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effect of some environmental factors on survival of overwintering mosquitoes, culex pipiens pallens.in connection with the possible overwintering of japanese b encephalitis virus in mosquitoes, some experiments were carried out to examine the effect of temperature, day-length and blood feeding on the survival of the overwintering population of the mosquito, culex pipiens pallens. no significant difference was observed in the survival rate between the blood-fed and unfed groups under a higher temperature (24 degrees c) and longer day-length (l:d 14:10). under a lower temperature (16 degrees c) ...19854023465
genetics of cross-resistance to organophosphates, abate, fenitrothion and malathion in larvae of culex pipiens pallens coquillett. 19705310941
[observations on criteria of ovarian diapause in culex pipiens pallens and its hormone control]. 19846518631
late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the republic of korea.field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 september 2000 in a malarious area near paekyeon-ri (tongil-chon) and camp greaves in paju county, kyonggi province, republic of korea. the host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of japanese encephalitis, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and ...200211949213
larvicidal activity of isobutylamides identified in piper nigrum fruits against three mosquito species.the insecticidal activity of materials derived from the fruits of piper nigrum against third instar larvae of culex pipiens pallens, aedes aegypti, and a. togoi was examined and compared with that of commercially available piperine, a known insecticidal compound from piper species. the biologically active constituents of p. nigrum fruits were characterized as the isobutylamide alkaloids pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide, and retrofractamide a by spectroscopic analysis. retrofractamide a was is ...200211902925
preoviposition activation of cathepsin-like proteinases in degenerating ovarian follicles of the mosquito culex pipiens pallens.within developing ovaries of many insects, some developing follicles or oocytes usually degenerate (follicular atresia or oosorption), while the others may continue to grow to maturity, thus maintaining the balance between the number of eggs and reproductive circumstances such as available nutrients. to help clarify the phenomenon of follicular atresia during ovarian development, we examined cysteine proteinases stored in mosquito culex pipiens pallens ovaries. first, analysis using synthesized ...200111518506
[cloning and identification of cytochrome p450 resistance related genes in the mosquito, culex pipiens pallens].to inquire into the relationship between cytochrome p450 and deltamethrin resistance.200012567630
[observation on the effectiveness of repellent coating against mosquitoes].the present paper reports on the effectiveness of a repellent coating for the first time. the repellent coating was made by combining deta (n,n-diethyl-meta-toluamide) with slow-releasing reagent. with this coating employed in the laboratory against aedes aegypti, the rate of blood-sucking was 3.9-9.5% and the rate of protection was 88.9-95.3% for 1-720 days. during 1-77 days' field trial, the rpi (relative population index) was 0-8.98% in the day-time and 0.74-17.15 during the night-time agains ...19921307278
resistance to deltamethrin in culex pipiens pallens (diptera: culicidae) from zhejiang, china.resistance to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, was found in 7 culex pipiens pallens l. populations collected in zhejiang (southeast china). larval populations exhibited resistance ratios of 5.9-24.73 at lc50 and of 95.8-294.5 at lc95. mortality ratios between field-collected adults and susceptible laboratory adults exposed to the discriminating dosage (0.01%/20 min) were 44.7-87.3. resistance levels varied among populations as follows: wenzhou > ningbo > hangzhou > zhoushan > jiaxing > ji ...199910337113
relative fitness of three organophosphate-resistant strains of culex pipiens pallens (diptera: culicidae).effects of dipterex, temephos, and chlorpyrifos resistance on the relative fitness of culex pipiens pallens (l.) were evaluated by examining developmental and reproductive characteristics. age-specific life tables of dip-r- (dipterex), tmo-r- (temephos), and chl-r- (chlorpyrifos) resistant strains were compared with the susceptible strain to determine relative fitness based on population trend indices (i). the 3 organophosphate-resistant strains possessed reproductive and developmental disadvant ...19989775599
insecticidal and antifungal activities of aminorhodanine derivatives.aminorhodanine (1) showed strong insecticidal activity against culex pipiens pallens and musca domestica, with respective ld50 values of 0.21 microgram/insect and 0.87 microgram/insect. compound 1 had antifungal activity against aspergillus niger atcc-16404, trichophyton mentagrophytes ifo-32412, candida albicans atcc-10231, hansenula anomala ops-308 and penicillium expansum ifo-8800. in particular, 1 had potent antifungal activity against aspergillus niger atcc-16404, its minimal inhibitory con ...19989648238
studies on the transmission potential of surviving microfilaremias after basic control of filariasis.after filariasis was basically controlled (the microfilarial rate was lower than 1%) in henan province in 1987, longitudinal observation of the disease has been carried out in all the province in order to study the regular pattern of growth and decline or the transmission potential of the disease. according to the distribution of filaria species and original microfilarial rate, 7 administrative villages in 7 counties were selected as surveillance sites. from 1988 to 1995, etiological and mosquit ...19979444011
possible culex pipiens pallens control by improvement of flow rates in water channels of saga city, southwest japan.water levels and flow rates (no. censuses with flow/no. censuses per year) were analyzed for 208 mosquito-productive and 422 mosquito-free channel segments during 1986-88 in saga city, southwest japan. mean water levels tended to be higher at mosquito-free segments than at mosquito-productive segments, but the differences were < 5 cm and usually not significant. flow rates exceeded 80% at 60-67% of mosquito-free segments. in contrast, flow rates were < 20% at 49-62% of mosquito-productive segmen ...19969046470
macroconditions of channel segments utilized by culex pipiens pallens immatures in saga city, southwest japan.the relation between macroconditions of water channels and the breeding of culex pipiens pallens in saga city were examined, based on weekly census data over 3 years for ca. 2,000 channel segments. mosquito breeding activity was greatest in channel segments between building lots and field lots in the suburban area. the segments involved ranged from narrow roadside ditches (width < 1 m) to wide irrigation canals (width > 10 m), all of which were utilized by mosquitoes. there was a weak tendency f ...19958825506
[variations of free amino acids in hemolymph of culex pipiens pallens during overwintering period].an analysis of the amino acids present in the hemolymph of culex pipiens pallens caught from resting or overwintering places (blood meal: sella 1, i.e. empty; ovary stage: under christophers iib) in zhengzhou (34 degrees 43'n, 113 degrees 39e) indicated that 19, 18 and 18 kinds of free amino acids (faas) were detected during stages of preoverwintering, overwintering and postoverwintering respectively. comparison of hemolymph amino acids between overwintering and preoverwintering stages revealed ...19938403270
induction of oogenesis in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) by infusion of the hemocoel with amino acids.as done previously with adult females of culex pipiens pallens coquillett, a mixture of 17 amino acids was infused into the hemocoel of females of seven anautogenous and one autogenous mosquito species belonging to three genera. in culex. p. quinquefasciatus say, cx. tritaeniorhynchus giles, cx. kyotoensis yamaguti & lacasse, aedes albopictus (skuse), armigeres subalbatus (coquillett), and cx. p. molestus forskal, which previously had laid autogenously matured first batch of eggs, ovarian develo ...200111476338
[variations during developmental process of ache isoenzyme in susceptible strain and dipterex-resistant strain of the culex pipiens pallens coq]. 19883273665
[studies on the life cycle of culex pipiens pallens in korea]the present studies were carried out, under natural room condition from june to july in 1969. 1. the period required for growth of eggs and larva varied according to various temperatures and methods of rearing. 2. the average number of eggs laid by the culex pipiens pallens was 137 per egg raft. 3. the period of gonotrophic cycle was from 3 to 6 days: incubation period of eggs was from 1.5 to 2 days; larva period was from 10 to 14 days: pupa period was from 2 to 3 days. accordingly, the period f ...197012913524
epidemiological surveillance of filariasis after its control in shandong province, china.shandong province used to be the highly endemic area of wuchereria bancrofti. culex pipiens pallens was the main mosquito vector. after about 30 years of large scale anti-filariasis control campaign, filariasis was controlled throughout the province in 1983. since then, extensive cross-sectional and consecutive longtitudinal surveillances have been carried out. parasitological and entomological data indicated that the microfilaremia rate of the human population, and the natural infection rate of ...19947667720
characterization of human ige and mouse igg1 responses to allergens in three mosquito species by immunoblotting and elisa.ige-mediated allergic reactions caused by mosquito bites are a common problem all over the world. this study was undertaken to determine ige levels in subjects, to elucidate human ige and mouse igg1 binding patterns and to investigate the cross-reactivity of salivary gland antigens with three mosquitoes.200111752877
repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against culex pipiens pallens.essential oils of eulcalyptus globulus, lavender officinalis, rosemarinus officinalis, and thymus vulgaris were examined for their repellent activities against culex pipiens pallens. all 4 essential oils effectively repelled adult mosquitoes on hairless mice. essential oil of t. vulgaris (thyme) had potent repellent activity within the tested materials, with a protection rate of 91% at a concentration of 0.05% topical treatment. thyme essential oil significantly extended the duration of protecti ...200212542193
[cloning and identification of deltamethrin-resistance or susceptibility associated genes of culex pipiens pallens].to obtain deltamethrin-resistance or susceptibility associated genes of culex pipiens pallens.200112571962
[microplate test of non-specific esterase detection for insecticide resistance of culex pipiens pallens]. 200112572008
reproductive activity and survival of culex pipiens pallens and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae) in japan at high temperature.the egg hatchability, insemination, and longevity of japanese culex pipiens pallens coquillett and japanese culex quinquefasciatus say were compared at 25 and 30 degrees c. egg hatchability was high in cx. p. pallens at 25 degrees c, but it was very low at 30 degrees c because almost no females were inseminated at this temperature. in cx. quinquefasciatus, the egg hatchability and insemination rates were very high, even at 30 degrees c. the longevity of adult females and males was generally shor ...200211931255
entrainability of circadian activity of the mosquito culex pipiens pallens to 24-hr temperature cycles, with special reference to involvement of multiple oscillators.entrainability of the circadian rhythm of mosquito flight and locomotor activity was investigated by giving a 24-hr temperature cycle (28 degrees c for 16 hr, 23 degrees c for 8 hr) to the free-running rhythm or by shifting the temperature cycle. the phase angle difference between the entrained rhythm and the temperature cycle depended on the free-running period, but not on the circadian phase at which the temperature cycle started. the rhythm transients (advancing or delaying) to entrainment de ...19938280910
predation efficacy of the fish muddy loach, misgurnus mizolepis, against aedes and culex mosquitoes in laboratory and small rice plots.assessments of the biological control potential of muddy loaches, misgurnus mizolepis, were conducted against aedes togoi, culex pipiens pallens, and culex inatomii larvae both in the laboratory and in small rice plots in pusan, korea, from june to september 1997. medium-sized fish consumed almost all of 500 3rd-stage larvae of cx. pipiens pallens offered daily in the laboratory. predation by the fish at release rates of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 fish per plot resulted in 1,004, 1,197, 1,198, 1,200, an ...200011081657
[analysis of the protein/polypeptide in culex pipiens pallens (diptera:culicidae) during hibernation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis].analysis on the protein/polypeptide in culex pipiens pallens (diptera: culicidae) caught from the resting or overwintering places during the 3rd ten-day of september, the 2nd ten-day of december and the 1st ten-day of march in next year in zhengzhou (34 degrees 43' n, 113 degrees 39' e) during hibernation by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis indicated that there were 153, 118 and 169 protein/polypeptide spots in unoverwintering, overwintering and recovering mosquitoes respectively. the molecul ...19938174216
mosquito larvicidal activity of pipernonaline, a piperidine alkaloid derived from long pepper, piper longum.a methanol extract of piper longum fruit was found to be active against mosquito larvae of culex pipiens pallens at 10 microg/ml after 24 h. a piperidine alkaloid, pipernonaline, was found to be responsible for this activity, with the 24-h median lethal dose (ld50) value for this compound being 0.21 mg/liter. the ld50 value of pipernonaline was not much higher than those for the 3 organophosphorous insecticides malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and pirimiphos-methyl, used for comparative purpose i ...200011081654
[relative activity of succinate dehydrogenase in mitochondria of thoracic muscles of culex tritaeniorhyncus and culex pipiens pallens]. 200112572057
[inhibition of in vitro translation of esterase mrna of dipterex-resistant mosquito (culex pipiens pallens) by antisense nucleic acids].to examine the inhibitory effect of antisense nucleic acid on the in vitro translation of esterase mrna from dipterex-resistant culex pipiens pallens.200112572062
comparison of the autogenous potentials of newly-emerged anautogenous female mosquitoes.the autogenous potentials in several species of newly emerged anautogenous female mosquitoes were examined by homoplastic transplantion of resting stage ovaries into newly-emerged females. ovaries from 4-day-old female culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, with follicles at stage ib, were all activated in the newly emerged hosts and deposited some yolk in the oocyte. in addition, some of the implants (5-10%) matured. transplanted c. tritaeniorhynchus ovaries also started to develop beyond the ib resti ...199712769925
ovarian development induced in decapitated female culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes by infusion of physiological quantities of 20-hydroxyecdysone together with amino acids.infusion of 20-hydroxyecdysone into the hemocoel of unfed decapitated female culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes, at a very low rate of 500-2000pg per day, often stimulated oögenesis of this species, when the hormone was infused together with amino acids. the hormone alone or amino acids alone showed no such stimulatory effect. previous reports that using an abdomen ligated immediately after a blood meal for hormone injection reduced the quantity of 20-hydroxyecdysone needed to activate unfed femal ...199812770172
synthesis and stereostructure-activity relationship of three asymmetric center pyrethroids: 2-methyl-3-phenylcyclopropylmethyl 3-phenoxybenzyl ether and cyanohydrin ester.2-methyl-3-phenylcyclopropylmethyl 3-phenoxybenzyl ether 2 and cyanohydrin ester 3, a couple of pyrethroids with three asymmetric centers, were synthesized. of each of the four diastereomers of 2 and 3, only the (1r*,2r*,3r*)-2a and 3a showed significant insecticidal activities. dual sets of enantiomers [(1r,2r,3r)-(-)-2a and (1s,2s,3s)-(+)-2a] and [(1r,2r,3r)-(-)-3a and (1s,2s,3s)-(+)-3a] were synthesized through the asymmetric cyclopropanation using the aratani catalyst. significant separation ...200111197343
[explosion of culex pipiens pallens in winter season and its control]. 200312884603
experimental studies on the role on the house mosquito, culex pipiens pallens in the transmission of bancroftian filariasis. iii. duration of life of filariae in mosquitoes exposed to winter temperatures. 195813625743
[the correlation between ddvp resistance of culex pipiens pallens and esterase activity].to detect the resistance index and esterase activity of each generation of ddvp-resistant culex mosquitoes and analyze the relationship between insecticide resistance and esterase.200312884618
seasonal prevalence of the vector mosquitoes of japanese encephalitis virus in kyungpook province, korea.in order to determine the seasonal prevalence and population density of vector mosquitoes in kyungpook province, a survey based on average number of female mosquito per trap-night, were carried out during the period from may to november in 1984. among the 34,571 mosquitoes collected in kyungsan county in animal shelters and human dwellings by light traps, approximately 45.0 % were culex tritaeniorhynchus, 34.0 % per cent culex pipiens pallens, and 19.0 per cent anopheles sinensis. by comparison, ...198512888695
collection of adult and larval mosquitoes in u.s. army compounds in the republic of korea during 1979~1983.this paper is the result of adult female mosquito and larval collection in u.s. army installations in korea from 1979 to 1983. new jersey light traps ere operated for ault collection from may to october. the primary concern of this surveillance is to determine when to recommend insecticide spraying for mosquito control in the army areas. the 5th preventive medicine unit have developed an "index" level of female mosquitoes in a light trap similar to other u.s.army agencies in other parts of the w ...198412891039
[cloning and sequence analysis of full-length trypsin cdna of culex pipiens pallens].the expression difference of trypsin gene between deltamethrin-resistant strain and -susceptible strain of culex pipiens pallens was further investigated, and the results showed that the expression of trypsin gene were respectively 4.3 and 3.9 fold more in the resistant strain than in the susceptible strain, by reverse northern blot and northern blot assays. a full-length trypsin cdna of 909 base pairs (genbank/ncbi ay034060) with an open reading frame of 786 base pairs was cloned from the const ...200211958130
changes in free amino acid concentration in the hemolymph of the female culex pipiens pallens (diptera: culicidae), after a blood meal.the analysis of the free amino acids in the hemolymph of female culex pipiens pallens l. indicated that asparagine, glutamine, glycine, leucine, serine, threonine, tyrosine, and valine noticeably increased in concentration during a blood meal digestion at 22 degrees c. the concentrations started to rise at about 4 h, reaching maximal level at 12-24 h, and then gradually returned to the prefeeding level by the fifth day after the blood meal. before the sharp increase, the concentrations of aspara ...19902332874
[comparative studies on diapause responses between culex tritaeniorhynchus and culex pipiens pallens].by comparing the diapause responses between locally hibernating species, c. pipiens pallens, and c. tritaeniorhynchus the overwintering way of which is yet unknown, we found the relative identities of these 2 species in their ovarian diapause criteria, change of the mid-gut and the behaviour of refusing blood feeding. the increases in body weight and fatty contents in the dispersed tritaeniorhynchus were much less than those in diapause pipiens species. moreover, their ability to resist low temp ...19892766496
[genetic analysis of deltamethrin resistance in culex pipiens pallens].to analyse the genetic character of deltamethrin resistant laboratory strain (resistant factor being 518) of cx. pipiens pallens.199812078202
emodin isolated from cassia obtusifolia (leguminosae) seed shows larvicidal activity against three mosquito species.mosquito larvicidal activity of cassia obtusifolia (leguminosae) seed-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of aedes aegypti, aedes togoi, and culex pipiens pallens was examined. the chloroform fraction of c. obtusifolia extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality at 25 mg/l. the biologically active component of c. obtusifolia seeds was characterized as emodin by spectroscopic analyses. the lc(50) values of emodin were 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 mg/l against c. pipiens pall ...200314664519
larvicidal activity of leguminous seeds and grains against aedes aegypti and culex pipiens pallens.larvicidal activity of methanol extracts of 26 leguminous seeds and 20 grains against early 4th-stage larvae of aedes aegypti and culex pipiens pallens was examined. at 200 ppm of the extracts from cassia obtusifolia, cassia tora, and vicia tetrasperma, more than 90% mortality was obtained in larvae of ae. aegypti and cx. pipiens pallens. extract of c. tora gave 86.7 and 100% mortality in the larvae of ae. aegypti and cx. pipiens pallens at 40 ppm but 59.2 and 78.3% mortality against larvae of a ...200212322944
egg production in culex pipiens pallens coquillett. iv. influence of breeding conditions on wing length, body weight and follicle production. 195413211093
egg production in culex pipiens pallens coquillett. v. relation to fattening and biting activity. 195413211105
a review of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of malayan and bancroftian filariasis in japan.malayan filariasis is found in japan only on the small island of hachijo-koshima and is transmitted there by aëdes togoi and probably by culex pipiens pallens.bancroftian filariasis is widely distributed in the three main islands, and is of particularly high endemicity in the south. of the ten mosquito species proved experimentally susceptible to wuchereria bancrofti, only aëdes togoi and culex p. pallens seem to be responsible for transmission of the disease. the former species is of importance ...196213940117
infection of malaria (anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus against tsetse flies (diptera: glossinidae) we investigated the potency of this fungus as a biological control agent for adult malaria and filariasis vector mosquitoes.200314565851
insemination rates of hybrids between culex pipiens pipiens and culex pipiens quinquefasciatus or culex pipiens pallens at high temperature.females of culex pipiens pallens are rarely inseminated at temperatures above 30 degrees c. insemination and egg-hatching rates (f2) were examined in females of hybrids (f1) between culex pipiens pipiens and culex pipiens quinquefasciatus at 25 degrees c and 30 degrees c to examine temperature-dependent reproductive activity. insemination rates were very high in hybrid females (f1) at 25 degrees c and 30 degrees c, and egg-hatching rate (f2) also was high at both temperatures. crosses between cx ...200415264618
follicular epithelial cell apoptosis of atretic follicles within developing ovaries of the mosquito culex pipiens pallens.follicular atresia, the degeneration of developing follicles, is always incident to normal oogenesis in both oviparous and viviparous animals. photo- and electron-microscopic observation of degenerating follicles within developing ovaries taken from blood-fed culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes showed gradual degradation of the internal structures including yolk granules in the oocyte. the epithelial cells, which sometimes incorporated yolk granules from the oocyte along with the shrinkage of the f ...200415518658
larvicidal activity of lignans identified in phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against three mosquito species.the insecticidal activity of phytochemicals isolated from the roots of phryma leptostachya var. asiatica against third instar larvae of culex pipiens pallens, aedes aegypti, and ocheratatos togoi was examined. the two constituents of p. leptostachya var. asiatica roots were identified as the leptostachyol acetate (i) and 8'-acetoxy-2,2',6-trimethoxy-3,4,4',5'-dimethylenedioxyphenyl-7,7'-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (ii) by spectroscopic analysis. compound i was lethal to c. pipiens pallens, a. aegy ...200515713007
monoterpenes from thyme (thymus vulgaris) as potential mosquito repellents.five monoterpenes (carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, alpha-terpinene, and thymol) derived from the essential oil of thyme (thymus vulgaris) were examined for their repellency against the mosquito culex pipiens pallens. all 5 monoterpenes effectively repelled mosquitoes based on a human forearm bioassay. alpha-terpinene and carvacrol showed significantly greater repellency than a commercial formulation, n,n-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (deet), whereas thymol showed similar repellency to that of deet. t ...200515825766
serine proteinase over-expression in relation to deltamethrin resistance in culex pipiens pallens.two serine proteinase genes were isolated from culex pipiens pallens as significantly up-regulated genes in a deltamethrin-resistant strain through a combination of suppression substractive hybridization and gene expression profiling by macroarrays. these two genes were found to be expressed at least threefold higher in the resistant strain than in the susceptible one. by using rapid amplification of cdna ends to screen the constructed cdna library, we cloned these two sequences. there were 909 ...200515876421
cloning and overexpression of cyp6f1, a cytochrome p450 gene, from deltamethrin-resistant culex pipiens pallens.cyp6f1 (genbank/embl accession no. ay662654), a novel gene with a complete encoding sequence in the cytochrome p450 family 6, was cloned and sequenced from deltamethrin-resistant 4th instar larvae of culex pipiens pallens. the cdna sequence of cyp6f1 has an open reading frame of 1527 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 508 amino acid residues. the deduced amino acid sequence of cyp6f1 indicated that the encoded p450 has conserved domains of a putative membrane-anchoring signal, putative redu ...200515880260
[study on the biological characteristics of permethrin-resistant and susceptible strains of culex pipiens pallens].to compare the biological characteristics of culex pipiens pallens between permethrin-resistant strain and the susceptible strain.200516042206
enhanced t-cell response to mosquito extracts by nk cells in hypersensitivity to mosquito bites associated with ebv infection and nk cell lymphocytosis.hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is characterized by severe systemic as well as local symptoms, and associated with chronic active ebv infection and nk cell lymphocytosis. in this hen disease, we investigated the response of pbmc to msg extracts. pbmc were taken from three defined cases of hen disease, three borderline cases, five individuals with simple exaggerated reactions to mosquito bites without systemic symptoms (simple responders), and eight healthy donors. pbmc, or purified cd4+, cd8+ ...200516108834
success against lymphatic filariasis.a campaign against lymphatic filariasis began in china's shandong province during 1956. epidemiological surveillance since 1984 indicates that the transmission of infection has been interrupted. the factors accounting for this are discussed and the continuing challenges presented by the disease are outlined.19979233057
mosquito larvicidal activity of active constituent derived from chamaecyparis obtusa leaves against 3 mosquito species.mosqutio larvicidal activity of chamaecyparis obtusa leaf-derived materials against the 4th-stage larvae of aedes aegypti (l.), ochlerotatus togoi (theobald), and culex pipiens pallens (coquillett) was examined in the laboratory. a crude methanol extract of c. obtusa leaves was found to be active (percent mortality rough) against the 3 species larvae; the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at 100 ppm. the bioactive component in the c. obt ...200516506565
larvicidal activity of extracts of ginkgo biloba exocarp for three different strains of culex pipiens pallens.ethanolic extracts from the ginkgo biloba l. exocarp from the chinese ginkgo were assayed against larvae of three strains of culex pipiens pallens coquillett. the chemical compositions were detected using a hewlett-packard 6890/5973 mass spectrometric detector. the larvicidal bioassay was carried out according to the recommendations of the world health organization. the analysis of the essential oil of ginkgo exocarp showed that its major components are ginkgo acid (85.3%) and ginkgo phenolic (5 ...200616619608
spatially targeting culex quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats on modified land cover for implementing an integrated vector management (ivm) program in three villages within the mwea rice scheme, kenya.continuous land cover modification is an important part of spatial epidemiology because it can help identify environmental factors and culex mosquitoes associated with arbovirus transmission and thus guide control intervention. the aim of this study was to determine whether remotely sensed data could be used to identify rice-related culex quinquefasciatus breeding habitats in three rice-villages within the mwea rice scheme, kenya. we examined whether a land use land cover (lulc) classification b ...200616684354
egg production in culex pipiens pallens coquillett. i. seasonal changes. 195413211088
egg production in culex pipiens pallens coquillett. ii. influence of light and temperature on activity of females. 195413211089
egg production in culex pipiens pallens coquillett. iii. growth and degeneration of ovarian follicles. 195413211092
[filariasis elimination in zoucheng city of shandong province: measures and effect].zoucheng was a high endemic area of bancroftian filariasis with culex pipiens pallens as the principal transmitting vector. transmission of the disease was interrupted in 1981. epidemiological surveillance has been then carried out. after 1989, parasitological and immunological examinations were conducted for those cases previously with and without microfilaremia, entomological surveillance was also carried out. results showed that the antibody level in inhabitants has been at normal level, and ...200616866159
[chemical components of artemisia scoparia volatile oil and its poison activity to mosquito].the study showed that artemisia scoparia contained 0.38% of volatile oil, in which, a total of 38 chemical components were identified, accounting for 87.53% of the substances detected,and 12 kinds of terpenoids compounds were the main components, accounting for 45.04% of the total. the oil had a high and rapid poison activity on culex pipiens pallens larva and adult. the lc50 value for the larva was 12.5 mg x l(-1) within 2 days, and the mortality of the adult in 24 hours was 70% and 100% when t ...200616883825
cloning and expression of two crystal protein genes, cry30ba1 and cry44aa1, obtained from a highly mosquitocidal strain, bacillus thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus ina288.two novel crystal protein genes, cry30ba and cry44aa, were cloned from bacillus thuringiensis subsp. entomocidus ina288 and expressed in an acrystalliferous strain. cry44aa crystals were highly toxic to second-instar culex pipiens pallens (50% mortality concentration [lc50] = 6 ng/ml) and aedes aegypti (lc50 = 12 ng/ml); however, cry30ba crystals were not toxic.200616885329
laboratory transmission of japanese encephalitis, west nile, and getah viruses by mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected near camp greaves, gyeonggi province, republic of korea 2003.we conducted experimental studies to evaluate mosquitoes captured in paju county, gyeonggi province, republic of korea, for their ability to transmit west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv), japanese encephalitis virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, jev), and getah virus (family togaviridae, genus alphavirus, getv) under laboratory conditions. both culex pipiens pallens coquillett and culex tritaeniorhynchus giles were highly susceptible to infection with wnv, with ...200617017248
cloning and overexpression of ribosomal protein l39 gene from deltamethrin-resistant culex pipiens pallens.the complete sequence of ribosomal protein l39 has been cloned from deltamethrin-resistant strain of culex pipiens pallens (dr1 strain). quantitative rt-pcr analysis indicated that the rpl39 transcription level was 23.4 times higher in dr1 strain than in susceptible strain at 4th instar larvae. the rpl39 expression was also found to be consistently higher throughout the life cycle of dr1 strain. a protein of predicted size 17 kda has been detected by western blotting in rpl39-transfected mosquit ...200717092499
physical and biological attributes of water channels utilized by culex pipiens pallens immatures in saga city, southwest japan.physical and biological attributes of water channels utilized by immatures of culex pipiens pallens were studied in saga city, japan. water in mosquito-productive segments generally was stagnant or slowly running (mean < 5 cm/sec), with low and fluctuating dissolved oxygen concentrations and high electric conductivity. water flow > 20 cm/sec was considered necessary for prevention of mosquito breeding. the aquatic fauna in mosquito-productive segments was composed of taxa tolerable to polluted w ...19968827594
cloning and characterization of 40s ribosomal protein s4 gene from culex pipiens pallens.the 40s ribosomal protein s4 gene (rps4) has been cloned from culex pipiens pallens. an open reading frame (orf) of 789 bp was found to encode a putative 262 amino acid protein. the deduced amino acid sequence shares 96% and 91% identity with rps4 genes from aedes and anopheles respectively. transcript expression of rps4 was determined by real-time pcr in all life stages of deltamethrin-susceptible and -resistant strains. the results demonstrated that this gene is expressed at all developmental ...200717196859
ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in british columbia, canada.the use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock.200717324258
identification of differentially expressed genes in female culex pipiens pallens.culex pipiens pallens is the mosquito vector of a number of human pathogens such as wuchereria bancrofti, brugia malayi, and epidemic encephalitis b virus. female c. pipiens pallens play an important role in transmitting pathogens by sucking blood, which is essential for reproduction. in the present study, a subtractive cdna library for female c. pipiens pallens was constructed by the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) technique and then 100 clones from the female ssh library were seque ...200717347850
[epidemiological surveillance of filariasis after its being basically eradicated in shandong province].this paper reports the results of epidemiological surveillance in areas where filariasis has been basically eradicated and control measures no longer adopted in shandong province. a 3-year longitudinal surveillance in 18 villages in 5 counties and a cross-sectional survey in 13 villages of 4 counties were carried out. the results showed that the average microfilaria rate was further reduced from 0.28% and 0.15% in 1980 to 0.19% and 0.05% in 1986, decreased by 32.1% and 66.7% respectively. 34.2% ...19892670312
larvicidal effects of a neem (azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector anopheles gambiae.larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. the potential of natural products as larvicides against the main african malaria vector, anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated.200717519000
diapause-specific gene expression in the northern house mosquito, culex pipiens l., identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization.in this study we probe the molecular events underpinning diapause observed in overwintering females of culex pipiens. using suppressive subtractive hybridization (ssh) we have identified 40 genes that are either upregulated or downregulated during this seasonal period of dormancy. northern blot hybridizations have confirmed the expression of 32 of our ssh clones, including six genes that are upregulated specifically in early diapause, 17 that are upregulated in late diapause, and two upregulated ...200717098250
insecticide resistance in potential vector mosquitoes for west nile virus in japan.culex pipiens complex is the significant vector mosquito of west nile virus. to take stock of the current situation of insecticide susceptibilities and design an ideal mosquito control strategy, we collected culex pipiens pallens coquillet, culex pipiens form molestus forskal, and culex quinquefasciatus say from fields in japan and conducted bioassays for five larvicides (fenitrothion, temephos, etofenprox, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen) by using a larval dipping method. among five insecticide ...200717915515
continuous, mixed, and alternating exposure to deltamethrin and fenthion affect development of resistance in culex pipiens pallens in china.a field population of culex pipiens pallens was collected from nanjing, china on july in 2000 and reared in an insectarium. larvae were subjected to single, mixed, and alternating exposure to deltamethrin and/or fenthion, and the surviving early 4th instars were reared for establishment of adult colonies. larvae from the colonies were then subjected to the same selection pressures over the subsequent 15 generations. resistance rates and ratios were measured as lc50 values derived from larval bio ...200717939515
[investigation of mosquito abundance and composition around the rare birds national nature reserve of yancheng, jiangsu province].to investigate the mosquito abundance and their relative species composition within and outside the rare birds national nature reserve of yancheng, jiangsu province.200718038802
glycosylation of the west nile virus envelope protein increases in vivo and in vitro viral multiplication in birds.many west nile (wn) virus isolates associated with significant outbreaks possess a glycosylation site on the envelope (e) protein. e-protein glycosylated variants of new york (ny) strains of wn virus are more neuroinvasive in mice than the non-glycosylated variants. to determine how e protein glycosylation affects the interactions between wn virus and avian hosts, we inoculated young chicks with ny strains of wn virus containing either glycosylated or non-glycosylated variants of the e protein. ...201020348522
mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau--focused on the qinghai area, china.an investigation was conducted to identify the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the qinghai-tibet plateau, china from july to august in 2007. a total of 8,147 mosquitoes representing six species from three genera (aedes, culex, and anopheles) were collected in three locations (geermu city, altitude of 2,780 m; xining city, 2,200 m; minhe county, 1,700 m). six virus isolates were obtained including tahyna virus (tahv), liaoning virus, and culex pipiens pallens densovir ...201020348523
effect of a mixture of iprobenfos and malathion on the development of malathion resistance in the mosquito culex pipiens pallens coq.a malathion-resistant (rm) strain of culex pipiens pallens coq was obtained by successively selecting a field population with malathion in the laboratory. the synergistic effect of iprobenfos on malathion toxicity and alpha-naphthyl acetate (alpha-na) esterase assay revealed that malathion resistance in the rm strain was associated with increased alpha-na esterase activity and the synergism was mainly due to the inhibition by iprobenfos of this activity. there was no difference in alpha-na ester ...200616235270
identity and transfer of male reproductive gland proteins of the dengue vector mosquito, aedes aegypti: potential tools for control of female feeding and reproduction.male reproductive gland proteins (mrgps) impact the physiology and/or behavior of mated females in a broad range of organisms. we sought to identify mrgps of the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. earlier studies with ae. aegypti demonstrated that "matrone" (a partially purified male reproductive accessory gland substance) or male accessory gland fluid injected into virgin female ae. aegypti affect female sexual refractoriness, blood feed ...200818207079
isolation and characterization of the full coding sequence of a novel densovirus from the mosquito culex pipiens pallens.during an investigation of arboviruses in china, a novel densovirus (dnv) was isolated from the adult female culex pipiens pallens. the virus, designated culex pipiens pallens densovirus (cppdnv), caused cytopathic effect in c6/36 cells. the virus particles were icosahedral, non-enveloped and had a mean diameter of 24 nm. the complete coding region of cppdnv was found to be 3335 nt and it contained three open reading frames (orfs). cppdnv shares 82-93 % identical nucleotides with isolates of the ...200818089743
molecular cloning and characterization of the complete acetylcholinesterase gene (ace1) from the mosquito aedes aegypti with implications for comparative genome analysis.insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ache) has been shown to be responsible for resistance to organophosphates and carbamates in a number of arthropod species. some arthropod genomes contain a single ace gene, while others including mosquitoes contain two genes, but only one confers insecticide resistance. here we report the isolation of the full-length cdna and characterization of the complete genomic dna sequence for the ace1 gene in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. the ace1 homolog in o ...200717550823
[eruptive pseudoangiomatosis: study of 7 cases].eruptive pseudoangiomatosis consists in the acute development of small vascular lesions in the face and extremities that resolve in several weeks without scarring. lesions are described as 3-4 mm asymptomatic macules and papules with peripheral whitish halo that blanch upon pressure. initially it was considered a disease limited to children but it has also been described in adults. it overlaps with the entity known in japan as <<erythema punctatum higuchi>>, possibly caused by an insect named cu ...200717504702
prag01, a novel deltamethrin-resistance-associated gene from culex pipiens pallens.the prag01 gene (genbank accession no. eu073017) was cloned from culex pipiens pallens. an open reading frame of 270 bp was found to encode a putative 89-amino-acid protein which has the highest homology with culex quinquefasciatus and anopheles funestus. real-time quantitative pcr analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of prag01 gene in deltamethrin-resistant strain was 1.65-fold higher than in deltamethrin-susceptible strain of c. pipiens pallens. overexpression of prag01 gene in t ...201020922424
control of mosquito vectors of tropical infectious diseases: (1) bioefficacy of mosquito coils containing several pyrethroids and a synergist.the bioefficacy of mosquito coils containing several pyrethroids were tested in a 25 m3 room against culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti and anopheles dirus. the test results were compared with tests against culex pipiens pallens in japan. based on the kt50 values (the 50% knockdown time) of mosquito coils containing dl, d-t80-allethrin, d, d-t-prallethrin and methoxymethyl-tetrafluorobenzyl tetramethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylate (k-3050) at doses of 0.05-0.5% (w/w) with or without a syne ...200818567443
cloning and characterization of myosin regulatory light chain (mrlc) gene from culex pipiens pallens.myosin regulatory light chain (mrlc) (genbank accession no. dq140391) was cloned from culex pipiens pallens. an open reading frame (orf) of 630 bps was found to encode a putative 210 amino acids protein which shows 73% similarity with myosin regulatory light chain of gryllotalpa orientalis. real-time quantitative pcr analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of mrlc in deltamethrin-resistant strain (dr-strain) was 4.08-fold higher than in deltamethrin-susceptible strain (ds-strain) of c ...200818691666
separation and identification of botanical insecticide 7-hydroxycoumarin and its biological activity against aphis craccivora and culex pipiens pallens.the root powder of stellera chamaejasme was extracted with chloroform. the crude extract obtained was chromatographed with silica gel columns many times. one pure natural product was obtained. it was identified as 7-hydroxycoumarin. laboratory bioassay showed that it had a good insecticidal activity against aphis craccivora and culex pipiens pallens. its median lethal concentrations (lc50) (24 h after treatment) were 19.56 and 0.435 mg l(-1), respectively. the results of regressive and correlati ...200818322853
larvicidal activity of kaempferia galanga rhizome phenylpropanoids towards three mosquito species.this study was aimed at assessing the toxicity of ethyl cinnamate and ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (emc) identified in kaempferia galangal l. (zingiberaceae) rhizome and another 12 known compounds to third-instar larvae from laboratory-reared culex pipiens pallens forskal, aedes aegypti l. and ochlerotatus togoi theobald and field-collected c. pipiens pallens (jinhae colony). results were compared with those for fenthion and temephos.200818324612
adult repellency and larvicidal activity of five plant essential oils against mosquitoes.the larvicidal activity and repellency of 5 plant essential oils--thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil--were tested against 3 mosquito species: aedes albopictus, ae. aegypti, and culex pipiens pallens. larvicidal activity of these essentials oils was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of each of the 3 mosquito species, and amyris oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect with lc50 values in 24 h of 58 microg/ml (lc90 = 72 microg/ml) for ae. aegyp ...200617067055
structure and expression strategy of the genome of culex pipiens densovirus, a mosquito densovirus with an ambisense organization.the genome of all densoviruses (dnvs) so far isolated from mosquitoes or mosquito cell lines consists of a 4-kb single-stranded dna molecule with a monosense organization (genus brevidensovirus, subfamily densovirinae). we previously reported the isolation of a culex pipiens dnv (cpdnv) that differs significantly from brevidensoviruses by (i) having a approximately 6-kb genome, (ii) lacking sequence homology, and (iii) lacking antigenic cross-reactivity with brevidensovirus capsid polypeptides. ...200919386710
company amplification of estalpha2/estbeta2 and correlation between esterase gene copy number and resistance to insecticides in the field culex pipiens pallens strains collected from beijing, china.seven field strains of culex pipiens pallens were evaluated in the summer of 2004 for their susceptibility to three insecticides. larval bioassays were carried out in accordance with who mosquito susceptibility tests. field samples showed resistance to dichlorvos and propoxur. low levels of resistance to phoxim were detected compared with the laboratory-susceptible strain. quantitative analysis showed that co-amplification of estalpha2 and estbeta2 occurred in the seven field cx. pipiens pallens ...200919496425
population genetics of the mosquito culex pipiens pallens reveals sex-linked asymmetric introgression by culex quinquefasciatus.the culex pipiens complex in asia includes a temperate subspecies, culex pipiens pallens, of uncertain taxonomic status. the shape of the male genitalia suggests it is a hybrid between cx. pipiens and cx. quinquefasciatus. we studied populations of cx. p. pallens in japan, korea, and china and compared them to local populations of cx. quinquefasciatus and cx. p. pipiens. we examined variation in a nuclear intron in the acetylcholinesterase-2 gene [ace] and eight microsatellite loci. we found a d ...200919584006
mosquito blood-meal analysis for avian malaria study in wild bird communities: laboratory verification and application to culex sasai (diptera: culicidae) collected in tokyo, japan.we conducted laboratory experiments to verify molecular techniques of avian malaria parasite detection distinguishing between an infected mosquito (oocysts on midgut wall) and infective mosquito (sporozoites in salivary glands) in parallel with blood-meal identification from individual blood-fed mosquitoes prior to application to field survey for avian malaria. domestic fowl infected with plasmodium gallinaceum was exposed to a vector and non-vector mosquito species, aedes aegypti and culex pipi ...200919629522
bloodmeal identification and detection of avian malaria parasite from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) inhabiting coastal areas of tokyo bay, japan.bloodmeal identification and the detection of avian malaria parasite from mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were carried out by polymerase chain reaction-based methods for field samples collected in coastal areas of tokyo bay, japan, from april to october 2007. the following seven mosquito species were collected: aedes albopictus (skuse), culex pipiens pallens coquillett, culex pipiens form molestus forskal, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, culex inatomii kamimura & wada, culex bitaeniorhynchus gile ...200919769059
[differences of acetylcholinesterase level in variety classes and strains of culex pipiens pallens].to investigate the diversity of acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity in variety classes and strains of culex pipiens pallens and provide a basis for the insecticide-resistance detection of mosquito by biochemical method.200919830865
asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in the comporta region, portugal.culex pipiens l. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions. this species consists of two forms, denoted molestus and pipiens, that exhibit important behavioural and physiological differences. the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these forms remain unclear. in northern european latitudes molestus and pipiens populations occupy different habitats (underground vs. aboveground), a separation that most likely promotes genetic isolation between forms. however, the s ...200919895687
larvicidal activity of compounds isolated from asarum heterotropoides against culex pipiens pallens, aedes aegypti, and ochlerotatus togoi (diptera: culicidae).the toxicity of several compounds isolated from asarum heterotropoides root steam distillate to third-instar larvae of culex pipiens pallens coquillett, aedes aegypti (l.), and ochlerotatus togoi theobald was examined using a direct contact mortality bioassay. safrole was the most toxic constituent to cx. p. pallens and ae. aegypti larvae, whereas terpinolene was most toxic to oc. togoi. however, lc50 values of these three mosquito larvae to both essential oils as well as the remainder of the 26 ...200919960690
[drug resistance evolution of dichlorvos-resistant and cypermethrin-resistant strains of culex pipiens pallens].susceptible strain of culex pipiens pallens was selected with dichlorvos and cypermethrin for 42 generations in the laboratory. at generation 42, the resistance level to dichlorvos and cypermethrin was 12.2-fold and 534.3-fold, respectively, in comparison to their parent generations. the dichlorvos-resistant and cypermethrin-resistant strains were then conventionally bred for another 20 generations, the resistance level to dichlorvos and cypermethrin decreased to 6.1-fold and 83.3-fold, respecti ...200920066985
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