[characterization of the thio-dependent hemolysin of bacillus alvei].bacillus alvei hemolytic toxin has been characterized in five main steps from a 18 hours culture supernatant fluid. 50% ammonium sulfate precipitations are followed by sephadex gel filtrations. after that we proceed to an isoelectric focusing in a narrow ph gradient (from 4 to 6). a final step consists in a gel filtration allowing to separate sucrose and ampholins from toxin preparation. the homogeneity of the alveolysin preparation is controlled on double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoretic ...1977603100
identification of some uncommon monounsaturated fatty acids of bacteria.location of the double-bond position of monounsaturated fatty acids of various bacteria was accomplished with combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of dimethyl disulfide (dmds) derivatives. the monoenoic fatty acids from whole cells were converted to methyl esters and then to dmds adducts and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the mass spectra of dmds adducts gave an easily recognizable molecular ion and two major diagnostic ions attributable to fragment ...19921401029
bavai, a restriction endonuclease from bacillus alvei. 19921614884
pneumonia and empyema infection associated with a bacillus species that resembles b. organism resembling bacillus alvei was isolated from the lung and pleural fluid of an immunocompetent patient. the isolate differed from the type strain of b. alvei in its ability to reduce nitrate and its inability to produce dihydroxyacetone and acetylmethylcarbinol. the isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin and showed intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin.19911774295
successful treatment of bacillus alvei endophthalmitis. 19892801870
homologous and hybrid complexes of anthranilate synthase from bacillus species.the subunits of anthranilate synthase were separated and partially purified by sephadex g-100 gel filtration from the following six species of bacillus: bacillus subtilis, bacillus licheniformis, bacillus alvei, bacillus coagulans, bacillus pumilus, and bacillus mascerans. our data suggest that the enzyme from b. alvei is unique among these species. first, the anthranilate synthase complexes are readily dissociated during gel filtration in the absence of glutamine into a large component (aminotr ...19744407252
catalytic studies on tryptophanase from bacillus alvei.tryptophanase from bacillus alvei exhibited the expected spectrum of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent reactions. it exhibited l-serine dehydratase, s-alkyl-cysteine lyase, and cysteine desulfhydrase activities, as well as the classic tryptophanase reactions (all beta elimination reactions). it also acted as a tryptophan synthetase (beta replacement reactions) using indole plus l-serine or l-cysteine or s-methyl-cysteine as substrates. the beta elimination reactions are simple competitors of the ...19734698211
germination and outgrowth of bacillus thuringiensis and bacillus alvei spores viewed by scanning electron and phase-contrast microscopy. 19714927921
purification and some properties of tryptophanase from bacillus alvei. 19664959960
tryptophanase from bacillus alvei. i. subunit structure. 19725012758
tryptophanase in diverse bacterial species.the distribution of tryptophanase was studied. the highest observed specific activity, mumoles per minute per milligram (dry weight) cells, is given in parentheses after each species. tryptophanase was inducible and repressible in escherichia coli (.914), paracolobactrum coliforme (.210), proteus vulgaris (.146), aeromonas liquefaciens (.030), photobacterium harveyi (.035), sphaerophorus varius (.021), bacteroides sp. (.048), and corynebacterium acnes (.042). the enzyme was constitutive and nonr ...19695781572
evidence for a physiological maximal typtophan pool level in bacillus alvei. 19665929783
physiological role of tryptophanase in control of tryptophan biosynthesis in bacillus alvei.hoch, j. a. (university of illinois, urbana), and r. d. demoss. physiological role of tryptophanase in control of tryptophan biosynthesis in bacillus alvei. j. bacteriol. 91:667-672. 1966.-indole excretion occurred early in the exponential growth phase, and derived mainly from biosynthetic intermediates of tryptophan. tryptophan cleavage by tryptophanase contributed about 1.5% of the indole excreted. in the presence of exogenous tryptophan (5 to 10 mug/ml), excretion of early indole was not obse ...19665934497
[morphological aspect of the lysis of staphylococci by bacillus alvei. role of lysozyme]. 19676048202
the use of mannan-sepharose 4b affinity chromatography for the purification of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from bacillus order to facilitate the isolation of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase for the structural analysis of glycoconjugates, we have isolated a strain of bacillus alvei which produces a high level of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase. we have also devised a simple procedure for the purification of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from b. alvei using mannan-sepharose affinity chromatography. by using this method, endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase was purified 3300-fold with 85% yield from the crude ...19836418210
selective purification by thiol-disulfide interchange chromatography of alveolysin, a sulfhydryl-activated toxin of bacillus alvei. toxin properties and interaction with cholesterol and liposomes.alveolysin has been purified in milligram quantities to apparent immunochemical and electrophoretic homogeneity from the supernatant culture fluid of bacillus alvei. purification involved ultrafiltration with concomitant molecular sieving on amicon hollow fibers, thiol-disulfide interchange chromatography on thiopropyl-sepharose 6b, and gel filtration on sephacryl s-200 and bio-gel p-100. the purified toxin was found to be a single polypeptide chain of 582 amino acids (mr = 63,000) free of carbo ...19836411708
similarity of "core" structures in two different glycans of tyrosine-linked eubacterial s-layer glycoproteins.previously, the repeating-unit structure of the s-layer glycoprotein from the eubacterium bacillus alvei ccm 2051 has been determined to be [-->3)-beta-d-galp-(1-->4)-[alpha-d-glcp-(1-->6)-]-beta-d-manpnac- (1-->]n (e. altman, j.-r. brisson, p. messner, and u. b. sleytr, biochem. cell biol. 69:72-78, 1991). nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic reexamination of this glycan reveals that the o-antigen-like domain of the polysaccharide is [see text] connected with the s-layer polypeptide through ...19957721708
generation of leukotrienes from human granulocytes by alveolysin from bacillus alvei.we investigated the effect of alveolysin on human granulocytes. alveolysin is an exoprotein produced by bacillus alvei and belongs to the group of sulfhydryl-activated cytolysins. other members of this group are streptolysin o and theta-toxin from clostridium perfringens. it is demonstrated that alveolysin leads to leukotriene generation from human granulocytes, which exert chemotactic (leukotriene b4) and slow-reacting substance (leukotriene c4, d4, and e4) activity under sublytic concentration ...19846323315
physical and catalytic properties of tryptophanase from bacillus alvei. 19665971828
physiological studies of biosynthetic indole excretion in bacillus alvei.bacillus alvei excretes indole during early exponential growth in acid-hydrolyzed casein medium. l-threonine is the amino acid responsible for "early" indole excretion, and the amount of indole excreted is directly related to the amount of l-threonine in the medium. "early-indole" excretion can be prevented by the continuous addition of serine (3.1 mumoles per ml per hr) or by substituting a mutant with an impaired ability to degrade serine. the addition of serine to a culture during the period ...19715551642
a polyphasic reassessment of the genus paenibacillus, reclassification of bacillus lautus (nakamura 1984) as paenibacillus lautus comb. nov. and of bacillus peoriae (montefusco et al. 1993) as paenibacillus peoriae comb. nov., and emended descriptions of p. lautus and of p. peoriae.seventy-seven strains representing 10 species in the paenibacillus polymyxa 16s rrna group and 3 other species that exhibit phenetic relatedness to members of this group, bacillus lautus, "bacillus longisporus," and bacillus peoriae, were characterized genotypically and phenotypically by performing an amplified ribosomal dna restriction analysis, a randomly amplified polymorphic dna analysis, a fatty acid methyl ester analysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-c ...19968863428
physiological comparison of l-serine dehydratase and tryptophanase from bacillus alvei.tryptophanase from bacillus alvei also possesses serine dehydratase activity. a comparison of this enzyme with l-serine dehydratase [l-serine hydro-lyase (deaminating), ec] in toluene-treated whole cell preparations of the organism was undertaken. tryptophanase is a constitutive enzyme in b. alvei. the dehydratase undergoes a repression-derepression-repression sequence as the l-serine level in the growth medium is increased from 0 to 0.1 m. tryptophanase activity is decreased in organis ...19705438049
physiological and kinetic studies with anthranilate synthetase of bacillus alvei.anthranilate synthetase from bacillus alvei was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and was stabilized by glycerol. the reaction mechanism of the enzyme was found to be sequential with respect to substrate, and the enzyme formed a hydroxamic acid in the absence of mg(++). the k(m) for chorismic acid was 1.25 x 10(-4)m, and the k(m) for l-glutamine was 5.5 x 10(-4)m. enzyme activity was inhibited by tryptophan noncompetitively with respect to chorismic acid and uncompetitively wi ...19705413822
molecular cloning and characterization of bacillus alvei thiol-dependent cytolytic toxin expressed in escherichia coli.a chromosomal dna fragment from bacillus alvei, encoding a thiol-dependent haemolytic product known as alveolysin (mr 60,000, pi 5.0) was cloned in escherichia coli sk1592, using pbr322 as the vector plasmid. only a single haemolysin-positive clone was identified, by testing for haemolysis on blood agar plates. the haemolytic material was associated with the host bacterial cell. it was released by ultrasonic disruption and purified 267-fold. a 64 kda polypeptide of pi 8.2 cofractionated with hae ...19883073189
phylogenetic diversity in the genus bacillus as seen by 16s rrna sequencing studies.comparative sequence analysis of 16s ribosomal (r)rnas or dnas of bacillus alvei, b. laterosporus, b. macerans, b. macquariensis, b. polymyxa and b. stearothermophilus revealed the phylogenetic diversity of the genus bacillus. based on the presently available data set of 16s rrna sequences from bacilli and relatives at least four major "bacillus clusters" can be defined: a "bacillus subtilis cluster" including b. stearothermophilus, a "b. brevis cluster" including b. laterosporus, a "b. alvei ...199111538306
diversity and functionality of bacillus and related genera isolated from spontaneously fermented soybeans (indian kinema) and locust beans (african soumbala).a total of 126 isolates of bacillus and related genera from indigenous, spontaneously fermented soybeans (kinema) and locust beans (soumbala) were characterized with the purpose of defining interspecific, as well as intraspecific relationships among the components of their microflora. b. subtilis was the dominant species, and species diversity was more pronounced in soumbala than in kinema. while from kinema, six species were isolated (b. subtilis, b. licheniformis, b. cereus, b. circulans, b. t ...200212160077
effect of thiol-activated toxins (streptolysin o, alveolysin, and theta toxin) on the generation of leukotrienes and leukotriene-inducing and -metabolizing enzymes from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.the generation of leukotrienes (ltc4, ltd4, lte4, and ltb4; 12-epi-ltb4 isomer) from human granulocytes by thiol-activated toxins (streptolysin o, alveolysin from bacillus alvei, and theta toxin from clostridium perfringens) is described. the release occurs under noncytolytic conditions. although ltb4 is the major component after calcium ionophore stimulation, more ltc4 as compared with ltb4 is released with the toxins. the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of toxin-mediated activation can effectively be i ...19852866160
[antibiotic action on various substances from bees & bee-hives on bacillus larvae & bacillus alvei]. 195913629892
inhibition of the growth of ascosphaera apis by bacillus and paenibacillus strains isolated from honey.the fungus ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood disease in honeybee larvae, occurs throughout the world and is found in many beekeeping areas of argentina. the potential as biocontrol agents of 249 aerobic spore-forming bacterial antagonists isolated from honey samples was evaluated. each isolate was screened against a. apis by a central disk test assay. ten bacterial strains that showed the best antagonistic effect to a. apis were selected for further study and identified as baci ...200415174751
n-methyl-l-amino acid dehydrogenase from pseudomonas putida. a novel member of an unusual nad(p)-dependent oxidoreductase superfamily.we found n-methyl-l-amino acid dehydrogenase activity in various bacterial strains, such as pseudomonas putida and bacillus alvei, and cloned the gene from p. putida atcc12633 into escherichia coli. the enzyme purified to homogeneity from recombinant e. coli catalyzed the nadph-dependent formation of n-alkyl-l-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-oxo acids (e.g. pyruvate, phenylpyruvate, and hydroxypyruvate) and alkylamines (e.g. methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine). ammonia was inert a ...200515720386
bacteremia and infection of a hip prosthesis caused by bacillus alvei.of the 34 bacillus species described, 10 have been reported to cause infection in humans and 6 are insect pathogens. we report a case of an infected prosthetic hip caused by bacillus alvei, only the third documented case of human infection with this organism.19892754007
paenibacillus assamensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a warm spring in assam, india.a polyphasic approach was used to characterize a bacterium, gptsa 11(t), isolated from a warm spring located in a reserve forest in assam, india. the cells are gram-variable, strictly aerobic, sporulating motile rods. the major fatty acids of the strain are c(15 : 0) anteiso (48.42 %), c(16 : 0) iso (11.59 %), c(16 : 1)omega11c (6.16 %), c(15 : 0) iso (6.03 %), c(17 : 0) anteiso (5.68 %) and c(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.01 %). the presence of the fatty acid c(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol distinguishes ...200516280530
nonmotile variants of bacillus alvei. 193916560266
nutritional requirements of bacillus alvei and bacillus para-alvei. 194716561254
physiological effects of a constitutive tryptophanase in bacillus alvei.hoch, j. a. (university of illinois, urbana), and r. d. demoss. physiological effects of a constitutive tryptophanase in bacillus alvei. j. bacteriol. 90:604-610. 1965.-tryptophanase synthesis in b. alvei is not under the control of tryptophan and is not subject to catabolite repression. exogenously supplied tryptophan was converted to indole by tryptophanase, and was excreted into the culture medium. the amount of indole excreted was dependent upon the concentration of tryptophan supplied. at i ...196516562055
[staphylococcus aureus infection in apis mellifera l. (honeybees)].the causative agent of american foulbrood is bacillus larvae, the causes of the european foulbrood diseases are streptococcus pluton and bacillus alvei and the causes of the septicemia are pseudomonas apiseptica and escherichia coli in honeybees (apis mellifera). apart from the above causative agents in this study, staphylococcus aureus has been isolated and identified from honeybees (apis mellifera).19892487466
strategies to evade false positives in the in situ analysis of peptide antibiotics in sds-page situ activity assay is one of the promising techniques for the characterization of peptide antibiotics. this assay was carried out for the peptide purified from a new bacterial isolate paenibacillus alvei and commercial peptide antibiotic polymixin e. towards this, the routine and new protocols were tried. interestingly, the unexpected result of these experiments - the "switch over activity" has led us to have further investigations. here, we have addressed the potential problem in the method ...200817959134
structure of the glycan chain from the surface layer glycoprotein of bacillus alvei ccm 2051.the cell surface of the mesophilic eubacterium bacillus alvei ccm 2051 is covered by an oblique arranged surface layer glycoprotein. the subunits revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were distinct bands of molecular masses 140,000, 128,000, and 127,000. proteolytic degradation of the purified s-layer glycoprotein yielded a single glycopeptide fraction with an apparent molecular mass of ca. 25,000. methylation analysis in conjunction with two-dimensional nuclear ...19912043344
an unusually heavy contamination of honey products by clostridium botulinum type f and bacillus alvei.many spores (1-60/g) of clostridium botulinum type f were detected in different containers of honey products of the same brand. microbiological and physicochemical properties of the contaminated honey were compared with those of the negative one. no difference in ph, hydroxymethyl furfural contents or diastase activity was found between them. the total counts of anaerobes other than c. botulinum and of yeast were also similar, whereas the aerobe counts, which were proportionally related with the ...19911711989
effects of chelating reagents on colonial appearance of paenibacillus alvei isolated from canine oral cavity.a bacterial strain isolated from the oral cavity of a healthy dog revealed an unusual colony formation in nebular appearance on agar plates. the isolated bacterial strain was gram-positive, spore-forming rod with peritrichous flagella, and grown under aerobic conditions, but unable to grow at 45 degrees c. the strain was tentatively classified as paenibacillus alvei according to the biochemical properties and the 16s rrna gene sequence. the isolate exhibits collective locomotion on solid agar pl ...200919262024
construction of a gene knockout system for application in paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051t, exemplified by the s-layer glycan biosynthesis initiation enzyme wsfp.the gram-positive bacterium paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051t is covered by an oblique surface layer (s-layer) composed of glycoprotein subunits. the s-layer o-glycan is a polymer of [-->3)-beta-d-galp-(1[alpha-d-glcp-(1-->6)]-->4)-beta-d-manpnac-(1-->] repeating units that is linked by an adaptor of -[groa-2-->opo2-->4-beta-d-manpnac-(1-->4)]-->3)-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-alpha-l-rhap-(1-->3)-beta-d-galp-(1--> to specific tyrosine residues of the s-layer protein. for elucidation of ...200919304819
protein tyrosine o-glycosylation--a rather unexplored prokaryotic glycosylation system.glycosylation is a frequent and heterogeneous posttranslational protein modification occurring in all domains of life. while protein n-glycosylation at asparagine and o-glycosylation at serine, threonine or hydroxyproline residues have been studied in great detail, only few data are available on o-glycosidic attachment of glycans to the amino acid tyrosine. in this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a bacterial protein tyrosine o-glycosylation system. in the gram-posit ...201020200052
nutritional requirements of bacillus alvei and bacillus para-alvei. 194720284952
the effect of ph and chemical preservatives on the growth of bacterial isolates from some nigerian packaged fruit juices.bacterial pathogens were isolated from some nigerian packaged fruit juices. the isolates were characterized and identified as bacillus licheniformis, aeromonas hydrophila, bacillus circulans, proteus morganii, pseudomonas cepacia, bacillus alvei and pseudomonas chlororaphis. the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the seven isolates was determined and it was discovered that 65% of the microorganisms isolated were resistance to the antibiotic used while 35% were sensitive. the effect of ph, benz ...201020415148
cell surface display of chimeric glycoproteins via the s-layer of paenibacillus alvei.the gram-positive, mesophilic bacterium paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051(t) possesses a two-dimensional crystalline protein surface layer (s-layer) with oblique lattice symmetry composed of a single type of o-glycoprotein species. herein, we describe a strategy for nanopatterned in vivo cell surface co-display of peptide and glycan epitopes based on this s-layer glycoprotein self-assembly system. the open reading frame of the corresponding structural gene spaa codes for a protein of 983 amino acids, ...201020513375
interactive optimization of biosurfactant production by paenibacillus alvei arn63 isolated from an iranian oil well.the potential of an indigenous bacterial strain isolated from an iranian oil field for the production of biosurfactant was investigated in this study. after isolation, the bacterium was characterized to be paenibacillus alvei by biochemical tests and 16s ribotyping. the biosurfactant, which was produced by this bacterium, was able to lower the surface tension of media to 35 mn/m. accordingly, thin layer chromatography (tlc) and ft-ir has been carried out to determine compositional analysis of th ...201120846835
indole and 3-indolylacetonitrile inhibit spore maturation in paenibacillus alvei.abstract: background: bacteria use diverse signaling molecules to ensure the survival of the species in environmental niches. a variety of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole that functions as an intercellular signal controlling diverse aspects of bacterial physiology. results: in this study, we sought a novel role of indole in a gram-positive bacteria paenibacillus alvei that can produce extracellular indole at a concentration of up to 300 microm in ...201121619597
[detection of bacillus larvae in mixed populations of bacterial spores from larval remains].an accurate laboratory technique for the detection of bacillus larvae from larval remains of apis mellifera with mixed bacterial spore populations was developed. the incorporation of nalidixic acid to the culture medium (3 micrograms/ml) was a satisfactory procedure for the separation of bacillus larvae strains from bacillus alvei motile colonies.19921492951
artificial antigens. synthetic carbohydrate haptens immobilized on crystalline bacterial surface layer glycoproteins.the crystalline surface-layer glycoproteins of clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum l111-69, bacillus stearothermophilus nrs 2004/3a and bacillus alvei ccm 2051 were used for immobilization of spacer-linked blood group a-trisaccharide (alpha galnac(1----3)[alpha fuc(1----2)]beta gal) and of the spacer-linked, tumor-associated t-disaccharide [beta gal(1----3)alpha galnac]. the immobilization involved the glycan portions of surface-layer glycoproteins. different activation methods were used, namely, ...19921446307
description of a putative oligosaccharyl:s-layer protein transferase from the tyrosine o-glycosylation system of paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051(t).surface (s)-layer proteins are model systems for studying protein glycosylation in bacteria and simultaneously hold promises for the design of novel, glyco-functionalized modules for nanobiotechnology due to their 2d self-assembly capability. understanding the mechanism governing s-layer glycan biosynthesis in the gram-positive bacterium paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051(t) is necessary for the tailored glyco-functionalization of its s-layer. here, the putative oligosaccharyl:s-layer protein transfer ...201225893145
in situ evaluation of paenibacillus alvei in reducing carriage of salmonella enterica serovar newport on whole tomato plants.recently, tomatoes have been implicated as a primary vehicle in food-borne outbreaks of salmonella enterica serovar newport and other salmonella serovars. long-term intervention measures to reduce salmonella prevalence on tomatoes remain elusive for growing and postharvest environments. a naturally occurring bacterium identified by 16s rrna gene sequencing as paenibacillus alvei was isolated epiphytically from plants native to the virginia eastern shore tomato-growing region. after initial antim ...201424747888
[action of antibiotics, ethacridine acetate and furazolidone on bacillus alvei]. 1978654100
assessment of microbial load of un-pasteurized fruit juices and in vitro antibacterial potential of honey against bacterial isolates.the development of resistance in bacteria against commonly used antibiotics/drugs is of considerable medical significance. aim of this study was to determine the microbial load of un-pasteurized packed fruit juices sold in lahore city and to determine antibacterial activity of five different honey samples against isolated bacteria. unpasteurized fruit juice samples (n=60) were collected from street vendors. all the samples were subjected to total viable count (tvc), staphylococcal count (sc) and ...201526668658
[purification of an extracellular thiol-dependent hemolysin from bacillus alvei].alveolysin a sulfhydryl-dependent cytolytic extracellular protein released by bacillus alvei has been purified by salting-out by ammonium sulfate, gel filtration, isoelectric focusing on ph gradient and chromatography on deae-cellulose. the purified protein after reduction by thiols (active hemolytic form) proved homogeneous by disc polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by gel immunodiffusion. the molecular weight was 60,000 daltons, two molecular forms of pi 5.1 and 7.0 were detected by gel is ...1977407944
structural role of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate analogs, and other agents in the association of subunits of bacillus alvei apotryptophanase.bacillus alvei apotryptophanase readily dissociates at low protein concentration and sediments at 5.7 s (dimer) in 0.01 m potassium phosphate (ph 7.8) from 9 to 33 degrees. with temperature held constant at 9 degrees, increasing the potassium, sodium, or ammonium phosphate buffer concentration increases the sedimentation value to 8.0 s. increasing the monovalent cation concentration alone does not have the effect. imidazole and pyridoxal compete with phosphate, preventing the effect. raising the ...1975241381
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and analogs as probes of coenzyme-protein interaction in baccillus alvei tryptophanase.trytophanase from bacillus alvei was resolved from its coenzyme, pyridoxal phosphate, by treatment with cysteine followed by column chromatography. spectrophotometric titration of apoenzyme with pyridoxal-p showed 1 mol of pyridoxal-p bound per 52,000 g of enzyme. kinetic analysis of coenzyme binding showed hyperbolic activation curves with a km of 1.6 mum. pyridoxal-p was used as a natural active site probe in spectrophotometric studies to distinguish differences in the active center of holotry ...1975241380
bacterial pathogens of mosquito larvae--bacillus alvei (cheshire and cheyene) and bacillus brevis (migula)--isolated in pondicherry. 197944265
the sulphydryl-activated cytolysin and a sphingomyelinase c are the major membrane-damaging factors involved in cooperative (camp-like) haemolysis of listeria spp.the negative mutant approach was used in this study to identify listerial cytolytic factors involved in cooperative haemolysis (camp-like phenomenon) with staphylococcus aureus and rhodococcus equi. a listeria monocytogenes non-haemolytic mutant specifically impaired in listeriolysin o (llo) production gave no camp reaction with s. aureus, and was virtually camp-negative with r. equi, indicating that the listerial sulphydryl-activated toxin played a major role in cooperative haemolysis. this was ...19957569324
membrane-damaging action of alveolysin from bacillus alvei.we investigated membrane damage to human diploid, embryonic lung fibroblasts caused by highly purified alveolysin by measuring leakage of cytoplasmic markers and uptake of various metabolites, and we observed a leakage pattern typical of sh-activated cytolysins. however, the mode of membrane interaction resembled the mode of membrane interaction of theta-toxin from clostridium perfringens rather than that of streptolysin o in the following respects: the activity on fibroblast membranes was high ...19816894743
the sulfhydryl groups of the thiol-dependent cytolytic toxin from bacillus alvei evidence for one essential sulfhydryl group. 19816894695
assessing the effect of oral exposure to paenibacillus alvei, a potential biocontrol agent, in male, non-pregnant, pregnant animals and the developing rat fetus.paenibacillus alvei, a naturally occurring soil microorganism, may be used in the control and/or elimination of human/animal pathogens present on/within produce commodities associated with human consumption. the safety of oral exposure to p. alvei in male, nulliparous females, the pregnant dam and developing fetus was assessed. adult male and female rats received a single oral dose (gavage) of p. alvei and tissues were collected at post exposure days 0, 3 and 14. to evaluate the effect of the te ...201728288930
paenibacillus alvei sepsis in a neonate. 201626866854
multiplication of clostridium botulinum in dead honey-bees and bee pupae, a likely source of heavy contamination of honey.multiplication of clostridium botulinum in honey-bees was examined to explain the heavy contamination of honey which may occur with this pathogen. when dead bees were inoculated with c. botulinum spores at levels of 10(2)-10(3) and incubated aerobically for 10 days, the organisms increased to 10(4)-10(5). when botulinum spores were inoculated together with bacillus alvei, the growth of most strains was significantly enhanced (10(5)-10(7)). similar results were obtained in bee pupae, but not in b ...19948024976
proposed pathway for biosynthesis of the s-layer glycoprotein of bacillus alvei.the outer surface of the murein sacculus of the eubacterium bacillus alvei is covered by a surface layer (s-layer) glycoprotein. the glycan chain of this s-layer glycoprotein consists of trisaccharide repeating units with mannac, gal, and glc as constituents. from cell extracts of b. alvei, nucleotide-activated derivatives of mannac, gal, glc, and glcnac were isolated. furthermore, gdp- and dolichyl-activated oligosaccharides were obtained. on the basis of the isolated putative glycoprotein prec ...19938331079
paenibacillus apiarius sp. nov.the name "bacillus apiarius" katznelson 1955 was not included on the approved lists of bacterial names and thus lost standing in bacterial nomenclature. the genetic homogeneity of "b. apiarius" strains was assessed by determining their g+c contents by the buoyant density method and by measuring the levels of dna relatedness by spectrophotometric reassociation procedures. the g+c contents of the 15 strains examined, ranged from 52 to 54 mol%. dna reassociation revealed the presence of two cluster ...19968782677
genetic and biochemical diversity among isolates of paenibacillus alvei cultured from australian honeybee (apis mellifera) colonies.twenty-five unique cfoi-generated whole-cell dna profiles were identified in a study of 30 paenibacillus alvei isolates cultured from honey and diseased larvae collected from honeybee (apis mellifera) colonies in geographically diverse areas in australia. the fingerprint patterns were highly variable and readily discernible from one another, which highlighted the potential of this method for tracing the movement of isolates in epidemiological studies. 16s rrna gene fragments (length, 1,416 bp) f ...200010698777
two polyisoprenylated benzophenones from the trunk latex of clusia grandiflora (clusiaceae).the polyisoprenylated benzophenones, chamones i and ii, were isolated from the trunk latex of clusia grandiflora (clusiaceae) growing in southeastern venezuela. a third benzophenone, nemorosone ii, was isolated from the pollinator reward resin of the female flowers of the same plant. chamone i and nemorosone ii are structurally similar, differing only in the degree of prenylation. bioassays of chamone i and nemorosone ii using the honeybee pathogens, paenibacillus larvae and paenibacillus alvei, ...200011021641
a pyrophosphate bridge links the pyruvate-containing secondary cell wall polymer of paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051 to muramic acid.the peptidoglycan, the secondary cell wall polymer (scwp), and the surface layer (s-layer) glycoprotein are the major glycosylated cell wall components of paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051. in this report, the complete structure of the scwp, its linkage to the peptidoglycan layer, and its physicochemical properties have been investigated. from the combined evidence of chemical and structural analyses together with one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the following structu ...200011425188
a single phylogenetic analysis of bacillus thuringiensis strains and bacilli species inferred from 16s rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphism is congruent with two independent phylogenetic assess the congruence between two earlier independent phylogenetic studies on bacillus thuringiensis strains and on bacillus-related species and the single, all-encompassing, phylogenetic tree presented here inferred from the combination of the two earlier datasets.200212452965
induction of resistance to verticillium dahliae in arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol agent k-165 and pathogenesis-related proteins gene expression.the biocontrol bacterium paenibacillus alvei k165 has the ability to protect arabidopsis thaliana against verticillium dahliae. a direct antagonistic action of strain k165 against v. dahliae was ruled out, making it likely that k165-mediated protection results from induced systemic resistance (isr) in the host. k165-mediated protection was tested in various arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants impaired in defense signaling pathways, including nahg (transgenic line degrading salicylic acid [ ...200515986925
paenibacillus taiwanensis sp. nov., isolated from soil in taiwan.among a large collection of taiwanese soil isolates, a novel gram-variable, rod-shaped, motile and endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated g-soil-2-3(t), was isolated from farmland soil in wu-feng, taiwan. the isolate was subjected to a polyphasic study including 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, dna-dna hybridization experiments, fatty acid analysis and comparative phenotypic characterization. 16s rrna gene sequence analysis indicated that the organism belongs within the genus paenibacill ...200717551057
[post-traumatic scalp infection due to paenibacillus alvei]. 200818689331
bacillus thiaminolyticus sp. nov., nom. rev.the name "bacillus thiaminolyticus" kuno 1951 was not included on the approved lists of bacterial names and has lost standing in bacteriological nomenclature. the genetic homogeneity of "bacillus thiaminolyticus" was assessed by determining guanine-plus-cytosine contents by the buoyant density method and by measuring dna relatedness by using spectrophotometric reassociation procedures. of the 26 strains which i studied, 24 had guanine-plus-cytosine contents in the range from 52 to 54 mol%. the c ...19902397192
alveolysin, the thiol-activated toxin of bacillus alvei, is homologous to listeriolysin o, perfringolysin o, pneumolysin, and streptolysin o and contains a single cysteine.the gene coding for alveolysin, the thiol-activated toxin produced by bacillus alvei, has been cloned by means of an oligonucleotide based on the known n-terminal sequence of the secreted protein. the complete nucleotide sequence of the gene has been determined. the deduced amino acid sequence of alveolysin shows that alveolysin shares homologies with listeriolysin o, perfringolysin o, pneumolysin, and streptolysin o. alveolysin, like the other members of the family, contains a single cysteine i ...19902254290
co-production of two new peptide antibiotics by a bacterial isolate paenibacillus alvei np75.two new peptide antibiotics were secreted by a gram-positive bacterial strain isolated from fermented tomato fruit. based on its 99% 16s rdna sequence similarity with paenibacillus alvei, the isolate was designated as p. alvei np75. among these two peptides, one is active against gram-positive pathogens while the other against gram-negative pathogens; thus these peptides were named as paenibacillin p and paenibacillin n, respectively. after the purification of those peptide antibiotics from the ...200919073145
isolation of paenibacillus sp. and variovorax sp. strains from decaying woods and characterization of their potential for cellulose deconstruction.prospection of cellulose-degrading bacteria in natural environments allows the identification of novel cellulases and hemicellulases that could be useful in second-generation bioethanol production. in this work, cellulolytic bacteria were isolated from decaying native forest soils by enrichment on cellulose as sole carbon source. there was a predominance of gram positive isolates that belonged to the phyla proteobacteria and firmicutes. many primary isolates with cellulolytic activity were not p ...201223301200
flagellin glycosylation in paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051t.flagellin glycosylation impacts, in several documented cases, the functionality of bacterial flagella. the basis of flagellin glycosylation has been studied for various gram-negative bacteria, but less is known about flagellin glycans of gram-positive bacteria including paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of honeybee colonies diseased with european foulbrood. paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051(t) swarms vigorously on solidified culture medium, with swarming relying on functional flagella as evide ...201626405108
isolation and identification of a new intracellular antimicrobial peptide produced by paenibacillus alvei an5.a wild-type, gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile bacteria has been isolated from palm oil mill sludge in malaysia. molecular identification using 16s rrna gene sequence analysis indicated that the bacteria belonged to genus paenibacillus. with 97 % similarity to p. alvei (aug6), the isolate was designated as p. alvei an5. an antimicrobial compound was extracted from p. alvei an5-pelleted cells using 95 % methanol and was then lyophilized. precipitates were re-suspended in pho ...201424272828
substrate-protein interaction in tryptophanase from bacillus alvei. kinetic and spectral evaluations.this investigation studied the substrate protein interaction of the alpha, beta elimination reaction in tryptophanase (ec the results of this work are 2-fold. (a) the presence of multiple enzyme sites was found to be related to the observed kinetic patterns of inhibition. indole analogues caused competitive inhibition in the tryptophanase reaction and noncompetitive inhibition in the dehydratase reaction. inhibition patterns of alanine for these activities were reserved. (b) under som ...19751176439
paenibacillus sediminis sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from tidal flat adjacent to ganghwa island, korea.a gram-positive, rod-shaped, xylanolytic, spore-forming bacterium, gth-3(t), was isolated from tidal flat in ganghwa island (n37° 42' 02", e126° 22' 38"), republic of korea and characterized in order to determine its taxonomic position. on the basis of 16s rrna gene sequence similarity, strain gth-3(t) was shown to belong to the family paenibacillaceae, being related to paenibacillus ginsengisoli (94.9%), paenibacillus anaericanus (94.8%), paenibacillus urinalis (94.4%), paenibacillus cookii (94 ...201121784963
recoverability of heat-injured bacillus spores by lysozyme and edta or alkaline thioglycollate.the d95°c value of bacillus thuringiensis spores plated in the presence of lysozyme increased from 3.0 min to 3.6 min by post-treatment of heat-injured spores with 50mm edta. in the case of bacillus alvei and bacillus polymyxa spores d-values decreased from 4.9 to 4.3 min and from 4.7 to 4.1 min respectively. post-treatment of heat-injured spores treated with alkaline thioglycollate increased d95°c values of bacillus alvei from 4.2 to 5.3 min, b. thuringiensis 3.6 to 4.7 min, and bacillus polymy ...199624415421
a novel depsipeptide produced by paenibacillus alvei 32 isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient.the important viscosity of the respiratory tract mucus of cystic fibrosis (cf) patients impairs the mucociliary transport system and allows the growth of numerous micro-organisms. among them, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus are known to be responsible for pulmonary infections. we imagined that cf microflora could also harbour micro-organisms naturally equipped to compete with these pathogens. a method was developed to recover these antibiotic-producing strains within 20 cf sputu ...201326782601
the s-layer homology domain-containing protein slha from paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051(t) is important for swarming and biofilm formation.swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. while this is well investigated for gram-negative bacteria, less is known about gram-positive bacteria, including paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of european foulbrood (efb).201324058714
the innate immune signaling system as a regulator of disease resistance and induced systemic resistance activity against verticillium the last decades, the plant innate immune responses against pathogens have been extensively studied, while biocontrol interactions between soilborne fungal pathogens and their hosts have received much less attention. treatment of arabidopsis thaliana with the nonpathogenic bacterium paenibacillus alvei k165 was shown previously to protect against verticillium dahliae by triggering induced systemic resistance (isr). in the present study, we evaluated the involvement of the innate immune respon ...201626780421
urinary tract infection due to paenibacillus alvei in a chronic kidney disease: a rare case report.paenibacilli, the gram positive, aerobic spore bearing bacilli are found normally in the environment. though these organisms were not known to cause human disease, until recently; few species of this genus have been reported to cause infections in humans. we report here, a case of urinary tract infection in a 60-year-old chronic kidney disease patient due to this rare bacterium. the patient presented with complains of fever, dysuria, and flank pain. routine and microscopic examination of urine r ...201324701110
draft genome sequences of paenibacillus alvei a6-6i and, we report draft genomes of paenibacillus alvei strains a6-6i and ts-15, which were isolated, respectively, from plant material and soil in the virginia eastern shore (ves) tomato growing area. an array of genes related to antimicrobial biosynthetic pathways have been identified with whole-genome analyses of these strains.201323990585
investigation of paenibacillus alvei arn63 ability for biodemulsifier production: medium optimization to break heavy crude oil emulsion.the demulsifying performance of paenibacillus alvei arn63 (p. alvei), as a biodemulsifier-producing bacterium, for breaking water-in-heavy crude oil emulsion has been investigated. the produced lipopeptide biodemulsifier showed the potential to be used in the petroleum industry as an environmentally friendly and non-toxic material. to optimize the biodemulsifier production, the impacts of parameters such as temperature, ph, carbon source and carbon concentration at a constant agitation speed of ...201323660310
are the surface layer homology domains essential for cell surface display and glycosylation of the s-layer protein from paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051t?paenibacillus alvei ccm 2051(t) cells are decorated with a two-dimensional (2d) crystalline array comprised of the glycosylated s-layer protein spaa. at its n terminus, spaa possesses three consecutive surface layer (s-layer) homology (slh) domains containing the amino acid motif trae, known to play a key role in cell wall binding, as well as the tvee and traq variations thereof. spaa is predicted to be anchored to the cell wall by interaction of the slh domains with a peptidoglycan (pg)-associa ...201323204458
genome sequence of paenibacillus alvei dsm 29, a secondary invader during european foulbrood outbreaks.paenibacillus alvei is known as a secondary invader during european foulbrood of honeybees. here, we announce the 6.83-mb draft genome sequence of p. alvei type strain dsm 29. putative genes encoding an antimicrobial peptide, a binary toxin, a mosquitocidal toxin, alveolysin, and different polyketides and nonribosomal peptides were identified.201223105091
the curious case of achromobacter eurydice, a gram-variable pleomorphic bacterium associated with european foulbrood disease in honeybees.honeybees are prone to parasite and pathogen infestations/infections due to their social colony life. bacterial pathogens in particular lead to destructive infections of the brood. european foulbrood is caused by the bacterium melissococcus plutonius in combination with several other gram-positive bacteria (achromobacter eurydice, bacillus pumilus, brevibacillus laterosporus, enterococcus faecalis, paenibacillus alvei, paenibacillus dendritiformis) involved as secondary invaders following the in ...201728634639
draft genome sequence of an endophytic bacterium, paenibacillus tyrfis strain suk123, isolated from santiria apiculata we report the draft genome sequence of an endophytic paenibacillus tyrfis strain isolated from the universiti kebangsaan malaysia reserve forest, malaysia. the genome size was approximately 8.04 mb, and the assembly consisted of 107 scaffolds with 168 contigs, and had a g + c content of 53%. phylogenetic analysis of strain suk123 using the 16s rrna gene revealed that it belonged to the family paenibacillaceae with the highest similarity to paenibacillus elgii sd(t) (99%). whole genome compa ...201728856101
paenibacillus aquistagni sp. nov., isolated from an artificial lake accumulating industrial wastewater.strain 11(t) was isolated from water of an artificial lake accumulating industrial wastewater on the outskirts of celje, slovenia. phenotypic characterisation showed strain 11(t) to be a gram-stain positive, spore forming bacterium. the 16s rrna gene sequence identified strain 11(t) as a member of the genus paenibacillus, closely related to paenibacillus alvei (96.2%). genomic similarity with p. alvei 29(t) was 73.1% (gani), 70.2% (anib), 86.7% (anim) and 21.7 ± 2.3% (ggdc). the dna g+c content ...201728555445
identification and structural characterization of naturally-occurring broad-spectrum cyclic antibiotics isolated from paenibacillus.the rise of antimicrobial resistance necessitates the discovery and/or production of novel antibiotics. isolated strains of paenibacillus alvei were previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a number of pathogens, such as e. coli, salmonella, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa). the responsible antimicrobial compounds were isolated from these paenibacillus strains and a combination of low and high resolution mass spectrometry with multiple-stage tandem mass sp ...201526250559
production of an antimicrobial peptide an5-1 in escherichia coli and its dual mechanisms against bacteria.an5-1 (yskslplsvlnp) is an antimicrobial peptide isolated from the fermentation broth of paenibacillus alvei strain an5 (j ind microb biotechnol 2013; 40: 571-9). in this study, we report the application of ubiquitin fusion technology to the expression and purification of an5-1. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and measurement of hemolytic activity (mhc) were measured to confirm the biological activities of the expressed an5-1. bacterial cell membrane permeabilization was investigated to s ...201525311453
detection of secreted antimicrobial peptides isolated from cell-free culture supernatant of paenibacillus alvei antimicrobial substance produced by the paenibacillus alvei strain an5 was detected in fermentation broth. subsequently, cell-free culture supernatant (cfcs) was obtained by medium centrifugation and filtration, and its antimicrobial activity was tested. this showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against both gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains. the cfcs was then purified and subjected to sds-page and infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial ...201323508455
characterization of the colistin (polymyxin e1 and e2) biosynthetic gene cluster.colistin is a mixture of polymyxin e1 and e2, bactericidal pentacationic lipopeptides used to treat infections caused by gram-negative pathogens such as pseudomonas aeruginosa and klebsiella pneumoniae. industrial production of colistin is obtained by a fermentation process of the natural producer paenibacillus polymyxa var colistinus. nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) coding the biosynthesis of polymyxins a, b and p have been recently described, rendering thereof the improvement of their ...201525609230
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