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antibodies to clostridium botulinum toxins in free-living birds and mammals.naturally-occuring antibodies against clostridium botulinum toxins were found in cathartes aura (turkey vultures), canis latrans (coyotes) and corvus brachyrhynchos (crows) by the passive hemagglutination (pha) test and verified by the serum neutralization (sn) test. the prevalence of iha antibodies was 18 of 20 vultures (90%), 5 of 12 crows (42%) and 25 to 110 coyotes (23%). vultures and coyotes were seropositive by the pha test against a, b, c, d, and f toxins. the highest antibody titer 1:819 ...1979459044
the humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (bubo virginianus) and other raptors.a small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. the tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the hum ...19921585989
acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds.sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (coragyps atratus), american kestrel (falco sparverius), japanese quail (coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (otus asio), and european starling (sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (nacn) were compared by single dose ld50's. three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (cathartes aura), were dosed with nacn to determine cyanide residues in those that died and a ...19863503141
effect of tolazoline on xylazine-ketamine-induced anesthesia in turkey vultures.fifteen turkey vultures were each given xylazine (1 mg/kg of body weight, im) and ketamine (10 mg/kg, im). in 5 of the birds (controls), the mean (+/- sd) induction time was 5.4 +/- 1.0 minutes and the mean duration of anesthesia was 109.8 +/- 25.4 minutes. the remaining 10 vultures (test birds) were given tolazoline (15 mg/kg, iv) 45 minutes after administration of xylazine and ketamine. in the test birds, the mean induction time was 4.5 +/- 1.6 minutes and the mean duration of anesthesia was 4 ...19863505916
serum proteins of wild turkey vultures (cathartes aura).we separated and identified the major serum proteins of turkey vultures (cathartes aura): albumin, hdl, ldl, igg and m, transferrin, alpha 2m and putatively, iga, ceruloplasmin and fibronectin. turkey vulture hdl and ldl had similar electrophorectic mobility and solution properties as those from gallinaceous birds. turkey vulture igg and m, and their subunits, had molecular weights comparable to other birds. serum igg and m levels in wild turkey vultures were within the range of values reported ...19836661906
gram-negative, aerobic, enteric pathogens among intestinal microflora of wild turkey vultures (cathartes aura) in west central texas.the prevalence of gram-negative bacterial species in the intestines of 20 apparently healthy turkey vultures (cathartes aura) was determined. edwardsiella tarda, plesiomonas shigelloides, salmonella, and arizona hinshawii (salmonella arizonae) were each recovered from 15% of these birds. turkey vultures may be important reservoirs of these bacterial pathogens.19817032423
experimental oral inoculations in birds to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum.experimental oral inoculations to evaluate potential definitive hosts of neospora caninum were conducted by feeding infected rodent tissues to 9 carnivorous birds of 4 species. birds included 2 red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), 2 turkey vultures (cathartes aura), 2 barn owls (tyto alba), and 3 american crows (corvus brachyrhynchus). the rodents (mice or rats) had been inoculated with 100,000 culture-derived tachyzoites of n. caninum 1-6 mo before feeding to the birds. fecal samples were coll ...19957472875
prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in raptors from alabama.little is known about the prevalence of encysted toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. we examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted t. gondii. all of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, auburn, alabama. tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 13 of ...19938277379
age differences in the response of california ground squirrels (spermophilus beecheyi) to avian and mammalian predators.the antipredator behavior of juvenile and adult california ground squirrels (spermophilus beecheyi) was videotaped in experiment 1 to measure the effects of age on assessment of a briefly presented live dog and a model red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis) in simulated flight. adult squirrels treated the hawk as more dangerous than the dog, whereas juvenile squirrels showed less differentiation of the predator types. juvenile squirrels also perceived the dog as a more immediate danger than adult s ...19979170282
elemental profiles in feather samples from a mercury-contaminated lake in central californiaflight feathers from six bird species at clear lake, ca were analyzed to determine the extent and distribution of mercury contamination from an abandoned mercury mine and associated levels of 14 other elements. feather samples were collected from adult and juvenile osprey (pandion haliaetus), including juvenile osprey from three additional comparison sites; adult western grebes (aechmophorus occidentalis); adult great blue herons (ardea herodias); adult mallards (anas platyrhynchos); adult turke ...19989601923
prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.an acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) cooper's hawks (accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (accipiter striatus), one (100%) mississippi kites (ictinia misisippiensis), one of two ...19999950339
peripheral neuropathy in a turkey vulture with lead toxicosis.clinical, electromyographic, and pathologic findings characteristic of lead toxicosis were detected in a turkey vulture (cathartes aura). the bird had generalized lower motor neuron dysfunction that progressed over 5 days. electromyography revealed diffuse denervation potentials and a presumed decrement in the sciatic-tibial nerve conduction velocity. histologic examination of peripheral nerves obtained at necropsy revealed changes that could be compatible with lead-induced neuropathy. lead toxi ...199910212687
protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in raptor medicine.plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. species studied included bald eagle (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (tyto alba), great horned owl (bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (cathartes aur ...200011428396
shortfalls using second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides.second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides can give rise to unexpected casualties in nontarget species in zoos. the first two offspring of a pair of turkey vultures (cathartes aura) died of brodifacoum toxicosis. the adult birds fed rodenticide-killed mice to their offspring. there are previous case reports of small carnivorous birds (dacelo novae-guinae and tockus deckeni) killed eating poisoned (difenacoum and brodifacoum) mice. even a granivorous species (rollulus roulroul) died, probably b ...200212216801
experimental lead poisoning in turkey vultures (cathartes aura).lead-induced mortality appears to have been a major factor in the decline of the california condor (gymnogyps californianus). we orally dosed turkey vultures (cathartes aura) with bb-sized lead shot from january 1988 through july 1988 to determine physiologic response (delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase inhibition, erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, anemia), diagnostic tissue lead concentrations (blood, liver, and kidney), and comparative sensitivity of this species. two turkey vultures died ...200312685072
lead poisoning in upland-foraging birds of prey in canada.we examined the degree of lead exposure, based on tissue-lead concentrations, in 184 raptors of 16 species found dead across canada. the most prevalent species available for examination were red-tailed hawks, great horned owls, and golden eagles (n = 131). the majority of individuals examined had very low lead accumulation, however 3-4% of total mortality in these 3 most commonly encountered species was attributed to lead poisoning. in addition, 1 of 9 bald eagles found dead far from aquatic env ...200312739854
chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in blood of black and turkey vultures from savannah river site, south carolina, usa.blood of adult and juvenile black and turkey vultures in the savannah river site of south carolina, usa was analyzed for the presence of 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-pcdds), dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-pcdfs), -dioxin-like and -di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls. concentration ranges of 2,3,7,8-pcdd/dfs in blood of black and turkey vultures were 14.2-34.6 and 8.7-56.2 pg/ml wet wt., respectively. dioxin-like pcbs were in the ranges of 815-4627 and 753-3611 p ...200312892680
two flukes, phagicola macrostomus n. sp. and phagicolabyrdi n. sp., from the turkey vulture (trematoda: heterophyidae). 195613332504
cladotaenia (paracladotaenia) cathartis n. sp. (cestoda: taeniidae) from the intestine of the turkey buzzard. cathartes aura septentrionalis wied, 1893. 196113717126
the nasal organs of the black and turkey vultures; a comparative study of the cathartid species coragyps atratus atratus and cathartes aura septentrionalis (with notes on cathartes aura falklandica, pseudogyps bengalensis, and neophron percnopterus). 196414214404
resolving the root of the avian mitogenomic tree by breaking up long branches.incomplete taxon sampling has been a major problem in resolving the early divergences in birds. five new mitochondrial genomes are reported here (brush-turkey, lyrebird, suboscine flycatcher, turkey vulture, and a gull) and three break up long branches that tended to attract the distant reptilian outgroup. these long branches were to galliforms, and to oscine and suboscine passeriformes. breaking these long branches leaves the root, as inferred by maximum likelihood and bayesian phylogenetic ana ...200716854605
lead poisoning in captive andean condors (vultur gryphus).elevated lead in the tissues of raptors, especially those that scavenge, is a common occurrence, and lead poisoning appears to be a significant problem in the ongoing recovery effort for california condors (gymnogyps californianus). elevated blood lead levels have been found in released birds, and a number of birds have died of lead poisoning. in earlier work, we dosed turkey vultures (cathartes aura) with lead shot but found them to be a poor model for lead poisoning. in this study, we dosed fo ...200617255443
decreasing prevalence and seasonal variation of gunshot trauma in raptors admitted to the wildlife center of virginia: 1993-2002.a retrospective study was conducted to identify the epidemiologic factors associated with gunshot injuries in raptors presented to the wildlife center of virginia from 1993 to 2002. of the 3,156 raptors admitted, 118 raptors (3.7%), representing 15 species, were admitted with gunshot trauma as the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. the majority of cases consisted of four species: red-tailed hawk (buteo jamaicensis; 47%), red-shouldered hawk (buteo lineatus; 14%), turkey vulture (cathartes ...200517312769
osteotomy and derotation of the humerus in a turkey vulture using intramedullary polymethylmethacrylate and bone plate fixation. 198917423460
lead in the tissues of terrestrial raptors in southern ontario, canada, 1995-2001.terrestrial raptors which feed on upland hunted game species may increase their risk to lead exposure and lead poisoning by ingesting lead shot found in the tissues of prey. lead exposure in 225 individuals of nineteen species of terrestrial raptors, collected as carcasses in southern ontario from 1995-2001, was examined through the analysis of bone, liver and kidney tissues. in this study, one red-tailed hawk contained liver lead concentrations and exhibited signs consistent with lead poisoning ...200818063010
apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (cathartes aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac.the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is extremely toxic to old world gyps vultures (median lethal dose -0.1-0.2 mg/kg), evoking visceral gout, renal necrosis, and mortality within a few days of exposure. unintentional secondary poisoning of vultures that fed upon carcasses of diclofenac-treated livestock decimated populations in the indian subcontinent. because of the widespread use of diclofenac and other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting drugs, a toxicological study was undertaken in t ...200818476752
naturally induced humoral immunity to west nile virus infection in raptors.west nile virus (wnv) infection can be fatal to many bird species, including numerous raptors, though population- and ecosystem-level impacts following introduction of the virus to north america have been difficult to document. raptors occupy a diverse array of habitats worldwide and are important to ecosystems for their role as opportunistic predators. we documented initial (primary) wnv infection and then regularly measured wnv-specific neutralizing antibody titers in 16 resident raptors of se ...200818677535
observations on death feigning in turkey vultures. 194818882482
movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures.we develop individual-based movement ecology models (mem) to explore turkey vulture (cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting gps sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground vhf radio-tracking. we used the north american regional reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (tke), and cloud height and used a digital elevation m ...200819060195
taphonomic effects of vulture scavenging.from july through september 2007, three pig carcasses (sus scrofa), weighing between 27 and 63 kg were placed outside in a grassy area in central texas. a surrounding fence prevented entrance by terrestrial scavengers, while allowing avian scavengers unrestricted access. a fourth pig carcass served as a control for the rate of decomposition and was placed in a cage that prevented terrestrial and avian animal access. modification of the carcasses was recorded through the use of two motion-sensing ...200919432736
pathologic bone tissues in a turkey vulture and a nonavian dinosaur: implications for interpreting endosteal bone and radial fibrolamellar bone in fossil dinosaurs.we report on similar pathological bone microstructure in an extant turkey vulture (cathartes aura) and a nonavian dinosaur from transylvania. both these individuals exhibit distinctive periosteal reactive bone deposition accompanied by endosteal bone deposits in the medullary cavity. our findings have direct implications on the two novel bone tissues recently described among nonavian dinosaurs, radial fibrolamellar bone tissue and medullary bone tissue. on the basis of the observed morphology of ...200919711479
mortality and morbidity associated with gunshot in raptorial birds from the province of quebec: 1986 to 2007.although raptors have been protected for decades in quebec they are still regular victims of poaching. the objective of this study was to characterize cases of raptor shootings in quebec over the last 2 decades. we reviewed clinical files, radiographs, and pathology reports on 4805 free-flying birds of prey admitted to the faculté de médecine vétérinaire between 1986 and 2007. evidence of gunshots was detected in 6.4% of the birds. large species, such as ospreys, turkey vultures, snowy owls, and ...201020357944
exploring bird aerodynamics using radio-controlled models.a series of radio-controlled glider models was constructed by duplicating the aerodynamic shape of soaring birds (raven, turkey vulture, seagull and pelican). controlled tests were conducted to determine the level of longitudinal and lateral-directional static stability, and to identify the characteristics that allowed flight without a vertical tail. the use of tail-tilt for controlling small bank-angle changes, as observed in soaring birds, was verified. subsequent tests, using wing-tip aileron ...201021098962
lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in california.predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. while lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in north america for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. in this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in california. we compared ...201121494326
impact of the california lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered california condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. in response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in califo ...201121494329
maintenance of syntenic groups between cathartidae and gallus gallus indicates symplesiomorphic karyotypes in new world vultures.similarities between new world and old world vultures have been interpreted to reflect a close relationship and to suggest the inclusion of both in accipitridae (falconiformes). however, deeper analyses indicated that the placement of the new world vultures (cathartids) in this order is uncertain. chromosome analysis has shown that cathartids retained a karyotype similar to the putative avian ancestor. in order to verify the occurrence of intrachromosomal rearrangements in cathartids, we hybridi ...201121637548
hematozoa and a new haemoproteid species from cathartidae (new world vultures)in south carolina.abstract abstract: a survey of turkey vultures (cathartes aura) in south carolina revealed the presence of a novel haemoproteid. haemoproteus catharti n.sp. is described from the slides from this vulture. the new species is a thick, halteridial form with complete margins and is considered distinct from the other recognized haemoproteids from the diurnal raptors in shape, pigment number, parasite outline and host family specificity. while reviewing blood films, a series of unusual immature schizo ...201121801006
the pied crow (corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsaid), kills vultures (gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. as a result, vulture populations in india, nepal, and pakistan have been devastated. studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the nsaids is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available nsaids. because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the pied crow (corvus albus) as a model. pied c ...201122102664
estimating updraft velocity components over large spatial scales: contrasting migration strategies of golden eagles and turkey vultures.ecology letters (2011) abstract: soaring birds migrate in massive numbers worldwide. these migrations are complex and dynamic phenomena, strongly influenced by meteorological conditions that produce thermal and orographic uplift as the birds traverse the landscape. herein we report on how methods were developed to estimate the strength of thermal and orographic uplift using publicly available digital weather and topography datasets at continental scale. we apply these methods to contrast flight ...201122077120
migration path annotation: cross-continental study of migration-flight response to environmental conditions.understanding the movements of animals is pivotal for understanding their ecology and predicting their survival in the face of rapid global changes to climate, land use, and habitats, thus facilitating more effective habitat management. migration by flying animals is an extreme form of movement that may be especially influenced by weather. with satellite telemetry studies, and the growing availability of information about the earth's weather and land surface conditions, many data are collected t ...201121939059
clinical utility of a complete diagnostic protocol for the ocular evaluation of free-living raptors.objective:  to describe a protocol for the examination of free-living raptors and report the ophthalmic examination findings of seven raptor species native to central illinois, namely the barred owl, cooper's hawk, eastern screech owl, great horned owl, american kestrel, red-tailed hawk, and turkey vulture and to determine if the findings relative to visual prognosis affected eligibility for future release. animals studied:  seventy-nine free-living raptors. procedures:  under manual restraint, ...201122050975
seroepidemiologic survey of potential pathogens in obligate and facultative scavenging avian species in california.throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. to assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger ...201526606755
causes of mortality and unintentional poisoning in predatory and scavenging birds in california.we documented causes of mortality in an opportunistic sample of golden eagles, turkey vultures and common ravens, and assessed exposure to several contaminants that have been found in carrion and common prey for these species.201426392875
enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in turkey vultures (cathartes aura) feeding at the wildlife-livestock interface.free-flying turkey vultures (cathartes aura) were sampled in california to investigate the fecal shedding prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella enterica, campylobacter spp., and escherichia coli. nine different serotypes of salmonella enterica were detected in cloacal swabs from turkey vultures, and 6% of vultures were shedding campylobacter spp.. turkey vultures sampled at a location with range sheep were more likely to shed tetracycline-resistant e. coli, suggesting that pr ...201425632686
serologic evidence of exposure of raptors to influenza a virus.serum or plasma samples from raptors that prey or scavenge upon aquatic birds were tested by a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the evidence of antibodies to influenza a virus. samples were taken from birds (n = 616) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in the united states. in addition, samples from 472 migrating peregrine falcons (falco peregrinus) trapped on autumnal and vernal migrations for banding purposes were also tested. only bald eagles were notab ...201222856203
the whole mitochondrial genome of the lesser kestrel (falco naumanni).falconiformes include most of the predatory birds, they play crucial role in maintaining the balance of ecology system. to further illustrate the phylogenetic status for the species of falconiformes, the entire mitochondrial dna (mtdna) genome of falco naumanni was amplified and sequenced, further phylogenetic analysis was performed by incorporating with other 8 entire mtdna genomes representing 8 species of predatory birds by taking the apus apus and haematopus ater as out-groups. our results i ...201626006284
an immunohistochemical study of the endocrine pancreas in raptors.the cytoarchitecture of the endocrine pancreas of 10 raptors (golden eagles, peregrine falcons, saker falcon, turkey vultures, red-tailed hawk and unspecified falcon) was examined by immunohistochemistry. three islet types were identified: type a mixed islets composed mainly by glucagon (a)-secreting cells, type b mixed islets with predominantly insulin (b)-secreting cell component and type m mixed islets (type m) consisting of variable number of glucagon-, insulin- and somatostatin (d)-secretin ...201425468799
spatial complexity of carcass location influences vertebrate scavenger efficiency and species composition.scavenging plays an important role in shaping communities through inter- and intra-specific interactions. although vertebrate scavenger efficiency and species composition is likely influenced by the spatial complexity of environments, heterogeneity in carrion distribution has largely been disregarded in scavenging studies. we tested this hypothesis by experimentally placing juvenile bird carcasses on the ground and in nests in trees to simulate scenarios of nestling bird carrion availability. we ...201728860543
animal scavenging and scattering and the implications for documenting the deaths of undocumented border crossers in the sonoran desert.since 1998, over 5500 people have died while attempting to cross the u.s.-mexico border without authorization. these deaths have primarily occurred in the arizona desert. despite the high volume of deaths, little experimental work has been conducted on sonoran desert taphonomy. in this study, pig carcasses were used as proxies for human remains and placed in different depositional contexts (i.e., direct sunlight and shade) that replicate typical sites of migrant death. decomposition was document ...201525399906
contaminants in the southern tip of south america: analysis of organochlorine compounds in feathers of avian scavengers from argentinean patagonia.the aim of this study was to assess the exposure to organochlorine compounds (oc) in 91 primary wing feathers of avian scavengers, turkey vulture (cathartes aura), american black vulture (coragyps atratus) and southern crested caracaras (polyborus plancus) from the southern tip of south america, in the argentinean patagonia. we analyzed for a series of oc including hexachlorocyclohexane (hch) isomers, endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-ddt), dichlorodiphe ...201525682585
soaring migratory birds avoid wind farm in the isthmus of tehuantepec, southern mexico.the number of wind farms operating in the isthmus of tehuantepec, southern mexico, has rapidly increased in recent years; yet, this region serves as a major migration route for various soaring birds, including turkey vultures (cathartes aura) and swainson's hawks (buteo swainsoni). we analyzed the flight trajectories of soaring migrant birds passing the la venta ii wind farm during the two migratory seasons of 2011, to determine whether an avoidance pattern existed or not. we recorded three pola ...201424647442
environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of california condors (gymnogyps californianus).california condor (gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (cathartes aura), common ravens (corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. dde was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally m ...198624254546
chromosomal analysis in cathartidae: distribution of heterochromatic blocks and rdna, and phylogenetic considerations.three species of cathartidae (sarcoramphus papa, cathartes aura and cathartes burrovianus) were cytogenetically characterized by g- and c-banding. 18s-28s rdna was used as a probe to map major ribosomal clusters. these species showed very similar karyotypes, with 2n = 80, 10 pairs of macrochromosomes, a submetacentric z and a metacentric w chromosome. however, differences were found in the amount and distribution of heterochromatic blocks: s. papa showed heterochromatin only in the pericentromer ...200918504528
geographic variation in the taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging: the case for southern illinois.the taphonomic effect of vulture scavenging has been previously documented in central texas (j forensic sci, 2009, 54, 524). this study reports on the behavioral differences between two species of vultures (coragyps atratus, cathartes aura) observed over a period of 1 year at the complex for forensic anthropology research in southern illinois. the decomposition of six research subjects and two control subjects was observed. compared with the previous findings of vulture activity, the authors obs ...201323181511
biological effects of aqueous extract from turkey vulture cathartes aura (cathartidae) meat.cathartes aura is a bird used in the mexican traditional medicine for the empirical treatment of cancer, injuries, infections and burns.201323195127
comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of new world vultures (aves: cathartidae).vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. in this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of new world vultures (cathartidae), turkey vultures (cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. we found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both specie ...201324249399
effects of vehicle speed on flight initiation by turkey vultures: implications for bird-vehicle collisions.the avoidance of motorized vehicles is a common challenge for birds in the modern world. birds appear to rely on antipredator behaviors to avoid vehicles, but modern vehicles (automobiles and aircraft) are faster than natural predators. thus, birds may be relatively ill-equipped, in terms of sensory capabilities and behaviors, to avoid vehicles. we examined the idea that birds may be unable to accurately assess particularly high speeds of approaching vehicles, which could contribute to miscalcul ...201424503622
environmental drivers of variability in the movement ecology of turkey vultures (cathartes aura) in north and south america.variation is key to the adaptability of species and their ability to survive changes to the earth's climate and habitats. plasticity in movement strategies allows a species to better track spatial dynamics of habitat quality. we describe the mechanisms that shape the movement of a long-distance migrant bird (turkey vulture, cathartes aura) across two continents using satellite tracking coupled with remote-sensing science. using nearly 10 years of data from 24 satellite-tracked vultures in four d ...201424733950
synchrotron imaging reveals bone healing and remodelling strategies in extinct and extant vertebrates.current understanding of bone healing and remodelling strategies in vertebrates has traditionally relied on morphological observations through the histological analysis of thin sections. however, chemical analysis may also be used in such interpretations, as different elements are known to be absorbed and used by bone for different physiological purposes such as growth and healing. these chemical signatures are beyond the detection limit of most laboratory-based analytical techniques (e.g. scann ...201424806709
testing problem solving in turkey vultures (cathartes aura) using the string-pulling test.to examine problem solving in turkey vultures (cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string-pulling task, which involved drawing a string up to access food. this test has been used to assess cognition in many bird species. a small piece of meat suspended by a string was attached to a perch. two birds solved the problem without apparent trial-and-error learning; a third bird solved the problem after observing a successful bird, suggesting that this individual learned from th ...201525015133
chronic lead exposure is epidemic in obligate scavenger populations in eastern north america.lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. to understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within american black vultures (coragyps atratus; blvu) and turkey vultures (cathartes aura; tuvu), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern north america. every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (blvu: x¯=36.99 ± 55. ...201525795925
a capture to remember: monitoring the health of avian scavengers on the pacific coast.because of concern over risks to the health of avian communities on the washington and oregon coasts, the nonprofit coastal raptors and other partners initiated a study where, to date, coastal raptors has live-captured and sampled 27 bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus), 27 turkey vultures (cathartes aura), and 6 common ravens (corvus corax) for contaminants and disease study. in this article, the author highlights the events of one of the nearly 100 days on which trapping has occurred. an adu ...201526378672
assessing multi-tissue lead burdens in free-flying obligate scavengers in eastern north america.avian scavengers are regularly exposed to anthropogenic lead. although many studies evaluate lead concentrations of either blood or tissues of lead-poisoned birds, there is comparatively less research on lead burdens of free-flying, apparently healthy individuals and populations. here, we address this lack of information by assessing lead levels of multiple tissues (femur, liver, kidney, breast muscle, thigh muscle) in free-flying black vultures (n = 98) and turkey vultures (n = 10) collected ou ...201728251454
fine-scale assessment of home ranges and activity patterns for resident black vultures (coragyps atratus) and turkey vultures (cathartes aura).knowledge of black vulture (coragyps atratus) and turkey vulture (cathartes aura) spatial ecology is surprisingly limited despite their vital ecological roles. fine-scale assessments of space use patterns and resource selection are particularly lacking, although development of tracking technologies has allowed data collection at finer temporal and spatial resolution. objectives of this study were to conduct the first assessment of monthly home range and core area sizes of resident black and turk ...201728678813
multi-locus phylogenetic inference among new world vultures (aves: cathartidae).new world vultures are large-bodied carrion feeding birds in the family cathartidae, currently consisting of seven species from five genera with geographic distributions in north and south america. no study to date has included all cathartid species in a single phylogenetic analysis. in this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among all cathartid species using five nuclear (nuc; 4060bp) and two mitochondrial (mt; 2165bp) dna loci with fossil calibrated gene tree (27 outgroup ta ...201627601346
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