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effect of environmental temperature on the vector competence of culex pipiens and cx. torrentium for ockelbo virus.the effects of environmental temperature on ockelbo virus infection, dissemination, and transmission were studied in culex torrentium and in the uppsala and the el gabal strains of cx. pipiens. temperatures tested included 10 degrees c, 17 degrees c, 24 degrees c, and a cyclic (10-24 degrees c, mean = 17 degrees c) regimen designed to mimic typical hourly temperatures in an area endemic for ockelbo disease in sweden during the transmission season. the vector competence of both the uppsala and th ...19902173433
[finding of culex torrentium martini (culex exilis dyar) in the vicinity of moscow]. 19704249797
possible ecology and epidemiology of medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses in great britain.nine different arboviruses are known to be transmitted by, or associated with, mosquitoes in europe, and several (west nile, sindbis and tahyna viruses) are reported to cause outbreaks of human disease. although there have been no reported human cases in great britain (gb), there have been no published in-depth serological surveys for evidence of human infection. this paper investigates the ecological and entomological factors that could influence or restrict transmission of these viruses in gb, ...200716893487
genetic differentiation of populations within the culex pipiens complex and phylogeny of related species.the culex pipiens complex consists of several species, subspecies, forms, races, physiological variants, or biotypes according to different authors and includes the 2 holarctic variants cx. pipiens biotype pipiens and cx. pipiens biotype molestus. differences in morphological characters are overlapping and thus are delimited in their taxonomic value, even when behavioral and reproductive specializations are apparent. our enzyme electrophoretic study included 7 geographic populations of cx. pipie ...200919432063
asymmetric introgression between sympatric molestus and pipiens forms of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in the comporta region, portugal.culex pipiens l. is the most widespread mosquito vector in temperate regions. this species consists of two forms, denoted molestus and pipiens, that exhibit important behavioural and physiological differences. the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these forms remain unclear. in northern european latitudes molestus and pipiens populations occupy different habitats (underground vs. aboveground), a separation that most likely promotes genetic isolation between forms. however, the s ...200919895687
"Bird biting" mosquitoes and human disease: a review of the role of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiology.The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Culex pipiens pipi ...201121875691
host-feeding patterns of mosquito species in germany.mosquito-borne pathogens are of growing importance in many countries of europe including germany. at the same time, the transmission cycles of most mosquito-borne pathogens (e.g. viruses or filarial parasites) are not completely understood. there is especially a lack of knowledge about the vector capacity of the different mosquito species, which is strongly influenced by their host-feeding patterns. while this kind of information is important to identify the relevant vector species, e.g. to dire ...201627259984
francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica occurs in swedish mosquitoes, persists through the developmental stages of laboratory-infected mosquitoes and is transmissible during blood feeding.in sweden, mosquitoes are considered the major vectors of the bacterium francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, which causes tularaemia. the aim of this study was to investigate whether mosquitoes acquire the bacterium as aquatic larvae and transmit the disease as adults. mosquitoes sampled in a swedish area where tularaemia is endemic (örebro) were positive for the presence of f. tularensis deoxyribonucleic acid throughout the summer. presence of the clinically relevant f. tularensis subsp. h ...201324057273
current status of invasive mosquito surveillance in the uk.non-native invasive mosquitoes have for many years made incursions into europe, and are now established in many european countries. the continued european importation of potential vectors and their expansion within europe increases their potential for importation and establishment in the uk. coupled with increasing numbers of returning dengue and chikungunya infected travellers, the potential exists for transmission of vector borne disease in new regions.201526122427
ecological characterization and molecular differentiation of culex pipiens complex taxa and culex torrentium in eastern austria.culex pipiens complex taxa differ in behaviour, ecophysiology and epidemiologic importance. despite their epidemiologic significance, information on genetic diversity, occurrence and seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of the cx. pipiens complex is still insufficient. assessment of seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of culex pipiens forms and their congener cx. torrentium is crucial for the understanding of their vector-pathogen dynamics.201627067139
direct pcr of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. however, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. the identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the anopheles maculipennis complex (diptera: culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as culex pipiens pipiens/culex pipiens molestus (diptera: culicidae), presents a major problem. in addition, the detection and discrimination of newly ...201526663040
impacts of the creation, expansion and management of english wetlands on mosquito presence and abundance - developing strategies for future disease mitigation.the incidence of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in europe, partly due to the incursion of a number of invasive species known to be vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, but also due to the involvement of native species in the transmission of west nile virus and malaria. for some of these pathogens, there is a risk of the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases that were once widespread in europe, but declined partly due to large-scale land-drainage projects. some mosquito species explo ...201525889666
mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of vienna, austria.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. as large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. in this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of vienna, austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. mosquitoes were captured using di ...201425468380
population structure and distribution patterns of the sibling mosquito species culex pipiens and culex torrentium (diptera: culicidae) reveal different evolutionary paths.nowadays a number of endemic mosquito species are known to possess vector abilities for various diseases, as e.g. the sibling species culex pipiens and culex torrentium. due to their morphological similarity, ecology, distribution and vector abilities, knowledge about these species' population structure is essential. culicidae from 25 different sampling sites were collected from march till october 2012. all analyses were performed with aligned cox1 sequences with a total length of 658 bp. popula ...201425048456
first nationwide surveillance of culex pipiens complex and culex torrentium mosquitoes demonstrated the presence of culex pipiens biotype pipiens/molestus hybrids in germany.mosquitoes and other arthropods may transmit medically important pathogens, in particular viruses such as west nile virus. the presence of suitable hosts and competent vectors for those zoonotic viruses is essential for an enzootic transmission, which is a prerequisite for epidemics. to establish reliable risk projections, it is an urgent need for an exact identification of mosquito species, which is especially challenging in the case of sibling species, such as culex. pipiens pipiens biotypes p ...201324039724
ecological distribution and cq11 genetic structure of culex pipiens complex (diptera: culicidae) in italy.mosquitoes in the culex pipiens complex are considered to be involved in the transmission of a range of pathogens, including west nile virus (wnv). although its taxonomic status is still debated, the complex includes species, both globally distributed or with a more limited distribution, morphologically similar and characterised by different physiological and behavioural traits, which affect their ability as vectors. in many european countries, cx. pipiens and its sibling species culex torrentiu ...201626741494
first molecular identification of mosquito vectors of dirofilaria immitis in continental portugal.canine dirofilariasis due to dirofilaria immitis is known to be endemic in continental portugal. however, information about the transmitting mosquito species is still scarce, with only culex theileri identified to date, albeit with l1-2, through dissection. this study was carried out to investigate the potential vectors of dirofilaria spp. in continental portugal.201525886610
reintroduction of the invasive mosquito species aedes albopictus in belgium in july 2013.since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in belgium between 2001 and 2012. in july 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in vrasene, oost-vlaanderen province), during a monitoring using co2-baited trap. this finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in belgium via the used tire trade.201324325893
evolutionary genomics of culex pipiens: global and local adaptations associated with climate, life-history traits and anthropogenic factors.we present the first genome-wide study of recent evolution in culex pipiens species complex focusing on the genomic extent, functional targets and likely causes of global and local adaptations. we resequenced pooled samples of six populations of c. pipiens and two populations of the outgroup culex torrentium. we used principal component analysis to systematically study differential natural selection across populations and developed a phylogenetic scanning method to analyse admixture without hapl ...026085592
second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by myotis nattereri (chiroptera, vespertilionidae) in winter.temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. however, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of pcr with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to furthe ...201425093034
the morphological variations of culex pipiens larvae (diptera: culicidae) in yazd province, central iran.culex pipiens complex shows variations in morphological and biological characters including different biological forms and has medical and veterinary importance. because of having morphological variations, sometimes it is not easy to separate this species from cx. quinquefasciatus and cx. torrentium. the aim of this study was to identify the culex pipiens complex species in order to use in control programs in the future.201022808399
replication origin of mitochondrial dna in insects.the precise position of the replication origin (o(r)) of mtdna was determined for insect species belonging to four different orders (four species of drosophila, bombyx mori, triborium castaneum, and locusta migratoria, which belong to diptera, lepidoptera, coleoptera, and orthoptera, respectively). since the free 5' ends of the dna strands of mtdna are interpreted as the o(r), their positions were mapped at 1-nucleotide resolution within the a + t-rich region by using the ligation-mediated pcr m ...200516118189
detection of dirofilaria repens and dirofilaria immitis dna in mosquitoes from belarus.during the last two decades, belarus faces an increase of human cases of dirofilaria (nematoda, spirurida, onchocercidae) infections. however, comprehensive analyses explaining this development and the identification of mosquito vector species are missing. here, we present results using temperature data from belarus and show that the annual number of human dirofilaria cases is significantly correlated with the yearly average temperatures (spearman's rho = 0.49, p < 0.05) and the average sum of p ...201627169723
potential mosquito (diptera:culicidae) vector of dirofilaria repens and dirofilaria immitis in urban areas of eastern slovakia.this paper follows the study from 2013 focused on the molecular screening of mosquitoes as vectors of dirofilaria spp. which provided the information on aedes vexans as a potential vector of dirofilaria repens in slovakia. current entomological and molecular research indicates that ae. vexans can participate also in the transmission of dirofilaria immitis within the region. using the standard pcr method, we examined 10,500 mosquitoes (ae. vexans, ae. rossicus, anopheles maculipennis s.l., ochler ...201526391170
experimental transmission of zika virus by mosquitoes from central europe.mosquitoes collected in germany in 2016, including culex pipiens pipiens biotype pipiens, culex torrentium and aedes albopictus, as well as culex pipiens pipiens biotype molestus (in colony since 2011) were experimentally infected with zika virus (zikv) at 18 °c or 27 °c. none of the culex taxa showed vector competence for zikv. in contrast, aedes albopictus were susceptible for zikv but only at 27 °c, with transmission rates similar to an aedes aegypti laboratory colony tested in parallel.201728106528
high prevalence and lineage diversity of avian malaria in wild populations of great tits (parus major) and mosquitoes (culex pipiens).avian malaria studies have taken a prominent place in different aspects of evolutionary ecology. despite a recent interest in the role of vectors within the complex interaction system of the malaria parasite, they have largely been ignored in most epidemiological studies. epidemiology of the disease is however strongly related to the vector's ecology and behaviour, and there is a need for basic investigations to obtain a better picture of the natural associations between plasmodium lineages, vec ...201222506060
molecular species identification, host preference and detection of myxoma virus in the anopheles maculipennis complex (diptera: culicidae) in southern england, uk.determining the host feeding patterns of mosquitoes by identifying the origin of their blood-meals is an important part of understanding the role of vector species in current and future disease transmission cycles. collecting large numbers of blood-fed mosquitoes from the field is difficult, therefore it is important to maximise the information obtained from each specimen. this study aimed to use mosquito genome sequence to identify the species within anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (an. macul ...201526271277
anopheles (anopheles) petragnani del vecchio 1939-a new mosquito species for germany.the so far known species of the anopheles claviger complex, anopheles claviger s.s. and anopheles petragnani, can only be distinguished by partial overlapping characteristics of immature stages and by nucleotide sequence variation of the genomic ribosomal dna (rdna) internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) region. the known distribution of an. petragnani is so far restricted to the western mediterranean region, whereas an. claviger s.s. occurs across most of europe, up to the middle east and north a ...201627003404
feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms of culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in a region of high hybridization.two biological forms of the mosquito culex pipiens s.s., denoted pipiens and molestus, display behavioural differences that may affect their role as vectors of arboviruses. in this study, the feeding patterns of molestus and pipiens forms were investigated in comporta (portugal), where high levels of inter-form admixture have been recorded.201323578139
monitoring of west nile virus in mosquitoes between 2011-2012 in hungary.west nile virus (wnv) is a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus. wnv strains are classified into several genetic lineages on the basis of phylogenetic differences. whereas lineage 1 viruses are distributed worldwide, lineage 2 wnv was first detected outside of africa in hungary in 2004. since then, wnv-associated disease and mortality in animal and human hosts have been documented periodically in hungary. after the first detection of wnv from a pool of culex pipiens mosquitoes in 2010, s ...025229703
lack of evidence for the presence of mosquito-borne arboviruses in the upper rhine valley, germany, in 1999 to 2000. 201020592140
culex torrentium mosquito role as major enzootic vector defined by rate of sindbis virus infection, sweden, 2009.we isolated sindbis virus (sinv) from the enzootic mosquito vectors culex torrentium, cx. pipiens, and culiseta morsitans collected in an area of sweden where sinv disease is endemic. the infection rate in cx. torrentium mosquitoes was exceptionally high (36 infections/1,000 mosquitoes), defining cx. torrentium as the main enzootic vector of sinv in scandinavia.025898013
assessment of productivity of culex spp. larvae (diptera: culicidae) in urban storm water catch basin system in wrocław (sw poland).in urban environments, catch basins serve as major developmental and resting sites for anthropophilic and zoophilic mosquitoes. however, the use of this habitat is inconsistent, with abundance of larvae varying significantly across catch basins at a fine spatial scale. during seasonal summer investigations on mosquito species composition, their spatial and temporal distribution and the environmental characteristic of the breeding sites in the underground storm drain systems of the wrocław urban ...201626809340
temporal variation in sindbis virus antibody prevalence in bird hosts in an endemic area in sweden.sindbis virus (sinv) is a mosquito-borne bird virus that occasionally causes human disease in fennoscandia, suggested to have cyclic 7-year intervals between outbreaks. reliable data on human infections in sweden is however lacking. here we investigated the sinv antibody prevalence among birds in a swedish area endemic to sinv to scrutinize if a cyclic variation in antibody prevalence is present in the natural host of sinv. serum from birds were sampled in the summers of 2002-2004 and 2009 in th ...201627579607
the arbovirus vector culex torrentium is more prevalent than culex pipiens in northern and central europe.two species of arbovirus vector, culex torrentium and culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae), occur in several european countries, but difficulties in their accurate identification and discrimination have hampered both detailed and large-scale distribution and abundance studies. using a molecular identification method, we identified to species 2559 larvae of cx. pipiens/torrentium collected from 138 sites in 13 european countries ranging from scandinavia to the mediterranean coast. in addition, samp ...201423947434
global emergence of alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may cause severe emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to human and animal health in the world today. these infectious diseases range from mild febrile illnesses, arthritis, and encephalitis to haemorrhagic fevers. it is postulated that certain environmental factors, vector competence, and host susceptibility have a major impact on the ecology of arboviral diseases. presently, there is a great interest in the emergence ...201526689654
trapping biases of culex torrentium and culex pipiens revealed by comparison of captures in cdc traps, ovitraps, and gravid traps.we evaluate three trapping methods for their effectiveness at capturing culex pipiens and culex torrentium, both enzootic vectors of bird-associated viruses in europe. the comparisons, performed in two regions in sweden, were among cdc traps baited with carbon dioxide, gravid traps, and ovitraps baited with hay infusion. the proportions of the two culex species in a catch differed between trap types, with cdc traps catching a lower proportion of cx. torrentium than both gravid traps and ovitraps ...201526047196
wide recognition of culex pipiens and lack of detection of culex torrentium through biomolecular differentiation of mosquitoes in the emilia-romagna region, northern italy.the culex pipiens complex includes species with reported differences in vector competence for arthropod-borne viruses, many of which are of significant importance to human health such as the west nile virus and the sindbis virus. this group of mosquitoes is difficult to distinguish morphologically; particularly as adult females. in europe, the two species of the complex, culex pipiens linnaeus 1758 and culex torrentium martini 1925, are often found sympatrically. with the aim to characterize the ...201627477051
testing of uk populations of culex pipiens l. for schmallenberg virus vector competence and their colonization.schmallenberg virus (sbv), an arboviral pathogen of ruminants, emerged in northern europe during 2011 and has subsequently spread across a vast geographic area. while culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) have been identified as a biological transmission agent of sbv, the role of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) as potential vectors has not been defined beyond small-scale field collections in affected areas. culex pipiens l. are one of the most widespread mosquitoes in northern euro ...201526291533
geographic distribution and relative abundance of the sibling vector species culex torrentium and culex pipiens in sweden.culex torrentium and culex pipiens are sibling species and potential viral vectors that coexist in europe. larvae and females of the two species are morphologically almost identical, and reliable identification can only be done on males. to investigate the distribution and relative abundance of the two species in sweden, we collected culex larvae from sites spread over the country, identified them as culex pipiens/torrentium based on morphology, and identified them to species using a recently de ...201121923273
a sensitive and reliable restriction enzyme assay to distinguish between the mosquitoes culex torrentium and culex pipiens.culex pipiens pipiens linnaeus and culex torrentium martini (diptera: culicidae) are closely related vector species that exist sympatrically in europe. the two species are morphologically almost identical and can only be distinguished with certainty by characters of the male genitalia. hence, correct species identification and conclusions on distribution and vector status are very difficult and often neglected. therefore, we developed a reliable and simple mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subu ...201020444079
[differentiation between the urban mosquito culex pipiens pipiens f. molestus and culex torrentium (diptera: culicidae) by the molecular genetic methods].the molecular characters suitable for the differentiation between the autogenous form of culex pipiens pipiens (the urban mosquito) and the species culex torrentium, which was previously identified erroneously as an anautogenous form of c. pipiens pipiens (shaikevich, vinogradova, 2004), are given. these mosquitoes differ in the infection by the endosymbiotic bacteria wolbachia pipientis, 6 transitions among 247 nucleotide sequences of 3' part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit i (coi) gene of mi ...200516396396
[addition to the fauna of mosquitoes of the family culicidae (diptera) of the novgorod region].mosquitoes of 26 species of the family culicidae were found in the novgorod province. during the researches in 1996-2001, five new species for the region were found: aedes annulipes, ae. impiger, ae. riparius riparius, ae. rossicus and culex torrentium.200312815812
swedish culex torrentium and cx. pipiens (diptera: culicidae) as experimental vectors of ockelbo virus.the ability of the sibling species culex pipiens (l.) and culex torrentium (martini) from central sweden to transmit ockelbo (ock) virus was determined. both species became infected after ingesting ock virus from a viremic chicken; they transmitted this virus to chickens after 21-28 d of extrinsic incubation. in cx. torrentium, infection rates were 90% or higher, and all 10 refeeding mosquitoes transmitted virus after feeding on chickens with a viremia of at least 10(3.0) plaque-forming units (p ...19902167372
forced salivation as a method to analyze vector competence of mosquitoes.vector competence is defined as the potential of a mosquito species to transmit a mosquito-borne virus (mobovirus) to a vertebrate host. viable virus particles are transmitted during a blood meal via the saliva of an infected mosquito. forced salivation assays allow determining the vector potential on the basis of single mosquitoes, avoiding the use of animal experiments. the method is suitable to analyze a large number of mosquitoes in one experiment within a short period of time. forced saliva ...201830148488
west nile virus and usutu--a threat to poland.in recent years emergence of new infectious diseases and the growing spread of pathogens to new areas is observed. most of these pathogens are zoonotic viruses and their transmission route is from animals to humans and vice versa. these so called emerging and re-emerging pathogens that were present previously only in africa and asia are becoming a threat to european countries. these include, e.g. west nile virus and usutu virus. the aim of the study is to present the clinical course of infection ...201627344466
diversity of culex torrentium martini, 1925 - a potential vector of arboviruses and filaria in europe.culex torrentium is one of the most common mosquito species in germany. due to its sympatric occurrence as well as its similar morphological and ecological characteristics, it has often been confused with another common species, culex pipiens. both species are known to be potential vectors for different arboviruses (not only in germany) with c. torrentium being a possible vector for sindbis or ockelbo virus. in our study, we analyzed the genetic variability in a 658 bp fragment of the cytochrome ...201323604567
species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (diptera: culicidae) in mazandaran province, northern iran.although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and west nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. this investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in mazandaran province, ...201626805471
british container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.the proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. in areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. in britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. here we show that the community composition, abundan ...201424759617
isolation and phylogenetic analysis of sindbis viruses from mosquitoes in germany.a molecular survey of 16,057 mosquitoes captured in southwest germany during the summer of 2009 demonstrated the presence of sindbis virus (sinv) in culex spp. and anopheles maculipennis sensu lato. phylogenetic analysis of the german sinv strains linked them with swedish sinv strains, the causative agent of ockelbo disease in humans.201020335414
winter activity and aboveground hybridization between the two biotypes of the west nile virus vector culex pipiens.culex (cx.) pipiens mosquitoes are important vectors of west nile virus (wnv). in europe, the species cx. pipiens consists of two biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which are morphologically identical, but differ in behavior. typical behavior of the molestus biotype is the ability to remain active during winter, whereas the pipiens biotype enters diapause. the current paradigm is that the two biotypes occur sympatrically in southern europe, but occur in isolated above- and belowground populations i ...201526394124
larval habitats diversity and distribution of the mosquito (diptera: culicidae) species in the republic of moldova.a countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in moldova with the aim to evaluate the culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. in total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. twenty species belonging to the genera anopheles, aedes, culex, culiseta, and uranotaenia were collected. mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, w ...201526364191
[species composition and ecological peculiarities of the mosquito genera culex, culiseta, and coquillettidia (diptera, culicidae) in the novgorod region].nine mosquito species from the genera culex, culiseta, and coquillettidia are found in the novgorod region as a result of eight-year investigation (1997-2004). the species culex torrentium is for the first time recorded in the novgorod region.200819065837
molecular detection of six (endo-) symbiotic bacteria in belgian mosquitoes: first step towards the selection of appropriate paratransgenesis candidates.actually, the use of symbiotic bacteria is one of alternative solution to avoid vector resistance to pesticides. in belgium, among 31 identified mosquito species, 10 were considered as potential vectors. given to introduction risks of arbovirosis, the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of symbiosis bacteria in potential mosquito vectors. eleven species caught from 12 sites in belgium were used: culex pipiens s.l., culex torrentium, culex hortensis, anopheles claviger, anophele ...201626670313
culex torrentium: a potent vector for the transmission of west nile virus in central europe.the continuous circulation of west nile virus (wnv) in central, south and east europe and its recent detection in several dead birds and two horses in germany highlights the need for information on wnv vector competence of mosquitoes from central europe. therefore, three common culex species (culex pipiens biotype pipiens, culex pipiens biotype molestus and culex torrentium) from germany were orally infected with wnv and kept at 18 °c, 21 °c, 24 °c or 27 °c for 14 or 21 days post infection (dpi) ...201931146418
culex (culex) torrentium martini, a mosquito new to great britain. 195114875040
culex pipiens and culex torrentium populations from central europe are susceptible to west nile virus infection.west nile virus (wnv), a flavivirus with an avian primary host, is already widespread in europe and might also pose an infection risk to germany, should competent mosquito vectors be present. therefore, we analysed the ability of wnv to infect german culex mosquitoes with special emphasis on field collected specimens of culex torrentium and culex pipiens biotype pipiens. we collected egg rafts of culex mosquitoes over two subsequent seasons at two geographically distinct sampling areas in german ...201628616480
[comparative characteristics of intergenic spacers of ribosomal rna gene cluster in mosquitoes of the genus culex (diptera: culicidae)].nucleotide sequences of intergenic spacer of ribosomal rna gene cluster (rigs) were identified in mosquitoes culex modestus, culex torrentium and culex pipiens pallens. the level of interpopulation variability of the rigs in the subspecies c. pipiens pipiens (form pipiens--mosquitoes that inhabit the open waters, and form molestus--mosquitoes that inhabit basements) living in russia was estimated. no extensive repetitive sequences characteristic of the rigs of all previously described species of ...201323888772
[information on culex torrentium and c. territans (diptera, cilicidae)].larvae of culex torrentium were found in leipzig in the reed of a little permanent water and in a trough of artificial stone. data on siphonal indices and on types of breeding waters have been arranged in a table. a list with the hitherto existing breeding places in the gdr has been provided. there are altogether 11 places in 10 regions of 7 districts. culex territans was found at 6 places in 7 regions of the district of leipzig.19836666871
male swarming of the mosquito culex (culex) torrentium in england. 19948161854
species composition and abundance of mosquito larvae in relation with their habitat characteristics in mazandaran province, northern iran.mosquitoes transmit a variety of diseases to humans. their abundance and distribution are related to the characteristics of larval habitats. mosquito larvae were collected from 120 natural and artificial habitats in 30 villages of 16 counties using standard 350 ml dippers and pipette, on a monthly basis from may-december 2014 in mazandaran province, northern iran. larval habitat characteristics were recorded separately, based on the conditions of the habitats (permanent or temporary, stagnant or ...201728956526
avian plasmodium in eastern austrian mosquitoes.insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites.201728962620
culex torrentium mosquitoes from germany are negative for wolbachia.wolbachia (rickettsiales: anaplasmataceae) infects a wide range of arthropods, including several mosquito species. the bacterium is known to induce a plethora of phenotypes in its host, examples being the reproductive phenotype cytoplasmic incompatibility or resistance against infection with arboviruses. the latter is especially relevant when assessing the vector competence of mosquito species for emerging arboviruses. thus, knowledge of wolbachia infection status is important for the assessment ...201728906572
[ culex torrentium martini]. 201713498539
surveillance of mosquito vectors in southern sweden for flaviviruses and sindbis virus.there are three human pathogenic bird-viruses transmitted by culex mosquitoes in europe: the alphavirus sindbis and the flaviviruses west nile virus and usutu virus. cases of sindbis fever occur in the north while the flaviviruses are reported from southern europe. in this study, 7933 culex pipiens/torrentium mosquitoes from southern sweden were screened by rtqpcr for these viruses. none of the mosquitoes were positive for viral rna. the importance of mosquito species composition is discussed as ...201931853338
experimental infection and transmission competence of sindbis virus in culex torrentium and culex pipiens mosquitoes from northern sweden.sindbis virus (sinv) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus known to infect birds and cause intermittent outbreaks among humans in fenno-scandia. in sweden, the endemic area has mainly been in central sweden. recently, sinv infections have emerged to northern sweden, but the vectorial efficiency for sinv of mosquito species in this northern region has not yet been ascertained.201930300110
dna-aided identification of culex mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) reveals unexpected diversity in underground cavities in austria.subterranean cavities serve as resting places and hibernation shelters for mosquitoes. in europe, members of the genus culex are often the most abundant insects on cave walls. culex pipiens l., the common house mosquito, exists in two physically very similar, yet genetically and ecologically distinct biotypes (or forms, 'f.'), namely cx. pipiens f. pipiens and cx. pipiens f. molestus. autogeny and stenogamy of the latter form have been interpreted as adaptations to underground habitats. the epig ...201930919062
detection of usutu, sindbis, and batai viruses in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) collected in germany, 2011⁻2016.due to the emergence of non-endemic mosquito vectors and the recent outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito-borne pathogens are considered an increasing risk to public and animal health in europe. to obtain a status quo regarding mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors in germany, 97,648 mosquitoes collected from 2011 to 2016 throughout the country were screened for arboviruses. mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled in groups of up to 50 individuals according to sampling location ...201830041410
dna barcodes corroborating identification of mosquito species and multiplex real-time pcr differentiating culex pipiens complex and culex torrentium in iran.identifying mosquito species is a fundamental step in risk assessment and implementation of preventative strategies. moreover, culex pipiens is the most widespread mosquito vector in several regions of iran and is the main vector for transmission of west nile virus (wnv). mosquitoes were collected at 14 sites in northern regions of iran in 2015 and 2016. a subset of mosquito specimens was selected for identification confirmation using a dna-barcoding technique. construction of a phylogenetic tre ...201830427929
correction: dna barcodes corroborating identification of mosquito species and multiplex real-time pcr differentiating culex pipiens complex and culex torrentium in iran.[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207308.].202031869382
meta-transcriptomic comparison of the rna viromes of the mosquito vectors culex pipiens and culex torrentium in northern europe.mosquitoes harbor an extensive diversity of 'insect-specific' rna viruses in addition to those important to human and animal health. however, because most studies of the mosquito virome have been conducted at lower latitudes, little is known about the diversity and evolutionary history of rna viruses sampled from mosquitoes in northerly regions. here, we compared the rna virome of two common northern mosquito species, culex pipiens and culex torrentium, collected in south-central sweden. followi ...201931698792
fauna, ecological characteristics, and checklist of the mosquitoes in mazandaran province, northern iran.mosquitoes are important vectors of human and animal diseases. this study updates current knowledge on fauna, dominance, and distribution of mosquitoes in mazandaran province, northern iran, to inform disease control effort. larval collections, using standard dippers or droppers, and adult collections, using total catches, shelter pits, cdc light traps, and human landing catches, were performed monthly in 30 villages across 16 counties, from may to december 2014. ovitraps, baited with hay infusi ...201829325101
protozoan parasites in culex pipiens mosquitoes in vienna.avian malaria (plasmodium spp.) and kinetoplastid (trypanosoma spp.) parasites are common vector-borne pathogens in birds worldwide; however, knowledge about vector competence of different mosquito species is currently lacking. for a pilot project examining vector competence of mosquitoes of the culex pipiens complex and culex torrentium for protozoan parasites in the city of vienna, 316 individual mosquitoes were sampled in the months june-august 2017 around the campus of the veterinary univers ...201930783859
sindbis virus polyarthritis outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the mosquito vectors.polyarthritis and rash caused by sindbis virus (sinv), was first recognised in northern europe about 50 years ago and is known as ockelbo disease in sweden and pogosta disease in finland. this mosquito-borne virus occurs mainly in tropical and sub-tropical countries, and in northern europe it is suggested to cause regularly reoccurring outbreaks. here a seven-year cycle of sinv outbreaks has been referred to in scientific papers, although the hypothesis is based solely on reported human cases. i ...201931465453
first record and morphological characterization of an established population of aedes (hulecoeteomyia) koreicus (diptera: culicidae) in germany.the east asian mosquito species aedes koreicus was recorded out of its native range for the first time in belgium in 2008. since then, several other european populations or single individuals have been observed throughout europe with reports from italy, switzerland, european russia, slovenia, germany and hungary. the italian population seems to be the only one that is expanding rapidly, so the swiss population very likely derives from it.201830558660
annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the republic of moldova.the mosquito fauna of the republic of moldova is poorly known. in an effort to understand the culicidae fauna better, mosquito collections have been conducted between early april and middle november from 2008 to 2012. a total of 10,923 larval specimens and 8,246 adults were collected from 20 regions of moldova. altogether 36 species have been recorded during the recent study, bringing the total moldovan mosquito fauna to 40 species in 9 genera and 11 subgenera. new state records include the foll ...201323923323
resource limitation, habitat segregation, and species interactions of british tree-hole mosquitoes in nature.the insect fauna of water-filled tree holes in southern britain consists primarily of the mosquitoes aedes geniculatus, anopheles plumbeus, culex torrentium, and a benthic detritivorous fauna that includes primarily the scirtid beetle prionocyphon serricornis and the chironomid midge metriocnemus martinii. culex torrentium has been documented only relatively recently in tree holes but all three species of mosquitoes partition the resource in space and time. when mosquito larvae were forced to co ...199228313718
physico-chemical characteristics of culex pipiens sensu lato and culex torrentium (diptera: culicidae) breeding sites in germany.culex pipiens sensu lato (l.) and culex torrentium martini, 1925 are two widely distributed mosquito species in europe. due to difficulties in morphological discrimination, the current knowledge on differences in the breeding ecology is fragmentary. therefore, this study evaluated the relation between the presence-absence of both species at various types of breeding habitats in response to physico-chemical parameters, using a recently developed molecular assay that allows reliable species-specif ...201526336210
culex pipiens s.l. and culex torrentium (culicidae) in wrocław area (poland): occurrence and breeding site preferences of mosquito vectors.both ornithophilic mosquito species, culex pipiens s.l. (l.) and culex torrentium (martini, 1925), occur sympatric in temperate europe. they are presumed to be primary vectors of west nile and sindbis viruses. differentiation of these morphologically similar culex species is essential for evaluation of different vector roles, for mosquito surveillance and integrated control strategies. cx. torrentium has been neglected or erroneously determined as cx. pipiens s.l. in some previous studies, becau ...201525339516
the use of morphometric wing characters to discriminate female culex pipiens and culex torrentium.the reliability of the length of wing radial vein r(2/3) as a character for the morphological discrimination of the two potential arbovirus vectors culex pipiens s.s. and cx. torrentium from germany was reassessed, after this character had been neglected for more than 40 years. additionally, multivariate morphometric analyses were applied to evaluate wing shape variation between both species. although high-throughput molecular tools are now available to differentiate the two species, a simple, l ...201424820574
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