three groups of babesia canis distinguished and a proposal for nomenclature.two stocks of large babesia from dogs originating in france, transmitted by dermacentor reticulatus, two from north africa, having rhipicephalus sanguineus as vector, and one from south africa, transmitted by haemaphysalis leachi, were compared in cross-immunity tests in dogs and in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). the french and north african stocks did not immunise against the south african one, while the north african stocks did not protect against a french one. the south africa ...19892655263
an investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (lycaon pictus) in the kruger national park.many factors have been cited as possible reasons for the decline in the number of wild dogs (lycaon pictus), but few studies have provided supportive data. between 1990 and 1993, the dynamics of 10 wild dog packs in the southern district of the kruger national park in south africa were monitored. casual observations of the causes of disease and mortality in the entire population were also recorded. during the same period, 46 wild dogs were immobilised, weighed, and subjected to physical examinat ...19957629782
scavenging dogs and the spread of tick infestation in nigeria.a dog, on whose body ticks were found early in january, 1977, was kept in the household during the night but allowed to scavenge during the day without the ticks being removed throughout the year. weekly counts of the number of different stages of ticks found on the body were made and the behaviour of the engorged dropped ones was studied. the preoviposition, oviposition and preeclosion periods of replete ticks were also studied. rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi were the ...19827169311
helminth and arthropod parasites of angora goats on irrigated kikuyu grass pastures in the eastern cape province.angora goat kids and yearlings grazing irrigated kikuyu (pennisetum clandestinum) grass pastures in the eastern cape province, became heavily infected with teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus rugatus, leading to high mortality in both age groups. peak burdens of the former were recorded during march and may, and of the latter during may and june. larger numbers of the cestode moniezia expanza, occurred in the kids than in the yearlings. despite the stress of high helminth burdens, no ...19902286996
tick-bite fever in zimbabwe. survey of antibodies to rickettsia conorii in man and dogs, and of rickettsia-like organisms in dog part of a study of tick-bite fever in zimbabwe, the prevalence of antibodies to rickettsia conorii in dogs and humans was examined. blood samples were obtained from 184 dogs in different parts of the country and tested by indirect immunofluorescence. in all, 150 (82%) were positive at a titre of 1/40 or higher. dogs from the south and east of the country showed very high seroprevalence compared with dogs from the main urban centre, harare. human serum was obtained from blood donors, from peop ...19911887350
identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae using polymerase chain reaction and restriction-endonuclease length polymorphism order to facilitate the isolation and identification of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae from their tick vectors, we used the centrifugation shell vial technique or traditional isolation procedures and genotypic identification using the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain amplified fragments. the presence of rickettsia conorii both in rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected in southern france, and in rhipicephalus simus and haemaphysalis leachi from zim ...19921350164
arsenic resistance in species of multi-host ticks in the republic of south africa and swaziland.a survey was made in the republic of south africa and swaziland to determine the incidence of arsenic resistance in multi-host ixodid ticks. arsenic resistant strains were found in the following species:- rihipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus evertsi, rhipicephalus capensis, amblyomma hebraeum and a species of hyalomma, tentatively identified as hyalomma rufipes. strains of haemaphysalis leachi, haemaphysalis silacea and ixodes pilosus were also tested.19751223285
ackertia globulosa sp. n. (nematoda: filarioidea) from rodents in kenya.ackertia globulosa sp. n. (nematoda: filarioidea) is described from the pulmonary arteries of the striped mouse, lemniscomys striatus striatus (l.), in kenya. distinguishing features are the small size of the adults; the short left spicule and arrangement of the caudal papillae (3 pairs preanal, 4 pairs postanal) of the male; small projecting lobes on the tail of the females; and 10 to 12 refractile globules in the microfilarial sheath. the microfilariae are found in the skin, mostly of the ear. ...19751165543
ixodid ticks on dogs in southern mozambique.the objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of ticks infesting domestic dogs in southern mozambique. to this end 89 collections were taken from dogs and the geographic coordinates of the localities at which they were made noted. fifty-eight of these collections were from animals in the city of maputo and 16 from animals at rural settlements close to maputo. a further 15 collections were made from dogs in rural environments north of maputo. ten ixodid tick species, o ...200415732454
use of highly variable intergenic spacer sequences for multispacer typing of rickettsia conorii use of the nearly perfectly colinear genomes of rickettsia conorii and rickettsia prowazekii, we compared the usefulness of three types of sequences for typing of r. conorii isolates: (i) 5 variable coding genes comprising the 16s ribosomal dna, glta, ompb, and sca4 (gene d) genes, which are present in both genomes, and the ompa gene, which is degraded in r. prowazekii; (ii) 28 genes degraded in r. conorii but intact in r. prowazekii, including 23 split and 5 remnant genes; and (iii) 27 conse ...200415583310
a laboratory comparison of the life cycles of the dog ticks haemaphysalis leachi and rhipicephalus sanguineus.engorged female haemaphysalis leachi and rhipicephalus sanguineus as well as their eggs, flat and engorged larvae and nymphs were incubated at combinations of five temperatures and three relative humidities. mean pre-oviposition periods for h. leachi varied between 4.3 days and 12.1 days and for r. sanguineus between 4.8 days and 21.0 days. haemaphysalis leachi converted up to 65.7% of their body mass into eggs and produced up to 16.3 eggs/mg body mass, with 4801 eggs the maximum number deposite ...200415185571
infection with a proposed new subspecies of babesia canis, babesia canis subsp. presentii, in domestic cats.parasitemia with a large babesia species was identified in two domestic cats from israel. one cat, also coinfected with feline immunodeficiency virus and "candidatus mycoplasma haemominutum," had profound icterus and anemia which resolved after therapy, whereas a second cat was an asymptomatic carrier. amplification and sequencing of the 18s rrna gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses, indicated that infection was caused by babesia canis. however, the sequences of the internal transcribed and 5 ...200414715738
first evidence of anaplasma platys in rhipicephalus sanguineus (acari: ixodida) collected from dogs in africa.a total of 27 ticks, comprising rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (n = 21), haemaphysalis leachi (andouin) (n = 4) and haemaphysalis paraleachi (camicas, hoogstraal & el kammah) (n = 2) were recovered from two clinically healthy female dogs in the democratic republic of the congo. dna of anaplasma platys was detected in a female r. sanguineus, using primers derived from the 16s rrna gene, which amplify members of the family anaplasmataceae . anaplasma platys dna was also detected in the blood ...200314621316
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xliii. ixodid ticks of domestic dogs and cats in the western cape province.ticks were collected at monthly intervals for 16 consecutive months from individual dogs by their owners in or close to the town of stellenbosch, western cape province. they were also collected for 27 consecutive months from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at three veterinary clinics in stellenbosch, and from dogs upon admission to an animal welfare shelter. at one of the veterinary clinics ticks were also collected from cats. dog owners collected six ixodid species from their pets and t ...200314621314
the immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases.abstract: the canine vector-borne infectious diseases (cvbds) are an emerging problem in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic potential of many of these agents is a significant consideration for human health. the successful diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these infections is dependent upon firm understanding of the underlying immunopathology of the diseases in which there are unique tripartite interactions between the microorganism, the vector and the host immune system. although signific ...201121489234
why is southern african canine babesiosis so virulent? an evolutionary perspective.abstract: canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in southern africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected. this contrasts with bovine babesiosis, for example, where host, parasite and vector co-evolved and young animals develop immunity after infection without showing clinical signs. babesia rossi, the main causative organism of canine babesiosis in sub-saharan africa, was first described from a side-striped jackal (canis adustus) in kenya. although data are meagre ...201121489239
hymenopterous parasites from an adult haemaphysalis leachii leachii (acarina: ixodidae). 196514275219
ixodid ticks feeding on humans in south africa: with notes on preferred hosts, geographic distribution, seasonal occurrence and transmission of pathogens.this paper records the identities of 558 ixodid ticks feeding on 194 humans in south africa. these ticks belonged to 20 species in six genera and those most frequently encountered were amblyomma hebraeum, haemaphysalis leachi, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, hyalomma truncatum, rhipicephalus appendiculatus, rhipicephalus gertrudae and rhipicephalus simus. with the exception of the larvae of r. appendiculatus, the incidents of these ticks feeding on humans correlated well with their seasonal occurre ...200212593517
diversity, seasonality and sites of attachment of adult ixodid ticks on dogs in the central region of the free state province, south africa.several surveys of ticks infesting dogs belonging to owners in resource-limited and more affluent communities have been conducted in south africa, but no such investigation has been carried out in the free state province of this country. the present study was initiated to meet this shortcoming. ticks were collected from dogs at six localities in, and to the east of the city of bloemfontein in the central region of the province. three of these localities could be classed as resource-limited and t ...200112026063
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xl. ticks on dogs belonging to people in rural communities and carnivore ticks on the vegetation.ixodid ticks were collected at weekly intervals from february 1999 to april 2000 from domestic dogs belonging to people in rural communities in north-eastern kwazulu-natal. seven ticks were identified to species level and adult haemaphysalis leachi followed by immature amblyomma hebraeum and adult rhipicephalus simus were the most prevalent. infestation with adult h. leachi was most intense during february and march 1999 and from january to april 2000, and least intense during october 1999. infe ...200111585091
ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in north west province, south africa.a total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in north west province, south africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. by doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14,724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1,028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14,226 of the ticks. pure infestations of h. leachi w ...200011205167
survival of six species of african ticks in relation to saturation deficits.the survival of unfed males and females of six species of african ticks was monitored at five different saturation deficits at constant temperature (25 degrees c). the survivorship curves for each species comprised a pre-mortality period, prior to when ticks started to die and a mortality period corresponding to a rapid increase in the mortality rate. longevity was defined as pre-mortality plus mortality. a negative correlation between the longevity of the ticks and the saturation deficits was f ...19969022266
the comparative host status of red veld rats (aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (tatera leucogaster) for epifaunal arthropods in the southern kruger national park, south veld rats (aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (tatera leucogaster) were trapped at monthly intervals, when possible, over a 2-year period, in the southern kruger national park, mpumalanga province. forty-six specimens of each species were caught, euthenased and microscopically examined for fleas, lice, ticks and mites. clear differences existed between the two rodent hosts in infestation intensity and also parasite species. the flea, xenopsylla brasiliensis, commonly and exclusively ...19968856764
prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms and spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from zimbabwe.the prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms in ticks from zimbabwe was determined using the hemolymph test. amblyomma hebraeum had the highest prevalence of rickettsia-like organisms. other species with rickettsia-like organisms included amblyomma sparsum, amblyomma variegatum, hyalomma marginatum rufipes, ripicephalus simus, haemaphysalis leachi, amblyomma rhinocerotis, and hyalomma truncatum. ticks with no demonstrable rickettsia-like organisms infection were boophilus decoloratus, haemaphysal ...19958551500
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxii. ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores.ixodid ticks were collected from 4 dogs on smallholdings near grahamstown, eastern cape province, on 1 or more occasions each week for periods ranging from 9-36 months. fourteen tick species were recovered and the seasonal abundance of adult haemaphysalis leachi and adult rhipicephalus simus was determined. complete collections of ticks were made from 50 caracals (felis caracal) in the cradock, graaff-reinet and southwell regions in the eastern cape province. the animals from cradock and graaff- ...19873444612
small mammals as hosts of immature ixodid ticks.two hundred and twenty-five small mammals belonging to 16 species were examined for ticks in free state, mpumalanga and limpopo provinces, south africa, and 18 ixodid tick species, of which two could only be identified to genus level, were recovered. scrub hares, lepus saxatilis, and cape hares, lepus capensis, harboured the largest number of tick species. in free state province namaqua rock mice, aethomys namaquensis, and four-striped grass mice, rhabdomys pumilio, were good hosts of the immatu ...200516300195
efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (aloe ferox) against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs.the efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (aloe ferox) was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of rhipicephalus (boophilus) decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg/kg body weight and those in another 25 mg/kg body weight of powdered al ...200516642714
[the subspecies specificity of babesia canis].the large babesia species of dogs, babesia canis, is transmitted by different ticks. dermacentor reticulatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi are the known main vectors. four b. canis isolates of different geographic origin were investigated for their transmission specificity and pathogenicity in infection trials. r. sanguineus ticks exclusively transmitted the babesia isolate from egypt. d. reticulatus was the vector for isolates from hungary and france. transmission of an sou ...19968765536
characterization of dog repellent factor from cuticular secretion of female yellow dog tick, haemaphysalis leachi.during its natural life cycle, the yellow dog tick, haemaphysalis leachi, has three hosts, and it has to spend enough time on each of them to complete a blood meal. when irritated, the females of this tick species produce a cuticular secretion that contains a dog-repelling allomone. this improves the tick's chances of survival by deterring the dog from biting the tick off its body. employing response-guided isolation techniques in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the defens ...200616525874
allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus.the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the morphological and genetic differences among r. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from america/africa and those from australia being different species. to test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we perfo ...200919243585
development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for rapid diagnosis of babesia canis infections.vector-borne diseases are rising in interest due to global warming, which is believed to impact on the distribution of vectors into new areas thus influencing the occurrence and epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens. babesia canis belongs to the piroplasmidae and there are three described subspecies, namely b. canis canis, b. canis rossi and b. canis vogeli. they are each transmitted by a different tick-species, dermacentor reticulatus, haemaphysalis leachi and rhipicephalus sanguineus, respect ...201020537107
evidence of new pathogenic theileria species in dogs.babesiosis, caused by tick-borne haematozoan organisms of the genus babesia, is a parasitic disease of domestic and wild mammals. canine babesidae have historically been classified as "large babesia" (babesia canis) and "small babesia" (babesia gibsoni) based on the size of their intraerythrocytic forms. recent publications, however, suggest that the diversity of piroplasm species infecting dogs might be greater than previously appreciated. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the ssrrna gene ...201021526030
a rickettsial disease in east africa transmitted by ticks (rhipicephalus simus and haemaphysalis leachi). 194718898709
ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in hawassa, southern ethiopia.this study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around hawassa in southern ethiopia. in total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from november 2008 to april 2009. of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, respectively, were infested with one or more species of ticks, fleas or lice. the overall prevalence was higher in dogs than in cats. a total of six different species of ectoparasites were collected and ...201123327214
prevalence and diversity of bartonella species in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from nigeria, west africa.bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. in recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. to date, no studies investigating the presence of bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from nigeria were carried out.201323738028
questions on mediterranean spotted fever a century after its discovery.mediterranean spotted fever (msf) was first described in 1910. twenty years later, it was recognized as a rickettsial disease transmitted by the brown dog tick. in contrast to rocky mountain spotted fever (rmsf), msf was thought to be a benign disease; however, the first severe case that resulted in death was reported in france in the 1980s. we have noted important changes in the epidemiology of msf in the last 10 years, with emergence and reemergence of msf in several countries. advanced molecu ...200818760001
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxxviii. ixodid ticks collected from 23 wild carnivore species.ixodid ticks were collected from 104 wild carnivores belonging to 23 species in various nature reserves and on several farms in all nine provinces of south africa. seven feral cats in a nature reserve were also examined. twenty-four tick species belonging to seven genera were recovered and identified. amongst these ticks we consider the adults of haemaphysalis leachi, haemaphysalis spinulosa, haemaphysalis zumpti, ixodes rubicundus, rhipicentor nuttalli, rhipicephalus simus and rhipicephalus tur ...200011206391
host surveys, ixodid tick biology and transmission scenarios as related to the tick-borne pathogen, ehrlichia canis.the ehrlichioses have been subject to increasing interest from veterinary and public health perspectives, but experimental studies of these diseases and their etiologic agents can be challenging. ehrlichia canis, the primary etiologic agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, is relatively well characterized and offers unique advantages and opportunities to study interactions between a monocytotropic pathogen and both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. historically, advances in tick-borne dise ...200818963493
effect of water flooding on the oviposition capacity of engorged adult females and hatchability of eggs of dog ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi.effects of water flooding on the oviposition capacity of engorged adult females and hatchability of eggs of rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi under laboratory conditions were investigated. the durations of time of water flooding were 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. engorged females of r. sanguineus and h. leachi leachi did not oviposit after being flooded for more than 48 and 6 hours, respectively. the preoviposition periods of both species were longer than ...201121584237
babesia and its hosts: adaptation to long-lasting interactions as a way to achieve efficient transmission.babesia, the causal agent of babesiosis, are tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa. true babesiae (babesia genus sensu stricto) are biologically characterized by direct development in erythrocytes and by transovarial transmission in the tick. a large number of true babesia species have been described in various vertebrate and tick hosts. this review presents the genus then discusses specific adaptations of babesia spp. to their hosts to achieve efficient transmission. the main adaptations lead to lon ...200919379662
isolation of a south african vector-specific strain of babesia canis.a south african strain of babesia canis parasites was isolated and shown to be vector-specific to only one of the two vectors in the region, haemaphysalis leachi. this tick was found to transmit the parasite in its adult instar. when infected as larvae, the ticks would not transmit in the proceeding nymphal instar. the vector-specific strain was named the 'thomas strain' after one of the dogs involved in isolating it. a survey revealed a prevalence of > 50% of this strain in four widely separate ...19968792576
novel spotted fever group rickettsiae in haemaphysalis qinghaiensis ticks from gansu, northwest china.rickettsia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria and well known as transmitted by arthropods. these pathogens have a broad geographic distribution and a high degree of biological and clinical diversity. this study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from gansu, where borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and anaplasma phagocytophilum were previously reported in ticks and ruminants.201626968160
african tick-bite fever in traveler returning to slovenia from uganda. 201627648844
proposal to create subspecies of rickettsia conorii based on multi-locus sequence typing and an emended description of rickettsia conorii.rickettsiae closely related to the malish strain, the reference rickettsia conorii strain, include indian tick typhus rickettsia (ittr), israeli spotted fever rickettsia (isfr), and astrakhan fever rickettsia (afr). although closely related genotypically, they are distinct serotypically. using multilocus sequence typing (mlst), we have recently found that distinct serotypes may not always represent distinct species within the rickettsia genus. we investigated the possibility of classifying ricke ...200515766388
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
ixodid ticks on dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province, south africa.the objective of this study was to determine the species composition and geographic distribution of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the eastern region of the eastern cape province. seventy-two communal cattle dip-tanks within this region were randomly selected as survey localities and their geographic coordinates recorded. in addition to ticks that were collected from five cattle and five goats at each of the dip-tanks, ticks were also collected from five dogs whenever possible. no dogs ...200617283731
ixodid ticks collected at the faculty of veterinary science, onderstepoort, from dogs diagnosed with babesia canis an attempt to identify the vectors of babesia canis, ticks were collected over a period of 3 years from a total of 395 dogs diagnosed as infected with this protozoan parasite at the veterinary faculty, onderstepoort. haemaphysalis leachi was the only tick species recovered from 164 of these dogs, and it occurred in mixed infestation on a further 140 of the dogs. rhipicephalus sanguineus was collected in pure infestation from 59 dogs with a further 87 harbouring mixed infestations. sixteen dog ...19958596189
update on tick-borne rickettsioses around the world: a geographic approach.tick-borne rickettsioses are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the spotted fever group of the genus rickettsia. these zoonoses are among the oldest known vector-borne diseases. however, in the past 25 years, the scope and importance of the recognized tick-associated rickettsial pathogens have increased dramatically, making this complex of diseases an ideal paradigm for the understanding of emerging and reemerging infections. several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that wer ...024092850
surveys on seroprevalence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis among dogs living in the ivory coast and gabon and evaluation of a quick commercial test kit dot-elisa.canine monocytic ehlichiosis (cme), an enzootic disease in africa, has been studied in canine blood samples (serum). these dogs, without any clinical sign of disease, were living in abidjan (ivory coast) and in several small villages located in northeasst gabon (ogooué ivindo). the results obtained by indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test, used as a point of reference, and by a quick test dot-elisa were compared. blood samples taken from 390 asymptomatic dogs in 2003 (137 in ivory coast and 2 ...200617114755
occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in jos, plateau state, nigeria.canine babesiosis caused by babesia rossi, transmitted by haemaphysalis elliptica in south africa, has also been reported from nigeria. although h. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-saharan africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. it has been postulated that the genotype of babesia rossi erythrocyte membrane antigen 1 (brema1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. the primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-bo ...201424661795
coxiella burnetii in humans, domestic ruminants, and ticks in rural western kenya.we conducted serological surveys for coxiella burnetii in archived sera from patients that visited a rural clinic in western kenya from 2007 to 2008 and in cattle, sheep, and goats from the same area in 2009. we also conducted serological and polymerase chain reaction-based surveillance for the pathogen in 2009-2010, in human patients with acute lower respiratory illness, in ruminants following parturition, and in ticks collected from ruminants and domestic dogs. antibodies against c. burnetii w ...201323382156
emergence of multi-acaricide resistant rhipicephalus ticks and its implication on chemical tick control in uganda.acaricide failure has been on the rise in the western and central cattle corridor of uganda. in this study, we identified the tick species associated with acaricide failure and determined their susceptibility to various acaricide molecules used for tick control in uganda.201626727991
occurrence patterns of afrotropical ticks (acari: ixodidae) in the climate space are not correlated with their taxonomic relationships.foci of tick species occur at large spatial scales. they are intrinsically difficult to detect because the effect of geographical factors affecting conceptual influence of climate gradients. here we use a large dataset of occurrences of ticks in the afrotropical region to outline the main associations of those tick species with the climate space. using a principal components reduction of monthly temperature and rainfall values over the afrotropical region, we describe and compare the climate spa ...201222629349
molecular detection of anaplasma platys infection in free-roaming dogs and ticks from kenya and ivory coast.anaplasma platys is a bacterium parasitic in the canine platelets, representing the causative agent of canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, with a worldwide distribution, mainly in tropical countries. the agent has zoonotic potential, being reported in several human clinical cases. the suspected vector is the tick rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato), widely distributed in animals and humans in the tropical regions of south america, africa, asia and australia, but also in southern europe. only few s ...201626984538
sizes and developmental viability of sequentially oviposited eggs of dog ticks: rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi.sizes and developmental viability of sequentially oviposited eggs of up to 12th day oviposition by dog ticks rhipicephalus sanguineus and haemaphysalis leachi leachi were studied. the mean length and breadth of eggs oviposited on days 1 and 2 were greater (0.45 +/- 0.111 and 0.44 +/- 0.042) than those of subsequent ovipositions. the eclosion periods of eggs laid from 7th to 12th day of oviposition were progressively shorter (17, 16, 14 and 19, 17, 0 days) than those of eggs laid on days 1 and 2 ...201223678637
high prevalence of rickettsia africae variants in amblyomma variegatum ticks from domestic mammals in rural western kenya: implications for human health.tick-borne spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsioses are emerging human diseases caused by obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria of the genus rickettsia. despite being important causes of systemic febrile illnesses in travelers returning from sub-saharan africa, little is known about the reservoir hosts of these pathogens. we conducted surveys for rickettsiae in domestic animals and ticks in a rural setting in western kenya. of the 100 serum specimens tested from each species of domestic r ...025325312
tick infestation patterns in free ranging african buffalo (syncercus caffer): effects of host innate immunity and niche segregation among tick species.ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. we studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging african buffalo (syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? we identified ticks and estimated ...201224533310
climate and environmental change drives ixodes ricinus geographical expansion at the northern range environmental change is causing spatial and temporal shifts in the distribution of species and the associated diseases of humans, domesticated animals and wildlife. in the on-going debate on the influence of climate change on vectors and vector-borne diseases, there is a lack of a comprehensive interdisciplinary multi-factorial approach utilizing high quality spatial and temporal data.201424401487
a review of piroplasmid infections in wild carnivores worldwide: importance for domestic animal health and wildlife conservation.piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. they cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. there are currently nine recognized species of babesia ...201627724937
ectoparasites of stray dogs in mazandaran, gilan and qazvin provinces, north and center of iran.the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs in mazandaran, gilan and qazvin provinces in fall and winter in 2013(december to march).201627308294
molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens in captive wild felids, zimbabwe.the populations of wild felids in africa, of especially lions (panthera leo) and cheetahs (acinonyx jubatus), are declining and the species are classified as vulnerable to extinction by the international union for conservation of nature. as infections with tick-borne pathogens (tbp) can become more of a problem in wild felids, there are relatively few studies on tbp in wild felids in africa and on how these infections might influence population numbers.201425404084
in vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of tephrosia vogelii on rhipicephalus sanguineus in abomey-calavi.ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. the use of tephrosia leafs' extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central kenya.026101758
infection and exposure to vector-borne pathogens in rural dogs and their ticks, rural parts of africa, dogs live in close association with humans and livestock, roam freely, and usually do not receive prophylactic measures. thus, they are a source of infectious disease for humans and for wildlife such as protected carnivores. in 2011, an epidemiological study was carried out around three conservation areas in uganda to detect the presence and determine the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in rural dogs and associated ticks to evaluate the risk that these pathogens po ...201526043771
q fever is an old and neglected zoonotic disease in kenya: a systematic review.q fever is a neglected zoonosis caused by the bacterium coxiella burnetii. the knowledge of the epidemiology of q fever in kenya is limited with no attention to control and prevention programs. the purpose of this review is to understand the situation of q fever in human and animal populations in kenya in the past 60 years, and help identify future research priorities for the country.201627048480
an update on the ecological distribution of the ixodidae ticks in total 7657 ticks were collected from 121 dip tanks in 12 districts representative of zimbabwe's five ecological regions between september 2013 and may 2014. based on morphological traits four genera and 13 species of ticks were identified. amblyomma hebraeum (60.3 %), rhipicephalus microplus (58.7 %), rhipicephalus decoloratus (47.1 %), rhipicephalus appendiculatus (56.2 %), rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (67.8 %), rhipicephalus (near) punctatus (13.2 %), hyalomma truncatum (38 %) and hyalomma ...201525721256
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