mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, plasmodium hermani.culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) in florida. the mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. the resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.197717017
field studies on the potential of butanone, carbon dioxide, honey extract, 1-octen-3-ol, l-lactic acid and phenols as attractants for mosquitoes.various combinations of six candidate attractants--butanone, carbon dioxide (co2), honey, octenol, lactic acid and mixed phenols--were tested against natural populations of mosquitoes in everglades national park, florida, u.s.a., using unlighted cdc-baited traps. with few exceptions, the attractancy of these candidate compounds to mosquitoes, when used alone, was less than that of co2 alone. the exceptions were that octenol and honey extract alone attracted larger numbers of coquillettidia pertu ...19901983456
[water pollution and presence of anopheles albimanus wiedemann, 1821 and culex nigripalpus theobald, 1901]. 19902259776
correlation between wing length and protein content of mosquitoes.wing length and protein content were compared in individual specimens of male and nonbloodfed, nongravid female mosquitoes. the following groups were tested: field-collected and colonized aedes aegypti, field-collected culex nigripalpus and aedes vexans, and colonized culex quinquefasciatus and psorophora columbiae. the correlation coefficient varied from 0.91 in ae. aegypti males to 0.98 in ae. vexans females, and in each group the p value was less than 0.001. this close correlation suggests th ...19892568393
the importance of autumn rainfall and sentinel flock location to understanding the epidemiology of st. louis encephalitis virus in indian river county, florida.culex nigripalpus adults were collected from sentinel chickens at 4 sites in indian river co. (irc), florida. chickens located in well drained, open habitats attracted fewer cx. nigripalpus than did those located in a moist, forested area, but the number of mosquitoes collected in the open habitats increased significantly with heavy autumn rainfall. all st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) seroconversions (11/674) during a 7-year period were from chickens located in open, well drained habitats. a ...19852852706
entomological studies at an enzootic venezuelan equine encephalitis virus focus in guatemala, 1977-1980.the ecology of several potential mosquito vectors of venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) alphavirus was studied in an enzootic focus of that virus on the pacific coast of guatemala over a four-year period. four species-culex taeniopus, mansonia titillans, culex nigripalpus and aedes taeniorhynchus-were most prevalent during the wet season when transmission normally occurs. however, only cx. taeniopus yielded vee virus. the bloodfeeding patterns of these species revealed that ae. taeniorhynchus ...19862873752
genetic diversity of enzootic isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus new jersey.the rna genomes of 43 vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) isolates of the new jersey (nj) serotype were t1-ribonuclease fingerprinted to compare the extent of genetic diversity of virus from regions of epizootic and enzootic disease activity. forty of these viruses were obtained from central america during 1982 to 1985. the other three were older isolates, including a 1970 isolate from culex nigripalpus mosquitos in guatemala, a 1960 bovine isolate from panama, and a 1976 isolate from mosquitos (ma ...19882891861
the isolation of spiroplasmas from mosquitoes in macon county, alabama.during the summer months of 1985, 1,298 adult mosquitoes comprising 21 species and 7 genera were collected in macon county, alabama. mosquitoes were collected from four sections of the county with co2-baited light traps. spiroplasma cultures were isolated from two pools of 24 and 25 aedes fulvus pallens, one pool of 22 anopheles punctipennis and one pool of 7 culex nigripalpus. electron microscopic studies of the isolates revealed helical, wall-less cells.19872904950
growth of three mosquitoes on two larval diets measured by protein accumulation.larval growth recorded as accumulation of protein was measured in aedes aegypti, culex nigripalpus and culex quinquefasciatus, raised on liver powder or dry brewer's yeast. in the early stages all 3 species grew faster on liver powder, but at pupation there was no significant difference in protein content between diets and among species. aedes aegypti pupated one day ahead of culex.19862906975
susceptibility of culex nigripalpus to several isolates of plasmodium hermani from wild turkeys in florida. 19853880243
effect of host defenses on the feeding pattern of culex nigripalpus when offered a choice of blood sources. 19744430956
culex nigripalpus: seasonal shift in the bird-mammal feeding ratio in a mosquito vector of human encephalitis.blood-engorged culex nigripalpus (theob.) collected throughout the year in two florida localities were serologically tested to determine the host range of this mosquito in nature. a proportional increase in feeding on mammals occurred in early summer, reached a maximum between july and october, and was followed by a shift back to avian hosts which dominated the feeding pattern during winter and spring. this finding strengthens the hypothesis that a biphasic pattern of feeding is a basic characte ...19685659128
avian pox in florida wild turkeys: culex nigripalpus and wyeomyia vanduzeei as experimental vectors. 19816121920
experimental transmission by mosquitoes of plasmodium hermani between domestic turkeys and pen-reared bobwhites.plasmodium hermani was experimentally transmitted from domestic turkey poults (meleagris gallopavo) to pen-reared bobwhites (colinus virginianus) and then from these bobwhites back to domestic turkey poults. transmission was achieved by culex nigripalpus both by bites of the mosquito and by intraperitoneal injection of sporozoites. all of the 23 bobwhites and the 13 turkeys exposed to sporozoites became infected. these results indicate that the bobwhite might be a reservoir host for this malaria ...19827131193
culex nigripalpus: a natural vector of wild turkey malaria (plasmodium hermani) in florida.durking 1977 and 1978, more than 21,000 female mosquitoes of 15 species were live-trapped in south florida where high numbers of wild turkeys (meleagris gallopavo) are known to harbor malarial infections. by inoculation of mosquito extracts into uninfected domestic poults, the presence of sporozoites of plasmodium hermani was demonstrated in culex nigrapalpus. this mosquito, previously shown to be a competent experimental vector, is believed to be the primary natural vector of wild turkey malari ...19807411745
studies on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and anthropic environment. 6--breeding in empty conditions of rice fields in south-eastern brazil.studies on culicid breeding in empty rice fields were carried out during the cultivation cycle from may to november 1993. this period corresponded to stages 1 and 2, when empty conditions prevailed. breeding occurred in stage 1 and the first part of stage 2, corresponding respectively to fallow uncultivated and ploughing situations. no breeding was found to take place during the second part of stage 2 when transient floods and harrowing occurred. the predominant species were aedes scapularis, cu ...19947660043
studies on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and anthropic environment. 3--survey of adult stages at the rice irrigation system and the emergence of anopheles albitarsis in south-eastern, brazil.a study of adult culicidae ecology was carried out from january 1992 through january 1993 at the rice irrigation system of the ribeira valley experimental station. the adaptation of anopheles albitarsis to the anthropic environment became evident through the adult collections made at its various habitats represented by the irrigation system and the edge of the residual pond, as well as at those made within the local patchy residual woods. other potential disease vectors were prevalent in the irr ...19937911593
malathion resistance in mosquitoes from charleston and georgetown counties of coastal south carolina.susceptibility tests were conducted using the world health organization diagnostic test procedure on strains of aedes taeniorhynchus, aedes sollicitans, aedes vexans, and culex nigripalpus collected from several localities in charleston and georgetown counties of south carolina. aedes taeniorhynchus was resistant to malathion (mortality 1.0-54.4%) but not to propoxur, permethrin, or fenitrothion. there also were indications that ae. sollicitans and cx. nigripalpus were resistant to malathion, bu ...19947912262
studies on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and anthropic environment. 10- survey of adult behaviour of culex nigripalpus and other species of culex (culex) in south-eastern brazil.a survey of adult behaviour of culex (culex) species was carried out from august 1992 through december 1993 in a human modified (anthropic) environment in the ribeira valley, s. paulo state, brazil. culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. so it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. nonetheless, cx. ni ...19958729276
field evaluation of heat as an added attractant to traps baited with carbon dioxide and octenol for aedes taeniorhynchus.collection size of 3 species of mosquitoes (aedes taeniorhynchus, anopheles atropos, and culex nigripalpus) and a species of biting midge (culicoides furens) in cdc-type traps baited with carbon dioxide and octenol were significantly increased with the addition of heat. the presence of heat also significantly reduced collection size of the tabanid diachlorus ferrugatus.19958825507
arboviruses associated with mosquitoes from nine florida counties during 1993.mosquitoes were collected for virus isolation tests from 36 sites in bradford, lake, leon, manatee, orange, osceola, pasco, putnam, and sarasota counties, fl, from april 6 through october 11, 1993. a total of 158,129 adult specimens were collected in 726 trap nights using cdc light traps, usually baited with dry ice. at least 35 species were represented, although 60% of the collections was made up of 3 species (aedes infirmatus, 6.5%; anopheles crucians, 14.4%; and culex nigripalpus, 39.4%). fou ...19968827602
interrupted blood feeding by culex (diptera:culicidae) in relation to individual host tolerance to mosquito attack.field studies at delta marsh (1991) and winnipeg (1993), mb, and vero beach (1992), fl, examined variation among individual quail hosts in terms of the blood-feeding success by mosquitoes that fed on them. culex tarsalis coquillett was the predominant species collected in box traps baited with 2 quail at delta marsh in 1991, culex nigripalpus theobald was the predominant species collected at vero beach in 1992, and both cx. tarsalis and culex restuans theobald were collected in approximately equ ...19979103751
plasmodium forresteri n. sp., from raptors in florida and southern georgia: its distinction from plasmodium elongatum morphologically within and among host species and by vector susceptibility.plasmodium forresteri n. sp. naturally infects eastern screech-owls (otus asio), great horned owls (bubo virginianus), barred owls (strix varia), bald eagles (haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-shouldered hawks (buteo lineatus), broad-winged hawks (buteo platypterus), and red-tailed hawks (buteo jamaicensis) in florida and southern georgia. schizonts occur in mature or nearly mature erythrocytes, produce 2-6 merozoites arranged most commonly in fan or cruciform configuration, with mean dimensions am ...19979379302
blood feeding and oviposition by culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) before, during, and after a widespread st. louis encephalitis virus epidemic in florida.a widespread epidemic of st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus was reported from central florida from late july through december 1990 with 226 clinical cases and 11 deaths in humans. the abundance of blood-fed and gravid culex nigripalpus theobald females, the vector of sle in florida, was monitored at a resting site in indian river county, fl, for the 3 yr before the epidemic, the epidemic year, and for 1 yr following the epidemic. each study year was divided into four 3-mo periods that depict the ...199910083754
laboratory evaluation of biotic and abiotic factors that may influence larvicidal activity of bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis against two florida mosquito species.a technical powder of bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis (b.t.i.) (vectobac tp, 5,000 international toxic units [itu]/mg), an aqueous suspension (vectobac 12as, 1,200 itu/mg), and a granular formulation (vectobac cg, 200 itu/mg) were tested in the laboratory under different biotic and abiotic, conditions for efficacy against larvae of saltwater (aedes taeniorhynchus) and freshwater (culex nigripalpus) mosquitoes. second-, 3rd-, and 4th-instar larvae of cx. nigripalpus were 1.3-3-fold mo ...199910342266
cultural control of larval mosquito production in a fallow citrus grove used for disposal of secondary-treated sewage effluent.larval mosquito production was monitored for 16 months in the furrows of a 13.4-ha citrus grove in east-central florida used for disposal of secondary-treated sewage effluent. twenty-one species of mosquito were collected, and the 2 most abundant species were culex nigripalpus and aedes vexans. an unplanned removal of all brush and trees from the site during the study resulted in an overall decline in larval production, but species diversity remained the same.199910342271
ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. ii - habitat distribution.the mosquito (diptera: culicidae) ecology was studied in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 24, 943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. aedes scapularis, coquillettidia chrysonotum, cq. venezuelensis, wyeomyia dyari, wy. ...200010656699
frequency of saint louis encephalitis virus in humans from florida, usa: 1990-1999.four general frequencies of human st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus (epidemic, focal, sporadic, and no transmission) occurred in florida between 1990 and 1999. an epidemic with 226 clinical cases and 11 deaths was reported from 28 florida counties between july 1990 and january 1991. during the autumn of 1993, a focal outbreak was reported from lee (5 cases) and collier (3) counties in southwest florida. during the autumn of 1997, sporadic transmission to nine humans was reported from five flori ...200010916306
ecology of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in areas of serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. iii. daily biting rhythms and lunar cycle influence.the ecology of mosquito species (diptera: culicidae) was studied in areas of the serra do mar state park, state of são paulo, brazil. the influence of the lunar cycle and the daily biting rhythms of mosquito populations were analyzed. systematized biweekly human bait collections were made in a silvatic environment for 24 consecutive months (january 1991 to december 1992). a total of 20,591 specimens of adult mosquitoes belonging to 55 species were collected from 545 catches. sabethini species we ...200011080757
attractiveness of chickens and bobwhite quail for culex experiment to determine if wild culex nigripalpus preferentially enter lard-can traps baited with chickens or bobwhite quail was conducted. a strong preference for the chicken-baited trap was observed. further development of transmission models for st. louis encephalitis virus in southern florida should consider increased biting rates on sentinel chickens and the consequences for the interpretation of sentinel seroconversion data.200011081661
evaluation of butanone, carbon dioxide, and 1-octen-3-ol as attractants for mosquitoes associated with north central florida bay and cypress swamps.field studies were conducted to determine the responses of mosquitoes found in north central florida bay and cypress swamps to carbon dioxide (co2), light, butanone, and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), alone and co2 in combination with each of the others. the response of these mosquito species to 5 co2 release rates (2, 20, 100, 200, and 2,000 ml/min) of co2 was also determined. the use of co2 resulted in a response in all the species studied; the pattern of response to increasing co2 levels varied from ...19989813827
baculovirus replication factor lef-1 is a dna primase.the baculovirus replication factors lef-1 and lef-2 of the autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus were overexpressed as fusions containing a hemagglutinin (ha) epitope and a his(6) tag using recombinant baculoviruses. lef-1 was purified to near homogeneity and found to have primase activity in an indirect assay employing escherichia coli dna polymerase i (klenow enzyme) and poly(dt) template. the lef-1 primase products were also directly characterized by electrophoresis in ...200211836407
extensive domain shuffling in transcription regulators of dna viruses and implications for the origin of fungal apses transcription factors.viral dna-binding proteins have served as good models to study the biochemistry of transcription regulation and chromatin dynamics. computational analysis of viral dna-binding regulatory proteins and identification of their previously undetected homologs encoded by cellular genomes might lead to a better understanding of their function and evolution in both viral and cellular systems.200211897024
epidemiological investigation for arboviruses in jamaica, west indies.arbovirus investigation in jamaica was undertaken between 1960 and 1975. serological studies showed that antibodies to dengue type virus and st. louis encephalitis virus (sle) were prevalent throughout the island for several years. in urban communities, the incidence of dengue antibody was higher than for sle; however, in children under 10 years of age antibody to both viruses was rarely present. in rural areas, sle was prevalent in adults and children. this virus was isolated fom culex nigripal ...19807406115
seasonal abundance of culex nigripalpus theobald and culex salinarius coquillett in north florida, usa.north florida is a transition zone between widespread culex nigripalpus populations to the south and focal culex salinarius populations to the north. culex nigripalpus is a vector of st. louis encephalitis (sle) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viruses in south florida, while cx. salinarius is a suspected new world vector of west nile (wn) virus. abundant vector populations are often a prerequisite for epidemic and epizootic transmission of arboviruses. extensive sle transmission has never ...200212125867
rainfall-directed oviposition behavior of culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) and its influence on st. louis encephalitis virus transmission in indian river county, florida.resting culex nigripalpus theobald were collected with a ground aspirator three times a week in indian river county, fla., from january 1985 through december 1987. the number of green (newly emerged), empty, blood-fed, and gravid females in each collection was counted; up to 100 empty females were dissected to estimate the abundance of empty, parous females in the population. in general, this species was uncommon during the dry season from january through june but increased during the wet season ...19902299655
epizootiology and transmission of a newly discovered baculovirus from the mosquitoes culex nigripalpus and c. quinquefasciatus.reports of mosquito baculoviruses are extremely uncommon and epizootics in field populations are rarely observed. we describe a baculovirus that was responsible for repeated and extended epizootics in field populations of culex nigripalpus and c. quinquefasciatus over a 2 year period. these mosquito species are important vectors of st louis and eastern equine encephalitis in the united states. our initial attempts to transmit this baculovirus to mosquitoes in the laboratory were unsuccessful. a ...200111161264
operational studies with valent vectolex wdg, bacillus sphaericus, in three florida mosquito control districts.vectolex wdg, bacillus sphaericus (valent biosciences corporation), was evaluated in 3 florida mosquito control districts under operational conditions. application rates were 0.5 and 1.0 lb/acre and an untreated control in each district. study sites included woodland ponds, residential areas such as catch basins, and commercial business retention ponds. pretreatment and posttreatment assessments were made with a standard dipper at designated dipping stations. the most prevalent mosquitoes includ ...200212542192
drought-induced amplification of saint louis encephalitis virus, florida.we used a dynamic hydrology model to simulate water table depth (wtd) and quantify the relationship between saint louis encephalitis virus (slev) transmission and hydrologic conditions in indian river county, florida, from 1986 through 1991, a period with an slev epidemic. virus transmission followed periods of modeled drought (specifically low wtds 12 to 17 weeks before virus transmission, followed by a rising of the water table 1 to 2 weeks before virus transmission). further evidence from col ...200212023912
analysis of the complete genome sequence of the hz-1 virus suggests that it is related to members of the baculoviridae.we report the complete sequence of a large rod-shaped dna virus, called the hz-1 virus. this virus persistently infects the heliothis zea cell lines. the hz-1 virus has a double-stranded circular dna genome of 228,089 bp encoding 154 open reading frames (orfs) and also expresses a persistence-associated transcript 1, pat1. the g+c content of the hz-1 virus genome is 41.8%, with a gene density of one gene per 1.47 kb. sequence analysis revealed that a 9.6-kb region at 43.6 to 47.8 map units harbo ...200212186886
simulation studies of st. louis encephalitis virus in south florida.two simulation models were used to investigate the epidemiology of st. louis encephalitis virus (slev) in south florida, one including sentinel hosts (chickens) and amplification hosts (wild birds), while the other one included age structure in the amplification host population. the overall population size of the vector, culex nigripalpus, was a major factor in the likelihood of epizootics for both models, but the seasonal dynamics of the vector alone did not explain variation in transmission. i ...200112653129
temporal and geographic genetic variation in culex nigripalpus theobald (culicidae: diptera), a vector of st. louis encephalitis virus, from florida.a field population of culex (culex) nigripalpus theobald from vero beach, fl sampled monthly over a period of 24 mo, a colony sample and 10 geographic samples were analyzed for genetic variation at 14 enzyme loci using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the cx. nigripalpus colony sample showed significantly lower genetic variation than the field-collected samples, measured by mean number of alleles per locus (colony 1.4 +/- 0.1 versus field 2.1 +/- 0.22), percentage of polymorphic loci (colony ...200212495183
west nile virus infection rates in culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) do not reflect transmission rates in florida.we describe the first documented field transmission of west nile (wn) virus by a north american mosquito. wn was first detected in northern florida in 2001. an intensive mosquito trapping and surveillance program was conducted in this region for four nights to assess mosquito transmission of wn. four mosquito traps, each with a single sentinel chicken, were placed at five different locations on each of four nights. a total of 11,948 mosquitoes was collected, and 14 mosquito pools were found to c ...200312943101
[mosquito (diptera, culicidae) ecology in the iguaçu national park, brazil: 1 habitat distribution].a study of the mosquito fauna in the iguaçu national park focused on population behavior in four biotopes with different types of plant cover inside the park. systematic bimonthly diurnal and nocturnal human bait and shannon trap captures were conducted in both forest and domiciliary environments over the course of 24 months. a total of 20,273 adult mosquito specimens belonging to 44 species were collected: ochlerotatus serratus (10.3%), haemagogus leucocelaenus (9.7%), mansonia titillans (9.6%) ...200312973575
eastern equine encephalitis virus isolated from culex nigripalpus in trinidad. 195913817918
boric acid bait kills adult mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).the toxicity of boric acid solutions to adult anopheles quadrimaculatus say, culex nigripalpus theobald, and aedes albopictus skuse was evaluated in the laboratory. median lethal concentrations (lc50 in %) at 24-h exposure for male and female an. quadrimaculatus were 0.317 and 0.885, respectively; for cx. nigripalpus, 0.273 and 0.560, respectively; and for ae. albopictus, 0.174 and 0.527, respectively. the lc50 values at 48-h exposure for male and female an. quadrimaculatus were 0.101 and 0.395, ...200314650531
st. louis encephalitis virus in wild birds during the 1990 south florida epidemic: the importance of drought, wetting conditions, and the emergence of culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae) to arboviral amplification and transmission.we analyzed the prevalence of hemagglutination inhibition (hi) antibodies to st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus in wild birds during the 1990 sle epidemic in indian river county. the initial presence of sle hi antibody was associated significantly with modeled drought 15 wk prior, wetting conditions 1 wk prior, and the emergence of the florida sle virus vector, culex nigripalpus, 5 wk prior. our findings indicated that three factors conspired to create the 1990 epidemic: (1) a large population o ...200314680125
seasonal prevalence and container preferences of aedes albopictus in santo domingo city, dominican republic.the seasonal prevalence and container preferences of aedes albopictus (skuse) were studied in the park, parque mirador del norte in santo domingo city, dominican republic, from january to december 1994. tire ovitraps were set along a transect through the park and monitored weekly while two larval surveys were conducted in both the park and surrounding houses using standard entomological methodology. no seasonal pattern of oviposition was observed with similar numbers of positive tire traps colle ...200314714670
host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in the eastern united important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. this parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from new york, new jersey, and tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with west nile viru ...200415018775
epizootiology of plasmodium hermani in florida: chronicity of experimental infections in domestic turkeys and northern bobwhites.a pen-reared northern bobwhite and a domestic turkey were infected with a strain of plasmodium hermani obtained originally from a wild turkey in southern florida. blood films from these 2 birds were positive microscopically for 188 and 370 days postinfection (pi), respectively. culicine mosquitoes (culex nigripalpus and c. salinarius) were blood fed on the bobwhite and the turkey at different times during the infection and used to transmit the malaria to other bobwhites and turkeys up to days 29 ...200415165079
mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997-2002 in a wetland in northeastern mississippi.the species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near iuka, ms, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a pcr-based method that allows identification of the host to species. culex erraticus (dyar & knab) composed 51.9% of the population during the 6-yr period with 295 f ...200415185956
sequence and organization of the neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedrovirus genome.all fully sequenced baculovirus genomes, with the exception of the dipteran culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus (cuninpv), have previously been from lepidoptera. this study reports the sequencing and characterization of a hymenopteran baculovirus, neodiprion lecontei nucleopolyhedrovirus (nelenpv), from the redheaded pine sawfly. nelenpv has the smallest genome so far published (81,755 bp) and has a gc content of only 33.3%. it contains 89 potential open reading frames, 43 with baculovirus ho ...200415194779
determination of the protein composition of the occlusion-derived virus of autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.the occlusion derived form of baculovirus is specially adapted for primary infection of the host midgut epithelium. as such, the virion must contain the proteins essential for host range determination and initiation of infection. because knowledge of virion composition is a prerequisite for functional investigation, this study used a combination of techniques to identify the proteins present within or associated with the occlusion-derived virus (odv) virion. thirty-one proteins, including protei ...200312904572
an update on the potential of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) to transmit west nile virus.abstract since first discovered in the new york city area in 1999, west nile virus (wnv) has become established over much of the continental united states and has been responsible for >10,000 cases of severe disease and 400 human fatalities, as well as thousands of fatal infections in horses. to develop appropriate surveillance and control strategies, the identification of which mosquito species are competent vectors and how various factors influence their ability to transmit this virus must be ...200515691009
evaluation of various attributes of gravid female traps for collection of culex in florida.gravid female traps are used for surveillance of populations of culex spp. and arboviruses such as west nile virus. field trials evaluating various attributes of gravid female traps for collection of gravid culex were conducted in rural habitats in alachua and marion counties, fl. screened cage tests in the field were also used to compare trap models. three trap models were evaluated: two based on the original reiter design (gravid cdc traps a and b) and one based on the revised reiter design (g ...200415707288
susceptibility of ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culex nigripalpus for eeverglades virus.everglades virus (evev), an alphavirus in the venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) complex, is a mosquito-borne human pathogen endemic to south florida. field isolations of evev from culex (melanoconion) cedecei and laboratory susceptibility experiments established this species as its primary vector. however, isolates of evev from ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culex nigripalpus, more abundant and widespread species in south florida, suggested that they also transmit evev and could infect many ...200516014824
host-feeding patterns of potential human disease vectors in the paraíba valley region, state of säo paulo, brazil.engorged females of aedes albopictus, ochlerotatus scapularis, culex nigripalpus and culex quinquefasciatus were collected by aspiration and sweep net during two years in tremembé county, state of säo paulo, brazil. of the 1,092 specimens analyzed with the precipitin test, 87.6% reacted to one or more of the eight antisera tested. of the four species for which the host determination was made, the reaction in 98.5% was to a single host. the application of the feeding index for four species of mos ...200312831131
west nile virus epidemics in north america are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior.west nile virus (wnv) has caused repeated large-scale human epidemics in north america since it was first detected in 1999 and is now the dominant vector-borne disease in this continent. understanding the factors that determine the intensity of the spillover of this zoonotic pathogen from birds to humans (via mosquitoes) is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human epidemics. we integrated mosquito feeding behavior with data on the population dynamics and wnv epidemiology of mosquitoes, ...200616494532
avian diversity and west nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.the emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. west nile virus (wnv) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the united states in 1999. the factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of wnv are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help ...200616519242
laboratory evaluation of avian odors for mosquito (diptera: culicidae) attraction.attraction of culex quinquefasciatus say, culex tarsalis coquillett, culex nigripalpus theobald, and aedes aegypti (l.) to avian and other host odors was investigated in a dual-port olfactometer. although attraction to a human arm was high for ae. aegypti (>80%) and low for all culex spp. (<25%), all species responded similarly to a chicken (55.3-73.6%). responses of ae. aegypti, cx. quinquefasciatus, and cx. nigripalpus to feathers were low (<20%) but greater than to controls. there was no diff ...200616619603
attraction of mosquitoes to volatiles associated with blood.responses of the mosquitoes aedes aegypti, culex quinquefasciatus, and culex nigripalpus to volatiles and compounds associated with bovine and avian blood that were presented in collagen membranes were evaluated in olfactometer and landing assays. the presence of attractants produced by blood was supported by more attraction of all species to blood than water controls in the olfactometer. females of ae. aegypti and cx. quinquefasciatus were more attracted to bovine blood than to avian blood, but ...200616859092
host-seeking strategies of mosquito disease vectors.disease transmission by arthropods normally requires at least 2 host contacts. during the first, a pathogen (nematode, protozoan, or virus) is acquired along with the blood from an infected vertebrate host. the pathogen penetrates the vector's midgut and infects a variety of tissues, where replication may occur during an extrinsic incubation period lasting 3-30, days depending on vector and parasite physiology and ambient temperature. following salivary-gland infection, the pathogen is usually t ...200516921679
emergency mosquito aerial spray response to the 2004 florida hurricanes charley, frances, ivan, and jeanne: an overview of control total, 43 aerial spray missions were conducted in 26 florida counties to control mosquito populations after each of the 4 hurricanes making landfall in florida in 2004. mosquitoes were trapped before and after each spray mission to determine the percentage (%) of control for the west nile virus vector culex nigripalpus (64.1%), the floodwater pest mosquito psorophora columbiae (69.7%), and for all species combined (67.7%). a discussion on these results and suggestions for future efforts are p ...200617067046
application of boric acid baits to plant foliage for adult mosquito control.boric acid (1%) in 5% sugar water bait solution was applied as a spray to the foliage, stems, and other surfaces of plants for control of adult aedes albopictus, culex nigripalpus, and ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. initial studies outdoors in small (1.42-m3) screened cages showed that exposure of male and female mosquitoes to 1% boric acid bait for 48 h resulted in 80 to 100% mortality in ae. albopictus and > or = 98% mortality in cx. nigripalpus and oc. taeniorhynchus. at 48 h posttreatment, in ...200617067052
efficacy of four trap types for detecting and monitoring culex spp. in north central florida.the effectiveness of four types of mosquito traps at sampling culex mosquitoes was compared at two north central florida study sites (a commercial dairy and a swine research unit) with highly eutrophic lagoons that have a history of producing large populations of culex mosquitoes. traps evaluated included a john hock (jh) model 1012 cdc style light trap, jh model 1712 cdc gravid trap (gt), and american biophysics corporation's mosquito magnet-experimental (mm-x) and commercial model mm-professio ...200617162943
host choice and human blood index of anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the andean valleys of bolivia.the human blood index (hbi, proportion of bloodmeals of a mosquito population obtained from man) is relevant to epidemiological assessment and to the modification of measures to interrupt malaria transmission since the vectorial capacity of the vector varies as the square of the hbi. anopheles pseudopunctipennis is a main malaria vector in south america. unfortunately, few data exist concerning hbi values in its range of distribution and none from bolivia where this species is considered as an i ...200717241459
factors affecting mosquito production from stormwater drains and catch basins in two florida cities.mosquito production from drains and catch basins in the cities of vero beach and key west, fl were monitored from may 2004 through august 2005. a total of 48,787 mosquitoes were captured during the study. of these, over 99% belonged to two species, culex nigripalpus theobald (2,630) and culex quinquefasciatus say (45,946). other species collected included culex restuans theobald, culex salinarius coquillett, aedes aegypti (l.), aedes albopictus (skuse), and uranotaenia lowii theobald. significan ...200617249351
proteins associated with culex nigripalpus nucleopolyhedrovirus occluded virions.occlusion-derived virions (odvs) of the nucleopolyhedrovirus of culex nigripalpus (cuninpv) were purified by ludox density gradient ultracentrifugation, and the proteins were separated by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. proteins were identified by using edman sequencing, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, nanoelectrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, or a combination of these methods. half of th ...200717301145
the genome of gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus indicates an ancient diversification of baculovirus-related nonoccluded nudiviruses of insects.the gryllus bimaculatus nudivirus (gbnv) infects nymphs and adults of the cricket gryllus bimaculatus (orthoptera: gryllidae). gbnv and other nudiviruses such as heliothis zea nudivirus 1 (hznv-1) and oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (ornv) were previously called "nonoccluded baculoviruses" as they share some similar structural, genomic, and replication aspects with members of the family baculoviridae. their relationships to each other and to baculoviruses are elucidated by the sequence of the compl ...200717360757
experimental transmission of west nile virus by culex nigripalpus from a result of concerns regarding the geographic spread of west nile virus (wnv) to central america, we evaluated the potential for honduran culex nigripalpus theobald to transmit this virus. we tested individual mosquitoes captured in olancho province, honduras, in september 2003. mosquitoes were allowed to feed on 2- to 4- day-old chickens previously inoculated with a new york strain (crow 397-99) of wnv. infection rates in cx. nigripalpus ranged from 81%-96% after feeding on chickens with vir ...200717627449
complete sequence and organization of antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus, a dr-rich baculovirus.the completion and reporting of baculovirus genomes is extremely important as it advances our understanding of gene function and evolution. due to the large number of viral genomes now sequenced it is very important that authors present significantly detailed analyses to advance the understanding of the viral genomes. however, there is no report of the antheraea pernyi nucleopolyhedrovirus (anpenpv) genome.200717650316
mosquito fauna and arbovirus surveillance in a coastal mississippi community after hurricane katrina.hurricane katrina caused massive destruction and flooding along the gulf coast in august 2005. we collected mosquitoes and tested them for arboviral infection in a severely hurricane-damaged community to determine species composition and to assess the risk of a mosquito-borne epidemic disease in that community about 6 wk after the landfall of hurricane katrina. light-trap collections yielded 8,215 mosquitoes representing 19 species, while limited gravid-trap collections were not productive. the ...200717847860
associations between two mosquito populations and west nile virus in harris county, texas, 2003-06.associations between culex quinquefasciatus, aedes albopictus and west nile virus (wnv) activity, temperature, and rainfall in harris county, texas 2003-06 are discussed. human cases were highly correlated to cx. quinquefasciatus (r = 0.87) and ae. albopictus (r = 0.78) pools, blue jays (r = 0.83), and ae. albopictus collected (r = 0.71), but not cx. quinquefasciatus collected (r = 0.45). human cases were associated with temperature (r = 0.71), not rainfall (r = 0.29), whereas temperature correl ...200717939505
impact of extrinsic incubation temperature and virus exposure on vector competence of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were exposed to artificial blood meals containing west nile virus (wnv) and held at incubation temperatures approximating average daily temperatures that occur during florida arboviral periods. mosquitoes fed blood meals containing 6.2 logs plaque-forming units (pfu) wnv/ml and held at 25 degrees c, 28 degrees c, or 30 degrees c for 13 days exhibited significantly different rates of infection (30%, 52%, 93%) and dissemination ...200718021028
first isolation of west nile virus in the caribbean.a sentinel chicken program for west nile virus (wnv) surveillance was initiated in july 2006 in eastern puerto rico, yielding the first seroconversions on june 4, 2007. wnv was isolated from sentinel chicken serum and mosquito pools (culex nigripalpus, culex bahamensis) for the first time in tropical america. preliminary sequence analysis of the prm and e genes revealed a 1-amino acid difference (v159a) between the puerto rican 2007 and the ny99. this mutation has been observed in the current do ...200818385366
sequence analysis of a non-classified, non-occluded dna virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy of musca domestica, mdsghv.the genome of the virus that causes salivary gland hypertrophy in musca domestica (mdsghv) was sequenced. this non-classified, enveloped, double stranded, circular dna virus had a 124,279bp genome. the g + c content was 43.5% with 108 putative methionine-initiated open reading frames (orfs). thirty orfs had homology to database proteins: eleven to proteins coded by both baculoviruses and nudiviruses (p74, pif-1, pif-2, pif-3, odv-e66, rr1, rr2, iap, dutpase, mmp, and ac81-like), seven to nudivir ...200818495197
arbovirus transmission by culex nigripalpus in florida, 2005.understanding the transmission patterns of west nile and st. louis encephalitis viruses (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv and slev) could result in an increased ability to predict transmission risk to humans. to examine transmission patterns between vector and host, we trapped mosquitoes in three florida counties from june to november 2005 by using chicken-baited lard can mosquito traps. these traps were used to monitor for presence of wnv and slev in mosquitoes and subsequent transmis ...200818533444
a functional f analogue of autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus gp64 from the agrotis segetum granulovirus.the envelope fusion protein f of plutella xylostella granulovirus is a computational analogue of the gp64 envelope fusion protein of autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv). granulovirus (gv) f proteins were thought to be unable to functionally replace gp64 in the acmnpv pseudotyping system. in the present study the f protein of agrotis segetum gv (agsegv) was identified experimentally as the first functional gp64 analogue from gvs. agsef can rescue virion propagation and infectivit ...200818562524
transmission of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in central alabama.a site near tuskegee, alabama was examined for vector activity of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in 2001. more than 23,000 mosquitoes representing 8 genera and 34 species were collected during a 21-week period, and five species, culiseta melanura, aedes vexans, coquillettidia perturbans, culex erraticus, and uranotaenia sapphirina, were examined for the presence of virus using a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for eee virus. each species was infected at vario ...200312875303
genetic variation of st. louis encephalitis louis encephalitis virus (slev) has been regularly isolated throughout the americas since 1933. previous phylogenetic studies involving 62 isolates have defined seven major lineages (i-vii), further divided into 14 clades. in this study, 28 strains isolated in texas in 1991 and 2001-2003, and three older, previously unsequenced strains from jamaica and california were sequenced over the envelope protein gene. the inclusion of these new sequences, and others published since 2001, has allowed ...200818632961
gynandromorphs in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from valle del cauca, colombia.gynandromorphs of culex nigripalpus theobald (2), cx. pedroi sirivanakarn and belkin (1) and aedes albopictus (skuse) (2) are described. two individuals of the latter species were reared in the laboratory, while the remaining three specimens were wild-caught with different traps in rural areas in valle del cauca department, southwestern colombia. all of the individuals were mounted on microscopic slides with canada balsam. from each mosquito, main morphological characteristics are described and ...200818641900
[presence of haemagogus equinus theobald, 1903 (diptera: culicidae), in soledad and malambo, in the province of atlántico, colombia].yellow fever is a serious illness public health importance and is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera haemagogus and sabethes in the rural and forest environments, and by aedes aegypti in the urban setting. in colombia, haemagogus janthinomys and h. equinus are considered efficient vectors of this viral disease.200818645665
autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus 38k is a novel nucleocapsid protein that interacts with vp1054, vp39, vp80, and has been shown that the autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) 38k (ac98) is required for nucleocapsid assembly. however, the exact role of 38k in nucleocapsid assembly remains unknown. in the present study, we investigated the relationship between 38k and the nucleocapsid. western blotting using polyclonal antibodies raised against 38k revealed that 38k was expressed in the late phase of infection in acmnpv-infected spodoptera frugiperda cells and copurified with budde ...200818922869
evaluation of two counterflow traps for testing behaviour-mediating compounds for the malaria vector anopheles gambiae s.s. under semi-field conditions in tanzania.evaluation of mosquito responses towards different trap-bait combinations in field trials is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by experiments in contained semi-field systems. possible use of the bg sentinel (bgs) trap to sample anopheles gambiae s.s. was evaluated. the efficiency of this trap was compared with that of the mosquito magnet-x (mm-x) trap, when baited with foot odour alone or combinations of foot odour with carbon dioxide (co2) or lemongrass as behaviour-modifying cues.200818980669
west nile virus activity in mosquitoes and domestic animals in chiapas, méxico.prior to 2006, west nile virus (wnv) had not been definitively detected in chiapas, the southernmost state of mexico, although it circulates elsewhere in mexico and central america. we collected over 30,000 mosquitoes and blood-sampled 351 domestic animals in chiapas in search for evidence of current or recent transmission of wnv. two mosquito pools tested positive for wnv rna and 17 domestic animals tested positive for specific wnv-neutralizing antibodies, including young animals (<1 year old) ...200919281433
isolation of genotype v st. louis encephalitis virus in florida.we isolated and characterized st. louis encephalitis virus (slev) from cloacal swabs of naturally exposed adult sentinel chickens in 2006. phylogenetic analysis of slev strains isolated in florida indicated that brazilian slev circulated in 1972 and 2006; lineages were va and vb.200919331744
seasonal and habitat effects on dengue and west nile virus vectors in san juan, puerto rico.the presence of west nile (wnv) and dengue viruses and the lack of recent mosquito surveys in puerto rico prompted an investigation on the distribution and abundance of potential arbovirus vectors in the san juan metropolitan area, and their variation with seasons and habitats. we sampled mosquitoes in early and late 2005 in 58 sites from forests, nonforest vegetation, wetlands, and high- and low-density housing areas using ovijars, centers for disease control and prevention miniature light/co2 ...200919432067
effect of sequential exposure on infection and dissemination rates for west nile and st. louis encephalitis viruses in culex quinquefasciatus.west nile virus has spread rapidly throughout the united states since its introduction in 1999, into some areas that are also endemic for st. louis encephalitis virus (slev). these viruses are in the same antigenic complex within the genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae. further, both viruses are transmitted primarily by culex spp. mosquitoes and use birds as amplifying hosts. these viruses could contemporaneously coinfect individual vectors wherein changes in mosquito immune responses might oc ...200919492941
diversification of west nile virus in a subtropical region.west nile virus (wnv) has spread across north, central, and south america since its introduction in 1999. at the start of this spread, florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. as other studies have predicted that the lack of intense wnv transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sough ...200919607722
isolation and phylogenetic analysis of mucambo virus (venezuelan equine encephalitis complex subtype iiia) in the 1950s and 1960s, alphaviruses in the venezuelan equine encephalitis (vee) antigenic complex were the most frequently isolated arboviruses in trinidad. since then, there has been very little research performed with these viruses. herein, we report on the isolation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of mucambo virus (mucv; vee complex subtype iiia), including 6 recently isolated from culex (melanoconion) portesi mosquitoes and 11 previously isolated in trinidad and brazil. results show ...200919631956
west nile virus infection alters midgut gene expression in culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae).alterations in gene expression in the midgut of female culex pipiens quinquefasciatus exposed to blood meals containing 6.8 logs plaque-forming units/ml of west nile virus (wnv) were studied by fluorescent differential display. twenty-six different cdnas exhibited reproducible differences after feeding on infected blood. of these, 21 cdnas showed an increase in expression, and 5 showed a decrease in expression as a result of wnv presence in the blood meal. genbank database searches showed that o ...200919635880
environmental and biological factors influencing culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae) vector competence for saint louis encephalitis virus.complex interactions between environmental and biological factors influence the susceptibility of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus to st. louis encephalitis virus and could affect the epidemiology of virus transmission. similar interactions could have epidemiologic implications for other vector-virus systems. we conducted an experiment to examine four such factors in combination: mosquito age, extrinsic incubation temperature (eit), virus dose, and colony. the proportion of mosquitoes with body in ...200919635881
west nile virus surveillance, guadeloupe, 2003-2004.we conducted extensive surveillance for west nile virus infection in equines and chickens in guadeloupe in 2003-2004. we showed a high seroprevalence in equines in 2003 related to biome, followed by a major decrease in virus circulation in 2004. no human or equine cases were reported during the study.200516022789
evaluation of the function of a type i peritrophic matrix as a physical barrier for midgut epithelium invasion by mosquito-borne pathogens in aedes addition to modulating blood meal digestion and protecting the midgut epithelial cells from mechanical and chemical damage, a biological function attributed to the mosquito type i peritrophic matrix (pm) is preventing or reducing pathogen invasion, especially from plasmodium spp. previously, we demonstrated that chitin is an essential component of the pm and is synthesized de novo in response to blood feeding in aedes aegypti. therefore, knocking down chitin synthase expression by rna interfe ...200818627241
seasonal forecast of st. louis encephalitis virus transmission, florida.disease transmission forecasts can help minimize human and domestic animal health risks by indicating where disease control and prevention efforts should be focused. for disease systems in which weather-related variables affect pathogen proliferation, dispersal, or transmission, the potential for disease forecasting exists. we present a seasonal forecast of st. louis encephalitis virus transmission in indian river county, florida. we derive an empiric relationship between modeled land surface we ...200415200812
autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus core gene ac96 encodes a per os infectivity factor (pif-4).autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (acmnpv) ac96 is a core gene, but its role in virus replication is still unknown. to determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the acmnpv bacmid system to generate an ac96-null virus (vac(96)(null)). our analyses showed that the absence of ac96 does not affect budded virus (bv) production or viral dna replication in infected sf9 cells. western blotting and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that ac96 is expressed in bo ...200919759145
avian host-selection by culex pipiens in experimental trials.evidence from field studies suggests that culex pipiens, the primary mosquito vector of west nile virus (wnv) in the northeastern and north central united states, feeds preferentially on american robins (turdus migratorius). to determine the contribution of innate preferences to observed preference patterns in the field, we conducted host preference trials with a known number of adult female c. pipiens in outdoor cages comparing the relative attractiveness of american robins with two common symp ...200919924251
seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to culex vectors and west nile virus in relation to human disease cases in northeastern colorado.we examined seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to culex vectors and west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) in relation to human wnv disease cases in a five-county area of northeastern colorado during 2006-2007. studies along habitat/elevation gradients in 2006 showed that the seasonal activity period is shortened and peak numbers occur later in the summer for culex tarsalis coquillett females in foothills-montane areas >1600 m compared with pl ...200919960707
response of adult mosquitoes to light-emitting diodes placed in resting boxes and in the field.the response of adult mosquitoes to 4 light-emitting diode (led) wavelengths was evaluated using diode-equipped sticky cards (descs) and diode-equipped resting boxes at 2 sites in north central florida. wavelengths evaluated were blue (470 nm), green (502 nm), red (660 nm), and infrared (ir) (860 nm). when trapping with descs, 15 mosquito species from 7 genera (aedes, anopheles, coquillettidia, culex, mansonia, psorophora, and uranotaenia) were captured. overall, approximately 43.8% of all mosqu ...200919852218
cnact-1 gene is differentially expressed in the subtropical mosquito culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae), the primary west nile virus vector in florida.analysis of differentially expressed genes is a common molecular biological tool to investigate changes in mosquito genes after a bloodmeal or parasite exposure. we report here the characterization of a differentially expressed actin gene, cnact-1, from the subtropical mosquito, culex nigripalpus theobald (diptera: culicidae). the cnact-1 genomic clone is 1.525 kb, includes one 66-bp intron, and a 328-bp 3'-untranslated region. the 376-amino acid putative translation product shares high similari ...200818826030
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