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blood parasites of mallard and pintail ducks from central alberta and the mackenzie delta, northwest territories.blood films from 60 mallard (anas platyrhynchos) and 67 pintail (a. acuta) ducks, collected in alberta and the mackenzie delta, northwest territories, during 1973 and 1974, were examined for blood parasites. twenty-two (37%) of the mallards and fourteen (21%) of the pintails were infected with one or more species of hematozoa. infections of leucocytozon simondi occurred more frequently (86%) than haemoproteus nettionis (22%) in the infected birds. trypanosoma avium occurred in one individual of ...1977410954
ultrastructural observations on the epimastigote stages of trypanosoma avium in simulium rugglesi. 1977902181
blood parasites of blue grouse (dendragapus obscurus) in western north america.three hundred thirty-three blue grouse (dendragapus obscurus) were examined for blood parasites from 11 sites: southern yukon territory, southeast coastal alaska, northern and central interior british columbia, south coastal british columbia, northcentral washington, southcentral oregon, northwestern california, eastcentral nevada, northwestern colorado, and westcentral montana. three species of protozoan parasites (leucocytozoon lovati, haemoproteus mansoni, trypanosoma avium) and a splendidofi ...19911920670
hematozoa from the spotted owl.one hundred five spotted owls (strix occidentalis) from seven populations and three subspecies were examined for hematozoa. haemoproteus noctuae, h. syrnii, leucocytozoon ziemanni, trypanosoma avium, atoxoplasma sp. and unidentified microfilariae were recorded. all northern (s. occidentalis caurina), california (s. occidentalis occidentalis) and mexican (s. occidentalis lucida) spotted owls were infected with at least one hematozoan; 79% had multiple infections. twenty-two percent of the owls we ...19892810564
some observations on the morphology and developmental stages of trypanosoma avium bakeri ssp.nov. from the red-whiskered bulbul (otocompsa jocosa linn.). 19714102077
trypanosoma avium: fine structure of all developmental stages. 19685750642
studies on trypanosoma avium. iv. the development of infective metacyclic trypanosomes in cultures grown in vitro. 19665912226
trypanosoma avium in the blood and bone marrow from 677 colorado birds. 19665926338
biochemical characterization of trypanosoma spp by isozyme electrophoresis.isozyme patterns of 13 enzymes were compared for cultures of trypanosoma avium, t. vespertilionis, t cruzi and t. rangeli. the isozyme separation was made by cellulose acetate electrophoresis. each of the species had distinctly migrating isozyme bands for glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (got), isocitrate dehydrogenase (icd), malic enzyme (me), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6pgd), phosphoglucoisomerase (pgi), phosphoglucomutase (pgm), and malic dehydrogenase (mdh). for other enzymes, two ...19817235123
trypanosomes of some sub-saharan birds.linear measurements and derived indices from striated trypanosomes in nine species of sub-saharan birds representing seven families of the passeriformes, were compared. the dimensions of the striated trypomastigotes from the carduelinae, estrildidae, nectarinidae, passeridae, pycnonotidae, turdinae and zosteropidae were similar to each other as well as to those of the striated trypanosomes from the boreal owl (strigidae). all these trypanosomes were considered to be trypanosoma avium danilewsky, ...19947596580
hemograms and hematozoa of sharp-shinned (accipiter striatus) and cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperii) captured during spring migration in northern new york.hemograms were determined for 26 cooper's (accipiter cooperii) and 55 sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus) captured during spring migration (27 march to 12 may 1987) on the south shore of lake ontario, new york (usa). no significant differences were noted in packed cell volume and estimated total solids between the species. however, cooper's hawks had significantly higher total white blood cells counts and higher concentrations of heterophils, monocytes, and eosinophils. proportionally, lymp ...19958583640
ticks, lyme disease spirochetes, trypanosomes, and antibody to encephalitis viruses in wild birds from coastal georgia and south carolina.ticks and blood samples were collected from wild birds mist-netted on st. catherine's island, georgia, and at the wedge plantation in coastal south carolina in 1994 and 1995. immature stages of 5 species of ixodid ticks were recovered from 10 of 148 (7%) birds belonging to 6 species in georgia, whereas 6 ixodid species were recovered from 45 of 259 (17%) birds representing 10 avian species in south carolina. borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was isolated from 27 of 120 (23%) screened ticks (ixodes ...19979406799
trypanosoma avium: large minicircles in the kinetoplast dna. 199910403763
leucocytozoonosis and trypanosomiasis in redstarts in finland.leucocytozoon spp. and trypanosoma spp. blood parasites in the redstart (phoenicurus phoenicurus) were studied during spring migration 1994 in southern finland (53 individuals) and the breeding season 1992-1994 in northern finland (69). parasite prevalence was higher during the breeding season (48%) than during the migration period (13%), with no age or sex differences in the breeding site birds. in both periods, redstarts were infected by the same blood parasites leucocytozoon shaartusicum (46% ...199910479101
trypanosoma avium: novel features of the kinetoplast structure. 200011162368
interspecific variability of prevalence in blood parasites of adult passerine birds during the breeding season in alaska.blood parasite prevalence based on microscopic examination of stained blood smears was determined in adults of 11 passerine bird species sampled during their breeding season (may and june 1997-98) in interior alaska (usa). these species included primarily nearctic migratory species such as the dark-eyed junco (junco hyemalis) and neotropical migratory species such as the blackpoll warbler (dendroica striata), alder flycatcher (empidonax alnorum), swainson's thrush (catharus ustulatus), northern ...200111272501
seasonal and age-related changes in blood parasite prevalence in dark-eyed juncos (junco hyemalis, aves, passeriformes).we determined seasonal changes in blood parasite infections in a free-living population of dark-eyed juncos (junco hyemalis) breeding in interior alaska (65 degrees n; 148 degrees w). the common parasites found in blood smears were leucocytozoon fringillinarum (56%), trypanosoma avium (33%), and haemoproteus fringillae (9%). in males, parasite prevalences were relatively high at arrival on breeding grounds and increased during the breeding season. intensity of infection with leucocytozoon also i ...200111351333
[high prevalence and diversity of blood parasites of passerine birds in southern turkmenistan].thirty nine specimens of passerine birds belonging to 19 species and eight families were investigated by blood smear technique in four localities of southern turkmenistan in 3-18 august 1991. the overall prevalence of infection was 59%. protists from the orders haemosporida (genera haemoproteus, plasmodium, leucocytozoon), kinetoplastida (trypanosoma), and adeleida (hepatozoon), as well as microfilaria were found. haemoproteids (the prevalence of infection is 44%), leucocytozoids (23%), malarial ...200111548579
ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens in the goromonzi district in zimbabwe.a cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens from the goromonzi district, zimbabwe. fifty young and 50 adult birds were selected randomly. all chickens harboured ecto- and endoparasites, and 32% were infected with haemoparasites. eight different ectoparasites were identified; the more prevalent ones had the following prevalences (young, %; adult, %): argas persicus (6; 14), cnemidocoptes mutans (6; 32), echidnophaga gallinacea (72; 7 ...200212114010
trypanosoma avium of raptors (falconiformes): phylogeny and identification of vectors.avian trypanosomes are widespread parasites of birds, the transmission of which remains mostly unclear, with various blood-sucking insects mentioned as possible vectors. a search for vectors of trypanosomes of sparrowhawk (accipiter nisus), buzzard (buteo buteo), lesser-spotted eagle (aquila pomarina) and kestrel (falco tinnunculus) was performed in czech and slovak republics. black flies (eusimulium spp.), hippoboscid flies (ornithomyia avicularia), mosquitoes (culex pipiens pipiens) and biting ...200212358422
studies on trypanosoma avium danilewsky 1885. i. incidence in some birds of hertfordshire. 195613378881
studies on trypanosoma avium danilewsky 1885. ii. transmission by ornithomyia avicularia l. 195613378882
studies on trypanosoma avium danilewsky 1885. iii. life cycle in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. 195613378883
studies on the blood-parasites of the whitethroated munia, uroloncha malabarica linnaeus. (a0. trypanosoma avium danilewsky, 1885. (b). trypanosoma delhiense sp. nov. 196314272605
trypanosoma avium: experimental transmission from black flies to canaries.trypanosomes identified as trypanosoma avium were found in the ornithophilic black flies ( eusimulium latipes) attacking buzzard nestlings ( buteo buteo). parasites formed plugs and rosettes in the hindgut of the vector and were attached on the cuticular lining of the black fly anterior intestine (ileum) by hemidesmosome-like plaques. hindgut stages from infected black flies were experimentally transmitted into canaries ( serinus canaria) by ingestion of vectors and by contamination of host conj ...200414652745
prevalence of hematozoa in overwintering american redstarts (setophaga ruticilla): no evidence for local transmission.we examined american redstarts (setophaga ruticilla) for protozoan blood parasites on their wintering grounds to determine whether transmission of these parasites occurs prior to spring migration. a total of 73 blood smears from 37 birds were examined for presence and intensity of infection. thirty-six birds were sampled in the fall, soon after arriving from northern breeding grounds, and the spring prior to departure. two (5%) of the samples collected in the fall were positive for haemoproteus ...200415137497
trypanosoma avium incidence, pathogenicity and response to melarsomine in falcons from kuwait.epidemiological and clinical studies on trypanosoma avium are lacking in the middle east. the aims of this study were to determine the t. avium incidence in falcons from kuwait, report clinical signs and find an effective therapy. blood smears from 921 diseased and 56 healthy falcons were examined between may 2003 and april 2004. 12 birds 11.3%) were found infected by t. avium and ten of these were treated with melarsomine (cymelarsan) at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg intramuscularly for four days. all ...200515828588
vector-borne parasites decrease host mobility: a field test of freeze or flee behaviour of willow ptarmigan.transmission mode has been suggested to be a strong predictor of virulence. according to theory, the transmission of vector-borne parasites should be less dependent on host mobility than directly transmitted parasites. this could select for increased exploitation of host resources in parasites transmitted by vectors, which may be manifested as higher virulence. here, we test the prediction that there is an association between transmission mode and the effect on host mobility by comparing parasit ...200616696980
survey of blood parasites in two forest owls, northern saw-whet owls and flammulated owls, of western north america.except for a few studies in the eastern united states, little has been published on hemoparasites in owls. we surveyed the blood parasites of 108 northern saw-whet owls (aegolius acadicus) and 24 flammulated owls (otus flammeolus) in idaho during autumn migration in 1999 and 2000. we also surveyed 15 flammulated owls (flow) during breeding season in utah from 2000. leucocytozoon ziemanni, haemoproteus syrnii, haemoproteus noctuae, and trypanosoma avium were identified. the overall prevalence of ...200818436683
haematozoa of raptors and other birds from britain, spain and the united arab emirates.in britain, 20.3% of raptors examined were infected with haematozoa and in spain 14.2%. of the birds from the united arab emirates 24.1% were found to be infected. haemoproteus tinnunculi, h. nisi, leucocytozoon toddi, l. ziemanni and trypanosoma avium were identified from raptors and h. telfordi from a houbara bustard.198318766803
trypanosoma culicavium sp. nov., an avian trypanosome transmitted by culex mosquitoes.a new avian trypanosome, trypanosoma culicavium sp. nov., isolated from culex mosquitoes, is described on the basis of naturally and experimentally infected vectors and bird hosts, localization in the vector, morphological characters and molecular data. this study provides the first comprehensive description of a trypanosome species transmitted by mosquitoes, in which parasites form plugs and rosettes on the stomodeal valve. trypanosomes occurred as long epimastigotes and short trypomastigotes i ...201121515704
blood parasites and nest defense behaviour of tengmalm's owls.infectious diseases are expected to negatively influence essential life history traits of an individual, because investment in immunological response occurs at the expense of reduced investment in other functions. here we present the first observational evidence that the prevalence of blood parasites is negatively associated with avian nest defense. because the defense of offspring entails a risk of serious physical harm to the parent, it is also assumed to be a good estimate of parental investm ...199828307907
biting midges (ceratopogonidae) as vectors of avian trypanosomes.although avian trypanosomes are widespread parasites, the knowledge of their vectors is still incomplete. despite biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are considered as potential vectors of avian trypanosomes, their role in transmission has not been satisfactorily elucidated. our aim was to clarify the potential of biting midges to sustain the development of avian trypanosomes by testing their susceptibility to different strains of avian trypanosomes experimentally. moreover, we screened bit ...201728482865
hematozoa in sage grouse from colorado.blood films from 361 sage grouse ( centrocercus urophasianus ) from north park, colorado, were examined for hematozoa. parasites found were: plasmodium pedioecetii , haemoproteus canachites , leucocytozoon bonasae , trypanosoma avium , and microfilariae. the sage grouse represents a new host record for plasmodium . prevalence of parasitism was not age or sex related, with no significant (p > 0.05) differences between age or sex class. parasite burdens increased significantly (p < 0.05) from janu ...197724228963
natural infections of man-biting sand flies by leishmania and trypanosoma species in the northern peruvian andes.abstract the natural infection of sand flies by leishmania species was studied in the andean areas of peru where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania (viannia) peruviana is endemic. sand flies were captured by human bait and center for disease control (cdc) light trap catches at nambuque and padregual, department of la libertad, peru, and morphologically identified. among 377 female sand flies dissected, the two dominant man-biting species were lutzomyia (helcocyrtomyia) peruensis (211 f ...201020954867
blood parasitaemia in a high latitude flexible breeder, the white-winged crossbill, loxia leucoptera: contribution of seasonal relapse versus new inoculations.we measured seasonal changes in the prevalence of haematozoa (leucocytozoon fringillinarum, haemoproteus fringillae, and trypanosoma avium) in free-ranging white-winged crossbills, loxia leucoptera, over 1.5 year in fairbanks, alaska, usa. this prevalence was low during early winter. l. fringillinarum prevalence increased in late winter/early spring, in the absence of vectors, suggesting relapse of latent infection. by contrast, the prevalence of t. avium and h. fringillae did not increase until ...201019849885
interspecific differences in hematozoan infection in sonoran desert aimophila sparrows.numerous studies have identified factors that control avian hematozoan infections, but the mechanisms that account for host differences in parasitemia remain largely speculative. to address this issue, we compared the prevalence of these parasites in stained blood smears from four conspecific sonoran desert aimophila sparrow species sampled during their breeding season: rufous-winged (aimophila carpalis; rwsp), rufous-crowned (aimophila ruficeps; rcsp), cassin's (aimophila cassinii, casp), and b ...200516244063
standard sampling techniques underestimate prevalence of avian hematozoa in willow ptarmigan (lagopus lagopus).a total of 68 willow ptarmigan (lagopus lagopus l.) was collected during september 1995 from two localities in troms county, northern norway. thin blood smears were prepared and examined for blood parasites. of the 68 willow ptarmigan examined, 94% harbored one or more species of hematozoa. there were four (6%), 44 (65%), 16 (24%), and four (6%) birds infected by zero, one, two, and three species of parasites, respectively. prevalences at the coastal locality, kattfjord (n = 43), were leucocytoz ...200312910763
phylogeny of trypanosomes as inferred from the small and large subunit rrnas: implications for the evolution of parasitism in the trypanosomatid protozoa.sequences of the small rrna genes and partial sequences of the large rrna genes were obtained by pcr amplification from a variety of vertebrate trypanosomes. the trypanosome species and hosts included trypanosoma avium from a bird, t. rotatorium from an amphibian, t. boissoni from an elasmobranch, t. triglae from a marine teleost and t. carassii from a freshwater teleost. phylogenetic relationships among these species and other representatives of the family trypanosomatidae were inferred using m ...19968992318
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