a phytochemical study of date palm pollen. 1976948517
[the palmier date palm and fusarium infection. ii. report on the stereochemistry of monosaccharides and their various derivatives and the growth of fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis (killian et maire) gordon].fusarium oxysporum albedinis was grown in the presence of 20 different sugars or their derivatives. the results obtained were correlated with the stereochemical structure of the main oses. osmotic phenomena as well as active and selective transport were used to explain differences in utilization of oses of very near structure. based on the affinity of the fungus for mannose, a hypothesis is formulated concerning the fungus action in the host.19761276994
characterization of antigens and allergens of date palm (pheonix dactylifera) pollen. immunologic assessment of atopic patients by whole extract and its fractions [corrected].antigenic and allergenic components of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) pollen were investigated to observe their effects on the skin test reactivity, lymphocyte blastogenesis and cytokine production in atopic and healthy individuals. date pollen extracts were fractionated using sds-page and sephacryl s-200 gel filtration. western blotting of sds-page separated components with antiserum raised against whole pollen extract in rabbits revealed at least 22 immunoreactive bands ranging in molecular w ...19921485659
date palm thorn injury--an animal model. 19902179163
[date palm and fusariosis. viii.--parasitism of "fusarium oxysporum" f. sp. "albedinis" by an actinomycete (author's transl)].fortuitous growth of an actinomycete on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis culture has shown a host-parasite process. as a response to the actinomycete, the fungus produces thallospores with various forms which can germinate faster than the non-parasited f. o. albedinis microconidies. however, the strains obtained from thallospores showed as sensible as the mother strain towards actinomycete action.19817294610
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting the arabian camel (camelus dromedarius) in the sinai, egypt with a note on the acaricidal efficacy of this study, tick burdens on camels (camelus dromedarius) were determined in the vicinity of the st. catherine monastery, sinai, egypt. in total 2,545 ticks (1,491 adults and 1,054 nymphs) were collected and identified. mean tick burdens were relatively heavy and the range in number of ticks per camel was very broad (6-173). hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 95.6% of the adult ticks. other ticks found were h. marginatum subspp. and h. anatolicum excavatum. ...19937628237
occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma due to phoenix canariensis pollen allergy.we report a case of occupational bronchial asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis caused by phoenix canariensis (pc) pollen. the canary palm is a type of palm tree, belonging to the arecaceae family, which is widely distributed in frost-free regions as an ornamental tree. our patient was referred because he suffered symptoms of bronchial asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria when pruning dried leaves from pc during the pollination months. the skin prick test (spt) with a pc pollen extract w ...19957677245
major allergens of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen. identification of ige-binding components by elisa and immunoblot analysis.the ige-binding components of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pollen were determined by elisa and western blotting in atopic patients in order to identify its major allergens. from a pool of previously identified allergenic fractions and sera from 15 skin-test-positive, atopic subjects, four components of 12, 14.4, 57, and 65-67 kda were found to bind ige in 80-93% of sera. two other components of molecular masses 28-30 and 37-40 kda also bound 60-80% of atopic sera. the immunologic specifici ...19938238810
fot 1 insertions in the fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis genome provide diagnostic pcr targets for detection of the date palm pathogen.populations of fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud disease of date palm, are derivatives of a single clonal lineage and exhibit very similar fot 1 hybridization patterns. in order to develop a sensitive diagnostic tool for f. oxysporum f. sp. albedinis detection, we isolated several dna clones containing a copy of the transposable element fot 1 from a genomic library of the date palm pathogen. regions flanking the insertion sites were sequenced, and these sequences we ...19989464402
immunostimulant activity of dry fruits and plant materials used in indian traditional medical system for mothers after child birth and invalids.products of certain plants given to mothers after child birth or to invalids were studied for immunostimulant activity using the macrophage migration index (mmi) as a parameter of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity and haemagglutinating antibody (ha) titres and plaque-forming cell (pfc) counts as parameters of humoral immunity. feeding of prunus amygdalus (almond(1)) and buchanania lanzan (chirronji(1)) significantly stimulated both cmi and humoral immunity in balb/c mice as eviden ...200010904150
effects of testicular status and feeding diets containing date palm by-product on the sensory attributes of omani lamb meat.the effects of testicular status and diet on the tenderness and flavour intensity of omani lamb meat were evaluated. thirty male lambs were divided into three testicular status treatments shortly after birth, entire, castrated or induced to cryptorchidism. the animals were fed a maize and soya bean meal based diet, isocalorically supplemented with either palm fronds or rhodesgrass hay. the animals were slaughtered at an average age of 161days and weight of 27.6kg. sensory evaluation of meat for ...200010924879
[edmond sergent (1876-1969) and the pasteur institute of algeria].edmond sergent, supported by a distinguished team of colleagues, directed the pasteur institute of algeria for over 60 years, from 1900 to 1963. as a student of emile roux, sergent had received a pasteurian training. his institute devoted extensive study to malaria. sergent defined the concept of prevention and extended it to other pathologies. for many years, the institute persevered in carrying out successful antimalarial campaigns such that algeria was freed of the disease. in 1916-1917, serg ...200011775326
antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous extract of date fruit (phoenix dactylifera l. arecaceae).fruits of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l. arecaceae) are very commonly consumed in many parts of the world and are a vital component of the diet in most of the arabian countries. this preliminary study documents for the first time its antioxidant and antimutagenic properties in vitro. there was a dose-dependent inhibition of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by an aqueous extract of date fruit. the amount of fresh extract required to scavenge 50% of superoxide radicals was equivalent to 0.8 ...200211804538
cross-reactivities between date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) polypeptides and foods implicated in the oral allergy fruit and pollen antigens share a number of cross-reactive epitopes. date pollen has been shown to cross-react with antigens from artemisia, cultivated rye (secale cereale), timothy grass (phleum pratense), sydney golden wattle (acacia longifolia) and bermuda grass (cynodon dactylon) pollen. the present study was carried out to examine any cross-reactivities between date palm polypeptides and antigens of some common foods and vegetables that have been implicated in the oral allergy syndrome ...200212028116
edible dates (phoenix dactylifera), a potential source of cladosporium cladosporioides and sporobolomyces roseus: implications for public health.edible dates (phoenix dactylifera) were examined for the presence of endogenous yeasts and filimentous fungi. mean counts of fungi were 530 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of fruit, representing a mixture of two phenotypic colony types. subsequent dna extraction and pcr amplification of these two morphotypes yielded an amplicon of approximately 350 bp with the 5.8s-28s rrna its region. sequence analysis identified these to be cladosporium cladosporioides (230 cfu/g) and sporobolomyces roseus ...200212041868
microflora of date fruits and production of aflatoxins at various stages of maturation.twenty-five varieties of dates (phoenix dactylifera) were examined at different maturation stages for total microbial counts, aflatoxins and aflatoxigenic aspergillus sp. and lactic acid bacteria. the samples were examined as fresh and under simulated storage condition of high humidity. microbial counts were high at the first stage of maturation (kimri) and increased sharply at the second stage (rutab), then decrease significantly at the final dried stage of maturation (tamr). aflatoxins were de ...200212382691
tylenchida associated with different crops in sennar state (sudan).a study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (tylenchida) found in sennar state (sudan). sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (mangifera indica; citrus limon; citrus aurantifolia; citrus paradisi; citrus sinensis, phoenix dactylifera, musa sapentium; cassia italica, cap ...200112425088
molecular phylogeny of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) cultivars from saudi arabia by dna fingerprinting.genetic diversity among 13 different cultivars of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) of saudi arabia was studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers. the screening of 140 rapd primers allowed selection of 37 primers which revealed polymorphism, and the results were reproducible. all 13 genotypes were distinguishable by their unique banding patterns produced by 37 selected primers. cluster analysis by the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic mean (upgma) showed two main ...200312879257
a weevil pollinating the canary islands date palm: between parasitism and mutualism.palm pollination systems are highly diverse, including by wind and by several different groups of insects. many palm species are associated with more or less specific pollinating weevils that are also floral herbivores. for many such palms, the importance of these "palm flower weevils" as pollinators has not been examined. here we describe a new ex situ method of demonstrating insect pollination when pollinator exclusion is not possible. we show that neoderelomus piriformis beetles carry pollen ...200314564403
'candidatus phytoplasma cynodontis', the phytoplasma associated with bermuda grass white leaf disease.bermuda grass white leaf (bgwl) is a destructive, phytoplasmal disease of bermuda grass (cynodon dactylon). the causal pathogen, the bgwl agent, differs from other phytoplasmas that cluster in the same major branch of the phytoplasma phylogenetic clade in <2.5% of 16s rdna nucleotide positions, the threshold for assigning species rank to phytoplasmas under the provisional status 'candidatus'. thus, the objective of this work was to examine homogeneity of bgwl isolates and to determine whether th ...200415280272
use of light, scanning electron microscopy and bioassays to evaluate parasitism by entomopathogenic fungi of the red scale insect of palms (phoenicococcus marlatti ckll., 1899).we have evaluated the parasitism of the red scale insect of the date palm (phoenicococcus marlatti) by entomopathogenic fungi, using light microscopy (lm), scanning electron microscopy (sem) and low temperature scanning electron microscopy (ltsem). beauveria bassiana, lecanicillium dimorphum and lecanicillium cf. psalliotae, were inoculated directly on the scale insects or on insect infested plant material. we found that l. dimorphum and l. cf. psalliotae developed on plant material and on scale ...200515629648
[effect of aeration on composting of date palm residues contaminated with fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis].composting of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) residues contaminated with fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis, causal agent of the vascular wilt (bayoud) of the date palm, has been achieved. the effect of the aeration of the piles by manual turning has been studied. the maintenance of an adequate humidity of 60%-70%, necessary to the good progress of the composting process, required the contribution of 11.4 l of water/kg of the dried residues. the evolution of the temperatures in the three piles ...200515782236
pho d 2, a major allergen from date palm pollen, is a profilin: cloning, sequencing, and immunoglobulin e cross-reactivity with other profilins.up to now, some date palm pollen (dpp) allergens have been described but very few data are available about their molecular nature. the aim of this study was to identify and characterize pho d 2, a major allergen from this pollen.200515784118
toxin-based in-vitro selection and its potential application to date palm for resistance to the bayoud fusarium palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is qualified as a 'tree' of great ecological and socio-economical importance in desert oases. unfortunately, it is being decimated, especially in morocco and algeria, by a fusariosis wilt called bayoud and caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (fao). controlling this disease requires the implementation of an integrated management program. breeding for resistance is one of the most promising component strategies of this program. few naturally resistant c ...200516125651
endophytic colonization of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) leaves by entomopathogenic fungi.light and scanning electron microscopy together with fungal isolation techniques were used to detect entomopathogenic fungi within young and adult date palm (phoenix dactylifera) petioles and to assess fungal survival in leaf tissues. the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana, lecanicillium dimorphum and lecanicillium c.f. psalliotae survived inside leaf tissues at least 30 days after inoculation. entomopathogenic fungi colonized inoculated petioles endophytically and were recovered up to 3c ...200616581255
ethanol and methanol as possible odor cues for egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus).frugivorous bats from the old and new world use odor cues to locate and assess fruit condition. we hypothesized that egyptian fruit bats (rousettus aegyptiacus) use as odor cues those volatile compounds that increase in emission rate as fruit ripens. we examined whether the smell of fermentation products may indicate the degree of ripeness to fruit bats. we analyzed volatile compounds in the headspace (the gas space above a fruit in a closed container) of dates (phoenix dactylifera) and rusty fi ...200616770719
trace metal pollution from traffic in denizli-turkey during dry determine the metal contents of date palm (pheonix dactylifera) samples in dry season from denizli-turkey for investigation of heavy metal-polluted traffic.200617044641
phoenix sylvestris roxb pollen allergy: a 2-year randomized controlled trial and follow-up study of immunotherapy in patients with seasonal allergy in an agricultural area of west bengal, india.although the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy has been demonstrated in seasonal pollen allergy, there is no report of a double-blind placebo-controlled trial with standardized pollen extract in seasonal respiratory allergy from india. in the agricultural area of eastern india, phoenix sylvestris roxb or date sugar palm is grown or cultivated and seasonal allergic rhinitis is common during the pollen season.200617153886
characterization of xylanolytic bacteria present in the bract phyllosphere of the date palm phoenix dactylifera.despite the interest of phyllosphere microbiology, no studies have addressed the bacteria present in bract phyllosphere, an ecosystem that has special characteristics in palm trees because the dry bracts remain on the plant until pruning and may contain polymer-degrading bacteria involved in plant degradation. therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize xylanolytic bacteria isolated from palm bract phyllosphere.200717257258
plant biological warfare: thorns inject pathogenic bacteria into herbivores.thorns, spines and prickles are among the rich arsenal of antiherbivore defence mechanisms that plants have evolved. many of these thorns are aposematic, that is, marked by various types of warning coloration. this coloration was recently proposed to deter large herbivores. yet, the mechanical defence provided by thorns against large herbivores might be only the tip of the iceberg in a much more complicated story. here we present evidence that thorns harbour an array of pathogenic bacteria that ...200717298359
foodborne transmission of nipah virus, bangladesh.we investigated an outbreak of encephalitis in tangail district, bangladesh. we defined case-patients as persons from the outbreak area in whom fever developed with new onset of seizures or altered mental status from december 15, 2004, through january 31, 2005. twelve persons met the definition; 11 (92%) died. serum specimens were available from 3; 2 had immunoglobulin m antibodies against nipah virus by capture enzyme immunoassay. we enrolled 11 case-patients and 33 neighborhood controls in a c ...200617326940
date palm pollen allergoid: characterization of its chemical-physical and immunological palm (dp) pollen can cause allergic symptoms in people living in different countries. specific immunotherapy with allergenic extracts by subcutaneous route is effective to cure allergic people. however, the risk of side effects has led to explore safer therapeutic modalities. the aim of our work was to evaluate ige cross-reactivity between dp and autochthonous palm (european fan palm, efp) pollen extracts, to chemically modify dp extract with potassium cyanate in order to obtain an allergoi ...200817914274
mycobiota of the date palm phylloplane: description and interactions.we have analysed the mycobiota of date palm (phoenix dactylifera, l.) leaves using several techniques. profusely sporulating fungi (penicillium spp. and cladosporium spp.) developed when plating leaf fragments and leaf washings. fusarium oxysporum, was particularly abundant in leaves infested with the red scale insect phoenicococcus marlatti cockerell, 1899, but an undescribed lecanicillium cf. psalliotae was also found. dual and overlay cultures showed interactions between palm pathogens, entom ...200718095764
wilting of date palm branches by fusarium oxysporum in south of iran and its control managements with soil solarization method.wilting of some branches in nurseries and orchards of date palm were studied in south of iran including ahvaz and abadan cities in 2005-2006 years. different infected plants were visited and samples showing symptoms including wilting or death of branches collected from various areas and transferred to laboratory. samples were cultured in common media (pda) and different fungi were studied and identified. the most frequently isolated pathogen was fusarium oxysporum which caused wilting of some br ...200718396818
profilin sensitization detected in the office by skin prick test: a study of prevalence and clinical relevance of profilin as a plant food allergen.profilin, a pan-allergen present in all eukaryotic cells, is one of the main causes of cross-sensitization between pollen and plant-derived foods, but its clinical relevance as a food allergen is still debated.200818489029
rapid detection of the fusarium oxysporum lineage containing the canary island date palm wilt pathogen.abstract fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis causes fusarium wilt disease on the canary island date palm (phoenix canariensis). to facilitate disease management, a polymerase chain reaction diagnostic method has been developed to rapidly detect the pathogen. a partial genomic library of f. oxysporum f. sp. canariensis isolate 95-913 was used to identify a dna sequence diagnostic for a lineage containing all tested isolates of f. oxysporum f. sp. canariensis. two oligonucleotide primers were de ...199918944754
in vitro evaluation of the antiviral activity of an extract of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) pits on a pseudomonas phage.a crude acetone extract of the pit of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) was prepared and its antiviral activity evaluated against lytic pseudomonas phage atcc 14209-b1, using pseudomonas aeruginosa atcc 25668 as the host cell. the antiviral activity of date pits was found to be mediated by binding to the phage, with minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of <10 μg ml(-1). the decimal reduction time (d-values), the concentration exponent (η) and the phage inactivation kinetics were determined. t ...201018955267
discovery of diurnal resting sites of phlebotomine sand flies in a village in southern an attempt to find diurnal resting sites of adult phlebotomine sand flies, potential phlebotomine adult habitats were aspirated in the village of bahrif in aswan, egypt. during this survey, sand flies were aspirated from low (30-45 cm high) irregular piles of mud bricks found under high date palm canopies between the village and the nile river. there were 5 males and 7 females of phlebotomus papatasi and 3 males of sergentomyia schwetzi. six of the 7 aspirated females were engorged with blood ...200819181074
pathogen profile update: fusarium oxysporum.taxonomy: kingdom fungi; phylum ascomycota; class sordariomycetes; order hypocreales; family nectriaceae; genus fusarium. host range: very broad at the species level. more than 120 different formae speciales have been identified based on specificity to host species belonging to a wide range of plant families. disease symptoms: initial symptoms of vascular wilt include vein clearing and leaf epinasty, followed by stunting, yellowing of the lower leaves, progressive wilting, defoliation and, final ...200919400835
evolutionary genetics of zaprionus. ii. mitochondrial dna and chromosomal variation of the invasive drosophilid zaprionus indianus in egypt.zaprionus indianus is an afrotropical drosophilid species that has expanded its geographical range in the palearctic region and the americas during the second half of the last century. it has invaded egypt within the past two decades from east africa or asia and became a dominant species in the drosophilid fauna therein, but the exact date of introduction and source of the propagule remain unknown. here, we investigate the genetic structure of eight geographical populations within and around the ...200919444699
comparative 2-de proteomic analysis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) somatic and zygotic embryos.two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry has been used to compare the proteome of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l. cv. deglet nour) zygotic and somatic embryos. proteins were trichloroacetic acid-acetone-phenol extracted, quantified, and resolved by 2-de in the 5 to 8 ph range. total protein content and number of resolved spots were higher in zygotic (110+/-14.5mg/g dw; 349 spots) than in somatic (70.96+/-4.8mg/g dw; 210 spots) embryos. the 2-de map of both systems showe ...200919619682
feeding value and in vitro digestibility of date-palm leaves supplemented with different supplementary energy.the aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding value and also the effect of different supplementary energy on increasing in vitro dm digestibility of date-palms leaves obtained in pruning. a randomized complete design with different energy supplementary with 3 replicates was conducted. harvested date-palm leaves were air-dried, ground through a 5 mm screen, then palm leaves (l) ensiled with different levels of urea (u) and other supplementary energy. combination, mixture was packed tightly in ...200919806815
transmission of human infection with nipah virus.nipah virus (niv) is a paramyxovirus whose reservoir host is fruit bats of the genus pteropus. occasionally the virus is introduced into human populations and causes severe illness characterized by encephalitis or respiratory disease. the first outbreak of niv was recognized in malaysia, but 8 outbreaks have been reported from bangladesh since 2001. the primary pathways of transmission from bats to people in bangladesh are through contamination of raw date palm sap by bats with subsequent consum ...200919886791
preliminary results of a skin prick test-based study of the prevalence and clinical impact of hypersensitivity to pollen panallergens (polcalcin and profilin).calcium-binding proteins (polcalcins) and profilin are cross-reacting panallergens that sensitize a minority of pollen-allergic patients. their clinical relevance remains controversial.201020232772
date palm sap collection: exploring opportunities to prevent nipah transmission.nipah virus (niv) infection is a seasonal disease in bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in bengali culture. if fruit bats that are infected with niv gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. in february 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where niv outbreaks ha ...201020617362
production of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in water extracts of the fungus amylomyces rouxii strain ksu-09.a fungal strain, ksu-09, isolated from the roots of date palm (phoenix dactylifera), was identified as amylomyces rouxii based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (its) region of its rrna genes. mycelia-free water extracts obtained from mycelium suspended in water for 72h facilitated the production of stable, predominantly monodispersed and spherical silver nanoparticles (agnps) in the size range of 5-27nm upon addition of 1mm silver nitrate, as determined by the xrd, afm and ...201020619641
cluster of nipah virus infection, kushtia district, bangladesh, march 2007, we investigated a cluster of nipah encephalitis to identify risk factors for nipah infection in bangladesh.201021042407
[identification of phenylacetic acid produced by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud, using gc-ms].these studies are concerned with the isolation and identification of secondary metabolites produced by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (f. o. a.), the causal agent of bayoud, the wilt disease of the date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.). fungal secondary metabolites are chemical compounds identified in a limited number of species. they consist of toxins, antibiotics and antifungal agents. among the metabolites we could isolate from the pathogen grown in a liquid medium, and then identify by gas ...201021146137
the nature of melon allergy in ragweed-allergic subjects: a study of 1000 patients.previous studies suggest cross-reactivity between specific ragweed pollen and melon allergens. this study was designed to clarify the origin of the cross-reactivity between ragweed pollen and the gourd family. one thousand ragweed-allergic subjects were interviewed about the presence of oral allergy syndrome (oas) induced by melon or watermelon and were divided into reactive to =3 seasonal allergen sources or >3 seasonal allergen sources. patients reporting melon and/or watermelon allergy underw ...201121262100
the effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.the anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. the extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (peg) and/or propylencarbonate (pc) elution at room temperature or at 37°c. the plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. th ...201021110041
the complete chloroplast genome sequence of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.), a member of arecaceae family, is one of the three major economically important woody palms--the two other palms being oil palm and coconut tree--and its fruit is a staple food among middle east and north african nations, as well as many other tropical and subtropical regions. here we report a complete sequence of the data palm chloroplast (cp) genome based on pyrosequencing.201020856810
synthesis of stable cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using surfactin produced by bacillus amyloliquifaciens strain this study, a surfactin was extracted from a novel surfactant producing bacterial strain bacillus amyloliquifaciens ksu-109, isolated from rhizosphere of date palm (phoenix dactylifera), and characterized based on 16sr rna and sfp genes using blastn, blastx and phylogenetic analyses. the study was performed to obtain a renewable bioresource for surfactin production, and its application in nanotechnology as a non-hazardous and environmentally compatible nanoparticle (np) stabilizer. the strain ...201121435848
abscisic acid and sucrose increase the protein content in date palm somatic embryos, causing changes in 2-de profile.various supplements (abscisic acid (aba) or sucrose) were added to the initial embryo culture medium (m3) with the aim of improving the vigour of vitroplants deriving from date palm somatic embryogenesis. aba (20 and 40 microm) and sucrose (90 g/l) applied for 4 and 2 weeks respectively increased embryo thickness, with no apparent difference in length. aba (5-40 microm) increased embryo proliferation rate. somatic embryos maintained in modified m3 (m3 supplemented with aba and an increased sucro ...201020605176
antifungal activity and phytochemical screening of extracts from phoenix dactylifera l. this study, the rachis extracts of eight date palm phoenix dactylifera l. cultivars were analysed by phytochemical screening and bioautography on fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (foa). the choice of cultivars was based on their reaction to foa (resistant, tolerant and sensitive). phytochemical screening was realised for flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and coumarins. antifungal effects were mostly represented by dichloromethanic extracts (seven out of nine inhibition zones). the best result ...201121834627
protective effect of date palm fruit extract (phoenix dactylifera l.) on dimethoate induced-oxidative stress in rat liver.nowadays, people's exposure to chemical compounds such as organophosphorus insecticides is continuously on the rise more and more. theses compounds have induced an excessive production of free radicals which are responsible for several cell alterations in the organism. recent investigations have proved the crucial role of nutritional antioxidants to prevent the damage caused by toxic compounds. in this study, we investigate the role of date palm fruit extract (phoenix dactylifera l.) in protecti ...201120359872
proteomic analysis of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) responses to endophytic colonization by entomopathogenic fungi.the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana, lecanicillium dimorphum and l. cf. psalliotae can survive and colonize living palm tissue as endophytes. the molecular interaction between these biocontrol agent fungi and the date palm phoenix dactylifera l. was investigated using proteomic techniques. field date palms inoculated with these fungi were analyzed 15 and 30 days after inoculation in two independent bioassays. in vitro date palms were also inoculated with b. bassiana or l. cf. psalliota ...200919676091
proteomic analysis of the development and germination of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) zygotic using a comparative proteomic approach (2-de coupled to ms/ms), the development, maturation, and germination of date palm zygotic embryos, have been studied. proteins were trichloroacetic acid (tca)-acetone-phenol extracted and resolved by 2-de in the 5-8 ph range. the total protein content and the number of spots resolved increased from early (12 weeks after pollination (wap); 68.96 mg/g dw: 207 spots) to late (17 wap; 240.85 mg/g dw: 261 spots) stages, decreasing upon germination (from 120. ...200919402047
antioxidants determination with laccase.the spectrophotometric method of antioxidants determination using recombinant laccase polyporus pinsitus (rppl) and myceliophthora thermophila (rmtl) was developed. the method includes simultaneous oxidation of the antioxidant and high reactive laccase substrate producing chromophoric radical cation. as laccase substrates abts and other high reactive phenoxazine derivatives: 2-phenoxazin-10-yl-ethanol (pet), 3-phenoxazin-10-yl-propane-1-sulfonic acid (ppsa) and 3-phenoxazin-10-yl-propionic acid ...200719071650
studies on nest construction and nest microclimate of the baya weaver, ploceus philippinus (linn.).the nest construction pattern at different stages of nest and variations in the nest microclimate, i.e., temperature and light intensity were assessed in different nests of baya weaver (ploceus philippinus) between november 2002 and march 2003 in nagapattinam and tiruvarur district of tamil nadu, india. the baya weaver constructed nests in palm (borassus flabellifer), coconut (cocos nucifera) and date palm trees (phoneix psuilla) and majority of the nests were found in the solitary palm. the mal ...200818972698
evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) against bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in rats.the cerebral ischemia in rats was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries (bccao) for 30 min., followed by 45 min reperfusion. bccao caused significant depletion in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, glutathione reductase and significant increase in lipid peroxidation along with severe neuronal damage in the brain. all the alterations except depletion in glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s-transferase levels induced ...201121870431
assessment of the genetic diversity of frankia microsymbionts of elaeagnus angustifolia l. plants growing in a tunisian date-palm oasis by analysis of pcr amplified nifd-k intergenic spacer.diversity of frankia microsymbionts of non-native elaeagnus angustifolia l. plants spontaneously growing in a tunisian desertic retreat area, the date-palm oasis of tozeur, was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (pcr-rflp) and pcr-sequencing techniques targeting the nifd-k intergenic spacer. three pcr-rflp haplotypes (i, ii, and iii) were detected among collected nodules. haplotype i was detected at all five sampling sites and dominated the other h ...200717538655
evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipaemic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of phoenix dactylifera palm leaves and its fractions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.the antidiabetic and antilipaemic effects of phoenix dactylifera leaf extract (pde) and its fractions were investigated in various rat models.201022135555
paenibacillus cellulosilyticus sp. nov., a cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterium isolated from the bract phyllosphere of phoenix dactylifera.a bacterial strain designated palxil08(t) was isolated from the phyllosphere of phoenix dactylifera bracts. a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16s rrna gene sequence placed the isolate within the genus paenibacillus in the same subgroup as paenibacillus kobensis and paenibacillus curdlanolyticus (98.9 and 97.9 % sequence similarity, respectively). the dna hybridization values between the isolate and the type strains of paenibacillus kobensis and paenibacillus curdlanolyticus were found to be 2 ...200617158977
autofluorescence detection of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal structures in palm roots: an underestimated experimental method.the aim of this study was to reassess the use of autofluorescence for evaluating am colonization in mycorrhizal roots in the light of criticisms of this method that affirmed that only metabolically inactive arbuscules autofluoresce. it was also investigated whether other mycorrhizal structures, such as hyphae, vesicles and spores, could be detected by autofluorescence, and whether the autofluorescence pattern of am fungal structures could be exploited methodologically, for example, in the detect ...200616893637
seasonally variable intestinal metagenomes of the red palm weevil (rhynchophorus ferrugineus).the intestinal microbes residing in the red palm weevil (rpw, rhynchophorus ferrugineus) larva consume tender interior fibrous tissues of date palm trunks. the understanding of such microbiota at molecular level provides vital clues for the biological control of this devastating pest. using pyrosequencing and shotgun strategy, we first study taxonomic profiles of the microbiota sampled at different months (march, july and november), and then confirm the impact of high-temperature stress on the m ...201324102776
structural and biochemical changes in salicylic-acid-treated date palm roots challenged with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis.histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were carried out to assess structural and biochemical changes in date palm roots pretreated with salicylic acid (sa) then inoculated with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (foa). flavonoids, induced proteins, and peroxidase activity were revealed in root tissues of sa-treated plants after challenge by foa. these reactions were closely associated with plant resistance to foa. host reactions induced after inoculation of sa-treated plants with foa includ ...201122567327
valorization of date palm (phoenix dactylifera) fruit processing by-products and wastes using bioprocess technology - review.the date palm phoenix dactylifera has played an important role in the day-to-day life of the people for the last 7000 years. today worldwide production, utilization and industrialization of dates are continuously increasing since date fruits have earned great importance in human nutrition owing to their rich content of essential nutrients. tons of date palm fruit wastes are discarded daily by the date processing industries leading to environmental problems. wastes such as date pits represent an ...201323961227
effect of root feeding by diaprepes abbreviatus (coleoptera: curculionidae) larvae on leaf gas exchange and growth of three ornamental tree species.diaprepes abbreviatus l. (coleoptera: curculionidae), feeds on a variety of ornamental plants grown in southern florida. studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of root feeding by d. abbreviatus larvae on leaf gas exchange and growth of three ornamental tree species commonly grown in southern florida that are known hosts of this weevil: green buttonwood, conocarpus erectus l.; live oak, quercus virginiana mill.; and pygmy date palm, phoenix roebelenii o'brien. these hosts were grown in co ...200616813316
hydrothermal pretreatment of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) leaflets and rachis to enhance enzymatic digestibility and bioethanol palm residues are one of the most promising lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production in the middle east. in this study, leaflets and rachis were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of the biomass for enzymatic conversion. evident morphological, structural, and chemical changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy after pretreatment. high glucan (>90% for both leaflets and rachis) and xylan (>75% ...201526347878
diversity and phylogenetic analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is one of the major pests of palms. in saudi arabia, both larvae and adults of oryctes are particularly troublesome, especially during the establishment of young date palm orchards. endosymbiotic bacteria are known to have a key role in food digestion and insecticide resistance mechanisms, and therefore are essential to their host insect. identification of these bacteria in their insect host can lead to development of new inse ...201525899000
draft genome sequence of endophytic bacterium enterobacter asburiae pda134, isolated from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) this report, a draft of the enterobacter asburiae strain pda134 genome was sequenced. this bacterial strain was isolated from the root tissue of a date palm, where it has the ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) deaminase and indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) under salinity stress.201627540071
nipah virus infection: current scenario.the emergence of nipah virus (niv) infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. in malaysia, a major niv outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from september 1998 to april 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. about 1.1 million pigs had to be destroyed to control the outbreak. the disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in india in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2 ...201324426305
phoenix dactylifera (date palm) pit aqueous extract mediated novel route for synthesis high stable silver nanoparticles with high antifungal and antibacterial activity.the biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) was conducted using date palm pit aqueous extract. the first visible sign of the synthesis of agnps was the change in colour of reaction mixtures from yellowish to reddish brown. the resulting synthesised agnps were characterised using uv-visible spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (xrd), transmission electron microscopy (tem) and dynamic light scattering (dls). the uv-visible spectra gave surface plasmon resonance at 428 nm. xrd confirmed tha ...201526224347
illumina miseq sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in stored palm has been a major fruit tree in the middle east over thousands of years, especially in the arabian peninsula. dates are consumed fresh (rutab) or after partial drying and storage (tamar) during off-season. the aim of the study was to provide in-depth analysis of fungal communities associated with the skin (outer part) and mesocarp (inner fleshy part) of stored dates (tamar) of two cultivars (khenizi and burny) through the use of illumina miseq sequencing.201728347268
mycobiota and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin) associated with some saudi date palm fruits.this study aimed to determine the mycological profile of the retail date fruits distributed in different markets at taif, saudi arabia. the presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin a was also measured. twenty-two fungal species belonging to 12 genera were isolated from 50 different date samples. aspergillus flavus, a. niger, penicillium chrysogenum, and rhizopus stolonifer were the most prevalent species among isolated fungi. eighty isolates of a. flavus and 36 of a. niger were detected for their a ...201222568750
inhibitory effect of double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma on spores and mycotoxin production of aspergillus niger contaminating date palm fruits.aspergillus niger has been reported as a potentially dangerous pathogen of date-palm fruits in saudi arabia due to the production of fumonisin b2 (fb2 ) and ochratoxin a (ota). in a trial to disinfect this product, a double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma (dapacp) jet system was set up and evaluated against spore germination and mycotoxin production of the pathogen.201525557283
identification of strain isolated from dates (phœnix dactylifera l.) for enhancing very high gravity ethanol production.ethanol production from by-products of dates in very high gravity was conducted in batch fermentation using two yeasts, saccharomyces cerevisiae and zygosaccharomyces rouxii, as well as a native strain: an osmophilic strain of bacteria which was isolated for the first time from the juice of dates (phoenix dactylifera l.). the phylogenetic analysis based on the 16s ribosomal rna and gyrb sequence and physiological analysis indicated that the strain identified belongs to the genus of bacillus, b. ...201627838909
use of two bacteria for biological control of bayoud disease caused by fusarium oxysporum in date palm (phoenix dactylifera l) seedlings.the bayoud, caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (foa), is the most destructive disease of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l) in morocco and algeria, with no effective control strategy yet available. in this work, two bacteria, bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain ag1 (ag) and burkholderia cepacia strain cs5 (cs), were examined for their potential to control this disease. both bacterial strains inhibited both growth and sporulation of foa. they released compounds into the culture medium, wh ...201222480991
antibacterial properties and effects of fruit chilling and extract storage on antioxidant activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin content of four date palm (phoenix dactylifera) cultivars.phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. this research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °c for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °c for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (tpc), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of saudi arabian p. dactylifera cv mabroom, safawi and ajwa, as well as iranian p. dactylifera cv mariami. the stora ...201627023514
retained subretinal date palm tree thorn in a child.a 3-year-old boy presented with severe eye pain and nausea after colliding with a date palm tree branch. examination under anesthesia revealed a self-sealed corneal laceration and traumatic cataract in his left eye. cultures were taken and the patient received prophylactic subconjunctival, intravitreal, and systemic antibiotics because of the high risk of endophthalmitis. a thorn from the same tree grew bacillus cereus. examination after 2 weeks of the injury revealed a subretinal foreign body ( ...201324160979
isolation of pathogenic bacillus circulans from callus cultures and healthy offshoots of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.).pure cultures of a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, which produced endospores after 3 to 5 days on solid medium, were isolated exclusively from tissue cultures of the date palm phoenix dactylifera l. electron microscopic examination of thin sections of the bacteria revealed the bilayer membrane typical of gramnegative bacteria and confirmed the nature of the spores as true endospores. biochemical and physiological tests indicated that the bacteria were bacillus circulans. b. circulans was co ...198616347217
aerobiological studies and low allerginicity of date-palm pollen in the trees (phoenix dactylifera l.) are the most abundant crop in the united arab emirates (uae). the aim of this work was to conduct aerobiological studies on date-palm pollens and correlate that to allergenicity. an aerobiological survey was performed at three date-palm farms. radioallergosorbent test (rast) and total ige were performed on 477 airborne allergic patients. small mass bioactive constituents were fractionated and isolated by hplc. aerobiological studies demonstrate the short ...200516134484
impact of ant predation and heat on carob moth (lepidoptera: pyralidae) mortality in california date gardens.dates, phoenix dactylifera l., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in california date gardens. many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, ectomyelois ceratoniae (zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. we also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. mortality i ...200516022299
the ameliorative effect of dates (phoenix dactylifera l.) on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.the present work aimed at testing, in a rat model of ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, a local folk medicinal claim that dates are beneficial in gastric ulcers in humans. aqueous and ethanolic undialyzed and dialyzed extracts from date fruit and pits were given orally to rats at a dose of 4 ml/kg for 14 consecutive days. on the last day of treatment, rats were fasted for 24 h, and were then given ethanol, 80% (1 ml/rat) by gastric intubation to induce gastric ulcer. rats were killed after 1 h ...200515814265
isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria from date palm tree (phoenix dactylifera l.) and their potential role in salinity tolerance.endophytic bacteria were isolated from date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) seedling roots, characterized and tested for their ability to help plants grow under saline conditions. molecular characterization showed that the majority of these strains belonged to the genera bacillus and enterobacter and had different degrees of resistance to various antibiotics. some of these strains were able to produce the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (acc) deaminase and the plant growth regulatory ...201525860542
phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (j774 and thp1 alpha cell lines) of p. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.phoenix sylvestris (arecaceae family) known as indian date palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. the present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. the crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. in the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol p ...201627047320
the antibacterial activity of date syrup polyphenols against s. aureus and e. coli.plant-derived products such as date syrup (ds) have demonstrated antibacterial activity and can inhibit bacteria through numerous different mechanisms, which may be attributed to bioactive compounds including plant-derived phenolic molecules. ds is rich in polyphenols and this study hypothesized that ds polyphenols demonstrate inherent antimicrobial activity, which cause oxidative damage. this investigation revealed that ds has a high content of total polyphenols (605 mg/100 g), and is rich in t ...201626952177
phenolic profile, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of second grade date extract from tunisian cultivars (phoenix dactylifera l.).the present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. phenolic content was analyzed by hplc. antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method, and in vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. the results revealed that second grade dates presented three benzoic acids, five cinnamic acids and two flavonoids, with ...201626471652
paenibacillus phyllosphaerae sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from the phyllosphere of phoenix dactylifera.a bacterial strain, designated palxil04(t), was isolated from the phyllosphere of phoenix dactylifera. phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate within the genus paenibacillus with the closest relatives being paenibacillus curdlanolyticus and paenibacillus kobensis. dna-dna hybridization measurements showed low dna relatedness (15-20 %) between the isolate and its closest relatives. cells were gram-variable, facultatively anaerobic, motile, sporulating rods. catalase and oxidase were produced by ...200515774655
risk levels of invasive fusarium oxysporum f. sp. in areas suitable for date palm (phoenix dactylifera) cultivation under various climate change climate model outputs involve uncertainties in prediction, which could be reduced by identifying agreements between the output results of different models, covering all assumptions included in each. fusarium oxysporum f.sp. is an invasive pathogen that poses risk to date palm cultivation, among other crops. therefore, in this study, the future distribution of invasive fusarium oxysporum f.sp., confirmed by csiro-mk3.0 (cs) and miroc-h (mr) gcms, was modeled and combined with the future di ...201324340100
molecular characterization of syrian date palm cultivars using plasmid-like dna palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) is one of the most important domesticated fruit trees in the near east and north african countries. this tree has been, for several decades, in serious threat of being completely destroyed by the "bayoud" disease caused by fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis. in this study, 18 syrian date palm cultivars and four male trees were analyzed according to the identity of mitochondrial plasmid-like dnas. a pcr strategy that employs plasmid-like dnas-specific primer pa ...201222568006
alkaline pulping with additives of date palm rachis and leaves from sudan.soda-anthraquinone (soda-aq), alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (as-aq) and alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-methanol (asam) pulping of date palm rachis and leaves from sudan was carried under different conditions, and pulps with variable yields and mechanical properties were obtained. the date palm rachis gave best yields and mechanical properties with the as-aq or the asam process, while the leaves were best pulped with the soda method with low yield, but very good strength properties. blending w ...200515364084
epidemiology of henipavirus disease in humans.all seven recognized human cases of hendra virus (hev) infection have occurred in queensland, australia. recognized human infections have all resulted from a hev infected horse that was unusually efficient in transmitting the virus and a person with a high exposure to infectious secretions. in the large outbreak in malaysia where nipah virus (niv) was first identified, most human infections resulted from close contact with niv infected pigs. outbreak investigations in bangladesh have identified ...201222752412
antileishmanial activity of date (phoenix dactylifera l) fruit and pit extracts in vitro.leishmaniasis is considered as a major public health problem worldwide. current drugs in treatment of leishmaniasis have some limitations; thus, the current study was aimed to assess the methanolic extracts of pit and fruit of phoenix dactylifera against leishmania major promastigotes. l major promastigotes were cultured in rpmi 1640 and incubated at 25°c ± 1°c for 24, 48, and 72 hours. for obtaining the ic50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) value, mtt assay was employed. furthermore, pro ...201627242378
biology and management of palm dynastid beetles: recent advances.coconut, oil, and date palms are important crops in the tropics and are attacked by dynastids that cause loss of production or death of hosts. knowledge of their breeding sites has been extended since a previous review in 1980. the fungus metarhizium anisopliae has potential as a biopesticide against immature stages in friable breeding sites. the molecular biology and ultrastructure of oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (ornv), disseminated by adults, have been studied, and this pathogen can reduce o. ...201323317044
virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium flavoviride gams and rozsypal and toxicity of diflubenzuron, fenitrothion-esfenvalerate and profenofos-cypermethrin to nontarget arthropods in mauritania.within the framework of the gtz project, biological and integrated control of locusts and grasshoppers, a laboratory screening fo rmetarhizium flavoviride (strain mfl 5) blastospore pathogenicity to the nontarget arthropods pharoscymnus anchorago f. (coleoptera:coccinellidae), trachyderma hispida (forskâl) (coleoptera:tenebrionidae), palpares cf. tesselatus rambur (neuroptera:myrmeleontidae) and thanatus sp. (araneae: philodromidae) was conducted in akjoujt research station, mauritania. various ...19979002437
occupational lung diseases among soldiers deployed to iraq and afghanistan.military personnel deployed to iraq and afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel jp-8. depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. additional env ...201324443711
investigating rare risk factors for nipah virus in bangladesh: 2001-2012.human nipah encephalitis outbreaks have been identified almost yearly in bangladesh since 2001. though raw date palm sap consumption and person-to-person contact are recognized as major transmission pathways, alternative pathways of transmission are plausible and may not have been identified due to limited statistical power in each outbreak. we conducted a risk factor analysis using all 157 cases and 632 controls surveyed in previous investigations during 2004-2012 to identify exposures independ ...201627738775
it's not only what you say, it's also how you say it: communicating nipah virus prevention messages during an outbreak in bangladesh.during a fatal nipah virus (niv) outbreak in bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of niv transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak.201627495927
nipah virus transmission from bats to humans associated with drinking traditional liquor made from date palm sap, bangladesh, 2011-2014.nipah virus (niv) is a paramyxovirus, and pteropus spp. bats are the natural reservoir. from december 2010 through march 2014, hospital-based encephalitis surveillance in bangladesh identified 18 clusters of niv infection. the source of infection for case-patients in 3 clusters in 2 districts was unknown. a team of epidemiologists and anthropologists investigated these 3 clusters comprising 14 case-patients, 8 of whom died. among the 14 case-patients, 8 drank fermented date palm sap (tari) regul ...201626981928
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