revisiting the clinal concept of evolution and dispersal for the tick-borne flaviviruses by using phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses.tick-borne flaviviruses (tbf) are widely dispersed across africa, europe, asia, oceania, and north america, and some present a significant threat to human health. seminal studies on tick-borne encephalitis viruses (tbev), based on partial envelope gene sequences, predicted a westward clinal pattern of evolution and dispersal across northern eurasia, terminating in the british isles. we tested this hypothesis using all available full-length open reading frame (orf) tbf sequences. phylogenetic ana ...201222674986
genomic characterization of the genus nairovirus (family bunyaviridae).nairovirus, one of five bunyaviral genera, includes seven species. genomic sequence information is limited for members of the dera ghazi khan, hughes, qalyub, sakhalin, and thiafora nairovirus species. we used next-generation sequencing and historical virus-culture samples to determine 14 complete and nine coding-complete nairoviral genome sequences to further characterize these species. previously unsequenced viruses include abu mina, clo mor, great saltee, hughes, raza, sakhalin, soldado, and ...201627294949
a global genomic characterization of nairoviruses identifies nine discrete genogroups with distinctive structural characteristics and host-vector associations.nairoviruses are primarily tick-borne bunyaviruses, some of which are known to cause mild-to-severe febrile illness in humans or livestock. we describe the genome sequences of 11 poorly characterized nairoviruses that have ecological associations with either birds (farallon, punta salinas, sapphire ii, zirqa, avalon, clo mor, taggert, and abu hammad viruses), rodents (qalyub and bandia viruses), or camels (dera ghazi khan virus). global phylogenetic analyses of proteins encoded in the l, m, and ...201626903607
effect of 25-azacholestane on argas (argas) hermanni (ixodoidea:argasidae).unfed and fed nymphal argas hermanni audouin were treated topically with 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 micrograms of 25-azacholestane. the azasteroid did not inhibit feeding but had a dose-related lethal effect on unfed nymphs. generally, it had little effect on nymphs treated after feeding. the 10-micrograms dose reduced the premolting period of nymphs treated before feeding. some adults emerging from the 5- to 20-micrograms dosage groups that had been treated before feeding failed to shed their exuvia ...19968840685
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