report a forensic entomology case associated with human myiasis in chiang mai province, northern thailand. the remains of a 53-yr-old-male were concurrently infested with third instars of the two blow fly species, chrysomya megacephala (f.) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart), near a severe tumor lesion presented on the lower right leg. the presence of third instars, approximately 5 d old, on the day following postmortem indicated that myiasis occurred before death. this is the first report o ...200516119563
morphology of second and third instars of chrysomya villeneuvi patton (diptera: calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.the morphology of the second and third instars of chrysomya villeneuvi patton, a fly species of forensic importance, was presented by use of light microscopy. both instars were of hairy appearance, bearing elongated tubercles along the abdominal and caudal segments. the anterior spiracle had 13-15 papillae. minute dark spots were observed to thoroughly cover the tubercle's surface, with 4-6 strong dark tips. regarding the third instar, the intersegmental spines between the prothorax and mesothor ...200416182965
an observation on the decomposition process of gasoline-ingested monkey carcasses in a secondary forest in malaysia.this study was designed to mimic homicide or suicide cases using gasoline. six adult long-tailed macaque (macaca fascicularis), weighing between 2.5 to 4.0 kg, were equally divided into control and test groups. the control group was sacrificed by a lethal dose of phenobarbital intracardiac while test group was force fed with two doses of gasoline ld50 (37.7 ml/kg) after sedation with phenobarbital. all carcasses were then placed in a decomposition site to observe the decomposition and invasion p ...201021399577
sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit i and ii genes of two commonly found blow fly species, chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) in malaysia.the mitochondiral dna region encompassing the cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) and cytochrome oxidase subunit ii (coii) genes of two malaysian blow fly species, chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) were studied. this region, which spans 2303bp and includes the coi, trna leucine and partial coii was sequenced from adult fly and larval specimens, and compared. intraspecific variations were observed at 0.26% for ch. megacephala and 0.17% for ch. rufifacies, while ...200919901904
karyotypes, constitutive heterochromatin, and genomic dna values in the blowfly genera chrysomya, lucilia, and protophormia (diptera: calliphoridae).the karyotypes and c-banding patterns of chrysomya species c. marginalis, c. phaonis, c. pinguis, c. saffranea, c. megacephala (new guinean strain), lucilia sericata, and protophormia terraenovae are described. all species are amphogenic and have similar chromosome complements (2n = 12), including an xy-xx sex-chromosome pair varying in size and morphology between species. additionally, the c-banding pattern of the monogenic species chrysomya albiceps is presented. the dna contents of these and ...200616936838
molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in malaysia.forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. it is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (pmi) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. this study was conducted in malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. the usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified ...201223424775
effects of malathion on the insect succession and the development of chrysomya megacephala (diptera: calliphoridae) in the field and implications for estimating postmortem interval.a field study on the effects of malathion on insect succession and the development of carrion flies on corpses, and its quantitative determination from the larvae on decomposing rabbit carrion was conducted. the rabbits were treated with malathion at concentrations of lethal, half-lethal and fourth-lethal doses. malathion altered decomposition rates and species diversity: chrysomya megacephala (diptera: calliphoridae) was the most abundant adult species in all the experiments; third instar larva ...201019918159
forensic entomology cases in thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.this paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the department of forensic medicine, faculty of medicine, chiang mai university, northern thailand, from 2000 to 2006. variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. the fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family calliphoridae, and consisted of chrysomya ...200717647017
a preliminary study on insects associated with pig (sus scrofa) carcasses in phitsanulok, northern thailand.preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in phitsanulok, northern thailand. five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). the arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order diptera (family calliphoridae: ...200718209701
a preliminary study of insect succession on a pig carcass in a palm oil plantation in malaysia.this preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in tanjung sepat, selangor in 17 may 2007 by using pig (sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. a 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. the first visitor to the pig carcass was a musc ...200718209704
identification of forensically important chrysomya (diptera: calliphoridae) species using the second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its2).the identification of forensically important blowflies of the genus chrysomya (diptera: calliphoridae) may be hampered by their close morphological similarities, especially as immatures. in contrast to most previous studies, the utility of a nuclear rather than mitochondrial genetic marker was investigated to solve this problem. the second internal transcribed spacer (its2) of ribosomal dna (rdna) was amplified and sequenced from all nine chrysomya species known from australia. difficulties enco ...200818299180
influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (diptera: calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in kelantan, malaysia.the influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in kelantan, malaysia. chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by chrysomya rufifacies (macquart). in general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 d ...200919671490
cadaver wrapping and arrival performance of adult flies in an oil palm plantation in northern peninsular malaysia.there is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. to anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in kedah, malaysia, were visited over 50 d. on daily visits to eac ...201122238885
field assessment of synthetic attractants and traps for the old world screw-worm fly, chrysomya bezziana.the performance of newly developed trapping systems for the old world screw-worm fly, chrysomya bezziana has been determined in field trials on cattle farms in malaysia. the efficacy of non-sticky traps and new attractants to trap c. bezziana and non-target flies was compared with the standard sticky trap and swormlure. the optimal trap was a modified lucitrap(®) with a new attractant mixture, bezzilure-2. the lucitrap/bezzilure-2 caught on average 3.1 times more c. bezziana than the sticky trap ...201222575279
phenotypic polymorphism of chrysomya albiceps (wiedemann) (diptera: calliphoridae) may lead to species misidentification.species identification is an essential step in the progress and completion of work in several areas of biological knowledge, but it is not a simple process. due to the close phylogenetic relationship of certain species, morphological characters are not always sufficiently distinguishable. as a result, it is necessary to combine several methods of analysis that contribute to a distinct categorization of taxa. this study aimed to raise diagnostic characters, both morphological and molecular, for t ...201525265317
cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) on carrion in upstate south carolina, united states.the hairy maggot blow fly chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the united states since its introduction into texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. we investigated the bionomics of immature and adult c. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon procyon lotor (linnaeus) and white-tailed deer odocoileus virginianus zimmerman in upstate south carolina during november 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of in ...201020042303
predation on pupa of chrysomya rufifacies (marquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) by parasitoid, exoristobia philippinensis ashmead (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) and ophyra spinigera larva (diptera: muscidae).a forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (macaca fascicularis raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in tanjung sepat, selangor, malaysia during may until august 2008. we collected pupae of chrysomya rufifacies (marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. the emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as exoristobia philippinensis ashmead (hymeno ...200920237454
temperature-dependent development of the parasitoid tachinaephagus zealandicus on five forensically important carrion fly species.the influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid tachinaephagus zealandicus ashmead (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees c. t. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees c and 27 degrees c on five species of calliphoridae, calliphora albifrontalis malloch, calliphora dubia macquart, lucilia sericata meigen, chrysomya rufifacies macquart and chrysomya megac ...201020374476
arthropods of forensic importance on pig carrion in the coahuilan semidesert, mexico.this is the first report of an ongoing research to establish a sarcosaprophagous arthropod database in the coahuilan semidesert. seven pigs (sus scrofa l.) were used as human models to determine succession in an open urban area during the 2007 winter-spring period. arthropods were collected manually and from pitfall traps. carcass biomass loss, as well as arthropod colonization, was recorded during 71 days postmortem. five decomposition stages were identified during which most abundant orders we ...201020384924
a preliminary investigation of insect colonisation and succession on remains in new zealand.a preliminary, systematic field study on the process of decomposition and associated insects was conducted, for the first time, in new zealand. using pig carcasses as an animal model for human decomposition, insect colonisation and succession was monitored in three different habitats in the auckland region where remains are likely to be found. a significant difference in the rates of decomposition was found among the three different habitats of an open field, coastal sand dune area and native bu ...200817997065
[sequencing of mitochondrial dna cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene in sarcosaphagous flies from 14 provinces in china].to detect the 278 bp region of gene of the cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) in mitochondral dna (mtdna) of sarcosaphagous flies, identify the species of sarcosaphagous flies, and provide reference for forensic application.201020818074
ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.this work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [chrysomya megacephala (f.), chrysomya rufifacies (macquart), chrysomya nigripes (aubertin), lucilia cuprina (wiedemann)], house flies (musca domestica l.), and flesh flies (liosarcophaga dux thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. the head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, ...200818343951
the succession and development of insects on pig carcasses and their significances in estimating pmi in south china.the succession of insect communities on carrion varies at local and global spatial scales. as such, ecological succession data obtained from corpses at one geographic location cannot necessarily be applied to other locations. our study describes this succession in the far southern part of china to provide such data for forensic cases in this region. a total of 18 pig carcasses were placed in the field in four seasons, and the timing of the following events were recorded: appearance of larvae, on ...200818534797
insect succession on a decomposing piglet carcass placed in a man-made freshwater pond in malaysia.this entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in tanjung sepat, selangor from 23 july 2007 by using pig (sus scrofa) as a carcass model. a 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. on the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. the carcass floated to ...200818600201
on the predation of fly, chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) by a spider, oxyopes sp. latreille (oxyopidae).during a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in tg.sepat, selangor in september 2007, a spider (arachnida), oxyopes sp. (oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (chrysomya rufifacies). the female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. this spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. the fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.200818600210
larval competition of chrysomya megacephala and chrysomya rufifacies (diptera: calliphoridae): behavior and ecological studies of two blow fly species of forensic significance.chrysomya megacephala and chrysomya rufifacies are two predominant necrophagous species in taiwan. larvae of the latter can prey on other maggots, including that of their own species as facultative food. this facultative characteristic of c. rufifacies may enhance its competitive advantage over other maggots and could also change the situation of other coexisting colonies. in this study, these two species were colonized in the laboratory, and the main objective was to try to understand the effec ...200818714884
rehydration of forensically important larval diptera specimens.established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. entomological evidence, such as diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. in this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. the changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically importan ...201121337957
an analysis of forensic entomological specimens by universiti kebangsaan malaysia.this study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the department of parasitology & medical entomology, universiti kebangsaan malaysia for the year 2004. a total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, chrysomya megacephala, chrysom ...201021939166
public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.this study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at woreta, northwestern ethiopia. in total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. fly species identified were musca domestica (32.9%), chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), musca sorbens (23%), lucina cuprina (4.7%), calliphora vicina (2.8%), chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) ...200918817940
study of insect succession and rate of decomposition on a partially burned pig carcass in an oil palm plantation in malaysia.insects found associated with corpse can be used as one of the indicators in estimating postmortem interval (pmi). the objective of this study was to compare the stages of decomposition and faunal succession between a partially burnt pig (sus scrofa linnaeus) and natural pig (as control). the burning simulated a real crime whereby the victim was burnt by murderer. two young pigs weighed approximately 10 kg were used in this study. both pigs died from pneumonia and immediately placed in an oil pa ...200819287358
patterns of oviposition and development of chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) (diptera: calliphoridae) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (pmi) using entomological data merits consideration. chrysomya megacephala and chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including malaysia. specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both sp ...201626779962
forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in malaysia: three case reports.the distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in kuala lumpur, malaysia. case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house ...201526691258
the importance of habitat in the ecology of decomposition on rabbit carcasses in malaysia: implications in forensic entomology.the stages of decomposition and the faunal succession on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats, namely jungle, rural, and highland areas, were studied. three new zealand white rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses weighing ∼2 kg were sampled daily until the decomposition process was completed. representative specimens of adult flies, larvae, pupa, and mites were collected from the carcasses and processed in the laboratory. there were differences in decomposition rate and faunal success ...201526336275
laboratory colonization of the blow flies, chrysomya megacephala (diptera: calliphoridae) and chrysomya rufifacies (diptera: calliphoridae).chrysomya megacephala (f.) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult c. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. the c. megacephala and c. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°c. c. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. first-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ...201426309267
blow fly maggots (diptera: calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minpmi) for forensic investigations. human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. we report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. there were two blow fly (diptera: calliphoridae) species: ac ...201425417501
[the community succession of sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in shenzhen area].to explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (pmi).201425272869
species composition of carrion blow flies in northern thailand: altitude appraisal.distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in chiang mai and lampang provinces, northern thailand. surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. a total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) (44.7%), c. pinguis (walker) (15.1%), c. chani kurahashi (9.3%), c. thanomthini kurahashi & tumrasvin (0.3%); ach ...201724626423
applicability of partial characterization of cytochrome oxidase i in identification of forensically important flies (diptera) from china and egypt.precise species identification of every insect sample collected from criminal scenes play an essential role in the accurate estimation of postmortem interval. the morphological similarity poses a great challenge for forensic entomologists. dna-based method can be used as a supplemental means of morphological method. in the present study, we demonstrate the applicability of the 304-bp cytochrome oxidase i gene fragment in molecular identification of forensically important diptera. we analyzed 75 ...201323661266
larval distribution and behavior of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) (diptera: calliphoridae) relative to other species on florida black bear (carnivora: ursidae) decomposing carcasses.larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in gainesville, fl, usa, from june 2002 - september 2004. cochliomyia macellaria (fabricius) or chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. wit ...201427193400
morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. this study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. eggs of chrysomya rufifacies, chrysomya megacephala, chrysomya pinguis, chrysomya nigripes, hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, lucilia cuprina, lucilia porphyrina and musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and c. ...201323959498
an update of the blow flies (diptera: calliphoridae) of the galápagos islands, and first record of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) from mainland species of calliphoridae are reported from the galápagos islands, ecuador: lucilia pionia (walker), l. setosa (james), l. deceptor (curran), l. eximia (wiedemann), cochliomyia macellaria (fabricius), chrysomya albiceps (wiedemann), and chrysomya megacephala (fabricius). lucilia eximia is newly recorded from the islands. lucilia sp. near pionia is recorded from the island of española. the distribution and collection records of these species are discussed and listed, and a key to their ident ...201325113695
development of the oriental latrine fly, chrysomya megacephala (diptera: calliphoridae), at five constant temperatures.chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. we calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °c. for each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. the mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory dat ...201727816915
molecular identification of malaysian chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) and chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) using life stage specific mitochondrial dna.dna identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. one of the potential benefits that mitochondrial dna (mtdna) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. this could be overcome by dna-based identification methods using mitochondrial dna which does not demand intact or undamaged sp ...201323959486
dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in north west pakistan with first report of wohlfahrtia magnifica (schiner).regional surveys were carried out in different parts of north west pakistan among domestic animals (n=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). a total of four surveys focused general livestock population during eid ul adha (eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. maggots ...201627570812
development and validation of a new technique for estimating a minimum postmortem interval using adult blow fly (diptera: calliphoridae) carcass attendance.understanding the onset and duration of adult blow fly activity is critical to accurately estimating the period of insect activity or minimum postmortem interval (minpmi). few, if any, reliable techniques have been developed and consequently validated for using adult fly activity to determine a minpmi. in this study, adult blow flies (diptera: calliphoridae) of cochliomyia macellaria and chrysomya rufifacies were collected from swine carcasses in rural central texas, usa, during summer 2008 and ...201525367772
non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of addis ababa, ethiopia.a study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of addis ababa from january 2004 to june 2004. a total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. the dominant fly species was chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by musca domestica (31%), musca sorbens (20.5.%), lucina cuprina (6.8 ...200717658447
mitochondrial dna-based identification of some forensically important blowflies in thailand.accurate identification of insects collected from death scenes provides not only specific developmental data assisting forensic entomologists to determine the postmortem interval more precisely but also other kinds of forensic evidence. however, morphological identification can be complicated due to the similarity among species, especially in the early larval stages. to simplify and make the species identification more practical and reliable, dna-based identification is preferentially considered ...201020570067
sex determination mechanisms in the calliphoridae (blow flies).the calliphoridae or blow flies are a family of insects that occupy diverse habitats and perform important ecological roles, particularly the decomposition of animal remains. some calliphoridae species are also important in the forensic sciences, in agriculture (e.g. as livestock pests) and in medicine (e.g. maggot therapy). calliphoridae provide striking examples in support of the hypothesis that sex determination regulatory gene hierarchies evolve in the reverse order, with the gene at the top ...201424401179
effect of massing on larval growth rate.estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. the majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. the current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensic ...201424972255
tracking movement and temperature selection of larvae of two forensically important blow fly species within a "maggot mass".the current study responds to the lack of understanding about the temperatures experienced by individual blow fly larvae within "maggot masses." the temperature selection of both aggregating (in a mass) and nonaggregating larvae was compared and their pattern of movement assessed. infrared imaging determined the temperatures within a mass and in the vicinity of the constituent individual larvae, whose movements were tracked by dyeing their tissues red. individual chrysomya rufifacies larvae sele ...201424621385
review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in malaysia (2005-2010).forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. a total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. from these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of chrysomya rufifacies (macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), chrysomya megacephala (fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), chrysomya villeneuvi (patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), chrysomya nigripes (aube ...201323756518
dna typing of calliphorids collected from human corpses in malaysia.estimation of post-mortem interval (pmi) is crucial for time of death determination. the advent of dna-based identification techniques forensic entomology saw the beginning of a proliferation of molecular studies into forensically important calliphoridae (diptera). the use of dna to characterise morphologically indistinguishable immature calliphorids was recognised as a valuable molecular tool with enormous practical utility. the local entomofauna in most cases is important for the examination o ...201323665717
occurrence of blow fly species (diptera: calliphoridae) in phitsanulok province, northern thailand.based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (diptera: calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. the blow fly fauna in phitsanulok province, northern thailand was studied from may 2009 to april 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of muang, wat bot, nakhon thai and wang thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. collections were carried out monthly using commerc ...201223202598
phylogenetics of the old world screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in asia.phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of chrysomya bezziana, the old world screwworm fly (owsf), were inferred from dna sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor-1α (ef-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of chrysomya megacephala and chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. cyt b (717bp, 754 specimens), ef-1α (361bp, 256 specimens) and white (577bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two african and nine asian countries, inc ...201222664061
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