mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, plasmodium hermani.culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in florida. the mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. the resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.197717017
field studies on the potential of butanone, carbon dioxide, honey extract, 1-octen-3-ol, l-lactic acid and phenols as attractants for mosquitoes.various combinations of six candidate attractants--butanone, carbon dioxide (co2), honey, octenol, lactic acid and mixed phenols--were tested against natural populations of mosquitoes in everglades national park, florida, u.s.a., using unlighted cdc-baited traps. with few exceptions, the attractancy of these candidate compounds to mosquitoes, when used alone, was less than that of co2 alone. the exceptions were that octenol and honey extract alone attracted larger numbers of coquillettidia pertu ...19901983456
[water pollution and presence of anopheles albimanus wiedemann, 1821 and culex nigripalpus theobald, 1901]. 19902259776
rainfall-directed oviposition behavior of culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) and its influence on st. louis encephalitis virus transmission in indian river county, florida.resting culex nigripalpus theobald were collected with a ground aspirator three times a week in indian river county, fla., from january 1985 through december 1987. the number of green (newly emerged), empty, blood-fed, and gravid females in each collection was counted; up to 100 empty females were dissected to estimate the abundance of empty, parous females in the population. in general, this species was uncommon during the dry season from january through june but increased during the wet season ...19902299655
correlation between wing length and protein content of mosquitoes.wing length and protein content were compared in individual specimens of male and nonbloodfed, nongravid female mosquitoes. the following groups were tested: field-collected and colonized aedes aegypti, field-collected culex nigripalpus and aedes vexans, and colonized culex quinquefasciatus and psorophora columbiae. the correlation coefficient varied from 0.91 in ae. aegypti males to 0.98 in ae. vexans females, and in each group the p value was less than 0.001. this close correlation suggests th ...19892568393
the importance of autumn rainfall and sentinel flock location to understanding the epidemiology of st. louis encephalitis virus in indian river county, florida.culex nigripalpus adults were collected from sentinel chickens at 4 sites in indian river co. (irc), florida. chickens located in well drained, open habitats attracted fewer cx. nigripalpus than did those located in a moist, forested area, but the number of mosquitoes collected in the open habitats increased significantly with heavy autumn rainfall. all st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) seroconversions (11/674) during a 7-year period were from chickens located in open, well drained habitats. a ...19852852706
entomological studies at an enzootic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus focus in guatemala, 1977-1980.the ecology of several potential mosquito vectors of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) alphavirus was studied in an enzootic focus of that virus on the pacific coast of guatemala over a four-year period. four species-culex taeniopus, mansonia titillans, culex nigripalpus and aedes taeniorhynchus-were most prevalent during the wet season when transmission normally occurs. however, only cx. taeniopus yielded vee virus. the bloodfeeding patterns of these species revealed that ae. taeniorhynchus ...19862873752
genetic diversity of enzootic isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus new jersey.the rna genomes of 43 vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) isolates of the new jersey (nj) serotype were t1-ribonuclease fingerprinted to compare the extent of genetic diversity of virus from regions of epizootic and enzootic disease activity. forty of these viruses were obtained from central america during 1982 to 1985. the other three were older isolates, including a 1970 isolate from culex nigripalpus mosquitos in guatemala, a 1960 bovine isolate from panama, and a 1976 isolate from mosquitos (ma ...19882891861
the isolation of spiroplasmas from mosquitoes in macon county, alabama.during the summer months of 1985, 1,298 adult mosquitoes comprising 21 species and 7 genera were collected in macon county, alabama. mosquitoes were collected from four sections of the county with co2-baited light traps. spiroplasma cultures were isolated from two pools of 24 and 25 aedes fulvus pallens, one pool of 22 anopheles punctipennis and one pool of 7 culex nigripalpus. electron microscopic studies of the isolates revealed helical, wall-less cells.19872904950
growth of three mosquitoes on two larval diets measured by protein accumulation.larval growth recorded as accumulation of protein was measured in aedes aegypti, culex nigripalpus and culex quinquefasciatus, raised on liver powder or dry brewer's yeast. in the early stages all 3 species grew faster on liver powder, but at pupation there was no significant difference in protein content between diets and among species. aedes aegypti pupated one day ahead of culex.19862906975
susceptibility of culex nigripalpus to several isolates of plasmodium hermani from wild turkeys in florida. 19853880243
effect of host defenses on the feeding pattern of culex nigripalpus when offered a choice of blood sources. 19744430956
culex nigripalpus: seasonal shift in the bird-mammal feeding ratio in a mosquito vector of human encephalitis.blood-engorged culex nigripalpus (theob.) collected throughout the year in two florida localities were serologically tested to determine the host range of this mosquito in nature. a proportional increase in feeding on mammals occurred in early summer, reached a maximum between july and october, and was followed by a shift back to avian hosts which dominated the feeding pattern during winter and spring. this finding strengthens the hypothesis that a biphasic pattern of feeding is a basic characte ...19685659128
avian pox in florida wild turkeys: culex nigripalpus and wyeomyia vanduzeei as experimental vectors. 19816121920
experimental transmission by mosquitoes of plasmodium hermani between domestic turkeys and pen-reared bobwhites.plasmodium hermani was experimentally transmitted from domestic turkey poults (meleagris gallopavo) to pen-reared bobwhites (colinus virginianus) and then from these bobwhites back to domestic turkey poults. transmission was achieved by culex nigripalpus both by bites of the mosquito and by intraperitoneal injection of sporozoites. all of the 23 bobwhites and the 13 turkeys exposed to sporozoites became infected. these results indicate that the bobwhite might be a reservoir host for this malaria ...19827131193
epidemiological investigation for arboviruses in jamaica, west indies.arbovirus investigation in jamaica was undertaken between 1960 and 1975. serological studies showed that antibodies to dengue type virus and st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) were prevalent throughout the island for several years. in urban communities, the incidence of dengue antibody was higher than for sle; however, in children under 10 years of age antibody to both viruses was rarely present. in rural areas, sle was prevalent in adults and children. this virus was isolated fom culex nigripal ...19807406115
culex nigripalpus: a natural vector of wild turkey malaria (plasmodium hermani) in florida.durking 1977 and 1978, more than 21,000 female mosquitoes of 15 species were live-trapped in south florida where high numbers of wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) are known to harbor malarial infections. by inoculation of mosquito extracts into uninfected domestic poults, the presence of sporozoites of plasmodium hermani was demonstrated in culex nigrapalpus. this mosquito, previously shown to be a competent experimental vector, is believed to be the primary natural vector of wild turkey malari ...19807411745
studies on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and anthropic environment. 6--breeding in empty conditions of rice fields in south-eastern brazil.studies on culicid breeding in empty rice fields were carried out during the cultivation cycle from may to november 1993. this period corresponded to stages 1 and 2, when empty conditions prevailed. breeding occurred in stage 1 and the first part of stage 2, corresponding respectively to fallow uncultivated and ploughing situations. no breeding was found to take place during the second part of stage 2 when transient floods and harrowing occurred. the predominant species were aedes scapularis, cu ...19947660043
studies on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and anthropic environment. 3--survey of adult stages at the rice irrigation system and the emergence of anopheles albitarsis in south-eastern, brazil.a study of adult culicidae ecology was carried out from january 1992 through january 1993 at the rice irrigation system of the ribeira valley experimental station. the adaptation of anopheles albitarsis to the anthropic environment became evident through the adult collections made at its various habitats represented by the irrigation system and the edge of the residual pond, as well as at those made within the local patchy residual woods. other potential disease vectors were prevalent in the irr ...19937911593
malathion resistance in mosquitoes from charleston and georgetown counties of coastal south carolina.susceptibility tests were conducted using the world health organization diagnostic test procedure on strains of aedes taeniorhynchus, aedes sollicitans, aedes vexans, and culex nigripalpus collected from several localities in charleston and georgetown counties of south carolina. aedes taeniorhynchus was resistant to malathion (mortality 1.0-54.4%) but not to propoxur, permethrin, or fenitrothion. there also were indications that ae. sollicitans and cx. nigripalpus were resistant to malathion, bu ...19947912262
studies on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and anthropic environment. 10- survey of adult behaviour of culex nigripalpus and other species of culex (culex) in south-eastern brazil.a survey of adult behaviour of culex (culex) species was carried out from august 1992 through december 1993 in a human modified (anthropic) environment in the ribeira valley, s. paulo state, brazil. culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. so it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. nonetheless, cx. ni ...19958729276
field evaluation of heat as an added attractant to traps baited with carbon dioxide and octenol for aedes taeniorhynchus.collection size of 3 species of mosquitoes (aedes taeniorhynchus, anopheles atropos, and culex nigripalpus) and a species of biting midge (culicoides furens) in cdc-type traps baited with carbon dioxide and octenol were significantly increased with the addition of heat. the presence of heat also significantly reduced collection size of the tabanid diachlorus ferrugatus.19958825507
arboviruses associated with mosquitoes from nine florida counties during 1993.mosquitoes were collected for virus isolation tests from 36 sites in bradford, lake, leon, manatee, orange, osceola, pasco, putnam, and sarasota counties, fl, from april 6 through october 11, 1993. a total of 158,129 adult specimens were collected in 726 trap nights using cdc light traps, usually baited with dry ice. at least 35 species were represented, although 60% of the collections was made up of 3 species (aedes infirmatus, 6.5%; anopheles crucians, 14.4%; and culex nigripalpus, 39.4%). fou ...19968827602
eastern equine encephalitis transmission to emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) in volusia county, florida: 1992 through 1994.from may 1992 through october 1994, sera were collected from 204 domestic emus (dromaius novaehollandiae) at a ranch in volusia county, fl, and tested for antibody evidence of arboviral infection. hemagglutination-inhibition (hi) and neutralizing (nt) antibodies to eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus were identified in sera collected during each year. in addition, hi and nt antibodies to st. louis encephalitis virus were detected in 3 naturally infected emus. isolations of eee virus were mad ...19968887222
interrupted blood feeding by culex (diptera:culicidae) in relation to individual host tolerance to mosquito attack.field studies at delta marsh (1991) and winnipeg (1993), mb, and vero beach (1992), fl, examined variation among individual quail hosts in terms of the blood-feeding success by mosquitoes that fed on them. culex tarsalis coquillett was the predominant species collected in box traps baited with 2 quail at delta marsh in 1991, culex nigripalpus theobald was the predominant species collected at vero beach in 1992, and both cx. tarsalis and culex restuans theobald were collected in approximately equ ...19979103751
plasmodium forresteri n. sp., from raptors in florida and southern georgia: its distinction from plasmodium elongatum morphologically within and among host species and by vector susceptibility.plasmodium forresteri n. sp. naturally infects eastern screech-owls (otus asio), great horned owls (bubo virginianus), barred owls (strix varia), bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), broad-winged hawks (buteo platypterus), and red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) in florida and southern georgia. schizonts occur in mature or nearly mature erythrocytes, produce 2-6 merozoites arranged most commonly in fan or cruciform configuration, with mean dimensions am ...19979379302
hemagglutinins in mosquitoes and their role in the immune response to brugia malayi (filarioidea:nematoda) larvae.hemagglutinins were determined in six species of mosquitoes that are susceptible and refractory to brugia malayi (filarioidea: nematoda). high titers of hemagglutinins were found in the salivary gland extract and in the body fluid of a completely refractory species, aedes taeniorhynchus, and in partially refractory species, anopheles quadrimculatus but low levels of hemagglutinins were also present in the body fluid of aedes aegypti (black-eye, liverpool strain), a susceptible species. hemagglut ...19979505436
vector ability of mosquitoes for isolates of plasmodium elongatum from raptors in florida.three isolates of plasmodium elongatum were obtained from 3 species of raptors (red-tailed hawk [buteo jamaicensis], bald eagle [haliaeetus leucocephalus], and eastern screech owl [otus asio]) from florida using isodiagnostic techniques in pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos). six to 10 species of mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to these 3 isolates. complete development of the sporogonic cycle of the 3 isolates of p. elongatum occurred in 3 species of mosquitoes, culex nigripalpus, culex r ...19989645854
evaluation of butanone, carbon dioxide, and 1-octen-3-ol as attractants for mosquitoes associated with north central florida bay and cypress swamps.field studies were conducted to determine the responses of mosquitoes found in north central florida bay and cypress swamps to carbon dioxide (co2), light, butanone, and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), alone and co2 in combination with each of the others. the response of these mosquito species to 5 co2 release rates (2, 20, 100, 200, and 2,000 ml/min) of co2 was also determined. the use of co2 resulted in a response in all the species studied; the pattern of response to increasing co2 levels varied from ...19989813827
blood feeding and oviposition by culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) before, during, and after a widespread st. louis encephalitis virus epidemic in florida.a widespread epidemic of st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus was reported from central florida from late july through december 1990 with 226 clinical cases and 11 deaths in humans. the abundance of blood-fed and gravid culex nigripalpus theobald females, the vector of sle in florida, was monitored at a resting site in indian river county, fl, for the 3 yr before the epidemic, the epidemic year, and for 1 yr following the epidemic. each study year was divided into four 3-mo periods that depict the ...199910083754
use of base excision sequence scanning for detection of genetic variations in st. louis encephalitis virus isolates.twenty-two isolates of st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus of various geographical origins (brazil, argentina, panama, texas, missouri, maryland, california, and florida) were examined for genetic variation by the base excision sequence scanning (bess t-scan) method. a fragment was amplified in the envelope gene with the forward primer labeled in the pcr. the bess t-scan method determined different clusters according to the profiles generated for the isolates and successfully grouped the isolates ...199910325350
laboratory evaluation of biotic and abiotic factors that may influence larvicidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis against two florida mosquito species.a technical powder of bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis (b.t.i.) (vectobac tp, 5,000 international toxic units [itu]/mg), an aqueous suspension (vectobac 12as, 1,200 itu/mg), and a granular formulation (vectobac cg, 200 itu/mg) were tested in the laboratory under different biotic and abiotic, conditions for efficacy against larvae of saltwater (aedes taeniorhynchus) and freshwater (culex nigripalpus) mosquitoes. second-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar larvae of cx. nigripalpus were 1.3-3-fold mo ...199910342266
cultural control of larval mosquito production in a fallow citrus grove used for disposal of secondary-treated sewage effluent.larval mosquito production was monitored for 16 months in the furrows of a 13.4-ha citrus grove in east-central florida used for disposal of secondary-treated sewage effluent. twenty-one species of mosquito were collected, and the 2 most abundant species were culex nigripalpus and aedes vexans. an unplanned removal of all brush and trees from the site during the study resulted in an overall decline in larval production, but species diversity remained the same.199910342271
ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. ii - habitat distribution.the mosquito (diptera: culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 24, 943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. aedes scapularis, coquillettidia chrysonotum, cq. venezuelensis, wyeomyia dyari, wy. ...200010656699
frequency of saint louis encephalitis virus in humans from florida, usa: 1990-1999.four general frequencies of human st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus (epidemic, focal, sporadic, and no transmission) occurred in florida between 1990 and 1999. an epidemic with 226 clinical cases and 11 deaths was reported from 28 florida counties between july 1990 and january 1991. during the autumn of 1993, a focal outbreak was reported from lee (5 cases) and collier (3) counties in southwest florida. during the autumn of 1997, sporadic transmission to nine humans was reported from five flori ...200010916306
ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. iii. daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence.the ecology of mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) was studied in areas of the serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. the influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. sabethini species we ...200011080757
attractiveness of chickens and bobwhite quail for culex experiment to determine if wild culex nigripalpus preferentially enter lard-can traps baited with chickens or bobwhite quail was conducted. a strong preference for the chicken-baited trap was observed. further development of transmission models for st. louis encephalitis virus in southern florida should consider increased biting rates on sentinel chickens and the consequences for the interpretation of sentinel seroconversion data.200011081661
epizootiology and transmission of a newly discovered baculovirus from the mosquitoes culex nigripalpus and c. quinquefasciatus.reports of mosquito baculoviruses are extremely uncommon and epizootics in field populations are rarely observed. we describe a baculovirus that was responsible for repeated and extended epizootics in field populations of culex nigripalpus and c. quinquefasciatus over a 2 year period. these mosquito species are important vectors of st louis and eastern equine encephalitis in the united states. our initial attempts to transmit this baculovirus to mosquitoes in the laboratory were unsuccessful. a ...200111161264
baculovirus replication factor lef-1 is a dna primase.the baculovirus replication factors lef-1 and lef-2 of the autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus were overexpressed as fusions containing a hemagglutinin (ha) epitope and a his(6) tag using recombinant baculoviruses. lef-1 was purified to near homogeneity and found to have primase activity in an indirect assay employing escherichia coli dna polymerase i (klenow enzyme) and poly(dt) template. the lef-1 primase products were also directly characterized by electrophoresis in ...200211836407
extensive domain shuffling in transcription regulators of dna viruses and implications for the origin of fungal apses transcription factors.viral dna-binding proteins have served as good models to study the biochemistry of transcription regulation and chromatin dynamics. computational analysis of viral dna-binding regulatory proteins and identification of their previously undetected homologs encoded by cellular genomes might lead to a better understanding of their function and evolution in both viral and cellular systems.200211897024
drought-induced amplification of saint louis encephalitis virus, florida.we used a dynamic hydrology model to simulate water table depth (wtd) and quantify the relationship between saint louis encephalitis virus (slev) transmission and hydrologic conditions in indian river county, florida, from 1986 through 1991, a period with an slev epidemic. virus transmission followed periods of modeled drought (specifically low wtds 12 to 17 weeks before virus transmission, followed by a rising of the water table 1 to 2 weeks before virus transmission). further evidence from col ...200212023912
seasonal abundance of culex nigripalpus theobald and culex salinarius coquillett in north florida, usa.north florida is a transition zone between widespread culex nigripalpus populations to the south and focal culex salinarius populations to the north. culex nigripalpus is a vector of st. louis encephalitis (sle) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viruses in south florida, while cx. salinarius is a suspected new world vector of west nile (wn) virus. abundant vector populations are often a prerequisite for epidemic and epizootic transmission of arboviruses. extensive sle transmission has never ...200212125867
analysis of the complete genome sequence of the hz-1 virus suggests that it is related to members of the baculoviridae.we report the complete sequence of a large rod-shaped dna virus, called the hz-1 virus. this virus persistently infects the heliothis zea cell lines. the hz-1 virus has a double-stranded circular dna genome of 228,089 bp encoding 154 open reading frames (orfs) and also expresses a persistence-associated transcript 1, pat1. the g+c content of the hz-1 virus genome is 41.8%, with a gene density of one gene per 1.47 kb. sequence analysis revealed that a 9.6-kb region at 43.6 to 47.8 map units harbo ...200212186886
temporal and geographic genetic variation in culex nigripalpus theobald (culicidae: diptera), a vector of st. louis encephalitis virus, from florida.a field population of culex (culex) nigripalpus theobald from vero beach, fl sampled monthly over a period of 24 mo, a colony sample and 10 geographic samples were analyzed for genetic variation at 14 enzyme loci using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the cx. nigripalpus colony sample showed significantly lower genetic variation than the field-collected samples, measured by mean number of alleles per locus (colony 1.4 +/- 0.1 versus field 2.1 +/- 0.22), percentage of polymorphic loci (colony ...200212495183
operational studies with valent vectolex wdg, bacillus sphaericus, in three florida mosquito control districts.vectolex wdg, bacillus sphaericus (valent biosciences corporation), was evaluated in 3 florida mosquito control districts under operational conditions. application rates were 0.5 and 1.0 lb/acre and an untreated control in each district. study sites included woodland ponds, residential areas such as catch basins, and commercial business retention ponds. pretreatment and posttreatment assessments were made with a standard dipper at designated dipping stations. the most prevalent mosquitoes includ ...200212542192
simulation studies of st. louis encephalitis virus in south florida.two simulation models were used to investigate the epidemiology of st. louis encephalitis virus (slev) in south florida, one including sentinel hosts (chickens) and amplification hosts (wild birds), while the other one included age structure in the amplification host population. the overall population size of the vector, culex nigripalpus, was a major factor in the likelihood of epizootics for both models, but the seasonal dynamics of the vector alone did not explain variation in transmission. i ...200112653129
silencing of the baculovirus op-iap3 gene by rna interference reveals that it is required for prevention of apoptosis during orgyia pseudotsugata m nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of ld652y cells.the op-iap3 gene from the baculovirus orgyia pseudotsugata m nucleopolyhedrovirus (opmnpv) inhibits apoptosis induced by a mutant of autographa californica mnpv (acmnpv) that lacks the antiapoptotic gene p35, as well as apoptosis induced by a wide range of other stimuli in both mammalian and insect cells. however, the role of op-iap3 during opmnpv infection has not been previously examined. to determine the function of the op-iap3 protein during opmnpv infection, we used rna interference (rnai) ...200312663755
host-feeding patterns of potential human disease vectors in the paraíba valley region, state of säo paulo, brazil.engorged females of aedes albopictus, ochlerotatus scapularis, culex nigripalpus and culex quinquefasciatus were collected by aspiration and sweep net during two years in tremembé county, state of säo paulo, brazil. of the 1,092 specimens analyzed with the precipitin test, 87.6% reacted to one or more of the eight antisera tested. of the four species for which the host determination was made, the reaction in 98.5% was to a single host. the application of the feeding index for four species of mos ...200312831131
transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central alabama.a site near tuskegee, alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in 2001. more than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, culiseta melanura, aedes vexans, coquillettidia perturbans, culex erraticus, and uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for eee virus. each species was infected at vario ...200312875303
determination of the protein composition of the occlusion-derived virus of autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.the occlusion derived form of baculovirus is specially adapted for primary infection of the host midgut epithelium. as such, the virion must contain the proteins essential for host range determination and initiation of infection. because knowledge of virion composition is a prerequisite for functional investigation, this study used a combination of techniques to identify the proteins present within or associated with the occlusion-derived virus (odv) virion. thirty-one proteins, including protei ...200312904572
west nile virus infection rates in culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) do not reflect transmission rates in florida.we describe the first documented field transmission of west nile (wn) virus by a north american mosquito. wn was first detected in northern florida in 2001. an intensive mosquito trapping and surveillance program was conducted in this region for four nights to assess mosquito transmission of wn. four mosquito traps, each with a single sentinel chicken, were placed at five different locations on each of four nights. a total of 11,948 mosquitoes was collected, and 14 mosquito pools were found to c ...200312943101
vector competence of mexican and honduran mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for enzootic (ie) and epizootic (ic) strains of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.experimental studies evaluated the vector competence of ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (wiedemann), culex cancer theobald, culex pseudes (dyar and knab), culex taeniopus dyar and knab, and a culex (culex) species, probably culex quinquefasciatus say, and culex nigripalpus theobald from chiapas, mexico, and tocoa, honduras, for epizootic (ic) and enzootic (ie) strains of venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (vee) virus. culex pseudes was highly susceptible to infection with both the ic and ie strains ...200312943109
[mosquito (diptera, culicidae) ecology in the iguaçu national park, brazil: 1 habitat distribution].a study of the mosquito fauna in the iguaçu national park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the park. systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. a total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%), haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%), mansonia titillans (9.6%) ...200312973575
eastern equine encephalitis virus isolated from culex nigripalpus in trinidad. 195913817918
boric acid bait kills adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).the toxicity of boric acid solutions to adult anopheles quadrimaculatus say, culex nigripalpus theobald, and aedes albopictus skuse was evaluated in the laboratory. median lethal concentrations (lc50 in %) at 24-h exposure for male and female an. quadrimaculatus were 0.317 and 0.885, respectively; for cx. nigripalpus, 0.273 and 0.560, respectively; and for ae. albopictus, 0.174 and 0.527, respectively. the lc50 values at 48-h exposure for male and female an. quadrimaculatus were 0.101 and 0.395, ...200314650531
infectivity and pathogenicity of a novel baculovirus, cuninpv from culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) for thirteen species and four genera of mosquitoes.the infectivity and pathogenicity of newly discovered baculovirus, cuninpv (family baculoviridae, genus nucleopolyhedrovirus) originally isolated from the mosquito culex nigripalpus theobald, was evaluated in laboratory bioassys against thirteen species and four genera of mosquitoes native to the northeastern u.s. purified virus at a dosage rate of 1.6 x 10(7) occlusion bodies/ml with 10 mm mg2+ added was used in exposures with second through fourth instars at temperatures ranging from 17 to 27 ...200314680119
st. louis encephalitis virus in wild birds during the 1990 south florida epidemic: the importance of drought, wetting conditions, and the emergence of culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) to arboviral amplification and transmission.we analyzed the prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibodies to st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus in wild birds during the 1990 sle epidemic in indian river county. the initial presence of sle hi antibody was associated significantly with modeled drought 15 wk prior, wetting conditions 1 wk prior, and the emergence of the florida sle virus vector, culex nigripalpus, 5 wk prior. our findings indicated that three factors conspired to create the 1990 epidemic: (1) a large population o ...200314680125
seasonal prevalence and container preferences of aedes albopictus in santo domingo city, dominican republic.the seasonal prevalence and container preferences of aedes albopictus (skuse) were studied in the park, parque mirador del norte in santo domingo city, dominican republic, from january to december 1994. tire ovitraps were set along a transect through the park and monitored weekly while two larval surveys were conducted in both the park and surrounding houses using standard entomological methodology. no seasonal pattern of oviposition was observed with similar numbers of positive tire traps colle ...200314714670
host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in the eastern united important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. this parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from new york, new jersey, and tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with west nile viru ...200415018775
epizootiology of plasmodium hermani in florida: chronicity of experimental infections in domestic turkeys and northern bobwhites.a pen-reared northern bobwhite and a domestic turkey were infected with a strain of plasmodium hermani obtained originally from a wild turkey in southern florida. blood films from these 2 birds were positive microscopically for 188 and 370 days postinfection (pi), respectively. culicine mosquitoes (culex nigripalpus and c. salinarius) were blood fed on the bobwhite and the turkey at different times during the infection and used to transmit the malaria to other bobwhites and turkeys up to days 29 ...200415165079
mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997-2002 in a wetland in northeastern mississippi.the species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near iuka, ms, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a pcr-based method that allows identification of the host to species. culex erraticus (dyar & knab) composed 51.9% of the population during the 6-yr period with 295 f ...200415185956
sequence and organization of the neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedrovirus genome.all fully sequenced baculovirus genomes, with the exception of the dipteran culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus (cuninpv), have previously been from lepidoptera. this study reports the sequencing and characterization of a hymenopteran baculovirus, neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedrovirus (nelenpv), from the redheaded pine sawfly. nelenpv has the smallest genome so far published (81,755 bp) and has a gc content of only 33.3%. it contains 89 potential open reading frames, 43 with baculovirus ho ...200415194779
seasonal forecast of st. louis encephalitis virus transmission, florida.disease transmission forecasts can help minimize human and domestic animal health risks by indicating where disease control and prevention efforts should be focused. for disease systems in which weather-related variables affect pathogen proliferation, dispersal, or transmission, the potential for disease forecasting exists. we present a seasonal forecast of st. louis encephalitis virus transmission in indian river county, florida. we derive an empiric relationship between modeled land surface we ...200415200812
autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus exon0 (orf141), which encodes a ring finger protein, is required for efficient production of budded virus.exon0 (orf141) of autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene that codes for a predicted 261-amino-acid protein. located in the c-terminal region of exon0 are a predicted leucine-rich coiled-coil domain and a ring finger motif. the 5' 114 nucleotides of exon0 form part of ie0, which is a spliced gene expressed at very early times postinfection, but transcriptional analysis revealed that exon0 is transcribed as a late gene. to determine the ...200415331696
an update on the potential of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) to transmit west nile virus.abstract since first discovered in the new york city area in 1999, west nile virus (wnv) has become established over much of the continental united states and has been responsible for >10,000 cases of severe disease and 400 human fatalities, as well as thousands of fatal infections in horses. to develop appropriate surveillance and control strategies, the identification of which mosquito species are competent vectors and how various factors influence their ability to transmit this virus must be ...200515691009
evaluation of various attributes of gravid female traps for collection of culex in florida.gravid female traps are used for surveillance of populations of culex spp. and arboviruses such as west nile virus. field trials evaluating various attributes of gravid female traps for collection of gravid culex were conducted in rural habitats in alachua and marion counties, fl. screened cage tests in the field were also used to compare trap models. three trap models were evaluated: two based on the original reiter design (gravid cdc traps a and b) and one based on the revised reiter design (g ...200415707288
a cellular drosophila melanogaster protein with similarity to baculovirus f envelope fusion proteins.baculovirus f (fusion) proteins are found in the envelopes of budded virions. recently a drosophila melanogaster gene (cg4715) that encodes a protein with sequence similarity to baculovirus f proteins was discovered. to examine similarities and differences with baculovirus f proteins, we cloned the d. melanogaster cellular f (dm-cf) protein gene and analyzed dm-cf expression and localization. the predicted dm-cf protein sequence lacks a furin cleavage site, and transiently expressed dm-cf showed ...200515956544
susceptibility of ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culex nigripalpus for eeverglades virus.everglades virus (evev), an alphavirus in the venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) complex, is a mosquito-borne human pathogen endemic to south florida. field isolations of evev from culex (melanoconion) cedecei and laboratory susceptibility experiments established this species as its primary vector. however, isolates of evev from ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culex nigripalpus, more abundant and widespread species in south florida, suggested that they also transmit evev and could infect many ...200516014824
west nile virus surveillance, guadeloupe, 2003-2004.we conducted extensive surveillance for west nile virus infection in equines and chickens in guadeloupe in 2003-2004. we showed a high seroprevalence in equines in 2003 related to biome, followed by a major decrease in virus circulation in 2004. no human or equine cases were reported during the study.200516022789
west nile virus epidemics in north america are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior.west nile virus (wnv) has caused repeated large-scale human epidemics in north america since it was first detected in 1999 and is now the dominant vector-borne disease in this continent. understanding the factors that determine the intensity of the spillover of this zoonotic pathogen from birds to humans (via mosquitoes) is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human epidemics. we integrated mosquito feeding behavior with data on the population dynamics and wnv epidemiology of mosquitoes, ...200616494532
a dynamic transmission model of eastern equine encephalitis virus.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is one of several arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) endemic to the united states. interactions between arthropod (mosquito) vectors and avian amplification host populations play a significant role in the dynamics of arboviral transmission. recent data have suggested the hypothesis that an increased rate of successful feeding on young-of-the-year (yoy) birds might play a role in the dynamics of eeev transmission. to test this hypothesis, we developed a ...200616501661
avian diversity and west nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.the emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. west nile virus (wnv) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the united states in 1999. the factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of wnv are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help ...200616519242
laboratory evaluation of avian odors for mosquito (diptera: culicidae) attraction.attraction of culex quinquefasciatus say, culex tarsalis coquillett, culex nigripalpus theobald, and aedes aegypti (l.) to avian and other host odors was investigated in a dual-port olfactometer. although attraction to a human arm was high for ae. aegypti (>80%) and low for all culex spp. (<25%), all species responded similarly to a chicken (55.3-73.6%). responses of ae. aegypti, cx. quinquefasciatus, and cx. nigripalpus to feathers were low (<20%) but greater than to controls. there was no diff ...200616619603
lepidopteran ortholog of drosophila breathless is a receptor for the baculovirus fibroblast growth factor.the bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (bmnpv) encodes a gene homologous to the mammalian fibroblast growth factor (fgf) family. we report the cloning of b. mori and spodoptera frugiperda orthologous genes (bmbtl and sfbtl, respectively) of drosophila melanogaster breathless (btl) encoding a receptor for branchless/fgf and show that these genes encode the receptor for a baculovirus-encoded fgf (vfgf). sequence analysis showed that bmbtl is composed of 856 amino acid residues, which potentially enc ...200616699027
sequence analysis and organization of the neodiprion abietis nucleopolyhedrovirus genome.of 30 baculovirus genomes that have been sequenced to date, the only nonlepidopteran baculoviruses include the dipteran culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus and two hymenopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses that infect the sawflies neodiprion lecontei (nelenpv) and neodiprion sertifer (nesenpv). this study provides a complete sequence and genome analysis of the nucleopolyhedrovirus that infects the balsam fir sawfly neodiprion abietis (hymenoptera, symphyta, diprionidae). the n. abietis nucleopolyhe ...200616809301
attraction of mosquitoes to volatiles associated with blood.responses of the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus, and culex nigripalpus to volatiles and compounds associated with bovine and avian blood that were presented in collagen membranes were evaluated in olfactometer and landing assays. the presence of attractants produced by blood was supported by more attraction of all species to blood than water controls in the olfactometer. females of ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus were more attracted to bovine blood than to avian blood, but ...200616859092
host-seeking strategies of mosquito disease vectors.disease transmission by arthropods normally requires at least 2 host contacts. during the first, a pathogen (nematode, protozoan, or virus) is acquired along with the blood from an infected vertebrate host. the pathogen penetrates the vector's midgut and infects a variety of tissues, where replication may occur during an extrinsic incubation period lasting 3-30, days depending on vector and parasite physiology and ambient temperature. following salivary-gland infection, the pathogen is usually t ...200516921679
emergency mosquito aerial spray response to the 2004 florida hurricanes charley, frances, ivan, and jeanne: an overview of control total, 43 aerial spray missions were conducted in 26 florida counties to control mosquito populations after each of the 4 hurricanes making landfall in florida in 2004. mosquitoes were trapped before and after each spray mission to determine the percentage (%) of control for the west nile virus vector culex nigripalpus (64.1%), the floodwater pest mosquito psorophora columbiae (69.7%), and for all species combined (67.7%). a discussion on these results and suggestions for future efforts are p ...200617067046
application of boric acid baits to plant foliage for adult mosquito control.boric acid (1%) in 5% sugar water bait solution was applied as a spray to the foliage, stems, and other surfaces of plants for control of adult aedes albopictus, culex nigripalpus, and ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. initial studies outdoors in small (1.42-m3) screened cages showed that exposure of male and female mosquitoes to 1% boric acid bait for 48 h resulted in 80 to 100% mortality in ae. albopictus and > or = 98% mortality in cx. nigripalpus and oc. taeniorhynchus. at 48 h posttreatment, in ...200617067052
efficacy of four trap types for detecting and monitoring culex spp. in north central florida.the effectiveness of four types of mosquito traps at sampling culex mosquitoes was compared at two north central florida study sites (a commercial dairy and a swine research unit) with highly eutrophic lagoons that have a history of producing large populations of culex mosquitoes. traps evaluated included a john hock (jh) model 1012 cdc style light trap, jh model 1712 cdc gravid trap (gt), and american biophysics corporation's mosquito magnet-experimental (mm-x) and commercial model mm-professio ...200617162943
host choice and human blood index of anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the andean valleys of bolivia.the human blood index (hbi, proportion of bloodmeals of a mosquito population obtained from man) is relevant to epidemiological assessment and to the modification of measures to interrupt malaria transmission since the vectorial capacity of the vector varies as the square of the hbi. anopheles pseudopunctipennis is a main malaria vector in south america. unfortunately, few data exist concerning hbi values in its range of distribution and none from bolivia where this species is considered as an i ...200717241459
factors affecting mosquito production from stormwater drains and catch basins in two florida cities.mosquito production from drains and catch basins in the cities of vero beach and key west, fl were monitored from may 2004 through august 2005. a total of 48,787 mosquitoes were captured during the study. of these, over 99% belonged to two species, culex nigripalpus theobald (2,630) and culex quinquefasciatus say (45,946). other species collected included culex restuans theobald, culex salinarius coquillett, aedes aegypti (l.), aedes albopictus (skuse), and uranotaenia lowii theobald. significan ...200617249351
proteins associated with culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus occluded virions.occlusion-derived virions (odvs) of the nucleopolyhedrovirus of culex nigripalpus (cuninpv) were purified by ludox density gradient ultracentrifugation, and the proteins were separated by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. proteins were identified by using edman sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, nanoelectrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, or a combination of these methods. half of th ...200717301145
whole genome molecular phylogeny of large dsdna viruses using composition vector important mechanism by which large dna viruses increase their genome size is the addition of modules acquired from other viruses, host genomes or gene duplications. phylogenetic analysis of large dna viruses, especially using methods based on alignment, is often difficult due to the presence of horizontal gene transfer events. the recent composition vector approach, not sensitive to such events, is applied here to reconstruct the phylogeny of 124 large dna viruses.200717359548
the genome of gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus indicates an ancient diversification of baculovirus-related nonoccluded nudiviruses of insects.the gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus (gbnv) infects nymphs and adults of the cricket gryllus bimaculatus (orthoptera: gryllidae). gbnv and other nudiviruses such as heliothis zea nudivirus 1 (hznv-1) and oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (ornv) were previously called "nonoccluded baculoviruses" as they share some similar structural, genomic, and replication aspects with members of the family baculoviridae. their relationships to each other and to baculoviruses are elucidated by the sequence of the compl ...200717360757
larval habitats of potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in the florida keys.the occurrence of larvae of two potential vectors of west nile virus, culex nigripalpus and culex quinquefasciatus, was examined in the florida keys. about half of the aquatic habitats examined contained larvae of either one or both of the species. culex quinquefasciatus was the most frequently encountered species, whereas only 9% of habitats sampled contained culex nigripalpus. over half of those samples that contained culex nigripalpus also contained culex quinquefasciatus. the two species uti ...200717402282
characterization of baculovirus constructs lacking either the ac 101, ac 142, or the ac 144 open reading investigate the role of the gene products encoded from the open reading frames 101, 142, and 144 of autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv), a set of bacmid knockout and repair constructs were generated. the repair genes were engineered to contain an ha epitope tag at their c-termini. the results of transfection-infection assays and growth curve analyses showed that the ac 101, 142, and 144 genes were required for infectious virus production. to better characterize the r ...200717585983
experimental transmission of west nile virus by culex nigripalpus from a result of concerns regarding the geographic spread of west nile virus (wnv) to central america, we evaluated the potential for honduran culex nigripalpus theobald to transmit this virus. we tested individual mosquitoes captured in olancho province, honduras, in september 2003. mosquitoes were allowed to feed on 2- to 4- day-old chickens previously inoculated with a new york strain (crow 397-99) of wnv. infection rates in cx. nigripalpus ranged from 81%-96% after feeding on chickens with vir ...200717627449
complete sequence and organization of antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus, a dr-rich baculovirus.the completion and reporting of baculovirus genomes is extremely important as it advances our understanding of gene function and evolution. due to the large number of viral genomes now sequenced it is very important that authors present significantly detailed analyses to advance the understanding of the viral genomes. however, there is no report of the antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus (anpenpv) genome.200717650316
host choice and west nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the culex pipiens complex, from memphis and shelby county, tennessee, 2002-2003.the source of bloodmeals in 2,082 blood-fed mosquitoes collected from february 2002 through december 2003 in memphis and surrounding areas of shelby county, tennessee were determined. members of the genus culex and anopheles quadrimaculatus predominated in the collections. members of the cx. pipiens complex and cx. restuans were found to feed predominately upon avian hosts, though mammalian hosts made up a substantial proportion of the bloodmeals in these species. no significant difference was s ...200717767413
redescription of the pupa of culex restuans and a comparison with culex nigripalpus.the pupa of culex restuans is redescribed in detail with a chaetotaxal table and a full illustration. the chaetotaxy of the pupa of cx. restuans is compared with that of cx. nigripalpus, the primary vector of st. louis encephalitis and west nile virus in florida.200717847839
mosquito fauna and arbovirus surveillance in a coastal mississippi community after hurricane katrina.hurricane katrina caused massive destruction and flooding along the gulf coast in august 2005. we collected mosquitoes and tested them for arboviral infection in a severely hurricane-damaged community to determine species composition and to assess the risk of a mosquito-borne epidemic disease in that community about 6 wk after the landfall of hurricane katrina. light-trap collections yielded 8,215 mosquitoes representing 19 species, while limited gravid-trap collections were not productive. the ...200717847860
associations between two mosquito populations and west nile virus in harris county, texas, 2003-06.associations between culex quinquefasciatus, aedes albopictus and west nile virus (wnv) activity, temperature, and rainfall in harris county, texas 2003-06 are discussed. human cases were highly correlated to cx. quinquefasciatus (r = 0.87) and ae. albopictus (r = 0.78) pools, blue jays (r = 0.83), and ae. albopictus collected (r = 0.71), but not cx. quinquefasciatus collected (r = 0.45). human cases were associated with temperature (r = 0.71), not rainfall (r = 0.29), whereas temperature correl ...200717939505
impact of extrinsic incubation temperature and virus exposure on vector competence of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were exposed to artificial blood meals containing west nile virus (wnv) and held at incubation temperatures approximating average daily temperatures that occur during florida arboviral periods. mosquitoes fed blood meals containing 6.2 logs plaque-forming units (pfu) wnv/ml and held at 25 degrees c, 28 degrees c, or 30 degrees c for 13 days exhibited significantly different rates of infection (30%, 52%, 93%) and dissemination ...200718021028
first isolation of west nile virus in the caribbean.a sentinel chicken program for west nile virus (wnv) surveillance was initiated in july 2006 in eastern puerto rico, yielding the first seroconversions on june 4, 2007. wnv was isolated from sentinel chicken serum and mosquito pools (culex nigripalpus, culex bahamensis) for the first time in tropical america. preliminary sequence analysis of the prm and e genes revealed a 1-amino acid difference (v159a) between the puerto rican 2007 and the ny99. this mutation has been observed in the current do ...200818385366
bloodmeal-induced differential gene expression in the disease vector culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae).we have characterized gene expression changes in the midgut tissue of culex nigripalpus theobold (diptera: culicidae) females, after they ingest a bloodmeal, by differential display of rna isolated from pre- and postfeeding females. seventy-two cdna fragments exhibiting reproducible differences were observed. of these, 22 showed an increase in gene expression and 50 showed a decrease in gene expression as a result of blood feeding. eleven cdna fragments exhibiting increased expression after a bl ...200818402149
sequence analysis of a non-classified, non-occluded dna virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy of musca domestica, mdsghv.the genome of the virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy in musca domestica (mdsghv) was sequenced. this non-classified, enveloped, double stranded, circular dna virus had a 124,279bp genome. the g + c content was 43.5% with 108 putative methionine-initiated open reading frames (orfs). thirty orfs had homology to database proteins: eleven to proteins coded by both baculoviruses and nudiviruses (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, odv-e66, rr1, rr2, iap, dutpase, mmp, and ac81-like), seven to nudivir ...200818495197
arbovirus transmission by culex nigripalpus in florida, 2005.understanding the transmission patterns of west nile and st. louis encephalitis viruses (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv and slev) could result in an increased ability to predict transmission risk to humans. to examine transmission patterns between vector and host, we trapped mosquitoes in three florida counties from june to november 2005 by using chicken-baited lard can mosquito traps. these traps were used to monitor for presence of wnv and slev in mosquitoes and subsequent transmis ...200818533444
a functional f analogue of autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus gp64 from the agrotis segetum granulovirus.the envelope fusion protein f of plutella xylostella granulovirus is a computational analogue of the gp64 envelope fusion protein of autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv). granulovirus (gv) f proteins were thought to be unable to functionally replace gp64 in the acmnpv pseudotyping system. in the present study the f protein of agrotis segetum gv (agsegv) was identified experimentally as the first functional gp64 analogue from gvs. agsef can rescue virion propagation and infectivit ...200818562524
evaluation of the function of a type i peritrophic matrix as a physical barrier for midgut epithelium invasion by mosquito-borne pathogens in aedes addition to modulating blood meal digestion and protecting the midgut epithelial cells from mechanical and chemical damage, a biological function attributed to the mosquito type i peritrophic matrix (pm) is preventing or reducing pathogen invasion, especially from plasmodium spp. previously, we demonstrated that chitin is an essential component of the pm and is synthesized de novo in response to blood feeding in aedes aegypti. therefore, knocking down chitin synthase expression by rna interfe ...200818627241
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