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tree species effects on decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden.we studied the effects of tree species on leaf litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment of 14 tree species (abies alba, acer platanoides, acer pseudoplatanus, betula pendula, carpinus betulus, fagus sylvatica, larix decidua, picea abies, pinus nigra, pinus sylvestris, pseudotsuga menziesii, quercus robur, quercus rubra, and tilia cordata) in southwestern poland. we used three simultaneous litter bag experiments to tease apart species effects on decomposition v ...200616995629
two classes of 5s rdna unit arrays of the silver fir, abies alba mill.: structure, localization and evolution.the structure and organization of the 5s ribosomal dna units of the silver fir, abies alba mill., as well as their position in the chromosome complement were investigated. pcr amplification of the gene and nontranscribed spacer region, sequence analysis and southern hybridization, using a homologous probe, detected dna sequences of approximately 550 bp and 700 bp. sequence analysis of the spacers revealed that the difference in length between the sequences occurred in the middle spacer region as ...200515657739
characterisation and inheritance of polymorphic plastid microsatellites in abies.two polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified and sequenced in the genus abies, using primer pairs derived from chloroplast simple sequence repeats (ssrs) of pinus thunbergii. pcr products exhibited considerable length variation among six different abies species and within abies alba. f1 progeny of both an interspecific and an intraspecific reciprocal cross confirmed that the two ssrs were predominantly paternally inherited. the maternal size variant predominantly occurred in the megagamet ...19979449797
detecting differences in crown transparency assessments between countries using the image analysis system croco.estimates of crown transparency calculated using the semi-automatic image analysis system croco were compared with the visual estimates of survey teams from 12 european countries. for each of five european species (norway spruce (picea abies (l.) karst.), silver fir (abies alba mill.), scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.), beech (fagus sylvatica l.), oak (quercus robur l.)) 15 trees were assessed. in 64% of the comparisons, croco estimates and the survey teams' scores differed significantly, while d ...200314632089
carbon stocks and soil respiration rates during deforestation, grassland use and subsequent norway spruce afforestation in the southern alps, italy.changes in carbon stocks during deforestation, reforestation and afforestation play an important role in the global carbon cycle. cultivation of forest lands leads to substantial losses in both biomass and soil carbon, whereas forest regrowth is considered to be a significant carbon sink. we examined below- and aboveground carbon stocks along a chronosequence of norway spruce (picea abies (l.) karst.) stands (0-62 years old) regenerating on abandoned meadows in the southern alps. a 130-year-old ...200011303575
[determination of the chitinolytic activity of "abies alba" mill. litter microorganisms: bacteria and yeasts (author's transl)].chitin decomposition by some microorganisms isolated from abies alba mill. litter has been observed. the active strains were representatives of the genera bacillus, pseudomonas and streptomyces. the isolated yeasts were unable to decompose chitin. the chitinolytic microorganisms secreted in medium an extracellular chitinase system which determined chitin hydrolysis. cell-free culture filtrate of the microorganisms produced colloidal chitin hydrolysis. an estimation method of chitin hydrolysis wa ...19817325495
water and oxygen permeance of phellems isolated from trees: the role of waxes and lenticels.the outermost phellems of abies alba mill., acer pseudoplatanus l., aesculus hippocastanum l., betula potaninii l.c. hue and sambucus nigra l. have been isolated enzymatically, resulting in membranes with five to seven heavily suberized cork cell layers. water and oxygen permeances were determined for the phellem areas without lenticels. a special diaphragm made it possible to quantify permeances of single lenticels for the first time. the water permeance of phellems was in the range of 3x10(-5) ...200212244445
pollen calendar of the city of salamanca (spain). aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.we report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of salamanca (spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. the pollen was captured with burkard spore-traps, based on hirst's volumetric method. determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously st ...19989885728
differences in the influx of glutamine and nitrate into viscum album from the xylem sap of its hosts.the flux of inorganic and organic nitrogen into the mistletoe viscum album l. from the xylem sap of a deciduous (populus x euamericana) and a coniferous host (abies alba mill.) was analyzed. for this purpose, a perfusion system was developed in which the xylem sap of the host was replaced by an artificial perfusion solution. with this system flux rates into the mistletoe were determined in feeding experiments either with the organic nitrogen source [1,2-13c2]glutamine at high and the inorganic n ...200415474380
male-specific sesquiterpenes from phyllotreta and aphthona flea beetles.it was previously reported that males of the crucifer flea beetle, phyllotreta cruciferae, feeding on host foliage are attractive to both males and females in the field. based on this evidence for an aggregation pheromone, volatiles were collected from male and female p. cruciferae feeding on cabbage (brassica oleracea) and analyzed. for comparison, volatiles were also collected from males and females of three other flea beetle species, aphthona flava, a. czwalinae, and a. cyparissiae, all feedi ...200111789948
agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic tissues of hybrid firs (abies spp.) and regeneration of transgenic emblings.a genetic transformation system has been developed for selected embryogenic cell lines of hybrids abies alba x a. cephalonica (cell lines ac2, ac78) and abies alba x a. numidica (cell line an72) using agrobacterium tumefaciens. the cell lines were derived from immature or mature zygotic embryos on dcr medium containing ba (1 mg l(-1)). the t-dna of plant transformation vector contained the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of double dcamv 35s promoter and the neomycin phosphotra ...200919169892
antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic effects of an aqueous preparation of abies alba and viscum album se abies, on a l-1210 malignant cell line and tumor-bearing wistar rats.extracts of plants have been widely tested for possible anticarcinogenic properties. in the present study a traditional remedy, consisting of an aqueous extract of mixed parts of the tree abies alba and its mistletoe viscum album se abies was tested on benzo(alpha)pyrene(bap)-induced tumors in wistar rats and on the l-1210 malignant cell line. two main groups of male wistar rats subcutaneously injected by 10 mg of bap, a dose inducing 100% carcinogenesis, a control group (c-g, 15 rats) and a tre ...200011205277
radical scavenging activity of the essential oil of silver fir (abies alba).the essential oil of silver fir (abies alba) is known to help respiratory system and have easing and soothing effect for muscle. in the present study, we investigated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and its biological activities of silver fir (abies alba) essential oil. the composition of the oil was analyzed by gc-ms and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18%), beta-phellandrene ( ...200919430614
investigations on the antibacterial effect of conifer needle oils on bacteria isolated from the feces of captive capercaillies (tetrao urogallus l., 1758).in winter, free-living capercaillies feed almost exclusively upon needles of various conifer species. an important part of the energy and protein requirements of captive capercaillies, however, is supplied by food rich in starch and proteins. the fecal flora of captive capercaillies is considerably different from the flora of free-living capercaillies. bacterial diseases are frequent in captivity. the aim of the present study is to determine whether the essential oils from conifer needles posses ...19938284950
susceptibility to low-temperature photoinhibition in three conifers differing in successional status.susceptibility to photoinhibition of the evergreen conifers abies alba mill., picea abies (l.) karst. and pinus mugo turra was investigated in an unheated greenhouse during winter and spring 2003. photosynthetic performance of the seedlings was assessed by chlorophyll a fluorescence and analyses of chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations in needles. during winter months, maximum quantum yield of psii photochemistry (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, fv/fm) was significantly grea ...200515996958
[humus functioning types in evergreen coniferous forests of the french inner alps].three humus forms that are widespread in the inner alps, a dysmull below pinus sylvestris, an oligomull below abies alba and a mor below pinus cembra, were studied by following mineral nitrogen production and uptake and by a characterization of the pedofauna. due to the production and uptake of nitrogen, mainly as nitrates and also due to the dominance of lumbricids versus arthropods, the oligomull was the sole humus form that functioned as a mull. nevertheless relatively weak mineral nitrogen p ...200111212503
electrophoretic analysis of seed storage proteins from gymnosperms.sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page), pore gradient gel electrophoresis (pgge) followed by sds-page and western blot analysis were used to characterize the seed storage proteins from seven gymnosperm species from the families pinaceae (abies alba, cedrus atlantica and picea abies), cupressaceae (biota orientalis, chamaecyparis lawsoniana and cupressus arizonica), and taxaceae (taxus baccata). sds-page and pgge x sds-page indicate the presence of proteins with char ...19947859708
the early stages of three palaearctic species of saproxylic hoverflies (syrphidae, diptera).the third stage larva and puparium of the cerioidine hoverflies, ceriana vespiformis (latreille, 1804) and sphiximorpha subsessilis (illiger in rossi, 1807) and the milesine, spilomyia digitata (rondani, 1865) (diptera, syrphidae) are described from specimens collected in the field. ceriana vespiformis and s. digitata larvae were obtained from wet, decaying roots and tree holes of fraxinus angustifolius l., respectively, in spain and s. subsessilis from an exudation of sap on an abies alba mille ...200616009559
forest health status in the carpathian mountains over the period 1997-2001.the results of forest health status assessments in the carpathian mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the european union scheme on the protection of forest against atmospheric pollution (eu scheme) and international co-operative programme on assessment and monitoring of air pollution effects on forests (icp-forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. during the period 1997-2001, forests in the c ...200415046844
nurse plants, tree saplings and grazing pressure: changes in facilitation along a biotic environmental gradient.current conceptual models predict that an increase in stress shifts interactions between plants from competitive to facilitative; hence, facilitation is expected to gain in ecological importance with increasing stress. little is known about how facilitative interactions between plants change with increasing biotic stress, such as that incurred by consumer pressure or herbivory (i.e. disturbance sensu grime). in grazed ecosystems, the presence of unpalatable plants is reported to protect tree sap ...200717279351
diurnal and seasonal variability in radial distribution of sap flux density: implications for estimating stand transpiration.daily and seasonal patterns in radial distribution of sap flux density were monitored in six trees differing in social position in a mixed coniferous stand dominated by silver fir (abies alba miller) and norway spruce (picea abies (l.) karst) in the alps of northeastern italy. radial distribution of sap flux was measured with arrays of 1-cm-long granier probes. the radial profiles were either gaussian or decreased monotonically toward the tree center, and seemed to be related to social position ...200616740497
the effects of humic substances on pinus callus are reversed by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.the reversal of humic matter-induced inhibition of callus growth and metabolism by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d) was studied in pinus laricio. two forest humic fractions (relative molecular mass (mr) > 3500), derived from soil under fagus sylvatica (fs) and abies alba (aa) plantation, were used. pinus laricio callus was grown for a subculture period (4 weeks) on basal murashige and skoog (ms) medium plus forest humic matters (fs or aa), at a concentration of 1 mg c/l, and then was trans ...200515898502
growth responses to climate in a multi-species tree-ring network in the western carpathian tatra mountains, poland and slovakia.we analyzed growth responses to climate of 24 tree-ring width and four maximum latewood density chronologies from the greater tatra region in poland and slovakia. this network comprises 1183 ring-width and 153 density measurement series from four conifer species (picea abies (l.) karst., larix decidua mill., abies alba (l.) karst., and pinus mugo (l.)) between 800 and 1550 m a.s.l. individual spline detrending was used to retain annual to multi-decadal scale climate information in the data. twen ...200717267360
induction of photosynthesis and importance of limitations during the induction phase in sun and shade leaves of five ecologically contrasting tree species from the temperate zone.we examined the principal differences in photosynthetic characteristics between sun and shade foliage and determined the relative importance of biochemical and stomatal limitations during photosynthetic induction. temperate-zone broadleaf and conifer tree species, ranging widely in shade tolerance, were investigated from one locality in the czech republic. the study species included strongly shade-tolerant abies alba mill. and tilia cordata mill., less shade-tolerant fagus sylvatica l. and acer ...200717472946
anchorage of mature conifers: resistive turning moment, root-soil plate geometry and root growth orientation.eighty-four mature norway spruce (picea abies l. karst), silver fir (abies alba mill) and scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) trees were winched over to determine the maximum resistive turning moment (m(a)) of the root-soil system, the root-soil plate geometry, the azimuthal orientation of root growth, and the occurrence of root rot. the calculation of m(a), based on digital image tracking of stem deflection, accounted not only for the force application and its changing geometry, but also for the w ...200717545122
comparative phylogeography and postglacial colonization routes in europe.the quaternary cold periods in europe are thought to have heavily influenced the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation in both animals and plants. the phylogeographies of 10 taxa, including mammals (ursus arctos, sorex spp., crocidura suaveolens, arvicola spp.), amphibians (triturus spp.), arthropods (chorthippus parallelus), and plants (abies alba, picea abies, fagus sylvatica, quercus spp.), were analysed to elucidate general trends across europe. only a small degree of co ...19989628000
mining area environmental mercury assessment using abies alba. 19921392292
enzymes of glyoxylate in conifers.the high level of lipids in seeds of some species of conifers suggested that the glyoxylate cycle might have a role in conifer seed metabolism.six species (pinus pinea, pinus pinaster, pinus canariensis, pinus strobus, abies alba, and cupressus sempervirens) were investigated for their lipid content and malate synthase and isocitrate lyase level. the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride fraction was also investigated. the correlation between lipid content of germinating seed with the prese ...196816656892
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in mistletoe leaves: regulation of gene expression, protein content, and covalent modification.seasonal changes in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepcase, ec 4.1.1.31), a key enzyme in the interaction of carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism, were studied in leaves of the c3 semiparasitic mistletoe, viscum album, growing on different host trees. maximum extractable pepcase activities were higher in leaves of mistletoes growing on betula pendula and alnus glutinosa hosts compared with those on the conifers, abies alba and larix decidua. independent of host, maximum extract ...200111473691
phylogeny of phaeomollisia piceae gen. sp. nov.: a dark, septate, conifer-needle endophyte and its relationships to phialocephala and acephala.dark, septate endophytes (dse) were isolated from roots and needles of dwarf picea abies and from roots of vaccinium spp. growing on a permafrost site in the jura mountains in switzerland. two of the isolates sporulated after incubation for more than one year at 4 degrees c. one of them was a hitherto undescribed helotialean ascomycete phaeomollisia piceae gen. sp. nov., the other was a new species of phialocephala, p. glacialis sp. nov. both species are closely related to dse of the phialocepha ...200919015028
status of the southern carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (lter) network in the bucegi mountains, romania. ozone (o(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. ammonia (nh(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (n) and could affect biodiversity changes. higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (ph < 5.5) cont ...201222234644
cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the abies alba genome and its relationship with other members of the pinaceae.genome size, karyotype structure, heterochromatin distribution, position and number of ribosomal genes, as well as the its2 sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (its) were analysed in silver fir (abies alba mill.). the analysis also included characterization of the arabidopsis-type of telomeric repeats in silver fir and in related species. the results were compared with results from other species of the pinaceae, to evaluate phylogeny and chromosomal and molecular evolution in the pinacea ...200818304200
fine root decomposition rates do not mirror those of leaf litter among temperate tree species.elucidating the function of and patterns among plant traits above ground has been a major research focus, while the patterns and functioning of belowground traits remain less well understood. even less well known is whether species differences in leaf traits and their associated biogeochemical effects are mirrored by differences in root traits and their effects. we studied fine root decomposition and n dynamics in a common garden study of 11 temperate european and north american tree species (ab ...201019882174
biological method to quantify progressive stages of decay in five commercial woods by coriolus versicolor.biologic agar-block method was developed that allowed wood samples to be evaluated and monitored in terms of colonization and development of the decay by basidiomycetes fungi (coriolus versicolor) and to be directly classified based on mean mass loss. in this research, the in vitro decay of five commercial woods by coriolus versicolor was studied by the agar-block method. the selected wood samples were abies alba, populus alba, fagus orientalis, platanus orientalis and ulmus glabra. the results ...200719070053
evidence from population genetics that the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete laccaria amethystina is an actual multihost symbiont.it is commonly assumed that ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungi associated with temperate forest tree roots are not host-specific. because this assumption relies on species delineations based on fruitbodies morphology or ribosomal dna sequences, host-specific, cryptic biological species cannot be ruled out. to demonstrate that laccaria amethystina has true generalist abilities, we sampled 510 fruitbodies on three french sites situated 150-450 km away from each other. at each site, populations from monos ...200818489549
a new serial pooling method of shifted tree ring blocks to construct millennia long tree ring isotope chronologies with annual resolution.the study presents a new serial pooling method of shifted tree ring blocks for the building of isotope chronologies. this method combines the advantages of traditional 'serial' and 'intertree' pooling, and can be recommended for the construction of sub-regional long isotope chronologies with sufficient replication, and on annual resolution, especially for the case of extremely narrow tree rings. for scots pines (pinus sylvestris l., khibiny low mountains, nw russia) and silver firs (abies alba m ...200919191128
ultrasonic emissions from conifer xylem exposed to repeated freezing.ultrasonic emission measurements enable the analysis of xylem cavitation induced by drought and freeze-thaw events. several studies have indicated that ultrasonic acoustic emissions (uae) in conifers occur upon freezing and not upon thawing, although classical theory has postulated gas bubble formation during freezing and cavitation during thawing. we analyzed the pattern and quality of freeze-thaw-induced uae in seven conifers (abies alba, larix decidua, juniperus communis, picea abies, pinus c ...201019692146
biogenic volatile organic compounds (bvocs) emissions from abies alba in a french forest.air quality studies need to be based on accurate and reliable data, particularly in the field of the emissions. biogenic emissions from forests, crops, and grasslands are now considered as major compounds in photochemical processes. unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not so often reliably defined. as an example, although the silver fir (abies alba) is a very widespread conifer tree in the french and european areas, its standard emission rate is not available ...200616140360
valorization of romanian silver fir tree bark (abies alba mill.) wastes as low-cost sorbent of cu(ii) ions from polluted waters.considering recycling as the first option in the hierarchy of sustainable waste management, and also the demand for efficient processes for wastewater treatment with reduced costs, the potential applicability of romanian abies alba bark, the main waste from the industrial processing of the wood of mature silver fir trees, as sorbent for cu(ii) has been studied in batch conditions. it was observed that the extent of cu(ii) sorption is strongly dependent on initial solution ph, sorbent dose, initi ...201627858788
assessing forest vulnerability to climate warming using a process-based model of tree growth: bad prospects for rear-edges.growth models can be used to assess forest vulnerability to climate warming. if global warming amplifies water deficit in drought-prone areas, tree populations located at the driest and southernmost distribution limits (rear-edges) should be particularly threatened. here, we address these statements by analyzing and projecting growth responses to climate of three major tree species (silver fir, abies alba; scots pine, pinus sylvestris; and mountain pine, pinus uncinata) in mountainous areas of n ...201627782362
planting sentinel european trees in eastern asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. a novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. since asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to europe, sentinel t ...201525993342
distinct genecological patterns in seedlings of norway spruce and silver fir from a mountainous landscape.understanding the genecology of forest trees is critical for gene conservation, for predicting the effects of climate change and climate change adaptation, and for successful reforestation. although common genecological patterns have emerged, species-specific details are also important. which species are most vulnerable to climate change? which are the most important adaptive traits and environmental drivers of natural selection? even though species have been classified as adaptive specialists v ...201728052396
chemical composition and biological activity of abies alba and a. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.the chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of abies alba and a. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. in the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. the essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the compos ...201525766914
long-term tree inventory data from mountain forest plots in france.we present repeated tree measurement data from 63 permanent plots in mountain forests in france. plot elevations range from 800 (lower limit of the montane belt) to 1942 m above sea level (subalpine belt). forests mainly consist of pure or mixed stands dominated by european beech (fagus sylvatica), silver fir (abies alba), and norway spruce (picea abies), in association with various broadleaved species at low elevation and with arolla pine (pinus cembra) at high elevation. the plot network inclu ...201728145102
influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of velebit biomedical plants.the use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. thus also their analysis is of rising importance. while total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. thus different indigenous ...201525454388
automatic identification and characterization of radial files in light microscopy images of wood.analysis of anatomical sections of wood provides important information for understanding the secondary growth and development of plants. this study reports on a new method for the automatic detection and characterization of cell files in wood images obtained by light microscopy. to facilitate interpretation of the results, reliability coefficients have been determined, which characterize the files, their cells and their respective measurements.201424989783
cardioprotective effects of silver fir (abies alba) extract in ischemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts.silver fir trunk extract (sfte) is a complex mixture of antioxidative polyphenols (lignans and phenolic acids) from the trunks of silver fir trees (abies alba, lignum). in our previous study, we have shown that sfte exerts strong antioxidative and protective effects against atherogenic, diet-induced arterial wall damage.201627756448
tree mineral nutrition is deteriorating in europe.the response of forest ecosystems to increased atmospheric co2 is constrained by nutrient availability. it is thus crucial to account for nutrient limitation when studying the forest response to climate change. the objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of the main european tree species, to identify growth-limiting nutrients and to assess changes in tree nutrition during the past two decades. we analysed the foliar nutrition data collected during 1992-2009 on the intens ...201524920268
molecular identification of fine roots of trees from the alps: reliable and fast dna extraction and pcr-rflp analyses of plastid dna.fine roots of trees are intensively used as indicators to assess soil alterations, e.g. those owing to atmospheric inputs of acidifying substances, but their identification to species with morphological criteria is difficult. in this study, we established molecular techniques in order to identify fine roots of the 30 most common tree species of the alps. we developed a protocol for efficient isolation of dna from fine roots with extraction of dna in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) and ...200111555251
monitoring plant drought stress response using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy.we present a novel measurement setup for monitoring changes in leaf water status using nondestructive terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (thz-tds). previous studies on a variety of plants showed the principal applicability of thz-tds. in such setups, decreasing leaf water content directly correlates with increasing thz transmission. our new system allows for continuous, nondestructive monitoring of the water status of multiple individual plants each at the same constant leaf position. it overcom ...201424501000
polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of an extractive fraction from abies alba bark.the wood of mature abies alba mill. (silver fir) trees is used in construction and furniture industries, the bark being the main waste product.201324340544
xylogenesis: coniferous trees of temperate forests are listening to the climate tale during the growing season but only remember the last words!the complex inner mechanisms that create typical conifer tree-ring structure (i.e. the transition from large, thin-walled earlywood cells to narrow, thick-walled latewood cells) were recently unraveled. however, what physiological or environmental factors drive xylogenesis key processes remain unclear. here, we aim to quantify the influence of seasonal variations in climatic factors on the spectacular changes in the kinetics of wood cell differentiation and in the resulting tree-ring structure. ...201627208048
towards a common methodology for developing logistic tree mortality models based on ring-width data.tree mortality is a key process shaping forest dynamics. thus, there is a growing need for indicators of the likelihood of tree death. during the last decades, an increasing number of tree-ring based studies have aimed to derive growth-mortality functions, mostly using logistic models. the results of these studies, however, are difficult to compare and synthesize due to the diversity of approaches used for the sampling strategy (number and characteristics of alive and death observations), the ty ...201627755692
assessing the long-term species composition predicted by prognaus.tree growth models are supposed to contain stand growth laws as so called "emergent properties" which derive from interactions of individual-tree growth and mortality functions. this study investigates whether the evolving tree species composition in a long term simulation by the distance-independent tree growth model prognaus matches the species composition of the potential natural vegetation type which is expected to occur if one refrains from further management interventions and major disturb ...201021151325
possible causes of the recent rapid increase in the radial increment of silver fir in the western carpathians.silver fir is one of the most productive and ecologically valuable native european tree species, however, it has been experiencing decline which has periodically occurred over its natural range. this paper aims to investigate the recent climate-growth relationships of silver fir (abies alba mill.) and its temporal change along the course of its life. long-term tree-ring databases, as well as records on climate, atmospheric so2, no3 and acid concentrations from four different regions in the weste ...201424060740
cadmium (ii) ions removal from aqueous solutions using romanian untreated fir tree sawdust a green biosorbent.biosorption of cadmium ions from synthetic aqueous solution using popular romanian fir tree sawdust (abies alba) as biosorbent, was investigated in this work. prior to its utilization the considered biomass was washed, dried and sieved without further chemical treatments. the biosorbent was characterized using humidity, density and elemental analysis determinations and ftir. ftir analysis indicated that, on the biomass surface hydroxyl and carboxyl groups are presented. the effect of different b ...201323878929
carbon allocation into different fine-root classes of young abies alba trees is affected more by phenology than by simulated browsing.abies alba (european silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on c allocation belowground by 13co2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13c-allocation into the fine-root system. before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. at ...201627123860
generalized additive models reveal the intrinsic complexity of wood formation dynamics.the intra-annual dynamics of wood formation, which involves the passage of newly produced cells through three successive differentiation phases (division, enlargement, and wall thickening) to reach the final functional mature state, has traditionally been described in conifers as three delayed bell-shaped curves followed by an s-shaped curve. here the classical view represented by the 'gompertz function (gf) approach' was challenged using two novel approaches based on parametric generalized line ...201323530132
inter- and intra-specific variation in drought sensitivity in abies spec. and its relation to wood density and growth traits.understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six european abies species and ten provenances of abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern austria. tree-ring and x-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood ...201527713591
annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of abies alba (pinaceae). 201325202477
accuracy assessment of a small-area method for estimating the spatial distribution of the degree of tree damage.tree damage, gauged by the amount of defoliation, is one of the basic criteria used to determine treatments for protected and economic forests. monitoring should include an assessment of the degree of tree damage in different spatial scales. therefore, in addition to the commonly applied large-area methods, small-area methods should be used. the aim of the paper is to present the results of the accuracy assessment of a small-area method, proposed by podlaski (2005) [podlaski, r. (2005). inventor ...200717370136
contrasting patterns of nucleotide diversity for four conifers of alpine european forests.a candidate gene approach was used to identify levels of nucleotide diversity and to identify genes departing from neutral expectations in coniferous species of the alpine european forest. twelve samples were collected from four species that dominate montane and subalpine forests throughout europe: abies alba mill, larix decidua mill, pinus cembra l., and pinus mugo turra. a total of 800 genes, originally resequenced in pinus taeda l., were resequenced across 12 independent trees for each of the ...201223144662
somatic embryogenesis of abies cephalonica loud.greek fir (abies cephalonica loudon) belongs to the mediterranean fir species and is widely distributed in the mountains of central and southern greece. considering a climatic scenario, infestation by pathogens or insects and fire episodes, it has been proposed that mediterranean firs could be in danger in some parts of their present range but, on the other hand, could also replace other species in more northern zones with temperate humid climates (e.g., silver fir, abies alba mill.). as fir spe ...201626619877
the geographical and environmental determinants of genetic diversity for four alpine conifers of the european alps.climate is one of the most important drivers of local adaptation in forest tree species. standing levels of genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations of forest trees are determined by the interplay between climatic heterogeneity and the balance between selection and gene flow. to investigate this interplay, single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) were genotyped in 24 to 37 populations from four subalpine conifers, abies alba mill., larix decidua mill., pinus cembra l. a ...201223058000
wood anatomy and carbon-isotope discrimination support long-term hydraulic deterioration as a major cause of drought-induced dieback.hydraulic impairment due to xylem embolism and carbon starvation are the two proposed mechanisms explaining drought-induced forest dieback and tree death. here, we evaluate the relative role played by these two mechanisms in the long-term by quantifying wood-anatomical traits (tracheid size and area of parenchyma rays) and estimating the intrinsic water-use efficiency (iwue) from carbon isotopic discrimination. we selected silver fir and scots pine stands in ne spain with ongoing dieback process ...201626790660
evidence of divergent selection for drought and cold tolerance at landscape and local scales in abies alba mill. in the french mediterranean alps.understanding local adaptation in forest trees is currently a key research and societal priority. geographically and ecologically marginal populations provide ideal case studies, because environmental stress along with reduced gene flow can facilitate the establishment of locally adapted populations. we sampled european silver fir (abies alba mill.) trees in the french mediterranean alps, along the margin of its distribution range, from pairs of high- and low-elevation plots on four different mo ...201626676992
chemical composition and content of lipophilic seed extractives of some abies and picea species.the chemical content and composition of the lipophilic extracts from seeds of some fir species: abies alba, a. cephalonica, a. concolor, and a. koreana, as well as of a few spruce species: picea abies, p. orientalis, and p. pungens, were examined. the amount of lipophilic extractives is diverse among the tree species and it varies from 9.8% to 41% of seeds. the chemical characterization showed significant differences, not only in the content, but also in the composition of extractives. however, ...201627451024
characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of european softwood species.condensed tannins extracted from european softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. the extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. bark from silver fir (abies alba [mill.]), european larch ...201526547588
modelling and predicting the spatial distribution of tree root density in heterogeneous forest ecosystems.in mountain ecosystems, predicting root density in three dimensions (3-d) is highly challenging due to the spatial heterogeneity of forest communities. this study presents a simple and semi-mechanistic model, named chamroots, that predicts root interception density (rid, number of roots m(-2)). chamroots hypothesizes that rid at a given point is affected by the presence of roots from surrounding trees forming a polygon shape.201526173892
variability of stomatal conductance in a small and isolated population of silver fir (abies alba mill.).we analyzed the response to drought of 420 individuals from eight half-sib families from a small and isolated population of silver fir (abies alba mill.): 105 of them were kept in well-watered conditions as control while the remaining 315 were exposed to drought for 27 days. a model describing stomatal behavior derived from monteith and developed in beech by leonardi et al. was fitted to experimental transpiration data obtained simply from the difference between two daily pot weighings. the esti ...201121636691
combined analysis by gc (ri), gc-ms and 13c nmr of the supercritical fluid extract of abies alba twigs.two samples (leaves and twigs) of abies alba miller from corsica were extracted using supercritical co2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. in total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by gc (ri), gc-ms and 13c nmr. it was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (sfe) ...201021299139
temperature range shifts for three european tree species over the last 10,000 years.we quantified the degree to which the relationship between the geographic distribution of three major european tree species, abies alba, fagus sylvatica and picea abies and january temperature (tjan) has remained stable over the past 10,000 years. we used an extended data-set of fossil pollen records over europe to reconstruct spatial variation in tjan values for each 1000-year time slice between 10,000 and 3000 years bp (before present). we evaluated the relationships between the occurrences of ...201627826308
role of geographical provenance in the response of silver fir seedlings to experimental warming and drought.changes in climate can alter the distribution and population dynamics of tree species by altering their recruitment patterns, especially at range edges. however, geographical patterns of genetic diversity could buffer the negative consequences of changing climate at rear range edges where populations might also harbour individuals with drought-adapted genotypes. silver fir (abies alba mill.) reaches its south-western distribution limit in the spanish pyrenees, where recent climatic dieback event ...201627273199
local adaptation in european firs assessed through extensive sampling across altitudinal gradients in southern europe.local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales.201627392065
ectomycorrhizal fungal assemblages of abies alba mill. outside its native range in poland.abies alba (mill.) is an important forest tree species, native to the mountainous regions of europe but has been also widely introduced in the lowlands outside its native range. like most forest tree species, a. alba forms obligate mutualisms with ectomycorrhizal (ecm) fungi. this investigation sought to examine ecm fungal communities of a. alba when the species grows 400 km north of its native range in the region of pomerania in poland. we surveyed for ecm fungi by sampling live roots from four ...201626071873
differential gene expression reveals candidate genes for drought stress response in abies alba (pinaceae).increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. candidate genes offer a ...201525924061
antibacterial activity against clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.in the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. the antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on dpph radicals activities. we determined the antibacterial activity of clostridium butyricum, clostridium hystoliticum, clostridium intestinale, clostridium perfringens and clostr ...201424813985
the importance of biomass net uptake for a trace metal budget in a forest stand in north-eastern france.the trace metal (tm: cd, cu, ni, pb and zn) budget (stocks and annual fluxes) was evaluated in a forest stand (silver fir, abies alba miller) in north-eastern france. trace metal concentrations were measured in different tree compartments in order to assess tm partitioning and dynamics in the trees. inputs included bulk deposition, estimated dry deposition and weathering. outputs were leaching and biomass exportation. atmospheric deposition was the main input flux. the estimated dry deposition a ...201020817222
individual variability in tree allometry determines light resource allocation in forest ecosystems: a hierarchical bayesian approach.tree species differences in crown size and shape are often highlighted as key characteristics determining light interception strategies and successional dynamics. the phenotypic plasticity of species in response to light and space availability suggests that intraspecific variability can have potential consequences on light interception and community dynamics. species crown size varies depending on site characteristics and other factors at the individual level which differ from competition for li ...201020169451
ftir and color change of the modified wood as a result of artificial light irradiation.the effect of uv-visible light irradiation on the changes in color and chemical composition of the surfaces of abies alba l. (fir, a softwood), non-modified and chemically modified, was studied. chemical modification of the wood was performed by reaction with succinic anhydride in xylene at different concentration values. the wood samples were irradiated in air using a rotative device equipped with a middle pressure mercury lamp. analysis of the color changes in wood surfaces during photo-degrad ...201020392648
mitochondrial bioenergetics linked to the manifestation of programmed cell death during somatic embryogenesis of abies alba.the present work reports changes in bioenergetic parameters and mitochondrial activities during the manifestation of two events of programmed cell death (pcd), linked to abies alba somatic embryogenesis. pcd, evidenced by in situ nuclear dna fragmentation (tunel assay), dna laddering and cytochrome c release, was decreased in maturing embryogenic tissue with respect to the proliferation stage. in addition, the major cellular energetic metabolites (atp, nad(p)h and glucose-6-phosphate) were highe ...200919834734
light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (abies pinsapo boiss. and abies alba mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to co2.leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. the role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. within this context, we demonstrated that abies pinsapo boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultima ...201626543153
sulfur fixation in wood mapped by synchrotron x-ray studies: implications for environmental archives.there is a shortage of archives of sulfur that can be used to investigate industrial orvolcanic pollution in terrestrial catchments, but the role of s as a nutrient, coupled with sparse published evidence, suggests that trees are promising targets. we focused on two conifer species (picea abies (l.) karst and abies alba miller) from an alpine site in ne italy. bulk analyses of abies demonstrate that s concentrations were higher in the second half of the 20th century but with some high outliers p ...200919350896
metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in norway spruce (picea abies) and european silver fir (abies alba).environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. the purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of picea abies (boreal species) and abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°c, 16/8 h d/n cycle) over a 9 weeks period. each ...201425566281
arabinogalactan-protein epitope gal4 is differentially regulated and localized in cell lines of hybrid fir (abies alba x abies cephalonica) with different embryogenic and regeneration potential.arabinogalactan proteins (agps) are important proteoglycans regulating somatic embryogenesis in diverse plant species. embryogenic cells of somatic embryos are covered by special extracellular cell wall layer called extracellular surface matrix network (ecmsn) at their early developmental stages. here we show that highly embryogenic cell line ac78 of hybrid fir (abies alba x abies cephalonica) differs from very low-embryogenic cell line ac77 in the abundance, subcellular localization and deposit ...200817943290
comparison of δ(18)o and δ(13)c values between tree-ring whole wood and cellulose in five species growing under two different site conditions.we investigated the applicability of tree-ring whole-wood material for δ(18)o and δ(13)c analysis in comparison with the more time- and resource-intensive use of cellulose, by considering possible variability between (i) five different tree species (fagus sylvatica, quercus robur, picea abies, abies alba, pseudotsuga menziesii), (ii) two sites that differ in soil moisture, and (iii) climate conditions within a 10-year period.201526522315
acclimation of leaves to contrasting irradiance in juvenile trees differing in shade tolerance.leaves developing in different irradiances undergo structural and functional acclimation, although the extent of trait plasticity is species specific. we tested the hypothesis that irradiance-induced plasticity of photosynthetic and anatomical traits is lower in highly shade-tolerant species than in moderately shade-tolerant species. seedlings of two evergreen conifers, shade-tolerant abies alba mill. and moderately shade-tolerant picea abies karst., and two deciduous angiosperm species, highly ...200717545129
effects of selected essential oils on the growth and production of ochratoxin a by penicillium verrucosum.essential oils from oregano (origanum vulgare l.), mint (mentha piperita l.), fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.), and pine (abies alba mill.) needles and cones, and their active substances thymol, carvacrol, menthol, and anisaldehyde were tested for antifungal activity against penicillium verrucosum. the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics) were achieved for essential oil of oregano, followed by carvacrol, thymol, and menthol. these antifungal components were further investigated, as t ...201424945417
influx of double labelled glutamine into mistletoes (viscum album) from the xylem sap of its host (abies alba).the flux of glutamine into the mistletoe viscum album from the xylem sap of a coniferous host was analyzed. for this purpose, a perfusion system was used in which the xylem sap of the host was replaced by an artificial perfusion solution. with this system, flux rates into the mistletoe were determined in feeding experiments with the organic nitrogen source u(13)c/(15)n-gln. at the end of the experiments the delta values of c and n were significantly depleted in the outflow compared to the percol ...201617095236
a model-data comparison of holocene timberline changes in the swiss alps reveals past and future drivers of mountain forest dynamics.mountain vegetation is strongly affected by temperature and is expected to shift upwards with climate change. dynamic vegetation models are often used to assess the impact of climate on vegetation and model output can be compared with paleobotanical data as a reality check. recent paleoecological studies have revealed regional variation in the upward shift of timberlines in the northern and central european alps in response to rapid warming at the younger dryas/preboreal transition ca. 11 700 ye ...201424847506
the influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (abies alba mill.).as a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (abies alba mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. statistically significant differences between plots were determined in ca concentrations in soils. concentrations of ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. fir trees on acid-rock based soil ...200516005770
[genetic variation and differentiation of abies alba mill. populations from ukrainian carpathians].using electrophoretic analysis of 11 enzyme systems, we studied the genetic structure and differentiation of eight natural populations of silver fir abies alba mill. in the ukrainian carpathians. of 24 isozyme loci identified, 66.8% proved to be polymorphic. the mean numbers of alleles and genotypes per locus in the populations were respectively 3.1 and 4.5. each a. alba tree was on average heterozygous at 15.9% of genes. in six populations, the genotypic distribution for all of the loci examine ...200515865291
differentiation of terminal latewood tracheids in silver fir trees during autumn.the differentiation of terminal latewood tracheids of silver fir (abies alba) trees grown in slovenia was investigated in autumn/winter 2001/2002.200515760912
influence of catchment vegetation on mercury accumulation in lake sediments from a long-term perspective.organic matter (om) cycling has a large impact on the cycling of mercury (hg) in the environment. hence, it is important to have a thorough understanding on how changes in, e.g., catchment vegetation - through its effect on om cycling - affect the behavior of hg. to test whether shifts in vegetation had an effect on hg-transport to lakes we investigated a sediment record from herrenwieser see (southern germany). this lake has a well-defined holocene vegetation history: at ~8700years bp corylus a ...201526363145
past and future evolution of abies alba forests in europe - comparison of a dynamic vegetation model with palaeo data and observations.information on how species distributions and ecosystem services are impacted by anthropogenic climate change is important for adaptation planning. palaeo data suggest that abies alba formed forests under significantly warmer-than-present conditions in europe and might be a native substitute for widespread drought-sensitive temperate and boreal tree species such as beech (fagus sylvatica) and spruce (picea abies) under future global warming conditions. here, we combine pollen and macrofossil data ...201626316296
reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (abies alba mill.) influenced by background so2 in franconia (germany, central europe).the climate sensitivity of carbon (δ(13)c), oxygen (δ(18)o) and hydrogen (δ(2)h) isotope signatures in tree-ring cellulose of abies alba mill. from a marginally industrialized area of franconia (germany) was analysed for the last 130 years. all isotopes preserve climatic signals up to c. 1950 ad. after 1950 we observe a clear reduction in climate sensitivity of δ(13)c and δ(2)h while δ(18)o - climate relations remain well pronounced. nevertheless statistical tests implied that so2 background emi ...201424316066
changes in atp, glucose-6-phosphate and nad(p)h cellular levels during the proliferation and maturation phases of abies alba mill. embryogenic cultures.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the adenosine triphospate (atp), glucose-6-phosphate (glu-6p) and reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nad(p)h) cellular levels during the proliferation and maturation phases of abies alba mill. somatic embryos. for a better understanding of the dynamics of these parameters during the proliferation cycle, four embryonic cell lines were tested. during the maturation period, three independent experiments were conducted, focused o ...201324200583
environmental versus geographical determinants of genetic structure in two subalpine conifers.alpine ecosystems are facing rapid human-induced environmental changes, and so more knowledge about tree adaptive potential is needed. this study investigated the relative role of isolation by distance (ibd) versus isolation by adaptation (iba) in explaining population genetic structure in abies alba and larix decidua, based on 231 and 233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) sampled across 36 and 22 natural populations, respectively, in the alps and apennines. genetic structure was investigat ...201424102203
disparity in elevational shifts of european trees in response to recent climate warming.predicting climate-driven changes in plant distribution is crucial for biodiversity conservation and management under recent climate change. climate warming is expected to induce movement of species upslope and towards higher latitudes. however, the mechanisms and physiological processes behind the altitudinal and latitudinal distribution range of a tree species are complex and depend on each tree species features and vary over ontogenetic stages. we investigated the altitudinal distribution dif ...201323572443
silver fir (abies alba) trunk extract protects guinea pig arteries from impaired functional responses and morphology due to an atherogenic diet.diet, rich in plant polyphenols prevents atherogenesis that manifests as reduced vascular relaxation and formation of plaques.201526220633
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