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rickettsiella phytoseiuli and virus-like particles in phytosfiulus persimilis (gamasoidea: phytoseiidae) mites.electron microscope investigation of tissue of phytoseiulus persimilis mites revealed its double infection with rickettsiella phytoseiuli and virus-like particles. the presence of rickettsiae in tissues of the mite seemed to be decisive for establishment of virus infection.197829476
ultrastructure and pathology of microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. infecting the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (acari: phytoseiidae)ultrastructure and pathology of microsporidium phytoseiuli n. sp. infecting the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot is described using light and transmission electron microscopy. infected mites showed no gross, external symptoms. all observed stages of the parasite had unpaired nuclei. schizonts were commonly observed within nuclei of digestive cells of the ventriculus and within the cytoplasm of cells lining the cecal wall and in muscle tissue underlying it. sporoblasts and sp ...19968954812
sequence variation of ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (its) in commercially important phytoseiidae mites.preliminary work is needed to assess the usefulness of different markers at different taxonomic scales when a new group is analyzed, such as the commercially important phytoseiidae mites. we investigate here the level of sequence variation of the nuclear ribosomal spacers its 1 and 2 and the 5.8s gene in six species of phytoseiidae: neoseiulus culifornicus, n. fallacis, euseius concordis, metaseiulus occidentalis, typhlodromus pyri and phytoseiulus persimilis. as expected, the 5.8s gene (148 bas ...199910668860
comparison of cultivars of ornamental crop gerbera jamesonii on production of spider mite-induced volatiles, and their attractiveness to the predator phytoseiulus persimilis.we investigated whether volatiles produced by spider mite-damaged plants of four gerbera cultivars differ in attractiveness to phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites, and how the mite-induced odor blends differ in chemical composition. the gerbera cultivars differed in resistance, as expressed in terms of spider mite intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). in order of increasing resistance these were sirtaki, rondena, fame, and bianca. to correct for differences in da ...200111504033
habitat structure and population persistence in an experimental community.understanding spatial population dynamics is fundamental for many questions in ecology and conservation. many theoretical mechanisms have been proposed whereby spatial structure can promote population persistence, in particular for exploiter-victim systems (host-parasite/pathogen, predator-prey) whose interactions are inherently oscillatory and therefore prone to extinction of local populations. experiments have confirmed that spatial structure can extend persistence, but it has rarely been poss ...200111484053
plant species modifies the functional response of phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae) to tetranychus urticae (acari: tetranychidae): implications for biological control.the functional response of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot to eggs of its prey, the spider mite tetranychus urticae koch was examined on three plant species. experiments were done to determine whether differences in the functional response on the three plant species were due to the morphological features of the crop directly on the predator or through an effect of the plant species on the prey. the results show that crop morphology is the only factor influencing the pre ...200111228589
cannibalism and intraguild predation among phytoseiid mites: are aggressiveness and prey preference related to diet specialization?we tested whether specialist and generalist phytoseiid mites differ in aggressiveness and prey choice in cannibalism and intraguild predation. specialists tested were galendromus occidentalis, neoseiulus longispinosus, phytoseiulus persimilis, and p. macropilis; generalists tested were amblyseius andersoni, euseius finlandicus, e. hibisci, kampimodromus aberrans, neoseiulus barkeri, n. californicus, n. cucumeris, nm fallacis, and typhlodromus pyri. aggressiveness of cannibalistic females against ...200011227828
differential effects of plant species on a mite pest (tetranychus utricae) and its predator (phytoseiulus persimilis): implications for biological control.the influence of plant species on the population dynamics of the spider mite pest, tetranychus urticae, and its predator, phytoseiulus persimilis, was examined as a prerequisite to effective biological control on ornamental nursery stock. experiments have been done to investigate how the development, fecundity and movement of t. urticae, and the movement of p. persimilis were affected by plant species. a novel experimental method, which incorporates plant structure, was used to investigate the f ...199910466216
process of egg formation in the female body cavity and fertilization in male eggs of phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae).the process of egg formation in the body cavity of a phytoseiid mite, phytoseiulus persimilis, was observed to examine fertilization of male eggs. after insemination, one of the ova at the periphery of the ovary began to expand, taking up yolk. two pronuclei appeared in the expanded egg, located dorsally in the ovary, and yolk granules were formed gradually. after the egg became filled with yolk granules the two pronuclei fused. the egg moved via the narrow entrance at the ventral region into th ...200011156168
induced response of tomato plants to injury by green and red strains of tetranychus urticae.we studied the induced response of tomato plants to the green strain and the red strain of the spider mite tetranychus urticae. we focused on the olfactory response of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis to volatiles from t. urticae-infested tomato leaves in a y-tube olfactometer. tomato leaves attracted the predatory mites when slightly infested with the red strain, or moderately or heavily infested with the green strain. in contrast, neither leaves that were slightly infested with green ...200011156163
development and pathology of two undescribed species of microsporidia infecting the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot.two undescribed species of microsporidia were found in mass-reared phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot from two commercial sources during a routine examination of these predators for pathogens. both microsporidian species were described from specimens that had been prepared for transmission electron microscopy; live specimens were unavailable for examination. one microsporidium, identified as species a, was described from two specimens obtained from a commercial insectary in north america. al ...200011112375
toxicity of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium to predatory insects and mites of tetranychus urticae (acari: tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions.the toxicities of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium to three predatory insect and two predatory mite species of tetranychus urticae koch were determined in the laboratory by the direct contact application. at a concentration of 540 ppm (a field application rate for weed control in apple orchards), glufosinate-ammonium was almost nontoxic to eggs of amblyseius womersleyi schicha, phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot, and t. urticae but highly toxic to nymphs and adults of these three mite spec ...200111233107
photographic sampling: a photographic sampling method for mites on plants.a photographic sampling method for mites on plants was evaluated using tetranychus urticae and phytoseiulus persimilis on pepper plants. it was found to be 92% accurate for t. urticae eggs and 98% accurate for p. persimilis eggs at densities up to 45 eggs per cm2 for t. urticae, and up to 3 eggs per cm2 for p. persimilis. the motiles of the two species were not confused, nor were they confused with exuviae or other matter.200010823357
how predatory mites learn to cope with variability in volatile plant signals in the environment of their herbivorous prey.when the chemical cues co-occurring with prey vary in time and space, foraging predators profit from an ability to repeatedly associate chemical cues with the presence of their prey. we demonstrate the ability of a predatory arthropod (the plant-inhabiting mite, phytoseiulus persimilis) to learn the association of a positive stimulus (herbivorous prey, tetranychus urticae) or a negative stimulus (hunger) with a chemical cue (herbivore-induced plant volatiles or green leaf volatiles). it has been ...200011354616
do herbivore-induced plant volatiles influence predator migration and local dynamics of herbivorous and predatory mites?if predators lack information on the prey's position, prey have more chance to escape predation and will therefore reach higher population densities. one of the many possible cues that predators may use to find their prey are herbivore-induced plant volatiles. although their effects on the behaviour of foraging predators have been well studied, little is known about how these prey-related odours affect predator-prey dynamics on a plant. we hypothesise that herbivore-induced plant volatiles provi ...200011156167
herbivory-induced volatiles elicit defence genes in lima bean leaves.in response to herbivore damage, several plant species emit volatiles that attract natural predators of the attacking herbivores. using spider mites (tetranychus urticae) and predatory mites (phytoseiulus persimilis), it has been shown that not only the attacked plant but also neighbouring plants are affected, becoming more attractive to predatory mites and less susceptible to spider mites. the mechanism involved in such interactions, however, remains elusive. here we show that uninfested lima b ...200010952311
phenomenon of rickettsiella phytoseiuli in phytoseiulus persimilis mite.an unknown microorganism occurring in a predaceous mite phytoseiulus persimilis was described by the author in 1977 as a new species rickettsiella phytoseiuli. some new results on the relation between this agent and its hosts are presented in this paper.19947866725
encounters in predator-prey systems: a simple discrete model.predator-prey systems are often described by exploitation models. these models can mimic experimental data very accurately, but it is sometimes difficult to realize the relationships between the models and the behavior of individual predator and prey animals. a simple discrete model is proposed here that tries to elucidate the connections between: the animals' movements, the predator/prey encounters; and the dynamics in the system as globally represented by the exploitation models. in these mode ...19846743794
birefringent crystals and abdominal discoloration in the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae)in response to grower complaints of poor performance of phytoseiulus persimilis, mites from 14 commercial insectaries and research colonies were examined for pathogens. some were found to have abdominal discolorations, manifested initially as two white stripes along the dorsal sides of the body within the malpighian tubules. advanced signs appeared as a large, centrally located, white spot or u-shaped discoloration in the distal opisthosoma within the rectum/anal atrium. white material often acc ...19979056458
life history and life table of phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot. 19685716483
phylogeny of ticks (ixodida) inferred from nuclear ribosomal dna.phylogenetic relationships of 9 species of ticks were inferred from nucleotide sequences of the d1 domain of large subunit ribosomal dna (rdna), the v4 region of small subunit rdna and sequences immediately adjacent to these regions. six of the 7 subfamilies in the argasidae and ixodidae were represented: ornithodorinae and argasinae from the argasidae (soft ticks); and ixodinae, amblyomminae, haemaphysalinae and rhipicephalinae from the ixodidae (hard ticks). a mite, phytoseiulus persimilis, fr ...19968818731
pesticides and phytoseiid mites: strategies for risk assessment.laboratory toxicity trials may predict effects of chemicals under field conditions, but errors are inevitable. a chemical may be presumed harmless when in fact it has a detrimental effect, or it may appear highly toxic in the laboratory, but not in the field. error rates depend on experimental setups, evaluation criteria, and ecological attributes, such as dietary range, of the organisms under study. the authors analyze results of standardized toxicity studies of pesticides on four species of pr ...19958565878
the influence of humidity on the activity of phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot and its prey, tetranychus urticae (c. l. koch) (acarina: phytoseidae, tetranychidae). 19665919297
the feeding behaviour of phytoseiulus persimilis (acarina: phytoseiidae), particularly as affected by certain pesticides. 19734747045
attempt to cultivate rickettsiella phytoseiuli in dermacentor reticulatus ticks: an electron microscopic study.rickettsiella phytoseiuli occurring in phytoseiulus persimilis mites was cultivated in dermacentor reticulatus ticks. rickettsiella multiplied similarly as in mites exerting all six developmental stages: dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles.19882897779
electron microscopic study of developmental stages of rickettsiella phytoseiuli in phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (gamasoidea:phytoseiidae) mites.rickettsiella phytoseiuli was found in great amounts in all tissues except of the nervous system of adult phytoseiulus persimilis mites. six morphologically different stages (dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles) of r. phytoseiuli were detected. no rickettsiae were seen in the larvae and in phase 1 and 2 nymphae of these mites.19882897771
genetic variation in foraging traits among inbred lines of a predatory mite.response of predators to herbivore-induced plant volatiles can affect the length of time a predator spends in a prey patch and the probability of a predator finding a new prey patch. variation in response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles may lead to different foraging decisions among individuals, thereby affecting both within-patch dynamics and between-patch dispersal. we found significant phenotypic and additive genetic variation in two behavioral assays of response to herbivore-induced pla ...200212399996
experimental infection with rickettsiella phytoseiuli in adult female dermacentor reticulatus (ixodidae): an electron microscopy study.rickettsiella phytoseiuli naturally occurring in phytoseiulus persimilis mites was cultivated in adult female dermacentor reticulatus ticks. it demonstrates all six known developmental stages: dense, intermediate, bacterial, giant, crystal-forming and small dark particles. these stages of rickettsiae were found in salivary glands, malpighian tubules, synganglion, ovaries, tracheal complex, haemolymph, fat body and alimentary tract. rickettsiella phytoseiuli did not infect the gené's organ. it mu ...19892806015
ontogenetic shifts in intraguild predation on thrips by phytoseiid mites: the relevance of body size and diet specialization.in greenhouse agroecosystems, a guild of spider mite predators may consist of the oligophagous predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot, the polyphagous predatory mite neoseiulus californicus mcgregor (both acari: phytoseiidae) and the primarily herbivorous but facultatively predatory western flower thrips frankliniella occidentalis pergande (thysanoptera: thripidae). diet-specialization and the predator body size relative to prey are crucial factors in predation on f. occidentalis ...200415541196
which predatory mite can control both a dominant mite pest, tetranychus urticae, and a latent mite pest, eotetranychus asiaticus, on strawberry?after biological control of tetranychus urticae using phytoseiulus persimilis, a latent mite pest, eotetranychus asiaticus, was found on strawberries growing in a plastic greenhouse in western japan. to determine whether the release of p. persimilis, an exotic natural enemy of t. urticae, enhanced the occurrence of the latent pest, the efficiency of p. persimilis in controlling e. asiaticus was compared with the efficiency of two indigenous phytoseiid mites, amblyseius californicus and a. womers ...200212542009
antigenic relationship between the house dust mite dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite phytoseiulus persimilis.we have examined the antigenic relationship between the house dust mite dermatophagoides farinae and the predacious mite phytoseiulus persimilis. immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that there was a very weak antigenic cross-reactivity between these different suborder of mites but that this cross-reactivity was not attributed to d. farinaes major allergen's, der fi and der fii. these results suggest that p. persimilis might scarcely provoke allergic symptoms in patients sensitized to house dust ...19947887812
jerking in predaceous mites (acari: phytoseiidae) with emphasis on larvae.jerking, a behavior involving a pronounced and often repeated lunging of the body, was studied in larvae among seven species of phytoseiid mites, euseius finlandicus, galendromus occidentalis, neoseiulus californicus, neoseulus fallacis, phytoseiulus macropilis, phytoseiulus persimilis and typhlodromus pyri, and in the nymphal stages of n. fallacis. this behavior was observed in larvae of six of the seven species and in all active immature stages of n. fallacis. jerking was usually triggered by ...200111697785
exogenous acc enhances volatiles production mediated by jasmonic acid in lima bean leaves.we report the synergistic effects of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) and jasmonic acid (ja) on production of induced volatiles by excised lima bean leaves. application of acc alone to leaves induced trace amounts of volatiles. acc positively affected three ja-induced volatiles, (e)- and (z)-beta-ocimene, and (z)-3-hexenyl acetate. the ethylene inhibitor, silver thiosulfate, inhibited the production of these compounds. the results suggest synergistic effects of ja and acc on ...200111741612
integrated pest management of two-spotted mite tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.from 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nc24 petroleum spray oil (pso), d-c-tron plus, against two-spotted mite, tetranychus urticae koch (acarina: tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (acarina: phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest management program. the results showed that 0.5% pso applied fortnight ...200111508528
fine structure of the female genital system in phytoseiid mites with remarks on egg nutrimentary development, sperm-access system, sperm transfer, and capacitation (acari, gamasida, phytoseiidae).the fine structure of the female genital system is described in two phytoseiid species: phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (mating females) and typhlodromus rhenanoides athias-henriot (overwintering females). the female genital tract is composed of an unpaired gonad, the uterus (oviduct i), and the vaginal duct (oviduct ii). the latter leads to the vagina (genital atrium), into which a pair of vaginal glands opens. the gonad (ovary s.l.) has two components: the ovary (s.str) where germ cells ...200111989482
prey preference, intraguild predation and population dynamics of an arthropod food web on plants.the theory of intraguild predation (igp) largely studies effects on equilibrium densities of predators and prey, while experiments mostly concern transient dynamics. we studied the effects of an intraguild (ig) predator, the bug orius laevigatus, on the population dynamics of ig-prey, the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis, and a shared prey, the phytophagous two-spotted spider mite tetranychus urticae, as well as on the performance of cucumber plants in a greenhouse. the interaction of the ...200112455871
induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation.jasmonic acid (ja) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. in this study, the herbivorous mite, tetranychus urticae, and its predator, phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between lima bean plants induced by ja or spider mites and uninduced control plants. infestation densities resulting in the induction of predator attractants were much lower than thus far assumed, i.e., predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants ...200314969353
side-effects of three pesticides on the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae).side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite. phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm2 or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. according to an eppo decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (e=90.8%) and hepteno ...200314756400
ige-mediated sensitization to predatory mites in swedish greenhouse workers.predatory mites are used as biological pesticides worldwide for control of spider mites and other pests in greenhouses. the aim of this study was to investigate if predatory and spider mites give rise to sensitization among greenhouse workers who use biological pesticides.200312708983
the effect of chrysanthemum leaf trichome density and prey spatial distribution on predation of tetranychus urticae (acari: tetranychidae) by phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae).the effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, tetranychus urticae koch, by the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. the number of prey consumed by p. persimilis was inversely related to trichome d ...200312908920
the effect of temperature on the functional response of phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae).environmental variables, such as temperature, are important in determining the efficiency of biological control in ornamental crops. this paper examines the effect of temperature on the functional response of adult female phytoseiulus persimilis to eggs of the spider mite, tetranychus urticae. the functional response was determined using a new functional response assay technique with plant stems as an arena, rather than leaf discs. the use of plant stems allows the influence that plant structure ...200314756399
the role of methyl salicylate in prey searching behavior of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.many carnivorous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their prey. these plant volatiles are blends of up to hundreds of compounds. it is often unknown which compounds in such a complex volatile blend represent the signal to the foraging carnivore. we studied the role of methyl salicylate (mesa) as part of the volatile blend in the foraging behavior of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis by using a y-tube olfactometer. mesa is one of the compounds released by lima bea ...200415112723
the relationship between dietary specialism and availability of food and water on cannibalistic interactions among predatory mites in protected crops.the interplay between dietary specialism, the tolerance of food and water stress and level of cannibalism is likely to be important in determining the outcome of biological control using inundative releases of multiple natural enemies, such as phytoseiid mites in protected crops. the dietary specialist, phytoseiulus persimilis, with a short immature development time (4-5 days) when plentiful food was available had a low ability to survive without food (5 days), even with access to water. the die ...200415285136
negative evidence of wolbachia in the predaceous mite phytoseiulus persimilis.the cytoplasmically inherited bacterium wolbachia is widespread in arthropod species and has been repeatedly detected in the predaceous mite phytoseiulus persimilis. our original goal was to assess the prevalence of wolbachia infection in p. persimilis and the potential fitness consequences for this host. to accomplish that goal, seven p. persimilis strains were obtained from europe, africa and the usa and reared on the phytophagous mite tetranychus urticae as prey. after preliminary results sho ...200516132739
jasmonic acid is a key regulator of spider mite-induced volatile terpenoid and methyl salicylate emission in tomato.the tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (ja) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of ja in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (tetranychus urticae). in contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type plants, even though def-1 lacked induction of proteinase inhibitor activity. however, the hatching-rate of eggs on def-1 w ...200415310835
population dynamics of interacting predatory mites, phytoseiulus persimilis and neoseiulus californicus, held on detached bean leaves.the success of combined release of the predatory mites phytoseiulus persimilis and neoseiulus californicus in suppression of spider mites may be related to the effects of the interactions between the two predators on their population dynamics. we studied population growth and persistence of the specialist p persimilis and the generalist n. californicus reared singly versus reared in combination after simultaneous and successive predator introductions on detached bean leaf arenas with abundant pr ...200112206584
exposure of lima bean leaves to volatiles from herbivore-induced conspecific plants results in emission of carnivore attractants: active or passive process?there is increasing evidence that volatiles emitted by herbivore-damaged plants can cause responses in downwind undamaged neighboring plants, such as the attraction of carnivorous enemies of herbivores. one of the open questions is whether this involves an active (production of volatiles) or passive (adsorption of volatiles) response of the uninfested downwind plant. this issue is addressed in the present study. uninfested lima bean leaves that were exposed to volatiles from conspecific leaves i ...200415503521
ige-sensitization to predatory mites and respiratory symptoms in swedish greenhouse workers.predatory mites are used as biological pesticides worldwide for control of spider mites and other pests in greenhouses. the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of occupational exposure to phytoseiulus persimilis and hypoaspis miles on ige sensitization among a large group of swedish greenhouse workers and to examine the relationship between exposure and allergic asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis.200515727587
interactions in a tritrophic acarine predator-prey metapopulation system v: within-plant dynamics of phytoseiulus persimilis and tetranychus urticae (acari: phytoseiidae, tetranychidae).to investigate the relative contributions of bottom-up (plant condition) and top-down (predatory mites) factors on the dynamics of the two-spotted spider mite (tetranychus urticae), a series of experiments were conducted in which spider mites and predatory mites were released on bean plants. plants inoculated with 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 adult female t. urticae were either left untreated or were inoculated with 3 or 5 adult female predators (phytoseiulus persimilis) one week after the introduction o ...200314580059
amblyseius andersoni chant (acari: phytoseiidae), a successful predatory mite on rosa spp.roses on commercial nurseries commonly suffer from attacks by the two-spotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae, which have a negative influence on growth and quality. the aim of this project is to find natural enemies that are well adapted to roses, and may improve biological control. at different sites such as a plant collection garden, public parks and field boundaries, leaves were sampled from roses to identify the indigenous species of predatory mites. amblyseius andersoni was amongst other ...200415759407
induced production of extrafloral nectar in intact lima bean plants in response to volatiles from spider mite-infested conspecific plants as a possible indirect defense against spider mites.we found that intact lima bean plants increased the secretion of extrafloral nectar (efn) after exposure to tetranychus urticae-induced plant volatiles. predatory mites, phytoseiulus persimilis, dispersed more slowly from an exposed intact plant than from a control plant (plant exposed to volatiles from intact conspecific). the predators also dispersed more slowly from those plants that were provided with extra efn than from untreated plants. we further show that efn was a potential alternative ...200616341892
differential timing of spider mite-induced direct and indirect defenses in tomato plants.through a combined metabolomics and transcriptomics approach we analyzed the events that took place during the first 5 d of infesting intact tomato (lycopersicon esculentum) plants with spider mites (tetranychus urticae). although the spider mites had caused little visible damage to the leaves after 1 d, they had already induced direct defense responses. for example, proteinase inhibitor activity had doubled and the transcription of genes involved in jasmonate-, salicylate-, and ethylene-regulat ...200415122016
control of the two-spotted spider mite (tetranychus urticae koch) in glasshouse roses.populations of the two-spotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae, can increase rapidly in glasshouse production, especially during summer. both chemical and biological control must start at low densities for effective control. the combined efficacy of phytoseiulus persimilis and the predatory midge, feltiella acarisuga to control t. urticae on roses was evaluated in 2002. a second year rose crop (rosa hybrida cv. first red) was used for this experiment. two glasshouse compartments of 200 m2 each ...200315149115
toxicity of plant essential oils to tetranychus urticae (acari: tetranychidae) and phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae).fifty-three plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of tetranychus urticae koch as well as adults of phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot, by using a filter paper diffusion bioassay without allowing direct contact. responses varied according to oil type and dose, and mite species. in a plastic container (4.5 by 9.5 cm) bioassay at 14 x 10(-3) microl/ml air, caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave > 90% mortality ...200415154481
state-dependent and odour-mediated anemotactic responses of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis in a wind tunnel.anemotaxis in the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis (both well-fed and starved), has previously been studied on a wire grid under slight turbulent airflow conditions yielding weak, yet distinct, gradients in wind speed and odour concentration (sabelis and van der weel 1993). such conditions might have critically influenced the outcome of the study. we repeated these experiments, under laminar airflow conditions on a flat surface in a wind tunnel, thereby avoiding variation in wind speed and ...200415176731
multiple displacement amplification in combination with high-fidelity pcr improves detection of bacteria from single females or eggs of metaseiulus occidentalis (nesbitt) (acari: phytoseiidae).amplifying microbial dna by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) from single phytoseiid mites has been difficult, perhaps due to the low titer of bacteria and to interference by the relatively larger amounts of mite genomic dna. in this paper we evaluate the efficiency of standard and high-fidelity pcr protocols subsequent to amplification of the whole genome by a multiple displacement amplification (mda) procedure developed by dean et al. dna from the phytoseiid phytoseiulus persimilis (athias-h ...200415261775
a novel disease affecting the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis (acari, phytoseiidae): 1. symptoms in adult females.adult female phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (acari, phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations showed a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles than other laboratory populations. we hypothesized earlier that this consistent change in foraging behavior is a symptom of a disease, as it is a contagious phenomenon. here we describe more symptoms by comparing mated females of this population (non-responding (nr) population) with mated females of other populatio ...200616612670
a novel disease affecting the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis (acari, phytoseiidae): 2. disease transmission by adult females.adult female phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (acari, phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=nr-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a shorter choice time in olfactometer tests, have the tendency to leave a prey patch with ample food, may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease pre ...200616724162
the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis adjusts patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.integration of optimal foraging and optimal oviposition theories suggests that predator females should adjust patch leaving to own and progeny prey needs to maximize current and future reproductive success. we tested this hypothesis in the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis and its patchily distributed prey, the two-spotted spider mite tetranychus urticae. in three separate experiments we assessed (1) the minimum number of prey needed to complete juvenile development, (2) the minimum number ...200616680562
genetic engineering of terpenoid metabolism attracts bodyguards to arabidopsis.herbivore-damaged plants release complex mixtures of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. to study the relevance of individual components of these mixtures for predator attraction, we manipulated herbivory-induced volatiles through genetic engineering. metabolic engineering of terpenoids, which dominate the composition of many induced plant volatile bouquets, holds particular promise. by switching the subcellular localization of the introduced sesquiterpene synthase to the mi ...200516179482
disease prevalence and transmission of microsporidium phytoseiuli infecting the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae).isolated colonies of the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis, were used to gain information regarding prevalence and transmission of microsporidium phytoseiuli. two colonies of p. persimilis were reared on spider mite (tetranychus urticae)-infested bean plants in isolated cages. disease prevalence of predators from colony 1 remained relatively low (between 0 and 15%) over 57 weeks of observation whereas disease prevalence of predators from colony 2 increased over 3 months (from 12 to 100%). ...200111273691
predator avoidance in phytophagous mites: response to present danger depends on alternative host quality.we studied whether volatiles released by putative host plants affect the antipredator response of an herbivorous mite, tetranychus urticae, when the patch was invaded by phytoseiulus persimilis. tetranychus urticae laid a lower number of eggs on tomato leaves than on lima bean leaves, suggesting that lima bean is a preferred host food source for t. urticae. in addition, t. urticae preferred lima bean plant volatiles to tomato plant volatiles in a y-tube olfactometer test. to investigate the anti ...200717102994
comparison of single and combination treatments of phytoseiulus persimilis, neoseiulus californicus, and acramite (bifenazate) for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries.greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of combining releases of two predatory mite species, phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot and neoseiulus californicus (mcgregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, acramite (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite (tssm) (tetranychus urticae koch) in strawberries. in the greenhouse experiment, a combination treatment of p. persimilis and n. californicus was compared with single treatments of ...200616770685
evaluation of the predatory mite, neoseiulus californicus, for spider mite control on greenhouse sweet pepper under hot arid field conditions.the efficacy of neoseiulus californicus (a generalist predatory mite) for the biological control of tetranychus urticae, was compared to release of phytoseiulus persimilis (a specialist predatory mite) and an acaricide treatment in sweet pepper plants grown in greenhouse tunnels in a hot and arid climate. to ensure uniform pest populations, spider mites were spread on pepper plants in two seasons; a natural infestation occurred in one season. predators were released prophylactically and curative ...200818584132
acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.a gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain csct, was isolated from diseased, surface-sterilized specimens of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. comparative analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence revealed that the strain was a new member of the family micrococcaceae. nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as renibacterium salmoninarum (94.0%), arthrobacter globiformis (94.8%) and arthrobacter rus ...200616449459
evaluation of predatory mites and acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central florida.greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot and neoseiulus californicus (mcgregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, acramite 50 wp (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae koch, in strawberries (fragaria x ananassa duchesne). in greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of p. persimilis, n. californicus, and an untreated control w ...200616937684
state-dependent and odor-mediated anemotactic responses of a micro-arthropod on a novel type of locomotion compensator.a novel type of locomotion compensator was designed and tested for its use in orientation behavior experiments with a predatory mite. in this apparatus, displacements of the test animal in the two-dimensional plane are recorded using video equipment and a servosphere that keeps the animal in focus. the x and y displacements are registered using two rotation encoders and are compensated using a pair of servo-motors, in such a way that the animal is always positioned on top of the sphere, yet move ...200314587557
identification of volatiles that are used in discrimination between plants infested with prey or nonprey herbivores by a predatory mite.carnivorous arthropods can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their herbivorous prey. in the field, carnivores are confronted with information from plants infested with herbivores that may differ in their suitability as prey. discrimination by the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis between volatiles from lima bean plants infested with the prey herbivore tetranychus urticae, or plants infested with the nonprey caterpillar spodoptera exigua, depends on spider mite density. in this ...200415672666
plant feeding by a predatory mite inhabiting cassava.plant feeding by arthropod predators may strongly affect the dynamics of bi-and tri-trophic interactions. we tested whether a predatory mite, typhlodromalus aripo, feeds upon its host plant, cassava. this predator species is an effective biological control agent of monoychellus tanajoa (the cassava green mite or cgm) a herbivorous mite specific to cassava. we developed a technique to detect plant feeding, based on the use of a systemic insecticide. we found that t. aripo feeds upon plant-borne m ...200212593510
comparison of thread-cutting behavior in three specialist predatory mites to cope with complex webs of tetranychus spider mites.anti-predator defenses provided by complex webs of tetranychus mites can severely impede the performance of generalist predatory mites, whereas this may not be true for specialist predatory mites. although some specialist predatory mites have developed morphological protection to reduce the adverse effects of complex webs, little is known about their behavioral abilities to cope with the webs. in this study, we compared thread-cutting behavior of three specialist predatory mites, phytoseiulus pe ...200918941908
whole genome amplification of chelex-extracted dna from a single mite: a method for studying genetics of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.we developed and optimized a method using chelex dna extraction followed by whole genome amplification (wga) to overcome problems conducting molecular genetic studies due to the limited amount of dna obtainable from individual small organisms such as predatory mites. the dna from a single mite, phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henrot (acari: phytoseiidae), isolated in chelex suspension was subjected to wga. more than 1000-fold amplification of the dna was achieved using as little as 0.03 ng genomi ...200717237968
testing for non-target effects of spinosad on twospotted spider mites and their predator phytoseiulus persimilis under greenhouse conditions.the compatibility of the selective insecticide spinosad (conserve sc), at rates recommended for thrips control in greenhouses, with release of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (acari: phytoseiidae) to control spider mites, was investigated in a crop of ivy geranium pelargonium peltatum, cultivar 'amethyst 96.' plants were inoculated with twospotted spider mites, tetranychus urticae koch (acari: tetranychidae), 2 weeks before treatments were applied. there were three trea ...200616596348
intraguild interactions between the predatory mites neoseiulus californicus and phytoseiulus persimilis.species at the same trophic level may interact through competition for food, but can also interact through intraguild predation. intraguild predation is widespread at the second and third trophic level and the effects may cascade down to the plant level. the effects of intraguild predation can be modified by antipredator behaviour in the intraguild prey. we studied intraguild predation and antipredator behaviour in two species of predatory mite, neoseiulus californicus and phytoseiulus persimili ...200616550333
interactions among phytophagous mites, and introduced and naturally occurring predatory mites, on strawberry in the uk.in choice test experiments on strawberry leaf disc arenas the phytoseiid mites neoseiulus californicus and n. cucumeris were more effective than typhlodromus pyri as predators of the phytophagous mites tetranychus urticae and phytonemus pallidus. there were no preferences shown for either prey by any of these predators. in multiple predator leaf disc experiments both phytoseiulus persimilis and n. cucumeris significantly reduced numbers of t. urticae eggs and active stages; this effect was seen ...200717713859
toxicity of bifenazate and its principal active metabolite, diazene, to tetranychus urticae and panonychus citri and their relative toxicity to the predaceous mites, phytoseiulus persimilis and neoseiulus californicus.bifenazate is a novel carbazate acaricide discovered by uniroyal chemical (now chemtura corporation) for the control of phytophagous mites infesting agricultural and ornamental crops. its acaricidal activity and that of its principal active metabolite, diazene, were characterized. bifenazate and diazene had high toxicity and specificity both orally and topically to all life stages of tetranychus urticae and panonychus citri. acute poisoning was observed with no temperature dependency. no cross-r ...200717972019
the effects of prey patchiness, predator aggregation, and mutual interference on the functional response of phytoseiulus persimilis feeding on tetranychus urticae (acari: phytoseiidae, tetranychidae).the spatial distributions of two-spotted spider mites tetranychus urticae and their natural enemy, the phytoseiid predator phytoseiulus persimilis, were studied on six full-grown cucumber plants. both mite species were very patchily distributed and p. persimilis tended to aggregate on leaves with abundant prey. the effects of non-homogenous distributions and degree of spatial overlap between prey and predators on the per capita predation rate were studied by means of a stage-specific predation m ...200616596345
the effect of indoxacarb and five other insecticides on phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae), amblyseius fallacis (acari: phytoseiidae) and nymphs of orius insidiosus (hemiptera: anthocoridae).a laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of indoxacarb, abamectin, endosulfan, insecticidal soap, s-kinoprene and dimethoate to amblyseius fallacis (garman), phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot and nymphs of orius insidiosus (say). amblyseius fallacis is a predacious phytoseiid mite and an integral part of integrated pest management (ipm) programmes in north american apple orchards. the other two beneficials are widely used in greenhouses to manage various arthropod pests infesting ve ...200616493722
phytoseiid mites in protected crops: the effect of humidity and food availability on egg hatch and adult life span of iphiseius degenerans, neoseiulus cucumeris, n. californicus and phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae).the effect of relative humidity on egg hatch success for iphiseius degenerans, neoseiulus californicus and n. cucumeris was described by a binomial model with a parallel slope. the shape of the response differed for phytoseiulus persimilis and a model with separate parameters gave a significantly better fit. fitted response curves showed that i. degenerans, n. cucumeris, n. californicus and p. persimilis were ranked by decreasing tolerance to low humidity, with egg mortalities of < 0.5, 3, 12 an ...200415139268
effects of a mixture of vegetable and essential oils and fatty acid potassium salts on tetranychus urticae and phytoseiulus persimilis.laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the toxicity and the influence of a commercial mixture of vegetal, essential oils, and potassium salts of fatty acids (acaridoil 13sl) on the population growth rate (r(i)--instantaneous rate of increase) of two mite species, the phytophagous tetranychus urticae koch and the predator phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot. a residue of 1.3 mg/cm(2) of pesticide solution was harmless for ph. persimilis eggs, while a moderate mortality of eggs and of l ...200818031812
prey and non-prey arthropods sharing a host plant: effects on induced volatile emission and predator attraction.it is well established that plants infested with a single herbivore species can attract specific natural enemies through the emission of herbivore-induced volatiles. however, it is less clear what happens when plants are simultaneously attacked by more than one species. we analyzed volatile emissions of lima bean and cucumber plants upon multi-species herbivory by spider mites (tetranychus urticae) and caterpillars (spodoptera exigua) in comparison to single-species herbivory. upon herbivory by ...200818185960
efficacy and persistence of rosemary oil as an acaricide against twospotted spider mite (acari: tetranychidae) on greenhouse tomato.efficacy of rosemary, rosmarinus officinalis l., essential oil was assessed against twospotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae koch (acari: tetranychidae), as well as effects on the tomato, lycopersicum esculatum mill., host plant and biocontrol agents. laboratory bioassay results indicated that pure rosemary oil and ecotrol (a rosemary oil-based pesticide) caused complete mortality of spider mites at concentrations that are not phytotoxic to the host plant. the predatory mite phytoseiulus pers ...200617195668
[standardization of a rearing procedure of tetranychus urticae koch (acari: tetranychidae) on bean (phaseolus vulgaris): plant age and harvest time].a rearing technique was standardized to produce tetranychus urticae koch on phaseolus vulgaris (ica cerinza variety) as a prey of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot. two assays were conducted to assess the following variables: 1. the most suitable plant age for mite infestation, 2. the best time to harvest the mites and reinfest the plants. in the first experiment, four-, five-, six-, and seven-week-old plants of p. vulgaris were infested with six t. urticae per foliole. t ...200919943015
phytoseiulus persimilis response to herbivore-induced plant volatiles as a function of mite-days.the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae), uses plant volatiles (i.e., airborne chemicals) triggered by feeding of their herbivorous prey, tetranychus urticae (acari: tetranychidae), to help locate prey patches. the olfactory response of p. persimilis to prey-infested plants varies in direct relation to the population growth pattern of t. urticae on the plant; p. persimilis responds to plants until the spider mite population feeding on a plant collapses, after which infes ...200717225078
the spatial and temporal distribution of predatory and phytophagous mites in field-grown strawberry in the uk.extensive sampling of strawberry plants in everbearing and june-bearing strawberry plantations and on potted plants showed that different species of mites were spatially separated. of the two phytophagous species recorded, tetranychus urticae was most abundant on old leaves and phytonemus pallidus on folded leaves and flower/fruit clusters. predatory phytoseiid mites were found on all plant parts but different species were spatially separated; neoseiulus cucumeris and n. aurescens were found mos ...200818415688
morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. the olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. the mites perform this task with a peripheral olfactory system that consists of just five putative olfactory sensilla that reside in a dorsal field at the tip of their first pair of legs. the receptor cells innervate a glomerular olfac ...200717245560
significance of terpenoids in induced indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods.many plants respond to herbivory by arthropods with an induced emission of volatiles such as green leaf volatiles and terpenoids. these herbivore-induced plant volatiles (hipvs) can attract carnivores, for example, predators and parasitoids. we investigated the significance of terpenoids in attracting herbivores and carnivores in two tritrophic systems where we manipulated the terpenoid emission by treating the plants with fosmidomycin, which inhibits one of the terpenoid biosynthetic pathways a ...200818208515
verified and potential pathogens of predatory mites (acari: phytoseiidae).several species of phytoseiid mites (acari: phytoseiidae), including species of the genera amblyseius, galendromus, metaseiulus, neoseiulus, phytoseiulus and typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator-prey interactions. pathogen-free phytoseiid mites are important to obtain high efficacy in biological pest control and to get reliable data in mite research, as pathogens may affect the performance of their hos ...200818763041
gross morphology of the central nervous system of a phytoseiid mite.the general morphology of the central nervous system is analysed in intact females of the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae), using a nucleic acid label (yoyo-1) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. the somata of all cells that comprise the synganglion reside in the cortex. the cortex harbours an estimated total of 10,000 cells. the somata are densely packed in the cortex and cells residing in the inner cortex may only occupy about 1.8 microm. as in all arachnida, t ...200717242982
phytotoxicity of tolylfluanid in tomatoes.the use of euparen multi (tolylfluanid) for controlling botrytis cinerea in tomatoes has been decreased the last decade for several reasons. because of the lack of different fungicides with a good efficacy it is important that growers can use different fungicides to prevent development of resistance of botrytis cinerea against many fungicides. tolylfluanid has negative side effects on some insect populations that are used for biological control. it is known that euparen multi and euparen can hav ...200617390776
predation-related odours reduce oviposition in a herbivorous mite.when adult females of the herbivorous mite, tetranychus urticae, were exposed to the predatory mite, phytoseiulus persimilis, they laid fewer eggs than females that had not been exposed to p. persimilis when transferred onto a new leaf patch. however, when t. urticae females were exposed to either products of p. persimilis or artificially damaged conspecific eggs on a leaf patch, the number of t. urticae eggs on a new leaf patch did not differ significantly from the control. the reduced oviposit ...201019526199
attraction of phytoseiulus persimilis (acari: phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various tetranychus urticae-infested plant species.plants infested with the spider mite tetranychus urticae koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot. several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested in an olfactometer. the predatory mites were significantly attracted to the spider mite-infested leaves of all test plant species. no differences in attractiveness of the infested plant leaves were fou ...200217598305
intraguild interactions between euseius stipulatus and the candidate biocontrol agents of tetranychus urticae in spanish clementine orchards: phytoseiulus persimilis and neoseiulus californicus.spanish clementine orchards are frequently infested by the two-spotted spider mte tetranychus urticae. natural control of t. urticae is insufficient despite the presence of neoseiulus californicus and phytoseiulus persimilis. the phytoseiid community is dominated by the generalist euseius stipulatus which is poorly adapted to exploit t. urticae. having the intention to promote biological control of t. urticae by augmentative releases we were interested whether p. persimilis and n. californicus a ...201019517257
ozone degrades common herbivore-induced plant volatiles: does this affect herbivore prey location by predators and parasitoids?inducible terpenes and lipoxygenase pathway products, e.g., green-leaf volatiles (glvs), are emitted by plants in response to herbivory. they are used by carnivorous arthropods to locate prey. these compounds are highly reactive with atmospheric pollutants. we hypothesized that elevated ozone (o(3)) may affect chemical communication between plants and natural enemies of herbivores by degrading signal compounds. in this study, we have used two tritrophic systems (brassica oleracea-plutella xylost ...200717333375
novel bacterial pathogen acaricomes phytoseiuli causes severe disease symptoms and histopathological changes in the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis (acari, phytoseiidae).adult female phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot (acari, phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show a set of characteristic symptoms, designated as non-responding (nr) syndrome. mature predators shrink, cease oviposition and die. they show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a greater tendency to leave prey patches carrying ample prey. moreover, predators may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption and have a low excretion rate. he ...200818423485
effects of euseius stipulatus on establishment and efficacy in spider mite suppression of neoseiulus californicus and phytoseiulus persimilis in clementine.the two-spotted spider mite, tetranychus urticae, is one of the most problematic phytophagous pests in spanish clementine orchards. the most abundant predatory mites in this ecosystem are euseius stipulatus, phytoseiulus persimilis and neoseiulus californicus. euseius stipulatus is dominant but poorly adapted to utilize t. urticae as prey. it mainly persists on pollen and citrus red mite, panonychus citri. a recent study suggested that the more efficacious t. urticae predators p. persimilis and ...201019777356
evaluation of dry-adapted strains of the predatory mite neoseiulus californicus for spider mite control on cucumber, strawberry and pepper.the goal of this study was to evaluate spider mite control efficacy of two dry-adapted strains of neoseiulus californicus. performance of these strains were compared to a commercial strain of phytoseiulus persimilis on whole cucumber, pepper and strawberry plants infested with tetranychus urticae at 50 +/- 5% rh. under these dry conditions predators' performance was very different on each host plant. on cucumber, spider mite suppression was not attained by any of the three predators, plants 'bur ...200818566897
maternal manipulation of hatching asynchrony limits sibling cannibalism in the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.1. sibling cannibalism is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom but entails a high risk of direct and inclusive fitness loss for the mother and her offspring. therefore, mechanisms limiting sibling cannibalism are expected to be selected for. one way of maternal manipulation of sibling cannibalism is to influence hatching asynchrony between nearby laid eggs. this has rarely been tested experimentally. 2. we examined the ability of ovipositing females of the cannibalistic predatory mite phyto ...200818624737
efficacy of neoseiulus californicus and phytoseiulus persimilis in suppression of tetranychus urticae in young clementine plants.tetranychus urticae is one of the most damaging tetranychid mites affecting clementine orchards in spain, where natural control is insufficient. furthermore, in clementine nurseries, tender foliage is highly susceptible to attack and natural enemies are almost always absent. therefore, acaricides are often used indiscriminately. alternative control measures are necessary, both in commercial orchards and clementine nurseries. in order to assess the efficacy of inoculative releases of n. californi ...201019784783
on the ultrastructure and functional morphology of the male chelicerae (gonopods) in parasitina and dermanyssina mites (acari: gamasida).males of parasitina and dermanyssina (gamasida=mesostigmata) have chelicerae modified to function as gonopods. the slit-like spermatotreme in the movable digit of the chela in males of parasitina was studied in three species: in pergamasus quisquiliarum and holoparasitus sp. a rather simple slit is indeed present, whereas in vulgarogamasus kraepelini the structure is represented by a fine duct traversing the movable digit. the spermatodactyl studied in two phytoseioid species (phytoseiulus persi ...200919602394
predatory mite attraction to herbivore-induced plant odors is not a consequence of attraction to individual herbivore-induced plant volatiles.predatory mites locate herbivorous mites, their prey, by the aid of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (hipv). these hipv differ with plant and/or herbivore species, and it is not well understood how predators cope with this variation. we hypothesized that predators are attracted to specific compounds in hipv, and that they can identify these compounds in odor mixtures not previously experienced. to test this, we assessed the olfactory response of phytoseiulus persimilis, a predatory mite that pr ...200818521678
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