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some bacterial enteropathogens in wildlife and racing pigeons from trinidad.fecal and cloacal swabs or feces of wild mammalian, avian and reptilian species, either farmed or free-ranging, and of racing pigeons (columba livia) kept in lofts were cultured for salmonella spp., campylobacter spp., and yersinia spp. of 291 free-ranging mammals tested, 6 (2%) and 1 (< 1%) yielded positive cultures of salmonella spp. and campylobacter spp., respectively. salmonella newport was the predominant serotype isolated and the opossum (didelphis marsupialis insularis) had the significa ...19989476228
mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of cervidae (mammalia, ruminantia): systematics, morphology, and biogeography.the family cervidae includes 40 species of deer distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, as well as in south america and southeast asia. here, we examine the phylogeny of this family by analyzing two mitochondrial protein-coding genes and two nuclear introns for 25 species of deer representing most of the taxonomic diversity of the family. our results provide strong support for intergeneric relationships. to reconcile taxonomy and phylogeny, we propose a new classification where the famil ...200616584894
observations of sylvatic rabies in northern argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (desmodus rotundus).during rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in argentina associated with the common vampire bat desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (mazama americana), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (artibeus lituratus). rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savan ...200919901391
[genetic variability in neotropical deer genera (mammalia: cervidae) according to dna microsatellite loci].species conservation programs are highly based on analyses of population genetics. we compared eight neotropical cervidae (mazama americana, m. gouzaoubira, m. rufina, odocoileus virginianus, hippocamelus antisensis, pudu mephistopholes, ozotoceros bezoarticus and blastoceros dichotomus) and some european and asian cervidae (cervus elaphus, c. nippon, capreolus capreolus, c. pygargus and dama dama). the european species c. elaphus was our standard for a high degree of genetic variability: we use ...200919928479
non-legalized commerce in game meat in the brazilian amazon: a case study.in tropical forests, wild game meat represents an option or the only protein source for some human populations. this study analyzed the wildlife meat trade destined to human consumption in an open market of the amazon rainforest, brazil. wildlife meat trade was monitored during 2005 through interviews to vendors and consumers in order to evaluate the socioeconomic profile of the sellers, the main species and byproducts sold, their geographical origin, commercial value, frequency of sale and prod ...201020737856
mycoplasma ovis in captive cervids: prevalence, molecular characterization and phylogeny.hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are bacteria that attach to red blood cells of mammals, leading to acute and/or subclinical disease in infected animals. it has been suggested that mycoplasma ovis, a hemoplasma that infects sheep and goats worldwide, may also infect deer. the aim of this study was to evaluate whether south american deer are infected with m. ovis. edta-anticoagulated blood samples from a herd of 32 captive south american deer were collected. dna extraction of blood samples w ...201121640523
occurrence of antibodies anti -toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in southern brazil.a large number of brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. blood samples from 32 brazilian deer (blastocerus dichotomus, mazama nana and mazama americana) kept in captivity at bela vista biological sanctuary (foz do iguaçu, brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. deer serum samples were tested ...201526689185
the taruca (hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of taenia hydatigena in peru, morphological and molecular evidence.in the present report metacestodes were collected from the mesentery of a taruca (hippocamelus antisensis) and from the omentum of a red brocket deer (mazama americana) in peru. various metacestodes parameters, including rostellar hook characteristics, were measured. molecular analysis was performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from metacestode isolates. metacestodes were identified as t. hydatigena by morphology and molecular methods. this constitutes the fir ...201526277568
use of filter papers to determine seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii among hunted ungulates in remote peruvian amazon.toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. to determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of t. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern peruvian amazon, antibodies to t. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the modified agglutination test (mat). these animals were hunted by subsistence hunters along the yavarí-mirín river, in the northeastern peruvian amazon. blood samples were collected by hunters on filter ...201424918073
goats are a potential reservoir for the herpesvirus (mcfv-wtd), causing malignant catarrhal fever in deer.in the recent investigation of malignant catarrhal fever in a red brocket deer (mazama americana) from a texas zoo, the viral dna from the herpesvirus termed mcfv-wtd, which causes disease in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), was detected. the epidemiology information revealed that the red brocket deer had been associated with a herd of pygmy goats (capra hircus) at the zoo. mcfv-wtd dna was also detected in one of these 12 goats that were malignant catarrhal fever viral antibody posit ...201323805572
ecological relationships of meso-scale distribution in 25 neotropical vertebrate species.vertebrates are a vital ecological component of amazon forest biodiversity. although vertebrates are a functionally important part of various ecosystem services they continue to be threatened by anthropogenic impacts throughout the amazon. here we use a standardized, regularly spaced arrangement of camera traps within 25km2 to provide a baseline assessment of vertebrate species diversity in a sustainable use protected area in the eastern brazilian amazon. we examined seasonal differences in the ...201525938582
water availability not fruitfall modulates the dry season distribution of frugivorous terrestrial vertebrates in a lowland amazon forest.terrestrial vertebrate frugivores constitute one of the major guilds in tropical forests. previous studies show that the meso-scale distribution of this group is only weakly explained by variables such as altitude and tree basal area in lowland amazon forests. for the first time we test whether seasonally limiting resources (water and fallen fruit) affect the dry season distribution in 25 species of terrestrial vertebrates. to examine the effects of the spatial availability of fruit and water on ...201728301589
the role of chromosome variation in the speciation of the red brocket deer complex: the study of reproductive isolation in females.the red brocket deer, mazama americana, has at least six distinct karyotypes in different regions of south america that suggest the existence of various species that are today all referred to as m. americana. from an evolutionary perspective, the red brockets are a relatively recent clade that has gone through intense diversification. this study sought to prove the existence of post-zygotic reproductive isolation in deer offspring between distinct chromosome lineages. to achieve this, inter-cyto ...201424593190
meiotic pairing of b chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer mazama americana (mammalia, cervidae).deer species of the genus mazama show significant inter- and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and b chromosomes. given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a robertsonian translocation, is a b chromosome carrier, and has a multi ...201324085421
amplifiability of mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin dna loci from fecal samples of red brocket deer mazama americana (cetartiodactyla, cervidae).we tried to amplify mitochondrial, microsatellite and amelogenin loci in dna from fecal samples of a wild mazama americana population. fifty-two deer fecal samples were collected from a 600-ha seasonal semideciduous forest fragment in a subtropical region of brazil (21°20's, 47°17'w), with the help of a detection dog; then, stored in ethanol and georeferenced. among these samples 16 were classified as "fresh" and 36 as "non-fresh". dna was extracted using the qiaamp(®) dna stool mini kit. mitoch ...201323359023
cryopreservation of red brocket deer semen (mazama americana): comparison between three extenders.in recent years, genome banks have grown as a way of maintaining the genetic variability of populations. however, the quality of gamete cryopreservation will determine their efficiency. this study aimed to evaluate prefreeze and postthaw sperm motility, vigor, membrane integrity, and morphology of semen of red brocket deer (mazama americana) using three extenders: e1, tris-yolk; e2, tes-tris-yolk; and e3, tes-tris-yolk-equex. six bucks were used, and three collections per buck were performed at ...201223272349
elucidating the evolution of the red brocket deer mazama americana complex (artiodactyla; cervidae).the red brocket deer mazama americana is a neotropical species that exhibits extensive karyotype variation under an unvarying morphotype. in order to deduce red brocket deer genetic units for conservation, gene flow between populations, and genetic variation, we initiated a cytogenetic and molecular genetic study based on representative samples from throughout their brazilian geographic range. these data represent the first cytotaxonomical and molecular systematics, and although sample sizes are ...201020407221
novel piroplasmid and hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the brazilian amazon.during 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the amazon biome of brazil, in the states of mato grosso and pará. animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of piroplasmida (genera babesia, theileria, cytauxzoon) or hepatozoon dna. overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. the following piroplasmida agents were detected: cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (leopardus pardalis), theileria cervi ...201728603688
novel anaplasma and ehrlichia organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the brazilian amazon.during 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in the amazon biome of brazil. animal tissues and blood were tested by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays targeting dna of the bacterial family anaplasmataceae (genera anaplasma, ehrlichia, wolbachia) and the genus borrelia. overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. all birds and reptiles were negative by all pcr assays, as well as all mammals for the borrelia pcr assay. anaplasmat ...201728690147
first evidences of amazonian wildlife feeding on petroleum-contaminated soils: a new exposure route to petrogenic compounds?videos recorded with infrared camera traps placed in petroleum contaminated areas of the peruvian amazon have shown that four wildlife species, the most important for indigenous peoples' diet (lowland tapir, paca, red-brocket deer and collared peccary), consume oil-contaminated soils and water. further research is needed to clarify whether amazonian wildlife's geophagy can be a route of exposure to petrogenic contamination for populations living in the vicinity of oil extraction areas and relyin ...201829103585
influence of digestive morphology on resource partitioning in amazonian ungulates.resource partitioning of diet and habitat use was studied in the entire amazonian ungulate community of northeastern peru, which comprises the red brocket deer (mazama americana), grey brocket deer (m. gouazoubira), collared peccary (tayassu tajacu), white-lipped peccary (t. pecari), and lowland tapir (tapirus terrestris). each ungulate species partitioned at least one type of resource from every other species. digestive morphology had a greater influence on resource partitioning of diet than bo ...199128312040
ungulate biomass in relation to feeding strategy within amazonian forests.the relationship between diet and biomass was examined in the amazonian ungulates (red brocket deer, grey brocket deer, collared peccary, white-lipped peccary, and lowland tapir) of northeastern peru. tropical forest ungulates have lower biomasses than savanna or grassland ungulates, because in tropical forests the majority of primary production occurs in the canopy, well out of reach from terrestrial herbivores. within the amazonian ungulates, species that supplement their diet with animal mate ...198928312652
a gene-tree test of the traditional taxonomy of american deer: the importance of voucher specimens, geographic data, and dense sampling.the taxonomy of american deer has been established almost entirely on the basis of morphological data and without the use of explicit phylogenetic methods; hence, phylogenetic analyses including data for all of the currently recognized species, even if based on a single gene, might improve current understanding of their taxonomy. we tested the monophyly of the morphology-defined genera and species of new world deer (odocoileini) with phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial dna sequences. this is ...201729134018
effectiveness of panama as an intercontinental land bridge for large mammals.habitat fragmentation is a primary driver of wildlife loss, and establishment of biological corridors is a common strategy to mitigate this problem. a flagship example is the mesoamerican biological corridor (mbc), which aims to connect protected forest areas between mexico and panama to allow dispersal and gene flow of forest organisms. because forests across central america have continued to degrade, the functioning of the mbc has been questioned, but reliable estimates of species occurrence w ...202031385631
centromeric heterochromatin and g-banding of the red brocket deer, mazama americana temama (cervoidea, artiodactyla) with a probable non-robertsonian translocation. 1977923292
natural habitat, housing, and restraint of six selected neotropical animals in trinidad and tobago with the potential for domestication.this paper highlights the natural habitat, housing, and restraint needs of 6 neotropical animals that are found in trinidad and tobago with the potential for domestication: agouti (dasyprocta leporina), lappe/paca (cuniculus paca/agouti paca), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), manicou/opossum (didelphis marsupialis insularis), collared peccary (tayassu tajacu/pecari tajacu), and red brocket deer (mazama americana). the year of the earliest reference cited was 1950 and the most recent was 201 ...202032300488
endoparasites of selected native non-domesticated mammals in the neotropics (new world tropics).in this review, information was summarized on endoparasites found in six non-domesticated neotropical animals. these mammals have the potential to be domesticated. the animals included three rodents, agouti (dasyprocta leporina), lappe (agouti paca), and capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris); a marsupial, manicou (didelphis marsupialis insularis); and an artiodactyl, the collared peccary (tayassu tajacu/peccari tajacu) and a ruminant (the red brocket deer, mazama americana). while there are many ...201931671585
nutrition of six selected neo-tropical mammals in trinidad and tobago with the potential for domestication.this review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti (dasyprocta leporina/d. aguti), lappe (agouti paca), capybara (hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), manicou/opossum (didelphis marsupialis insularis), collared peccary (peccary tajucu) and the red brokcet deer (mazama americana). over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. the earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. the references used in thi ...201829757965
antibodies against brucella abortus and leptospira spp. in captive mammals in the states of pará and rio grande do norte, brazil.brazil has a large variety of wild animal species, but limited data are available on the occurrence of brucella abortus and leptospira spp. antibodies in these animals. sera from 141 captive mammals belonging to 11 different species from the northern and northeastern regions of brazil were screened. antibodies against b. abortus and leptospira spp. (24 live serovars) were investigated using the rose bengal plate and microscopic agglutination tests, respectively. associations between the age, gen ...201829900792
[phylogenetic relationships among neotropical deer genera (artiodactyla: cervidae) by means of dnamt sequences and microsatellite markers].the current work shows two molecular phylogenetic analyses on neotropical deers. in the first analysis, the mitochondrial control region (d-loop) was sequenced in six odocoileinae species from latin america, using the sequences of two muntiacinae as outgroups. the results obtained were as follows: a sequence of mazama americana showed a striking relationship with several sequences of odocoileus in contrast to that expected, since this m. americana haplotype, from a mexican origin, was not associ ...200719069784
"osmetrichia" in the grey brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira).osmetrichia have been defined as hairs specialized in the storage of secretions used in olfactory communication between conspecifics (müller-schwarze, et al. 1977). these authors found highly specialized osmetrichia in the tarsal gland tufts of black-tailed but not white-tailed deer. chemical communication appears to be well developed in grey brocket deer: the bucks scent mark by rubbing their foreheads on bushes, and all deer urinate and defecate almost exclusively on dung heaps. brocket deer a ...199910904542
using indigenous knowledge to link hyper-temporal land cover mapping with land use in the venezuelan amazon: "the forest pulse".remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge (tek) can be combined to advance conservation of remote tropical regions, e.g. amazonia, where intensive in situ surveys are often not possible. integrating tek into monitoring and management of these areas allows for community participation, as well as for offering novel insights into sustainable resource use. in this study, we developed a 250 m resolution land-cover map of the western guyana shield (venezuela) based on remote sensing, and use ...201629465944
designation of a neotype for mazama americana (artiodactyla, cervidae) reveals a cryptic new complex of brocket deer species.mazama americana (red brocket deer) is the genus-type species (first species described for this genus) and the basis for the identity of other mazama species. mazama americana is one of the most abundant and widely distributed deer species in the neotropical forest. however, recent studies suggest that this taxon belongs to a species complex. our goal was to collect an animal at the type locality (topotype) in french guiana with the aim of characterizing the morphological (biometric, craniometri ...202032863720
detection of a putative novel genotype of anaplasma in gray-brocket deer (mazama gouazoubira) from uruguay.anaplasmataceae includes the genera anaplasma, ehrlichia, neorickettsia and wolbachia, comprising a group of obligate intracellular bacteria. the genus anaplasma has pathogenic species transmitted by ticks of veterinary and human health importance. wild ungulates such as deer represent important reservoirs and amplifiers of anaplasmataceae. the interaction between deer and domestic ruminants represents a serious problem due to the transmission of these pathogens through their ectoparasites. in t ...202032647904
comparison between three cryoprotectants in the freezing of mazama americana semen collected by artificial vagina.maintaining genetic variability is an important part of the conservation of endangered species, so the construction of germplasm banks is essential. several species of the genus mazama endure constant pressure in their natural habitat and are threatened with extinction. the correct manipulation and adequacy of the diluents and cryoprotectants must be studied to be successful in the formation of these banks. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of three different cryoprotectan ...202032609002
azaperone and xylazine: a pharmacological combination to facilitate captive deer management for red brocket deer (mazama americana).the care and management of deer in captivity is challenging, especially in the case of red brocket deer (mazama americana), whose routine management using physical restraint is difficult. our study evaluated the effects of azaperone and xylazine combination for immobilizing red brocket deer and allow for the standard capture and handling protocols (e.g., biological material, horn cutting, and trimming) to be conducted safely. six adult, captive, red brocket deer received an intramuscular injecti ...201931374096
embryonic and fetal development of the red brocket deer (mazama americana).the red brocket deer (mazama americana), a medium-sized neotropical ungulate, is one of the most hunted mammals in the amazon. this study analyzes the intrauterine development in the red brocket deer through the description of the external and internal morphology in one embryo and 38 fetuses collected from animals hunted for subsistence in the amazon. the chronological order of occurrence of external characteristics in relation to the total dorsal length (tdl) was: differentiated genitalia, limb ...201931132721
hunters and hunting across indigenous and colonist communities at the forest-agriculture interface: an ethnozoological study from the peruvian amazon.wildlife has been traditionally used by forest communities as a source of protein, and the peruvian amazon is no exception. the articulation of colonist and indigenous communities to urban centers and markets results in changes in livelihood strategies and impacts on wildlife populations. to address the threat of overhunting and forest conversion, we provide a generalized characterization of colonist and indigenous communities and their hunting activities near pucallpa, ucayali, peru.201830097060
intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms can lead to reproductive isolation and speciation: an example in red brocket deer (mazama americana).the red brocket (mazama americana) is a south american deer with a wide geographical distribution that presents different chromosomal variants depending on their location. at least six different cytotypes belonging to two distinct evolutionary lineages have been described. this study aimed to verify the existence of postzygotic reproductive isolation between cytotypes of m. americana by comparative evaluation of pure and hybrid males. seven 18-month-old bucks were submitted to seminal collection ...201728486644
congenital filariasis caused by setaria bidentata (nematoda: filarioidea) in the red brocket deer (mazama americana).the filarial nematode setaria bidentata was found in 10 of 31 fetuses of the red brocket deer ( mazama americana ) from the loreto region of the peruvian amazon. a total of 25 specimens were collected and morphologically identified as s. bidentata. filarial nematodes were found in the peritoneal cavity of 9 deer fetuses and the thoracic cavity of 1 fetus. most specimens were adult stage. in this report, we provide morphometric data for these filarial specimens. this is the first study to demonst ...201727788338
fecal progestins during pregnancy and postpartum periods of captive red brocket deer (mazama americana).this study aimed to validate the enzyme immunoassay (eia) for fecal progestin quantification of the species mazama americana, define its excretion profile during periods of gestation and postpartum and determine the gestation period and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in this species in captivity. fecal samples were collected twice a week during gestation and every day in the postpartum period, and analyzed using eia. the mean concentrations (±sem) of fecal progestins during gestation ...201323287415
anatomicohistological characteristics of the tubular genital organs of the female red brocket deer (mazama americana) in the peruvian amazon.this study examined the anatomical and histological characteristics of tubular genital organs of 51 adult female red brocket deer in the wild in different reproductive stages, collected by rural hunters in the north-eastern peruvian amazon. the infundibulum was characterized by a large diameter and the presence of a highly folded and ciliated epithelium, and the isthmus has a growing secretor epithelium and a thicker muscular layer. whereas ciliated cells are more frequent in the infundibulum, e ...201222509946
reproductive biology of the wild red brocket deer (mazama americana) female in the peruvian amazon.knowledge of the reproductive biology is critical for the development of management strategies of the species both in captivity and in the wild, and to address conservation concerns regarding the sustainable use of a species. the present report characterizes some aspects of the reproductive biology of the wild red brocket deer inhabiting the north-eastern peruvian amazon region, based on the anatomical and histological examination of the female reproductive organs of 89 wild adult females in dif ...201121992965
identification of the endangered small red brocket deer (mazama bororo) using noninvasive genetic techniques (mammalia; cervidae).the small red brocket deer mazama bororo is one of the most endangered deer in the neotropics. the great morphological similarities with three other sympatric brocket deer species, coupled with the fact that they inhabit densely forested habitats complicate detection and prevent the use of traditional methodologies for accurate identification of species. the ability to determine the presence of this endangered species in an area is crucial for estimating its distribution range, and is critical f ...200921564736
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