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clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus.treatment with 100 mg/kg of clitoria ternatea aqueous root extract (ctr), for 30 days in neonatal and young adult age groups of rat, significantly increased acetylcholine (ach) content in their hippocampi as compared to age matched controls. increase in ach content in their hippocampus may be the neurochemical basis for their improved learning and memory.200212490229
evaluation of antipyretic potential of clitoria ternatea l. extract in rats.the methanol extract of clitoria ternatea l. root (mectr) blue flowered variety (family: fabaceae), was evaluated for its anti-pyretic potential on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. yeast suspension (10 ml/kg body wt.) increased rectal temperature after 19 hours of subcutaneous injection. the extract, at doses of 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body wt., p.o., produced significant reduction in normal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature in a dose-depend ...200415185845
discovery of cyclotides in the fabaceae plant family provides new insights into the cyclization, evolution, and distribution of circular proteins.cyclotides are plant proteins whose defining structural features are a head-to-tail cyclized backbone and three interlocking disulfide bonds, which in combination are known as a cyclic cystine knot. this unique structural motif confers cyclotides with exceptional resistance to proteolysis. their endogenous function is thought to be as plant defense agents, associated with their insecticidal and larval growth-inhibitory properties. however, in addition, an array of pharmaceutically relevant biolo ...201121194241
influence of clitoria ternatea extracts on memory and central cholinergic activity in rats.clitoria ternatea , commonly known as shankpushpi, is widely used in the traditional indian system of medicine as a brain tonic and is believed to promote memory and intelligence. we examined the effectiveness of alcoholic extracts of aerial and root parts of c. ternatea at 300 and 500 mg/kg doses orally in rats in attenuating electroshock-induced amnesia. extracts at 300 mg/kg dose produced significant memory retention, and the root parts were found to be more effective. in order to delineate t ...200021214440
evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. the present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (terminalia chebula retz., clitoria ternatea linn., and wedelia chinensis (osbeck.) merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (streptococcus mutans, lactobacillus casei, and staphylococcus aureus). aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from t ...201223723653
a novel antifungal protein with lysozyme-like activity from seeds of clitoria ternatea.an antifungal protein with a molecular mass of 14.3 kda was isolated from the seeds of butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea) and designated as ct protein. the antifungal protein was purified using different methods including ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on deae-cellulose and gel filtration on sephadex g-50 column. ct protein formed a single colourless rod-shaped crystal by hanging drop method after 7 days of sample loading. the protein showed lytic activity against mi ...201424691882
hairy root cultures of butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea l.): agrobacterium × plant factors influencing transformation.transformed rhizoclones were developed from agrobacterium-treated explants of the medicinally important twinning legume clitoria ternatea l. several key factors influencing transformation events were optimized. a4t was the most infectious among the strains employed. internode segments were more responsive than leaves, outdoor-grown explants preferred to those from in vitro cultures. high frequency transformation, resulting in up to 85.8% rhizogenesis, was attained using pre-pricked internodal ex ...201222806869
crystal structure of udp-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-o-glucosyltransferase from clitoria ternatea.flowers of the butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea) accumulate a group of polyacylated anthocyanins, named ternatins, in their petals. the first step in ternatin biosynthesis is the transfer of glucose from udp-glucose to anthocyanidins such as delphinidin, a reaction catalyzed in c. ternatea by udp-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-o-glucosyltransferase (ct3gt-a; ab185904). to elucidate the structure-function relationship of ct3gt-a, recombinant ct3gt-a was expressed in escherichia coli and its tertiary str ...201324121335
larvicidal activity of saraca indica, nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species.screening of natural products for mosquito larvicidal activity against three major mosquito vectors aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus, and anopheles stephensi resulted in the identification of three potential plant extracts viz., saraca indica/asoca, nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and clitoria ternatea for mosquito larval control. in the case of s. indica/asoca, the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and the chloroform extract of the bark were effective against the larvae of c. quinquefasciatu ...200919039604
production of triterpenoid anti-cancer compound taraxerol in agrobacterium-transformed root cultures of butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea l.).independent transformed root somaclones (rhizoclones) of butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea l.) were established using explant co-cultivation with agrobacterium rhizogenes. rhizoclones capable of sustained growth were maintained under low illumination in auxin-free agar-solidified ms medium through subcultures at periodic intervals. integration of t(l)-dna rolb gene in the transformed rhizoclone genome was verified by southern blot hybridization, and the transcript expression of t(r)-dna ags and m ...201222843061
hepatoprotective potential of clitoria ternatea leaf extract against paracetamol induced damage in mice.background and aim: clitoria ternatea, a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial asia, is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. the aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of c. ternatea against experimentally induced liver injury. methods: the antioxidant property of methanolic extract (me) of c. ternatea leaf was investigated by employing an established in vitro antioxidant assay. the hepatoprotective effect against paracet ...201122146374
rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. from dalea leporina, leucaena leucocephala, clitoria ternatea nodules, and rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. from phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and mimosa pudica nodules.two novel related rhizobium species, rhizobium grahamii and rhizobium mesoamericanum were identified by a polyphasic approach using dna-dna hybridization, whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of leucaena leucocephala and phaseolus vulgaris (bean). as similar bacteria were found in los tuxtlas rain forest and in central america we suggest the existence of a mesoamerican microbiological corridor. the type strain of rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. i ...201122081714
behavioural and neurochemical evaluation of perment an herbal formulation in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive model.perment, a polyherbal ayurvedic formulation that contains equal parts of clitoria ternatea linn., withania somnifera dun., asparagus racemosus linn., bacopa monniera linn., is used clinically as mood elevators. the aim of the present study was to explore the behavioural effects and to understand possible mode of action of perment in stress induced depressive model. chronic unpredictable mild stress (cums) was used to induce depression in rats. open field exploratory behaviour, elevated plus maze ...201121614890
discovery and characterization of novel cyclotides originated from chimeric precursors consisting of albumin-1 chain a and cyclotide domains in the fabaceae family.the tropical plant clitoria ternatea is a member of the fabaceae family well-known for its medicinal values. heat extraction of c. ternatea revealed that the bioactive fractions contained heat-stable cysteine-rich peptides (crps). the crp family of a1b (albumin-1 chain b/leginsulins) which is a linear cystine-knot crp has been shown to present abundantly in the fabaceae. in contrast, the cyclotide family which also belongs to the cystine-knot crps but with a cyclic structure is commonly found in ...201121596752
discovery of an unusual biosynthetic origin for circular proteins in legumes.cyclotides are plant-derived proteins that have a unique cyclic cystine knot topology and are remarkably stable. their natural function is host defense, but they have a diverse range of pharmaceutically important activities, including uterotonic activity and anti-hiv activity, and have also attracted recent interest as templates in drug design. here we report an unusual biosynthetic origin of a precursor protein of a cyclotide from the butterfly pea, clitoria ternatea, a representative member of ...201121593408
evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of clitoria ternatea l. roots.clitoria ternatea l. (family: fabaceae) is being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of severe bronchitis and asthma. so the aim of study was to evaluate antiasthmatic activity of ethanol extract of clitoria ternatea roots.201121575696
antihyperlipidemic activity of clitoria ternatea and vigna mungo in rats.hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. some plants are effective in controlling hyperlipidemia.201020673179
effects of clitoria ternatea leaf extract on growth and morphogenesis of aspergillus niger.clitoria ternatea is known for its antimicrobial activity but the antifungal effects of leaf extract on growth and morphogenesis of aspergillus niger have not been observed. the extract showed a favorable antifungal activity against a. niger with a minimum inhibition concentration 0.8 mg/ml and minimum fungicidal concentration 1.6 mg/ml, respectively. the leaf extract exhibited considerable antifungal activity against filamentous fungi in a dose-dependent manner with 0.4 mg/ml ic50 value on hyph ...200919575837
rare or remarkable microfungi from oaxaca (south mexico)--part ii.microfungi were collected in southern mexico in the vicinity of puerto escondido, oaxaca in 2007. in 2006, samples were gathered from acacia myrmecophytes [(remarkable microfungi from oaxaca of acacia species) part i]. in the present investigation [part ii], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families anacardiaceae, caricaceae, fabaceae, moraceae, and nyctaginacae. the microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophy ...200819226752
validation of hptlc method for the analysis of taraxerol in clitoria ternatea.a new, simple, sensitive, selective and precise hptlc method has been developed for the determination of taraxerol in clitoria ternatea l. determination of taraxerol was performed on tlc aluminium plates. linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber saturated with hexane and ethyl acetate (80:20 v/v). the plate was then dried and sprayed with anisaldehyde reagent. a camag tlc scanner iii was used for spectrodensitometric scanning and analysis at 420 nm. the system wa ...200817994532
purification and characterization of udp-glucose: anthocyanin 3',5'-o-glucosyltransferase from clitoria ternatea.a udp-glucose: anthocyanin 3',5'-o-glucosyltransferase (ua3'5'gt) (ec 2.4.1.-) was purified from the petals of clitoria ternatea l. (phaseoleae), which accumulate polyacylated anthocyanins named ternatins. in the biosynthesis of ternatins, delphinidin 3-o-(6''-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside (1) is first converted to delphinidin 3-o-(6''-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-o-beta-glucoside (2). then 2 is converted to ternatin c5 (3), which is delphinidin 3-o-(6''-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3',5'-di-o-beta-glu ...200717668234
purification and characterization of a novel beta-d-galactosides-specific lectin from clitoria ternatea.a lectin present in seeds of clitoria ternatea agglutinated trypsin-treated human b erythrocytes. the sugar specificity assay indicated that lectin belongs to gal/gal nac-specific group. hence the lectin, designated c. ternatea agglutinin (cta), was purified by the combination of acetic acid precipitation, salt fractionation and affinity chromatography. hplc gel filtration, sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry indicated that the native lectin is composed of two identical ...200717514413
paracoccus bengalensis sp. nov., a novel sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph from the rhizospheric soil of an indian tropical leguminous plant.paracoccus versutus-like isolates from the rhizosphere of clitoria ternatea, a slender leguminous herb (family--papilionaceae), found ubiquitously in waste places and village forests of the lower gangetic plains of india, presented a case of graduated infraspecific variation that was capped by the identification of a new species paracoccus bengalensis (type strain jjj(t) = lmg 22700(t) = mtcc 7003(t)). the diverged phenetic and genetic structure of these sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs pre ...200616824961
mesorhizobium thiogangeticum sp. nov., a novel sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph from rhizosphere soil of an indian tropical leguminous plant.the bacterial strain sjt(t), along with 15 other mesophilic, neutrophilic and facultatively sulfur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic isolates, was isolated by enrichment on reduced sulfur compounds as the sole energy and electron source from soils immediately adjacent to the roots of clitoria ternatea, a slender leguminous herb of the lower gangetic plains of india. strain sjt(t) was able to oxidize thiosulfate and elemental sulfur for chemolithoautotrophic growth. 16s rrna and reca gene sequence-base ...200616403872
altered dendritic arborization of amygdala neurons in young adult rats orally intubated with clitorea ternatea aqueous root extract.young adult (60 day old) wistar rats of either sex were orally intubated with 50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of clitoria ternatea (ctr) for 30 days, along with age-matched saline controls. these rats were then subjected to passive avoidance tests and the results from these studies showed a significant increase in passive avoidance learning and retention. subsequent to the passive avoidance tests, these rats were killed by decapitation. the amygdala was pro ...200516161034
antimicrobial and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of clitoria ternatea, a tropical forage legume.the tropical forage legume clitoria ternatea (l.) has important agronomic traits such as adaptation to a wide range of soil conditions and resistance to drought. it is resistant to a number of pathogens and pests. these important traits gave us reasons to look more closely at the plant. a highly basic small protein was purified from seeds of c. ternatea to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration with centricon-3 membrane tubes and preparative granulated-bed isoelectric focusing (ief). a single prot ...200415694280
diuretic activity of roots of clitoria ternatea l. in dogs. 196214486285
clitoria ternatea and the cns.the present investigation was aimed at determining the spectrum of activity of the methanolic extract of clitoria ternatea (ct) on the cns. the ct was studied for its effect on cognitive behavior, anxiety, depression, stress and convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol (ptz) and maximum electroshock (mes). to explain these effects, the effect of ct was also studied on behavior mediated by dopamine (da), noradrenaline, serotonin and acetylcholine. the extract decreased time required to occupy the ...200312895670
anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of clitoria ternatea root.clitoria ternatea roots methanol extract when given by oral route to rats was found to inhibit both the rat paw oedema caused by carrageenin and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in rats. moreover, the extract exhibited a significant inhibition in yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. in the acetic acid-induced writhing response, the extract markedly reduced the number of writhings at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice.200312781804
clitoria ternatea (linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of clitoria ternatea (ctr) for 30 days. these rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (t-maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spa ...200111881569
isolation and characterisation of plant defensins from seeds of asteraceae, fabaceae, hippocastanaceae and saxifragaceae.from seeds of aesculus hippocastanum, clitoria ternatea, dahlia merckii and heuchera sanguinea five antifungal proteins were isolated and shown to be homologous to plant defensins previously characterised from radish seeds and gamma-thionins from poaceae seeds. based on the spectrum of their antimicrobial activity and the morphological distortions they induce on fungi the peptides can be divided into two classes. the peptides did not inhibit any of three different alpha-amylases.19957628617
effect of alcoholic extract of clitoria ternatea linn. on central nervous system in rodents. 19883254867
in vitro inhibitory effects of plant-based foods and their combinations on intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase.plant-based foods have been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. the successful prevention of the onset of diabetes consists in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in aggressive delay of carbohydrate digestion to absorbable monosaccharide. in this study, five plant-based foods were investigated for intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase. the combined inhibitory effects of pla ...201222849553
determination of trace and heavy metals in some commonly used medicinal herbs in ayurveda.traditionally, the herbal drugs are well established for their therapeutic benefits. depending upon their geographical sources sometimes the trace and heavy metals' content may differ, which may lead to severe toxicity. so, the toxicological and safety assessment of these herbal drugs are one of the major issues in recent days. eight different plant species including aloe vera, centella asiatica, calendula officinalis, cucumis sativus, camellia sinensis, clitoria ternatea, piper betel and tagete ...201423222691
effect of endophytic bacillus cereus erbp inoculation into non-native host: potentials and challenges for airborne formaldehyde removal.phytoremediation could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of indoor air. however, some drawbacks still dispute the expediency of phytotechnology. our objectives were to investigate the competency of plant growth-promoting (pgp) endophytic bacillus cereus erbp (endophyte root blue pea), isolated from the root of clitoria ternatea, to colonize and stabilize within zamioculcas zamiifolia and euphorbia milii as non-native hosts without causing any disease or str ...201627362296
clitoria ternatea ameliorated the intracerebroventricularly injected streptozotocin induced cognitive impairment in rats: behavioral and biochemical evidence.clitoria ternatea, commonly known as aparajita, is used as medhya rasayana in ayurveda. the role of c. ternatea in experimental models of cognitive impairment is yet to be explored.201323832386
antioxidant markers based tlc-dpph differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of shankhpushpi (a medhya rasayana): a preliminary assessment.shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. convolvulus pluricaulis (convolvulaceae), evolvulus alsinoides (convolvulaceae), clitoria ternatea (papilionaceae), and canscora decussata (gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of shankhpushpi. this investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (tlc) by 2,2- ...201323662279
pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in thailand. lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. the present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (a-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion ...201323959497
cytotoxic activity screening of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.the cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (nih3t3), healthy monkey kidney (vero) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, ags; colon, ht-29; and breast, mcf-7 and mda-mb-231) using mtt assay. high cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (ic50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/ml, re ...201423846168
nootropic, anxiolytic and cns-depressant studies on different plant sources of shankhpushpi.shankhpushpi, a well-known drug in ayurveda, is extensively used for different central nervous system (cns) effects especially memory enhancement. different plants are used under the name shankhpushpi in different regions of india, leading to an uncertainty regarding its true source. plants commonly used under the name shankhpushpi are: convolvulus pluricaulis chois., evolvulus alsinoides linn., both from convolvulaceae, and clitoria ternatea linn. (leguminosae).201121846173
antihistaminic activity of clitoria ternatea l. roots.clonidine, a α2 adrenoreceptor agonist induces dose dependent catalepsy in mice, which was inhibited by histamine h1 receptor antagonists but not by h2 receptor antagonist. clonidine releases histamine from mast cells which is responsible for different asthmatic conditions. clitoria ternatea l. (family: fabaceae) is a perimial twing herb. the roots have anti-inflammatory properties and are useful in severe bronchitis, asthma. in present study ethanol extract of clitoria ternatea root (ectr) at d ...201024826001
oligosaccharides in several philippine indigenous food legumes: determination, localization and removal.the oligosaccharide profile of raw mature seeds of seven different legumes indigenous to the philippines was measured in 70% ethanol extracts of the seeds by thin layer chromatography using hptlc plates and quantified by a densitometer. based on the results, the legumes could be ranked according to decreasing oligosaccharide content or flatulence potential as follows: sam-samping (clitoria ternatea) greater than hyacinth bean (dolichos lablab) greater than sabawel (mucuna pruriens) greater than ...19902345736
an update on shankhpushpi, a cognition-boosting ayurvedic medicine.shankhpushpi is an ayurvedic drug used for its action on the central nervous system, especially for boosting memory and improving intellect. quantum of information gained from ayurvedic and other sanskrit literature revealed the existence of four different plant species under the name of shankhpushpi, which is used in various ayurvedic prescriptions described in ancient texts, singly or in combination with other herbs. the sources comprise of entire herbs with following botanicals viz., convulvu ...200919912732
the antioxidant activity of clitoria ternatea flower petal extracts and eye gel.extracts of clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) flowers are used in thailand as a component of cosmetics and the chemical composition of the flowers suggest that they may have antioxidant activity. in this study the potential antioxidant activity of c. ternatea extracts and an extract containing eye gel formulation was investigated. aqueous extracts were shown to have stronger antioxidant activity (as measured by dpph scavenging activity) than ethanol extracts (ic(50) values were 1 mg/ml and 4 mg/ ...200919367668
the colour degradation of anthocyanin-rich extract from butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea l.) petal in various solvents at ph 7.a spectroscopic study was conducted to evaluate the colour degradation mechanism of anthocyanin-rich extract from butterfly pea petal. the extract was diluted in four different solvent systems, which were buffer solution ph 7 (aq7) and the mixture of organic solvent with buffer solution ph 7 (4:1 v/v). the organic cosolvent involved were methanol (me7), ethanol (et7) and acetone (ac7). the samples were stored in containers with 0% and 50% headspace, and their colour intensity, total anthocyanin ...201728301948
effect of salacia reticulata w. and clitoria ternatea l. on the cognitive and behavioral changes in the streptozotocin-induced young diabetic rats.diabetes mellitus (dm) of juvenile onset affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems (cns). however, central effects are less documented and studied than peripheral deficits. currently, the only feasible treatment available for type 1 dm (t1dm) is insulin which has its own limitations. hence, an alternative therapy, especially a newer herbal formulation is very much the need of the time. the present study aimed to determine the effects of the alcoholic extracts of roots of the salaci ...201728132032
an alternate high yielding purification method for clitoria ternatea lectin.in our previous publication we had reported the purification and characterization of clitoria ternatea agglutinin from its seeds on fetuin cl agarose affinity column, designated cta [a. naeem, s. haque, r.h. khan. protein j., 2007]. since cta binds beta-d-galactosides, this lectin can be used as valuable tool for glycobiology studies in biomedical and cancer research. so an attempt was made for a high yielding alternative purification method employing the use of asialofetuin cl agarose column fo ...200717590430
butelase-mediated cyclization and ligation of peptides and proteins.enzymes that catalyze efficient macrocyclization or site-specific ligation of peptides and proteins can enable tools for drug design and protein engineering. here we describe a protocol to use butelase 1, a recently discovered peptide ligase, for high-efficiency cyclization and ligation of peptides and proteins ranging in size from 10 to >200 residues. butelase 1 is the fastest known ligase and is found in pods of the common medicinal plant clitoria ternatea (also known as butterfly pea). it has ...201627658013
age dependent neuroprotective effects of medhya rasayana prepared from clitoria ternatea linn. in stress induced rat brain.indian traditional medicinal system in ayurveda suggests several preparations, known as medhya rasayanas, of diverse plant origin to enhance the health in general, reduce stress and improve brain function in particular during ageing. these effects in the context of contemporary knowledge and the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. autophagy and dna damage induced repair are inter-related quintessential pathways and are significantly altered during stress and ageing. hence, medhya r ...201727469198
retraction note to: influencing micropropagation in clitoria ternatea l. through the manipulation of tdz levels and use of different explant types.[this retracts the article doi: 10.1007/s12298-012-0136-4.].201627436921
immunostimulating and gram-negative-specific antibacterial cyclotides from the butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea).cyclotides are plant-derived, cyclic miniproteins with three interlocking disulfide bonds that have attracted great interests because of their excellent stability and potential as peptide therapeutics. in this study, we characterize the cyclotides of the medicinal plant clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) and investigate their biological activities. using a combined proteomic and transcriptomic method, we identified 41 novel cyclotide sequences, which we named cliotides, making c. ternatea one of ...201627007913
eight new anthocyanins, ternatins c1-c5 and d3 and preternatins a3 and c4 from young clitoria ternatea flowerseight new anthocyanins 1-8 (ternatins c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, and d3 and preternatins a3 and c4) were isolated from clitoria ternatea flowers. by the application of chemical, uv-vis, and fabms methods, the structures of 1-6 were postulated as delphinidin 3-malonylglucoside having 3'-gcgc-5'-g, 3'-gcgcg-5'-g, 3'-gc-5'-g, 3'-gcg-5'-g, 3'-g-5'-g, and 3'-gc-5'-gc, and compounds 7 and 8 as delphinidin 3-glucoside having 3'-gcg-5'-gcg and 3'-gcg-5'-g as side chains, respectively, in which dp is delphinidi ...19989834153
five new anthocyanins, ternatins a3, b4, b3, b2, and d2, from clitoria ternatea flowers.five new ternatins 1-5 have been isolated from clitoria ternatea flowers, and the structures have been determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods as delphinidin 3-malonylg having 3'-gcg-5'-gcg, 3'-gcg-5'-gc, 3'-gcgcg-5'-gc, 3'-gcgc-5'-gcg, and 3'-gcgc-5'-gc side chains, respectively, in which g is d-glucose and c is p-coumaric acid. pigment 1 had symmetric 3',5'-side chains. compounds 3 and 4 are structural isomers. these ternatins were shown to form an intramolecular stacking between the ...19968991946
a high-throughput peptidomic strategy to decipher the molecular diversity of cyclic cysteine-rich peptides.cyclotides are plant cyclic cysteine-rich peptides (crps). the cyclic nature is reported to be gene-determined with a precursor containing a cyclization-competent domain which contains an essential c-terminal asn/asp (asx) processing signal recognized by a cyclase. linear forms of cyclotides are rare and are likely uncyclizable because they lack this essential c-terminal asx signal (uncyclotide). here we show that in the cyclotide-producing plant clitoria ternatea, both cyclic and acyclic produc ...201626965458
[isolation of stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione from hamelia patens and clitoria ternatea]. 1978674284
[studies on the constituents of formosan leguminosae. i. the constituents in the leaves of clitoria ternatea l (author's transl)]. 1977925855
[peculiarities of circadian rhythms in plants from different geographical latitudes].1 two species of plants (taraxacum arcticum and arnica angustifolia), collected in spitsbergen (geogr. latitude 76-80 degrees) exhibit endogenous circadian leaf movements but also movements with shorter periods. astragalus frigidus, a. alpinus and hedysarum hedysaroides, collected in arctic regions of continental europe, also show endogenous diurnal leaf movements. 2. in most of the species tested, there was no difference in the length of the free running periods of plants from arctic and centra ...196624557984
taraxerone from clitoria ternatea linn. 196414154267
taraxerol from clitoria ternatea linn. 196314068655
gene coevolution and regulation lock cyclic plant defence peptides to their targets.plants have evolved many strategies to protect themselves from attack, including peptide toxins that are ribosomally synthesized and thus adaptable directly by genetic polymorphisms. certain toxins in clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea) are cyclic cystine-knot peptides of c. 30 residues, called cyclotides, which have co-opted the plant's albumin-1 gene family for their production. how butterfly pea albumin-1 genes were commandeered and how these cyclotides are utilized in defence remain unclear. t ...201626668107
a strategy to employ clitoria ternatea as a prospective brain drug confronting monoamine oxidase (mao) against neurodegenerative diseases and depression.ayurveda is a renowned traditional medicine practiced in india from ancient times and clitoria ternatea is one such prospective medicinal herb incorporated as an essential constituent in a brain tonic called as medhya rasayan for treating neurological disorders. this work emphasises the significance of the plant as a brain drug there by upholding indian medicine. the phytochemicals from the root extract were extricated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay and molecular docking agains ...201526667936
site-specific n-terminal labeling of peptides and proteins using butelase 1 and thiodepsipeptide.an efficient ligase with exquisite site-specificity is highly desirable for protein modification. recently, we discovered the fastest known ligase called butelase 1 from clitoria ternatea for intramolecular cyclization. for intermolecular ligation, butelase 1 requires an excess amount of a substrate to suppress the reverse reaction, a feature similar to other ligases. herein, we describe the use of thiodepsipeptide substrates with a thiol as a leaving group and an unacceptable nucleophile to ren ...201526563575
protective role of ternatin anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides from butterfly pea (clitoria ternatea leguminosae) blue flower petals against lipopolysaccharide (lps)-induced inflammation in macrophage cells.twelve phenolic metabolites (nine ternatin anthocyanins and three glycosylated quercetins) were identified from the blue flowers of clitoria ternatea by high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (hplc-dad-esi/ms(n)). three anthocyanins not reported in this species before show fragmentation pattern of the ternatin class. extracts were fractionated in fractions containing flavonols (f3) and ternatin anthocyanins (f4). in general, c. ...201526120869
inhibitory effect of clitoria ternatea flower petal extract on fructose-induced protein glycation and oxidation-dependent damages to albumin in vitro.the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (ages) in body tissue has been implicated in the progression of age-related diseases. inhibition of age formation is the imperative approach for alleviating diabetic complications. clitoria ternatea extract (cte) has been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic activity. however, there is no scientific evidence supporting its anti-glycation activity. the objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of cte on fructose-induced for ...201525887591
ultrasonic extraction of anthocyanin from clitoria ternatea flowers using response surface methodology.the ultrasonic extraction (ue) method of anthocyanin from clitoria ternatea flowers using response surface methodology (rsm) was performed in this study. by using rsm, the objective is to optimise the extraction yield of anthocyanin from c. ternatea which is influenced by various factors, including the extraction temperature, time, ratio of solvent to solid and ultrasonic power. the empirical model was investigated by performing first-level optimisation in a two-level factorial design with desig ...201525836369
root nodule bacteria from clitoria ternatea l. are putative invasive nonrhizobial endophytes.in this study, bacteria (8 species and 5 genera) belonging to the classes betaproteobacteria, gammaproteobacteria, and sphingobacteria were isolated from root nodules of the multipurpose legume clitoria ternatea l. and identified on the basis of partial 16s rrna sequencing. the root nodule bacteria were subjected to phenotypic clustering and diversity studies using biochemical kits, including hi-media carbokit™, enterobacteriaceae™ identification kit, eric-pcr, and 16s ardra. all the strains sho ...201525619106
structural basis for acceptor-substrate recognition of udp-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-o-glucosyltransferase from clitoria ternatea.udp-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-o-glucosyltransferase (ugt78k6) from clitoria ternatea catalyzes the transfer of glucose from udp-glucose to anthocyanidins such as delphinidin. after the acylation of the 3-o-glucosyl residue, the 3'- and 5'-hydroxyl groups of the product are further glucosylated by a glucosyltransferase in the biosynthesis of ternatins, which are anthocyanin pigments. to understand the acceptor-recognition scheme of ugt78k6, the crystal structure of ugt78k6 and its complex forms wi ...201525556637
evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of clitoria ternatea linn. in rats.clitoria ternatea linn. (c. ternatea) is an ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. this study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of c. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models.201725298581
protection of clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes.the present study assessed the antioxidant activity and protective ability of clitoria ternatea flower petal extract (cte) against in vitro 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride (aaph)-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage of canine erythrocytes. from the phytochemical analysis, cte contained phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. in addition, cte showed antioxidant activity as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (orac) method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydraz ...201425241390
clitoria ternatea l. as a potential high quality forage legume.samples of clitoria ternatea l. (cunhã) were harvested at 35, 50, 70, and 90 d after a uniformity harvest in a field study designed as a completely randomized design with a total of 18 experimental plots. the dry matter yield of the whole plant was separated quantitatively into leaves, stems, and pods at each harvesting age. chemical analyses and in vitro gas production kinetics were performed to assess the quality of the plant parts. yields, chemical composition, and estimates of gas production ...201425049940
butelase 1 is an asx-specific ligase enabling peptide macrocyclization and synthesis.proteases are ubiquitous in nature, whereas naturally occurring peptide ligases, enzymes catalyzing the reverse reactions of proteases, are rare occurrences. here we describe the discovery of butelase 1, to our knowledge the first asparagine/aspartate (asx) peptide ligase to be reported. this highly efficient enzyme was isolated from clitoria ternatea, a cyclic peptide-producing medicinal plant. butelase 1 shares 71% sequence identity and the same catalytic triad with legumain proteases but does ...201425038786
antioxidant activity and protective effect of clitoria ternatea flower extract on testicular damage induced by ketoconazole in rats.ketoconazole (ket), an antifungal drug, has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. pre-treatments with antioxidant plant against testicular damage induced by ket are required. the flowers of clitoria ternatea (ct) are proven to have hepatoprotective potential. however, the protective effect on ket-induced testicular damage has not been reported.201424903992
influencing micropropagation in clitoria ternatea l. through the manipulation of tdz levels and use of different explant types.a comparative performance of two explants types (cn and nodal) for their efficiency to induce multiple shoot regeneration in clitoria ternatea has been carried out. thidiazuron (tdz) in different concentrations (0.05-2.5 μm) was used as a supplement to the murashige and skoog's (ms) basal media. explant type apart, two factors viz. concentration and exposure duration to tdz played an important role in affecting multiple shoot regeneration. cotyledonary node explants produced the best results at ...201224082502
chemosensitizing activities of cyclotides from clitoria ternatea in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells.cyclotides comprise a family of circular mini-peptides that have been isolated from various plants and have a wide range of bioactivities. previous studies have demonstrated that cyclotides have antitumor effects and cause cell death by membrane permeabilization. the present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and chemosensitizing activities of cyclotides from clitoria ternatea in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells. in this study, a total of seven cyclotides were selected for colorimetr ...201323419988
standardized clitoria ternatea leaf extract as hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix-metalloproteinase-1 inhibitor.plant clitoria ternatea l. is claimed to possess a wide range of activities including antiinflammatory, local anesthetic and antidiabetic effect, etc. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the wound healing potential of standardized c. ternatea leaf extract in terms of different enzymatic models, which are mostly associated with skin wound.201523112418
compact acid-induced state of clitoria ternatea agglutinin retains its biological activity.the effects of ph on clitoria ternatea agglutinin (cta) were studied by spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography, and by measuring carbohydrate specificity. at ph 2.6, cta lacks well-defined tertiary structure, as seen by fluorescence and near-uv cd spectra. far-uv cd spectra show retention of 50% native-like secondary structure. the mean residue ellipticity at 217 nm plotted against ph showed a transition around ph 4.0 with loss of secondary structure leading to the formation of an acid-unfo ...200919916921
the ayurvedic medicine clitoria ternatea--from traditional use to scientific assessment.clitoria ternatea l. (ct) (family: fabaceae) commonly known as 'butterfly pea', a traditional ayurvedic medicine, has been used for centuries as a memory enhancer, nootropic, antistress, anxiolytic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, tranquilizing and sedative agent. a wide range of secondary metabolites including triterpenoids, flavonol glycosides, anthocyanins and steroids has been isolated from clitoria ternatea linn. its extracts possess a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti ...200818926895
a study on the levels of nonenzymic antioxidants in the leaves and flowers of clitoria ternatea.antioxidants are substances that inhibit oxidation and thus prevent cell damage. the objective of the study was to determine the antioxidant activity of the leaves as well as blue and white flowers of clitoria ternatea. they exhibited significant antioxidant activity and the sample from the blue flower bearing plant showed better scavenging activity. the results show that clitoria ternatea can be used as a potential antioxidant and can be used to prevent oxidative damage.200822557283
identification of delphinidin 3-o-(6''-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-o-beta-glucoside, a postulated intermediate in the biosynthesis of ternatin c5 in the blue petals of clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea).ternatins are blue anthocyanins found in the petals of clitoria ternata (butterfly pea). among them, ternatin c5 (delphinidin 3-o-(6''-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3',5'-di-o-beta-glucoside; 2) has the structure common to all the ternatins, which is characterized by its glucosylation pattern: a 3,3',5'-triglucosylated anthocyanidin. in the course of studying biosynthetic pathways of ternatins, the key enzymatic activities to produce ternatin c5 were discovered in a crude enzyme preparation from the ...200417191814
biosynthesis of malonylated flavonoid glycosides on the basis of malonyltransferase activity in the petals of clitoria ternatea.the crude malonyltransferase from the petals of clitoria ternatea was characterized enzymatically to investigate its role on the biosynthetic pathways of anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides. in c. ternatea, a blue flower cultivars (db) and mauve flower variety (wm) accumulate polyacylated anthocyanins (ternatins) and delphinidin 3-o-(6''-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside which is one of the precursors of ternatins, respectively. moreover, wm accumulates minor delphinidin glycosides - 3-o-beta-glucoside ...200716887235
flavonoid composition related to petal color in different lines of clitoria ternatea.flavonoids in the petals of several c. ternatea lines with different petal colors were investigated with lc/ms/ms. delphinidin 3-o-(2"-o-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was newly isolated from the petals of a mauve line (wm) together with three known anthocyanins. they were identified structurally using uv, ms, and nmr spectroscopy. although ternatins, a group of 15 (poly)acylated delphinidin glucosides, were identified in all the blue petal lines (wb, bm-1, 'double blue' and 'albif ...200314568080
malonylated flavonol glycosides from the petals of clitoria ternatea.three flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-o-(2"-o-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, quercetin 3-o-(2"-o-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-o-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, and myricetin 3-o-(2",6"-di-o-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside were isolated from the petals of clitoria ternatea cv. double blue, together with eleven known flavonol glycosides. their structures were identified using uv, ms, and nmr spectroscopy. they were characterized as kaempferol and quercetin 3-(2(g)- rhamnosylrutinoside)s, kaempfero ...200312482461
phyto - chemistry and pharmacology of shankapushpi - four varieties.pharmacognosy, pharmacology, clinical studies and photochemistry of the four plants, viz., convolvulus pluricaulis, evolvulus alsinoides, canscora decussate and clitoria ternatea commonly used as the drug shankapushphi have been reviewed here.198822557606
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