citrus peel oil extracts as mosquito larvae insecticides.susceptibility tests were carried out in culex quinquefasciatus larvae using peel oil extracts of bitter orange (citrus aurantium), orange (citrus sinensis) and lemon (citrus limon). larvae mortalities were observed indicating that the extracts may contain potentially useful insecticides.19921644035
management of clinical cases of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease in goats.clinical cases of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) disease in goats were treated symptomatically. broad spectrum antibiotics, intestinal sedatives and fluid therapy were used for the treatment of pneumonia, diarrhoea and the restoration of the body fluid ionic balance. good feeding and nursing in warm, draught-free pens are necessary. lemon fruit and citrus aurantium proved to be effective for the treatment of the orf-like labial scabs. this treatment raised the survival rate of goats by 13.3%.19892619704
induction of anti-orange antibodies in rabbits.the capacity of certain foods to cause allergic reactions is well known. the four types of mechanisms that gell and coombs described in 1968, are involved in these reactions, although the reaginic antibodies retain the paramount attention of the immunologists. the physiochemical composition of the allergen molecule is the goal of investigators with the purpose to clarify the intrinsic kinetics of antibody synthesis. this paper contributes to the conflicting data about orange allergens especially ...19892635832
relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig.the effects of volatile oils of 22 plants from 11 different families and of some of their constituents on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles were investigated. the results were compared with the relaxant effects of catecholamines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. all of the oils had relaxant effects on the tracheal smooth muscle, the most potent were angelica root, clove, elecampane root, basil and balm leaves oil. 16 oils inhibited the phasic contractions of the ileal myenteric plexus-longitudin ...19854039178
a study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil.lemon oil contains furocoumarin derivatives and is known to cause phototoxicity. in this study, lemon oil was fractionated, and its phototoxic activity was measured by means of a biological assay. the substances producing phototoxicity were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography as being oxypeucedanin and bergapten. the phototoxic potency of oxypeucedanin was only one-quarter of that of bergapten. however, the amounts of these two phototoxic compounds present in lemon oils produced ...19854096528
[biological characteristics and pruning technic of citrus aurantium l]. 19836235010
[the effects of citrus aurantium and its active ingredient n-methyltyramine on the cardiovascular receptors (author's transl)]. 19817257808
nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus: comparison of biologically diverse isolates collected in israel.the sequences of the coat protein genes of four seedling yellows (sy) and four non-sy (nsy) of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) isolates, which were collected in israel over a period of 30 years, were analyzed. pairwise comparisons showed extensive similarities in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of six isolates designated the vt group. this group consists of three nsy isolates that cause a very mild ctv reaction on the sensitive combination of sweet orange (swo) grafted on sour orange (so), a ...19938279125
[studies on the bioactive constituents of aurantii fructus immaturus].an ethanol extract of "kijitsu" (aurantii fructus immaturus, citrus aurantium l.) collected in china was assessed for the antitumor activity using murine leukemia p388 in vivo, and the extract was found to be active by the antitumor bioassay in vivo and in vitro. the extract was separated into a petroleum ether-soluble fraction and an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. fractionation was carried out using an index of cell-growth inhibitory activity against mouse leukemia l1210 cells to isolate antit ...19968721353
relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on penicillium digitatum and penicillium italicum.this study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on p. digitatum and p. italicum growth. the hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (citrus sinensis cvv. "washington navel", "sanguinello", "tarocco", "moro", "valencia late", and "ovale"), bitter (sour) orange (c. aurantium), mandarin (c. deliciosa cv. "avana"), grapefruit (c. paradisi cvv. "marsh seedless" and "red blush"), citrange (c. sinensis x poncirus trifoliata cvv. "carrizo" and "troyer"), and lemon (c ...19989761340
6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin in grapefruit juice and seville orange juice: effects on cyclosporine disposition, enterocyte cyp3a4, and p-glycoprotein.6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin is a furanocoumarin that inhibits cyp3a4 and is found in grapefruit juice and seville orange juice. grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of many cyp3a4 substrates, including cyclosporine (inn, ciclosporin), but intestinal p-glycoprotein may be a more important determinant of cyclosporine availability.199910096255
d-rna molecules associated with subisolates of the vt strain of citrus tristeza virus which induce different seedling-yellows reactions.citrus tristeza virus (ctv) strains were previously catalogued as seedling-yellows (sy) and non-sy (nsy) types, according to their yellowing and stunting effects on indicator seedlings. among subisolates of the vt strain, which were selected from chronically infected alemow plants, there was a correlation between the presence of 2.4-, 2.7- and 4.5-kb d-rnas, and sy and nsy reactions, respectively. similarly, plants infected with mor-t subisolates, which cause sy, contained d-rnas of 2.6 to 2.8 k ...199910499445
inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on rotavirus infectivity.the inhibitory effect of some traditional herbal medicines on the infectivity of rotavirus, which predominantly occurs in sporadic diarrhea in infants and young children, was investigated. among the 34 kinds of herbal medicines tested, the fruit of citrus aurantium had the most potent inhibitory activity on rotavirus infection. the active components of the fruit of citrus aurantium were neohesperidin and hesperidin. their 50% inhibitory concentrations were 25 and 10 microm, respectively.200010726895
acute intoxication of cyclosporin caused by coadministration of decoctions of the fruits of citrus aurantium and the pericarps of citrus order to investigate the effects of citrus herbs on cyclosporin absorption and disposition, swine were given cyclosporin (10 mg/kg) with or without decoctions of citri aurantii fructus (caf) or citri grandis pericarpium (cgp) in a crossover design. fpia method (fluorescence polarization immunoassay) was used to determine the blood concentration of cyclosporin. the decoctions were characterized by their flavanone contents. our results indicated that the coadministration of caf and cgp signific ...200011105574
biology of diaphorina citri (homoptera: psyllidae) on four host plants.the biology of the citrus psyllid diaphorina citri kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees c on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, citrus jambhiri lush; sour orange, c aurantium l.; grapefruit, c. paradisi macfadyen; and orange jessamine, murraya paniculata (l.) jack] in the laboratory. the biological characteristics of each life stage are described. the average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d) ...200011142304
inhibitory potential of herbal medicines on human cytochrome p450-mediated oxidation: properties of umbelliferous or citrus crude drugs and their relative investigate the possible drug interaction with herbal medicine, hot water decoctions or 40% ethanol infusions of several umbelliferous or citrus crude drugs and their prescriptions were examined in vitro for their abilities to inhibit human cytochrome p450 3a (cyp3a). addition of each decoction or infusion from baizhi (angelica dahurica and varieties), qianghuo (notopterygium incisum or n. forbesii), duhuo (angelica biserrata), fangfeng (saposhnikovia divaricata), danggui (angelicasinensis), ...200111388644
toxic effects of six plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on liposcelis bostrychophila (psocoptera: liposcelididae).six plant essential oils alone as repellent and fumigant, and in combination with the controlled atmosphere against liposcelis bostrychophila badonnel were assessed in the laboratory. these essential oils were extracted from the leaves of six source plants: citrus tangerina tanaka, citrus aurantium l., citrus bergamia risso et poiteau, pinus sylvestris l., cupressus funebris end]., and eucalyptus citriodora hook. the repellency test indicated that l. bostrychophila adults were repelled by filter ...200111681697
comparative study of the assay of artemia salina l. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (ld50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.artemia salina l. (artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. in this study the medium lethal concentrations (lc50 value) of 20 plant extracts, aloe vera (l.) burm. f. (aloeaceae), artemisia absinthium l. (asteraceae); citrus aurantium l. (rutaceae); cymbopogon citratus (dc. ex nees) stapf (poaceae); datura stramonium l. (solanaceae); justicia pectoralis jacq. (acanthaceae); musa x paradisiaca l. (m ...200111695884
[clinical study on retarding aging effect of tongbu recipe to traditional chinese medicine].to study the mechanism of tongbu no. 1 (tb1, a prescription for reinforcing kidney and spleen, clearing up the bowel viscera to send turbid downward and regulating qi and blood) in retarding aging.199911783270
[studies on chinese drugs zhiqiao and zhishi origin investigation and merchandise identification].to sort out the main original plants of chinese drugs zhiqiao and zhishi.199912205880
effects of rootstock on the composition of bergamot (citrus bergamia risso et poiteau) essential oil.this paper reports the composition of bergamot oils obtained from plants grafted on the following rootstocks: sour orange, carrizo citrange, trifoliate orange, alemow, volkamerian lemon, and troyer citrange. the aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using rootstocks other than sour orange, checking their effect on the composition of the essential oil. results are reported for analysis of 203 bergamot oils during the years 1997-1998, 1998-1999, and 1999-2000. the oils were analyzed ...200312502409
[determination of naringin and synephrine in fructus aurantii from different habitats by hplc].this paper reports the determination of naringin and synephrine in fructus aurantii from different habitats by hplc. the result shows the highest content of naringin in citrus aurantium l. 'xiangcheng' from genuine crude drug habitat xingan city jiangxi provice, the highest content of synephrine in citrus aurantium l. 'xiangcheng' from yiyang city jiangxi provice. quality evaluation of genuine crude drug was studied preliminarily.200012575153
the effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells.a series of studies were conducted in which compounds commonly shown to be ergogenic aids for strength athletes if taken orally were evaluated for their ability to directly induce postnatal muscle stem cell proliferation or differentiation/fusion in vitro.200312750586
identification and genomic distribution of gypsy like retrotransposons in citrus and poncirus.transposable elements might be importantly involved in citrus genetic instability and genome evolution. the presence of gypsy like retrotransposons, their heterogeneity and genomic distribution in citrus and poncirus, have been investigated. eight clones containing part of the pol coding region of gypsy like retrotransposons have been isolated from a commercial variety of citrus clementina, one of the few sexual species in citrus. four of the eight clones might correspond to active elements give ...200312937896
expressed sequence enrichment for candidate gene analysis of citrus tristeza virus resistance.several studies have reported markers linked to a putative resistance gene from poncirus trifoliata ( ctv-r) located at linkage group 4 that confers resistance against one of the most important citrus pathogens, citrus tristeza virus (ctv). to be successful in both marker-assisted selection and transformation experiments, its accurate mapping is needed. several factors may affect its localization, among them two are considered here: the definition of resistance and the genetic background of prog ...200414624336
[effect of citrus aurantium extract on l-type calcium currents in ventricular myocytes of single guinea pigs].to determine the effect of citrus aurantium extract (cae) on l-type calcium currents (ica-l) in ventricular myocytes of guinea pigs.200314653115
effect of the rootstock and interstock grafted in lemon tree (citrus limon (l.) burm.) on the flavonoid content of lemon juice.the grafting of the rootstock with the lemon tree is an agronomical technique used to improve production and/or quality of the fruit. the interstock has been used with different fruit trees to modulate the tree size, fruit production and quality, and the aging of the tree. the lemon trees grafted with interstocks increase their longevity, lemon production and quality; interstocks are also used to decrease the thickness of the trunk at the grafting point. this enlarging of the trunk provokes a de ...200414733516
induction of apoptosis by citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (hl-60) cells.limonene is a primary component of citrus essential oils (eos) and has been reported to induce apoptosis on tumor cells. little is known about induction of apoptosis by citrus eos. in this study, we examined induction of apoptosis by citrus aurantium var. dulcis (sweet orange) eo, citrus paradisi (grapefruit) eo and citrus limon (lemon) eo. these eos induced apoptosis in hl-60 cells and the apoptosis activities were related to the limonene content of the eos. moreover, sweet orange eo and grapef ...200314758720
screening of furanocoumarin derivatives in citrus fruits by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.this paper reports a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of furanocoumarin derivatives as cytochrome p450 3a4 inhibitors in citrus fruits. anti-6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin conjugated with bovine serum albumin using the n-succinimidyl ester method. an enzyme marker was similarly prepared by coupling 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin with beta-d-galactosidase. the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assa ...200415256725
citrus aurantium, an ingredient of dietary supplements marketed for weight loss: current status of clinical and basic research.seville orange (citrus aurantium) extracts are being marketed as a safe alternative to ephedra in herbal weight-loss products, but c. aurantium may also have the potential to cause adverse health effects. c. aurantium contains synephrine (oxedrine), which is structurally similar to epinephrine. although no adverse events have been associated with ingestion of c. aurantium products thus far, synephrine increases blood pressure in humans and other species, and has the potential to increase cardiov ...200415337824
in vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome p450 phenotypes: citrus aurantium, echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto.phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome p450 (cyp) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of citrus aurantium , echinacea purpurea , milk thistle (silybum marianum), or saw palmetto (serenoa repens) extracts affected cyp1a2, cyp2d6, cyp2e1, or cyp3a4 activity.200415536458
genetic analysis of citrus leafminer susceptibility.damage caused by the citrus leafminer (clm), phyllocnistis citrella, is highly dependent on the citrus flushing pattern. chemical control is only required in young trees, both in nurseries and in newly established orchards. however, this situation is completely different in countries where the causal agent of citrus canker, the bacterium xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri exists. clm infestation results in a higher incidence of citrus canker infection. among preventive control strategies that prov ...200515834698
viral-like symptoms induced by the ectopic expression of the p23 gene of citrus tristeza virus are citrus specific and do not correlate with the pathogenicity of the virus strain.ectopic expression of the p23 gene from a severe (t36) strain of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) induces viral-like symptoms in mexican lime. here, we report that expressing the same gene from a mild strain induced similar symptoms that correlated with accumulation of p23 protein irrespective of the source strain. ctv inoculation of transgenic limes showing ctv-like leaf symptoms and high p23 accumulation did not modify symptoms initially, with the virus titer being as in inoculated nontransgenic co ...200515915642
carbon economy of sour orange in response to different glomus spp.vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (m) fungal colonization, growth, and nonstructural carbohydrate status of sour orange (citrus aurantium l.) seedlings were compared at low- and high-phosphorus (p) supply following inoculation with four glomus isolates: g. intraradices (gi, fl208), g. etunicatum (ge, ut316), g. claroideum (gc, sc186), and glomus sp. (g329, fl906). nonmycorrhizal (nm) seedlings served as controls. at low-p supply, increases in incidence of m colonization, vesicles and accumulation ...199614871797
fructus aurantii reduced portal pressure in portal hypertensive rats.the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of fructus aurantii (the unripe fruits of citrus aurantium l.) on portal hypertensive rats. portal hypertension was induced by partial portal vein ligation (pvl) in sprague-dawley rats. sham-operated (sham) rats served as controls. hemodynamic and in vitro contractile studies were performed at 14 days after surgery. both the aqueous extract of fructus aurantii and synephrine, one of its purified principles with pressor activity, were infus ...19957475952
effects of the essential oil from citrus aurantium l. in experimental anxiety models in mice.citrus aurantium l. is popularly used to treat anxiety, among other indications suggesting central nervous system action. previous studies showed anxiolytic effect in the essential oil from peel in mice evaluated on the elevated plus maze [carvalho-freitas, m.i.r., costa, m., 2002. anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from citrus aurantium l. biological and pharmaceutical bulletin 25, 1629-1633.]. in order to better characterize the activity of the essential oil, it was ...200616253279
an hplc/ms method for identifying major constituents in the hypocholesterolemic extracts of chinese medicine formula 'xue-fu-zhu-yu decoction'.in this paper, hplc-esi-ms technique was used to analyze the hypocholesterolemic extracts of 'xue-fu-zhu-yu decoction', a traditional chinese medicine consisting of six crude drugs (i.e. paeonia lactiflora, ligusticum chuanxiong, citrus aurantium, carthamus tinctorius, prunus persica and bupleurum falcatum). a total of 17 compounds were identified and their plant derivations were also distinguished. nine compounds among them were unambiguously determined as oxypaeoniflorin, amygdalin, albiflorin ...200616345012
[effect of jiuxinfumai injection on l-type calcium currents in single guinea pig ventricular myocytes].to determine the effect of 311 and 417, both active ingredients isolated from jiuxinfumai injection (citrus aurantium) on l-type calcium currents (i(ca-l)) in ventricular myocytes of guinea pigs.200416137037
undesirable effects of citrus juice on the pharmacokinetics of drugs: focus on recent is well known that intake of grapefruit juice affects the pharmacokinetics of various kinds of drugs. it has been reported that other citrus juices also interact with certain drugs. to re-evaluate citrus juice-drug interactions based on currently available evidence, a literature search was conducted for new and updated information since the grapefruit juice-drug interaction was last reviewed in 1998. medline (1998-october 2004) was accessed and more than 200 reports were found. the effects of ...200516048354
antibacterial properties of tropical plants from puerto an effort to document the antibacterial properties of plants commonly used by the people of puerto rico, we studied the effects of 172 plant species, utilizing the disc diffusion method, against escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus. the methanolic extracts of 14 species showed antibacterial activities during this preliminary screen. these positive plant extracts were tested successively over 15 additional species. the results showed that extracts from citrus aurantifolia (rutaceae), cit ...200616492531
photosynthate partitioning in split-root citrus seedlings with mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal root systems.photosynthate partitioning was examined in seedings of sour orange (citrus aurantium l.) and carrizo citrange (poncirus trifoliata [l.] raf. x c. sinensis [l.] osbeck) grown with split root systems inoculated on one side with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (glomus intraradices schenck and smith). source-sink relations were studied without mitigating differences in mineral content or physiological age that can occur in separate plant comparisons, because phosphorus was evenly distributed ...198416663589
availability of weight-loss supplements: results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city.the sale of nonprescription weight-loss products accounts for millions of dollars spent by americans trying to lose weight, yet there is little evidence for effectiveness and there are multiple safety concerns. the purpose of this study was to determine what products, and ingredients within products, were available at retail outlets in a metropolitan area. a purposive sampling strategy identified 73 retail outlets. an audit form was used to collect information from product labels. the audit iden ...200617126636
high efficiency genetic transformation of sour orange (citrus aurantium) and production of transgenic trees containing the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza preliminary experiments on agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrus, we found transformation events occurring in callus formed from the cambium. factors affecting agrobacterium-sour orange (citrus aurantium l.) interactions, such as culture medium, explant source and culture conditions, were studied to assess competence for transformation in such callus and to improve transformation frequency. cell divisions and redifferentiation from the transgenic cells leading to transformation even ...200012651494
high-speed characterization and analysis of orange oils with tandem-column stop-flow gc and time-of-flight ms.high-speed gc with time-of-flight (tof) ms detection is used for the characterization and analysis of oils rendered from the peel of five diverse species of orange including bergemot orange, bitter orange, tangerine, mandarin orange, and sweet orange. with a user-defined signal-to-noise threshold of 100, 44 peaks were found and 36 compounds identified in the various oils. some major constituent components show large concentration ranges over the five species. a 14-m-long, 0. 18-mm-i.d. column en ...200212433099
seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins.our objective was to determine whether seville orange juice produces a grapefruit juice-like interaction with felodipine and whether bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, or other furocoumarins are involved.200111180034
antimutagenic activity of polymethoxyflavonoids from citrus aurantium.the methanol extract from citrus aurantium showed a suppressive effect on umu gene expression of sos response in salmonella typhimurium ta1535/psk1002 against the mutagen 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide). the methanol extract from c. aurantium was successively re-extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, butanol, and water. a dichloromethane fraction showed a suppressive effect. the suppressive compounds in the dichloromethane fraction were isolated by sio(2) column chroma ...199910606602
effect of umbelliferone on tail tendon collagen and haemostatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.diabetes mellitus is known to affect collagen in various tissues. umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant and benzopyrone, is found in golden apple (aegle marmelos correa) and bitter orange (citrus aurantium). plant-derived phenolic coumarins have been shown to act as dietary antioxidants. in this study, we have investigated the influence of umbelliferone on collagen content and its effects on the tail tendon in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. male albino wistar rats (180-200 g) w ...200717651305
influence of umbelliferone on membrane-bound atpases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.the activities of membrane-bound atpases are altered both in erythrocytes and tissues of streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rats and diabetic patients. umbelliferone (umb), a natural antioxidant, is a benzopyrone occurring in nature, and it is present in the fruits of golden apple (aegle marmelos correa) and bitter orange (citrus aurantium). earlier we evaluated and reported the effect of umb on plasma insulin and glucose, and this study was designed to evaluate the effect of umbelliferone on ...200717652835
naringin and naringenin are not the primary cyp3a inhibitors in grapefruit juice.the effect of various citrus juices and solutions of naringin on cyp3a activity in rat liver microsomes was compared by measuring the formation of 6 beta-hydroxytestosterone from testosterone. control enzyme activity was reduced by more than 70% by grapefruit juice. freshly-squeezed sour (seville) orange juice containing 20% as much naringin was comparable to grapefruit juice in its ability to inhibit microsomal activity. an aqueous solution of naringin at the same concentration as in grapefruit ...19968809221
isolation of antioxidative phenolic glucosides from lemon juice and their suppressive effect on the expression of blood adhesion molecules.phenolic glucosides having radical scavenging activity were examined from the fraction eluted with 20% methanol on amberlite xad-2 resin applied to lemon (citrus limon) juice by using reversed phase chromatography. four phenolic glucosides were identified as 1-feruloyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 1-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 6,8-di-c-glucosylapigenin and 6,8-di-c-glucosyldiosmetin by (1)h-nmr, (13)c-nmr, and ms analyses. they exhibited radical scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydra ...200717690486
non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in trinidad and tobago.this paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in trinidad and tobago. research data was collected from 1995 to september 2000. six plants are used for backyard pigs. crushed leaves of immortelle (erythrina pallida, e. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. leaf decoctions of bois canôt (cecropia peltata) and bamboo (bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpar ...200717944308
[effects of citrus aurantium extract on liver antioxidant defense function in experimental diabetic mouse].to study the effect of citrus aurantium extract on liver antioxidant ability in experimental diabetic mice.200718303628
tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and citrus aurantium fruit.the toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. a single dosage corresponding to 70x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old nmri lean mice or 6- or 11-week-old c57bl/6j lean mice. daily treatment of 11-week-old c57bl/ksbom-db (db/db) genetic diabetic mice with a dose corresponding to 10x human-daily-dose for 6 weeks facilitated a significant weight los ...200616455217
contact and photocontact allergy to ketoprofen. the belgian experience.topical ketoprofen (kp) is widely used because of its anti-inflammatory effect. however, photocontact dermatitis is a side-effect. between may 2001 and june 2002, the belgian contact & environmental dermatitis group conducted a prospective, open patch and photopatch test study in 20 patients suspected of kp dermatitis. severe skin symptoms requiring systemic corticotherapy occurred in 47%. 5 patients were hospitalized. 1 patient showed prolonged photosensitivity. all patients were tested with kp ...200415186381
effects of three purgative decoctions on inflammatory traditional chinese medicine (tcm), there are three cheng-chi-tang decoctions (cctds) including: ta-cheng-chi-tang (tcct), xiao-chen-chi-tang (xcct) and tiao-wei-chen-chi-tang (twcct), which are the frequently used purgative remedies to treat "internal heat"-induced symptoms like a bloated and painful abdomen, hard stools and fever, etc. constituents in each formulation are rheum palmatum l. (polygonaceae), magnolia officinalis rehd. et wils. (magnoliaceae), citrus aurantium l. (rutaceae), mi ...200616310993
chiral separation of diastereomeric flavanone-7-o-glycosides in citrus by capillary electrophoresis.the 2s- and 2r-diastereomers of major flavanone-7-o-glycosides found in sweet orange (citrus sinensis), mandarine (citrus deliciosa), grapefruit (citrus paradisi), lemon (citrus limon), and sour or bitter orange juice (citrus aurantium) were separated for the first time by chiral capillary electrophoresis (ce) employing various buffers with combined chiral selectors. native cyclodextrins (cds), neutral and charged cd derivatives were examined as chiral additives to the background electrolyte (bg ...200312900888
effect of seville orange juice and grapefruit juice on indinavir pharmacokinetics.considerable interpatient variability in indinavir pharmacokinetics, possibly due in part to variable metabolism of the drug through intestinal cytochrome p450 (cyp) 3a4, may contribute to poor virologic response in certain individuals with hiv infection. the purpose of this study was to characterize the influence of intestinal cyp3a4 modulation with grapefruit juice and seville orange juice on indinavir pharmacokinetics. in an open-label, three-period crossover study, 13 healthy volunteers rece ...200212362932
transferability of the est-ssrs developed on nules clementine (citrus clementina hort ex tan) to other citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping.during the last decade, numerous microsatellite markers were developed for genotyping and to identify closely related plant genotypes. in citrus, previously developed microsatellite markers were arisen from genomic libraries and more often located in non coding dna sequences. to optimize the use of these est-ssrs as genetic markers in genome mapping programs and citrus systematic analysis, we have investigated their polymorphism related to the type (di or trinucleotide) or their position in the ...200818558001
concentrations of p-synephrine in fruits and leaves of citrus species (rutaceae) and the acute toxicity testing of citrus aurantium extract and p-synephrine.dietary supplements containing bitter orange unripe fruit extract/p-synephrine are consumed worldwide for lose weight. this study were conducted to determine the concentration of p-synephrine in unripe fruits and leaves from citrus aurantium lin, c. sinensis osbeck, c. deliciosa ten, c. limon burm and c. limonia osbeck, collected in southern brazil, and to evaluate the acute toxicity of c. aurantium extract and p-synephrine. a high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detec ...200818571300
auricular acupressure may improve absorption of flavanones in the extracts from citrus aurantium l. in the human explore whether auricular acupressure could improve the absorption of flavanones in the extracts from citrus aurantium l. in the human body.200818576924
safety issues associated with commercially available energy describe benefits and adverse effects associated with the consumption of energy drinks.200818595815
the effect of grapefruit juice and seville orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan: the role of gut cyp3a and p-glycoprotein.the objective of this study was to determine the effects of grapefruit juice and seville orange juice on dextromethorphan (dm) pharmacokinetics. eleven healthy volunteers were studied over a 3-week period consisting of 5 study days each separated by a three-day washout. all subjects refrained from drinking caffeine containing beverages (coffee, soda, etc.) 8 h before orally taking dm (30 mg) with 200 ml water, 200 ml grapefruit juice, 200 ml water, 200 ml seville orange juice, and 200 ml water o ...200212095536
incidence and epidemiology of citrus tristeza virus in the valencian community of spain.the first outbreak of citrus tristeza disease in spain caused by citrus tristeza virus (ctv) was recorded in 1957 in the valencian community (vc). in total c. 40 million trees, mainly of sweet orange and mandarin grafted on sour orange rootstocks, declined due to ctv. large-scale surveys in different municipalities of the vc indicated that the disease spread very fast. incidence increased from 11% in 1989 to 53% in 1998. toxoptera aurantii and aphis spiraecola (inefficient aphid vectors of ctv) ...200011137164
role of furanocoumarin derivatives on grapefruit juice-mediated inhibition of human cyp3a activity.with juices of grapefruit and related fruits, possible relationships between contents of six different furanocoumarins and extents of inhibition of microsomal cyp3a activity have been studied in vitro. microsomal cyp3a-mediated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation was inhibited by the addition of a fruit juice (2.5%, v/v) from eight different grapefruit sources, two sweeties, three pomelos, and one sour orange, whereas no clear inhibition was observed with two sweet orange juices. the inhibitory com ...200010859150
citrus extract modulates genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in mice bone marrow cells.the protective effect of citrus extract was investigated by using the micronucleus assay for anticlastogenic activity in mouse bone marrow cells; liver glutathione (gsh) content was determined against toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide. mice were orally (gavage) pretreated with solutions of citrus peel extract (citrus aurantium var. amara) prepared at three different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1;) body weight) for 7 consecutive days. then mice were injected intraperitoneally on the seventh ...200515831212
citrus aurantium--beware of the bitter orange. 200818785379
screening of nepalese crude drugs traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation: in vitro tyrosinase inhibition.south-east asian population is daily exposed to strong sunlight. as a result, the majority of population will have darker, ethnic skin. moreover, many people suffer from dark spots, hyperpigmentation, which is considered to be a skin disorder and causes psychological disturbance. to treat dark spots, most of the population will still rely on traditionally used crude drugs, knowledge about which is transferred from generation to generation. fifty-two crude drugs were selected based on the survey ...200818822041
brevipalpus californicus, b. obovatus, b. phoenicis, and b. lewisi (acari: tenuipalpidae): a review of their biology, feeding injury and economic importance.the genus brevipalpus includes most of the economically important species of tenuipalpidae. many brevipalpus species reproduce by theletokous parthenogenesis while other species reproduce by male fertilization of female eggs. previous researchers have determined that brevipalpus californicus (banks), b. obovatus donnadieu, and b. phoenicis (geijskes) females were haploid with two chromosomes. the life cycle and developmental times for these three species are reviewed. longevity of each brevipalp ...200314756411
polymorphism of a specific region in gene p23 of citrus tristeza virus allows discrimination between mild and severe isolates.the pathogenicity determinants of citrus tristeza virus (ctv) are presently unknown, although transgenic mexican limes over-expressing ctv p23, an rna-binding protein involved in regulating the asymmetrical accumulation of viral rna strands, display typical ctv symptoms. here we compared the predominant sequence variants of gene p23 from 18 ctv isolates of different geographic origin and pathogenicity characteristics. phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed three groups of isolates: i) ...200314648289
qtl analysis of citrus tristeza virus-citradia interaction.citrus tristeza virus (ctv) has caused the death of millions of trees grafted on sour orange ( citrus aurantium). however, this rootstock is very well adapted to the mediterranean, semi-arid conditions. the aim of the present research is to genetically analyze the accumulation of ctv in a progeny derived from the cross between c. aurantium and poncirus trifoliata, both resistant to ctv isolate t-346. graft propagation of 104 hybrids was done on healthy sweet orange as a rootstock. three months l ...200414614564
native and introduced host plants of anastrepha fraterculus and ceratitis capitata (diptera: tephritidae) in northwestern argentina.wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the tucumán province (nw argentina) from january 1990 to december 1995 to determine their status as hosts of anastrepha fraterculus (wiedemann) and/or ceratitis capitata (wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in argentina. a total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. we determined the followin ...200314503581
variation in oral clearance of saquinavir is predicted by cyp3a5*1 genotype but not by enterocyte content of cytochrome p450 3a5.saquinavir, a widely prescribed human immunodeficiency virus 1 protease inhibitor, has a low and variable oral bioavailability that has been attributed to extensive first-pass extraction mediated by hepatic or intestinal cytochrome p450 (cyp) 3a4 and intestinal p-glycoprotein (p-gp). the polymorphic cyp3a5 has also been shown to influence the saquinavir metabolite/parent urinary ratio, suggesting a role for cyp3a5.200516338276
pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the mediterranean region.this paper reviews the pharmacological properties of mediterranean-grown citrus species (citrus l., rutaceae), including citron (citrus medica l.), lime (citrus xauantiifolia [christm.] swingle), lemon (citrus xlimon [l.] osbeck), bitter orange (citrus xaurantium l.) and pomelo (citrus maxima [burm.] merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. the virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared to those known to modern science. a much broader spectrum of ph ...200415652281
high quality bergamot oil from greece: chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the west nile virus vector.tauhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from greece (citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) were studied. the bergamot trees in question were cultivated on kefalonia island. the plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity) was collected between december and march for a two year period. the rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. the maximum yield calcul ...200919255543
infection of citrus roots by tylenchulus semipenetrans reduces root infection by phytophthora nicotianae.bioassays and whole-plant experiments were conducted to investigate the interaction between tylenchulus semipenetrans and phytophthora nicotianae. both organisms are parasites of the citrus fibrous root cortex. nematode-infected and non-infected root segments were excised from naturally infected field roots and placed on water agar in close proximity to agar plugs of p. nicotianae and then transferred to a phytophthora-selective medium. at 10 and 12 days, 50% fewer nematode-infected segments wer ...200219265961
characterization of guignardia mangiferae isolated from tropical plants based on morphology, issr-pcr amplifications and its1-5.8s-its2 sequences.phenotypic and genotypic variability of 18 endophytic guignardia strains from different host plants (anacardiaceae: anacardium giganteum, myracrodruon urundeuva, spondias mombin; apocynaceae: aspidosperma polyneuron; ericaceae: rhododendron sp.; fabaceae: bowdichia nitida; leguminosae: cassia occidentalis; rutaceae: citrus aurantium) growing in different sites in brazil was assessed by means of morphometric measurements and inter-single-sequence-repeat-anchored polymerase chain reaction (issr-pc ...200415035504
reproductive fitness and random amplified polymorphic dna variation among isolates of pratylenchus vulnus.the reproductive fitness of seven isolates of pratylenchus vulnus from different geographical areas and hosts was assessed in monoxenic cultures (carrot), and greenhouse cultures (plum, sour orange, and quince). the genetic makeup of the different isolates was compared by random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd-pcr). the apple (pvap-s) and apricot (pvat-f) isolates reproduced less in monoxenic cultures than the rose (pvro-s) and walnut (pvwa-a and pvwa-u) isolates. on plum, the rose isolate (pvro ...199419279892
host range of a population of pratylenchus vulnus in commercial fruit, nut, citrus, and grape rootstocks in a host-range study carried out under greenhouse conditions, a total of 37 commercial fruit tree, grape, and citrus rootstocks were tested for their reaction to a population of the lesion nematode, pratylenchus vulnus, in spain. twenty-five rootstocks had a pf/pi > 1.5. these included almond (desmayo rojo, 1143), apple (em-9, em-106), avocado (hass), cherry (santa lucia 64, camil, m x m 14, masto de montafiana), grape (41-b, fercal, ritcher 110), hazelnut (pauetet), loquat (nadal), peach (mont ...199219283047
influence of the sting nematode, belonolaimus longicaudalus, on young citrus trees.the sting nematode, belonolaimus longicaudatus, was associated with poor growth of citrus in a central florida nursery. foliage of trees was sparse and chlorotic. affected rootstocks included changsha and cleopatra mandarin orange; flying dragon, rubidoux, and jacobsen trifoliate orange; macrophylla and milam lemon; palestine sweet lime; sour orange; and the hybrids - carrizo, morton, and rusk citrange and swingle citrumelo. root symptoms included apical swelling, development of swollen terminal ...198519294118
radioprotective effects of citrus extract against gamma-irradiation in mouse bone marrow cells.the radioprotective effects of citrus extract were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic and cell proliferation activity. a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of citrus extract (citrus aurantium var. amara) at 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to gamma-ray irradiation (1.5 gy) reduced the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mnpce(s)) and normochromatic erythrocytes (mnnce (s)). all three doses of citrus extract significantly reduced t ...200314646227
classification of aurantii fructus samples by multivariate analysis.twenty commercial samples of aurantii fructus immaturus (poncitrus trifoliata) and 30 of aurantii fructus maturus (citrus aurantium and c. wilsonii) were collected from the taiwan and china herbal markets. the contents of 12 constituents in these samples were determined by hplc and were used to assess the potential relationships with their plant origins. multivariate analysis including principal component analysis (pca), cluster analysis (ca), and linear discriminant analysis (lda) were used as ...200717638357
citrus tree decline caused by pratylenchus coffeae.the pathogenic effects of pratylenchus coffeae on growth and yield of tangelo (citrus paradisi x c. reticulata) scions grafted on rough lemon (c jambhiri), sour orange (c. aurantium) and 'cleopatra' mandarin (c. reticulata) rootstocks were evaluated under field conditions for 4 years. pratylenchus coffeae on inoculated trees increased to significantly damaging population densities on rough lemon rootstock the second year, on sour orange the third and on cleopatra mandarin the fourth year after p ...197319319354
a rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(n) method for evaluation of synephrine in citrus aurantium l. samples.immature bitter orange fruit and its extracts have been introduced into the market as an alternative to ephedra in weight loss products. however, the safety of the immature bitter orange fruit and its extracts is a debated argument due to the presence of synephrine, a constituent known as a sympathomimetic agent. in this paper, we describe the development of a new, rapid, and simple liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method devoted to the quantitative determin ...200516366666
delay expression of limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase makes delayed bitterness in citrus.genes encoding limonoid udp-glucosyltransferase from albedo of six citrus species with different levels of delayed bitterness are isolated and cloned in vector ptz57r/t. our results indicate that gene sequence of sweet lime (with intense juice delayed bitterness) have complete identity with satsuma mandarin (without distinctive juice delayed bitterness). also gene sequence of marsh seedless grapefruit, local orange and thompson navel orange (with mild juice delayed bitterness) have very similari ...200818407832
citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae).the aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from greek plants of the rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae). essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (citrus sinensis l.), lemon (citrus limon l.), and bitter orange (citrus aurantium l.). the chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (gc/ms) analysis. citrus essentia ...200919424721
protective effect of umbelliferone on membranous fatty acid composition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.umbelliferone (umb), a natural antioxidant, is benzopyrone in nature, and it is present in the fruits of golden apple and bitter orange. earlier we evaluated and reported the effect of umbelliferone on antidiabetic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties, and this study was designed to evaluate the effect of umbelliferone on membrane fatty acid composition and histopathology of liver and kidney of control and streptozotocin (stz) diabetic rats. male albino wistar rats (180-200 g) were mad ...200717477917
citrus viroid v: occurrence, host range, diagnosis, and identification of new variants.the recently described citrus viroid v (cvd-v) has been proposed as a new species of the genus apscaviroid within the family pospiviroidae. analysis of 64 samples from different citrus-growing areas has shown that cvd-v is present in the united states, spain, nepal, and the sultanate of oman. cvd-v found in six sweet orange sources from the sultanate of oman was identical to the reference cvd-v variant, whereas three new variants with sequence identities of 98.6% (cvd-vca), 97.3% (cvd-vst), and ...200818943408
novel triterpenoid from citrus aurantium l. possesses chemopreventive properties against human colon cancer cells.potential cancer preventive constituents of sour orange (citrus aurantium l.) were isolated and identified from etoac extract of sour orange. crude etoac extract was purified using silica gel column chromatography to isolate two putative bioactive compounds. the purity of the isolated compounds was analyzed by tlc and hplc. the structures of the two compounds were identified by one-dimensional ((1)h, (13)c) and two-dimensional ((1)h-h and (1)h-(13)c) nmr experiments as isolimonic acid and a nove ...200818490169
citrus response to salinity: growth and nutrient determine the effects of salinity on relative growth rate (rgr), net assimilation rate on a leaf weight basis (nar(w)), leaf weight ratio (lwr), and nutrient uptake and utilization of citrus, we grew four citrus rootstocks (sour orange, cleopatra mandarin, carrizo citrange and citrus macrophylla) in nutrient solutions containing 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 mm nacl for 20, 40 or 60 days. for each element analyzed, specific absorption rate (sar) and specific utilization rate on a leaf basis (sur(l)) we ...199714759868
a comparison of citrus blossom volatiles.the objective of this study was to identify the major volatiles and their relative concentrations in intact grapefruit, sweet orange, sour orange, mandarin, lemon, lime and pummelo blossoms. volatiles from freshly picked blossoms were collected and concentrated using static headspace solid-phase microextraction and then separated and identified using gc-ms. seventy volatiles were detected, 66 identified, of which 29 were identified for the first time in citrus blossoms. major volatiles consisted ...200919747702
thermogenic effect from nutritionally enriched coffee consumption.abstract : background : the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nutritionally enriched javafittrade mark (jf) coffee (450 mg of caffeine, 1200 mg of garcinia cambogia, 360 mg of citrus aurantium extract, and 225 mcg of chromium polynicotinate) on resting oxygen uptake (vo2), respiratory exchange ratio (rer), heart rate (hr), and blood pressure (bp) in healthy and physically active individuals. method : ten subjects (8 male, 2 female; 20.9 +/- 1.7 y; 178.1 +/- 10.4 cm; 71.8 +/- 12. ...200618500961
essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy.a number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. popular anxiolytic oils include lavender (lavandula angustifolia), rose (rosa damascena), orange (citrus sinensis), bergamot (citrus aurantium), lemon (citrus limon), sandalwood (santalum album), clary sage (salvia sclarea), roman chamomile (anthemis nobilis), and rose-scented geranium (pelargonium spp.). this review discusses the chemical constituents and cns effects of these aroma ...200919831048
tramil ethnopharmacological survey: knowledge distribution of medicinal plant use in the southeast region of puerto rico.tramil network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the caribbean, a "biodiversity hotspot" due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss.200919999241
etiology of three recent diseases of citrus in são paulo state: sudden death, variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing.the state of são paulo (ssp) is the first sweet orange growing region in the world. yet, the ssp citrus industry has been, and still is, under constant attack from various diseases. in the 1940s, tristeza-quick decline (t-qd) was responsible for the death of 9 million trees in ssp. the causal agent was a new virus, citrus tristeza virus (ctv). the virus was efficiently spread by aphid vectors, and killed most of the trees grafted on sour orange rootstock. control of the disease resided in replac ...200717505974
influence of umbelliferone on glycoprotein components in diabetic rats.abstract umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a derivative of coumarin, is benzopyrone in nature, and it is present in the fruits of golden apple (aegle marmelos correa) and bitter orange (citrus aurantium). the present study was designed with the objective of evaluating the effect of umbelliferone (umb) on glycemic control and glycoprotein components in the plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart, and brain) of streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic rats. adult male albino rats of wistar strain, ...200720020964
essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: a preliminary in vitro study.dysbiosis is associated with a number of gastrointestinal and systemic disorders. there is a need for selectively acting antimicrobial agents capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, or those found to be out of balance, while not negatively impacting the bulk gastrointestinal tract microflora.200920030464
the pathogenicity determinant of citrus tristeza virus causing the seedling yellows syndrome maps at the 3'-terminal region of the viral genome.citrus tristeza virus (ctv) (genus closterovirus, family closteroviridae) causes some of the more important viral diseases of citrus worldwide. the ability to map disease-inducing determinants of ctv is needed to develop better diagnostic and disease control procedures. a distinctive phenotype of some isolates of ctv is the ability to induce seedling yellows (sy) in sour orange, lemon and grapefruit seedlings. in florida, the decline isolate of ctv, t36, induces sy, whereas a widely distributed ...201020078776
reduction of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli in poultry skin by fruit extracts.campylobacter spp. are a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans, and current methods to control campylobacter contamination in foods are not completely successful. plants are a promising source of antimicrobial agents, particularly given the growing interest in "all natural" foods. in this study, the antimicrobial activity of extracts from 28 edible plants against campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli was evaluated in vitro and in a poultry skin model. nine of 28 extr ...201020202332
development and validation of a gc/it-ms method for simultaneous quantitation of para and meta-synephrine in biological samples.after the fda's ban of ephedrine-containing supplements, citrus aurantium appeared as an alternative to ephedra in herbal weight loss products. synephrine, the most abundant active component of c. aurantium, exists in three different structural or positional isomeric forms (ortho-o-, meta-m-, and para-p-). dietary supplements contain m- and p-synephrine, both alpha-adrenergic agonists,while the m-isoform is the most potent at alpha(1)-adrenoreceptors. in spite of the pharmacokinetic and toxicolo ...201020303689
screening for in vivo (anti)estrogenic activity of ephedrine and p-synephrine and their natural sources ephedra sinica stapf. (ephedraceae) and citrus aurantium l. (rutaceae) in rats.formulations containing ephedra sinica stapf. (ephedraceae) and citrus aurantium l. (rutaceae) are consumed worldwide for body weight control. considering the related adverse effects and the risk potential, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the thermogenic compounds ephedrine, p-sinephrine, e. sinica and c. aurantium in the female reproductive system through the uterotrophic assay in immature female rats. the animals (n = 6-7) received e. sinica 85.5 and 855.0 mg/kg/day, c. aur ...200918651134
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