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a new chromosome race of the common shrew (sorex araneus) in sweden. 19734805483
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in steiermark and burgenland].a total of 488 wild small mammals (16 species) trapped in two federate units of austria, steiermark and burgenland, were examined on the presence of blood parasites. in steiermark grahamelles were detected in neomys fodiens, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, m. agrestis, apodemus flavicollis and a. sylvaticus, while trypanosoma evotomys and hepatozoon erhardovae were found in c. glareolus, and babesia microti in pitymys subterraneus and m. agrestis. in burgenland grahamelles were demons ...19806778802
chromosome polymorphism in a population of sorex araneus l. at białowieza. 19807428984
genetic differentiation in sorex. i. electrophoretic analysis of the karyotypic races of sorex araneus in sweden. 19836668214
[arthropod population of sorex araneus l. and sorex minutus l. in forests and forest-free areas of the niemczańskie hills]. 19846506730
the autecology of small rodents and insectivores of the tribec mountain range.small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. in order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the tribec region and adjacent parts of the hronský inovec mountains. the following mammals are discussed: ...19675298539
prevalence of pneumocystis carinii delanoë & delanoë, 1912 in rodents in denmark.pneumocystis carinii has been found in 17 of 90 (19%) wild living trapped brown rats (rattus norvegicus). the positive brown rats originated from about 25% of the trapping localities examined. among brown rats of two breeding stocks, h and s, pneumocysts were found in 43.5% of the h rats, but in none of the s rats. by keeping brown h rats on a low protein diet for 8 weeks, it was possible to augment the prevalence to 53.8%. pneumocystis carinii has furthermore been found in one of eight (12.5%) ...19806965782
[epidemiological survey in a natural focus of rickettsia transmitted by ixodes ricinus in switzerland (author's transl)].a spotted fever group rickettsia referred to as "swiss agent" was detected in 8.5% of ixodes ricinus collected in a marshy forest of the swiss plateau. this organism, in its tick vector, was found to be transmitted stadially as well as ovarially; of 433 larval, nymphal or adult ticks from 17 parental tick females, all were infected. a total of 3,612 larval i. ricinus were collected from 168 small mammals including 127 clethrionomys glareolus, 29 apodemus sylvaticus and flavicolis, 7 microtus agr ...19817020557
some corrections in haemogregarine (apicomplexa: protozoa) nomenclature.the nomenclature of three genera in the family haemogregarinidae (haemogregarina, karyolysus, and hepatozoon) has been reviewed and the following new names are introduced to replace homonyms or for previously unnamed species: haemogregarina carlosi n. nom., in the erythrocytes of the lizard lacerta ocellata; haemogregarina tincae n. nom., in the stomach and intestine of the tench tinca tinca; hepatozoon insectivorae n. sp., in the leucocytes of the shrews sorex araneus and crocidura leucodon; he ...19826757414
karyotypic races of the common shrew (sorex araneus l.) from northern poland.karyotypic races of the common shrew which differed with respect to the combinations of chromosome arms in certain 2-armed autosomes were distinguished in poland. two eastern races with the arm combination ik, and one western race with the arm combination hi in the third pair of autosomes were established. in the contact area of these chromosomal forms, the fourth karyotypic race with the arm combination hk was found.19863743724
chromosome banding pattern in a polymorphic population of sorex araneus from northeastern finland. 19744135825
basic functional properties of the cardiac muscle of the common shrew (sorex araneus) and some other small mammals.the resting heartbeat frequency of all the studied wild small mammals (body mass 3-20 g) was lower than that predicted by the allometric equation for a typical mammal. the heart rate of the laboratory mouse was a little higher than the expected value. the ventricular mass of the small wild mammals was higher than predicted for their size, but that of the laboratory mouse was below the expected value. thus, adequate cardiac output in the wild small mammals is achieved by compensating the low hear ...19892809495
nucleus limitans thalami--comparative anatomical study.cyto- and myeloarchitectonics as well as acetylcholinesterase activity of the nucleus limitans thalami--an important part of the nociceptive system--were studied in insectivora (sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, talpa europaeus), rat, rabbit, cat, monkey and man. our results suggest that nucleus limitans is phylogenetically a rather new structure. in insectivora and in the rat we could not find any evident group of neurons resembling nucleus limitans. in the rabbit and cat nucleus limitans is ...19892511740
the occurrence of centrorhynchus (acanthocephala) in shrews (sorex araneus and sorex minutus) in the united kingdom.encysted acanthocephalans belonging to the genus centrorhynchus were found in the body cavities of sorex araneus (common shrew) and sorex minutus (pygmy shrew) from boxworth, cambridgeshire, u.k. fifty percent of the male s. araneus and 67% of the male s. minutus examined were found to be infected, with the mean intensity (+/-sd) being 54.3 +/- 91.3 and 14.7 +/- 18.4, respectively. the species of centrorhynchus in the shrews may be centrorhynchus aluconis, which is distributed widely in tawny ow ...19912040960
meiotic studies of robertsonian heterozygotes from natural populations of the common shrew, sorex araneus l.adult male common shrews, both robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes, were collected from oxford and elsewhere in britain. in both simple robertsonian heterozygotes and robertsonian heterozygotes with monobrachial homology, regular chain configurations were observed at meiosis i; only 1-2% were incomplete such that univalents were observed. on the average, there was one chiasma per chromosome arm among those that displayed robertsonian variation, including both chain configurations and biva ...19863956265
isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from the blood of sorex araneus in a natural focus. 19674383896
isoenzyme variation in the common shrew (sorex araneus) in britain, in relation to karyotype.samples of common shrews with an aberdeen race, oxford race and hermitage race karyotype and from the oxford-hermitage hybrid zone were screened for genotype at six polymorphic enzyme loci. the common allele at all loci was the same in all samples suggesting that the degree of genic divergence between the karyotypic races is not great. however, shrews of the aberdeen race appear to be somewhat distinct. there were differences in allele frequencies, range of alleles and heterozygosities at the mp ...19852932412
longitudinal study of natural foci of central european encephalitis virus in west slovakia.a total of 2922 small terrestrial mammals of 12 species were collected in six localities of west slovakia between 1981 and 1986. when examined for the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (na) to central european encephalitis (cee) virus we found that 14.6% had antibody. nearly all (97%) of the 426 animals with antibody were clethrionomys glareolus, the most abundant species (52.6% of mammals collected, 15.1% of those with antibody). apodemus flavicollis (22.5% of mammals collected, 18.1% of th ...19901983180
maximum heart rate of soricine shrews: correlation with contractile properties and myosin composition.maximum heart rates (hr) of three soricine shrews and six other small mammals were measured in response to a single supramaximal dose of isoproterenol (iso) under urethan anesthesia. the highest hr, 1,043 +/- 66 (sd) beats/min (n = 3), was in least shrew (sorex minutus, mean body mass 3.02 +/- 0.81 g). maximum hrs of common shrew (sorex araneus, 7.16 +/- 1.54 g) and water shrew (neomys fodiens, 12.80 +/- 1.54 g) were 938 +/- 29 (n = 7) and 887 +/- 21 (n = 6), respectively. in general, maximum hr ...19921534206
lung and hearth nematodes in some spanish mammals.thirteen host species belonging to the orders rodentia, insectivora and carnivora from various localities in galicia (nw spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. the following species were found: parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in apodemus sylvaticus, crenosoma striatum in erinaceus europaeus (83%), angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis and eucoleus aerophilus in vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), crenosoma taiga in putorius putorius (100%) and crenosoma sp. in meles ...19911844789
[small mammals at community refuse dumps as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites].five-year studies (1981-1986) were performed to investigate a total number of 2589 small mammals of 18 species. refuse dumps are marked for highly specific conditions. the difference between refuse dumps and natural habitats consists in more sufficient quantity of food, better sheltering possibilities and in highly specific microclimate particularly. as a result of aerobic and anaerobic decompositions of organic materials, temperature in dumps is approximately 50 degrees c. from ecological point ...19911807042
relation of the insular claustrum to the neocortex in insectivora.the claustra of 9 species of insectivora (sorex araneus, sorex minutus, tenrec ecaudatus, solenodon paradoxus, neomys fodiens, erinaceus europaeus, talpa europaea, desmana moschata, potamogale velox) were investigated. in all examined animals we found two parts of the insular claustrum: the main part called by us the pars principalis and more medially situated lamina profunda claustri. in the "basal" insectivora the main part is in close contact with the layer via of the neocortex. in some more ...19901707077
leptospiral antibodies in wild living animals from north tyrol.the authors examined serologically 623 wild living animals (22 species) from north tyrol for the incidence of leptospirosis. positive reactions (mal) in the titre 1: 100 and more were found in 4.5% of the animals examined; the serotypes concerned were these: icterohaemorrhagiae, sorex-jalna, castellonis or arboreae, grippotyphosa, bratislava, pomona, sejroe, saxkoebing. positive reactions were obtained with the sera of sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, putorius putorius, vulpes vulpes, cervus ...1976780229
description of chromosomes in a population of sorex araneus l. living in the biebrza valley. 19807450085
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in czechoslovakia].the author investigated 4,853 specimens of wild living small mammals (43 species: insectivora, chiroptera, lagomorpha, rodentia, carnivora) from czechoslovakia for blood parasites. trypanosomes were found in talpa europaea, sorex alpinus, crocidura suaveolens, myotis myotis, apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus flavicollis, mus musculus, rattus norvegicus, clethrionomys glareolus and microtus agrestis. babesia was detected in myotis emarginatus, myotis myotis, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis ...19751158292
descriptive kinetics of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and genome size in the mole talpa occidentalis (insectivora).the male germ cell cytodifferentiative process of the mole talpa occidentalis is described. cytochemical procedures were used 1) to follow acrosome formation and spermatid differentiation, dividing the seminiferous epithelium cycle into ten stages, each characterized by typical germ cell-to-cell associations, and recognizing 13 steps in spermatid differentiation; 2) to monitor, in situ, histones replacement by protamines at step 11 of the spermiogenic process. the seminiferous epithelium cycle o ...19957561724
chromosome localization of the gene for growth hormone in the common shrew (sorex araneus).the chromosome localization of the gene encoding growth hormone (gh) was determined by southern blotting of dna obtained from a panel of common shrew x chinese hamster and common shrew x mouse hybrid somatic cell clones using mink gh dna as a probe. the gh gene was found to be localized on chromosome hn of the common shrew.19969225591
spread of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. gran. infection to man.the occurrence of t. mentagrophytes var. gran. infection of small mammals in their natural habitat was studied. the most common host of the exoanthropic mammals was clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole); the next most common hosts were hemisynanthropes sorex araneus (common shrew) and eusynathropes mus musculus (common mouse). occurrence of infection increased during the winter months. because small mammals gather in farm outbuilding during cold weather, man is more likely to be exposed to infecti ...19751093983
transmission of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of lyme borreliosis, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), in sweden.factors regulating prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in ixodes ricinus (l.) were examined during 1991-1992 at bogesund, near stockholm in south-central sweden. nine species of small and medium-sized mammals (sorex araneus l., s. minutus l., neomys fodiens pennant, clethrionomys glareolus [schreber], microtus agrestis [l.], apodemus sylvaticus [l.], a. flavicollis [melchior], lepus europaeus pallas, l. timidus l.) were found to infect feeding tic ...19947815401
fiber types and myosin heavy chain composition in muscles of common shrew (sorex araneus).red-toothed shrews of subfamily soricinae are small mammals with very high mass-specific metabolic rate. owing to their high aerobic power they are interesting objects for studies concerning the limits and constraints of skeletal muscle adaptation. in order to clarify the correlation between metabolic rate and muscle properties, we have analyzed fiber types, fiber size, and myosin heavy chain composition of the common shrew (sorex araneus) and compared them to those of rat (rattus norvegicus). t ...19957852946
a herpesvirus from an european shrew (crocidura russula) 19947726008
centrorhynchus aluconis (acanthocephala) and other helminth species in tawny owls (strix aluco) in great britain.observations on the distribution of centrorhynchus aluconis (acanthocephala) and 6 other species of helminths in the definitive host strix aluco, in tawny owl, are presented. infected owls were collected from 16 sites ranging from tarbet, strathclyde, scotland, to ewhurst, surrey, in the south of england. in addition, unidentified cyclophyllidean cestodes were found in the alimentary tract of the tawny owls. centrorhynchus aluconis was the most prevalent helminth found and had the highest intens ...19938277390
modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in rhine-delta floodplains.in the rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. to investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (crocidura russula, sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil o ...19957794009
the ecotoxicological significance of cadmium intake and residues in terrestrial small mammals.little is known about the ecotoxicological hazard of cadmium to wild small mammals. this paper reviewed laboratory and field studies to determine: (i) intake and residue lowest-observable-adverse-effect-levels (loaels) for the ecologically important parameters of reproduction and development; (ii) whether these loaels are exceeded by wild small mammals on contaminated habitats and what adverse effects result; and (iii) which species may be at most risk from cadmium. the intake loael in laborator ...19947529157
study of a contact between two chromosomally monomorphic races of sorex araneus l. (common shrew).one hundred and twelve specimens of the common shrew from 21 populations in ne poland were studied from an area of contact between chromosomal race ii (metacentric chromosomes: hi, ko, gm, np) and race vii (ki, hn, gr, mp). no direct contact was found between the races in the study area; there were no mixed or hybrid populations. the shortest distance between populations of the two races was 1.2-1.6 km. possible explanations for this pattern of the races' disjunction are discussed.19938407355
borrelia burgdorferi in a focus of lyme borreliosis: epizootiologic contribution of small mammals.the contribution of woodmice (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mice (apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) was compared in a focus of lyme borreliosis in switzerland during a 7 months' study. all three species of mice and one species of shrews (sorex araneus) were shown parasitized by infected ixodes ricinus immatures. about 14% of larvae and 50% of nymphs collected on small mammals were infected with b. burgdorferi. spirochetes were isolated from blood of 3 woodmice ...19938325567
characterization of pneumocystis carinii infection in sorex araneus from southern finland.histologic and quantitative techniques were compared in an evaluation of the intensity of pneumocystis carinii infection in common shrews (sorex araneus) at espoo, southern finland, from september 1992 to may 1993. the histological scores were comparable to the results of the cyst count technique. the number of p. carinii cysts found in common shrews was low compared to those reported by others in clinically ill laboratory rats. the inflammatory changes detected in the lung sections had no signi ...19958583642
cryptosporidiosis in poland: clinical, epidemiologic and parasitologic aspects.stool samples from 692 children hospitalized with symptoms of gastroenteritis, were examined for cryptosporidium parvum. the oocysts were found in 17 (2.4%) children. there was no association with age, sex or location of household. however, relatively higher rate of oocyst exclusion was found among 2-month- to 3-year-old groups (50%) and among children from villages (43%). six children from the group of infected were additionally screened for general immunocompetence. four of these exhibited sig ...19938013931
[shrews as a borrelia reservoir in northwestern russia].the borreliemia was discovered in 22 (44.9%) of 49 common shrews (sorex araneus, soricidae), which were captured in the end of july-august 1995 in the novgorod province. the borreliae were located near the capillaries of the true skin and in the veins of the subcutaneous layer.19968984447
gene mapping in the common shrew (sorex araneus; insectivora) by shrew-rodent cell hybrids: chromosome localization of the loci for hprt, tk, ldha, mdh1, g6pd, pgd, and ada.we selected the common shrew (sorex araneus) to generate the first insectivore gene map. shrew-chinese hamster and shrew- mouse somatic cell hybrid cells were constructed. when the 119 shrew-rodent clones were characterized, only shrew chromosomes were found to have segregated. a panel of hybrid clones was selected for gene assignment. the genes for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt), glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), and malate dehydrogenase 1 (mdh1) were assigned to shrew ...19958597634
vector and host relationships of california serogroup viruses in western siberia.during 1990 and 1991, adult mosquitoes were collected along the ob river and its tributaries in western siberia from approximately 51 degrees 18'n to 66 degrees 4'n. fifteen virus strains were isolated from 74,196 mosquitoes tested in 1,874 pools. these included tahyna virus from aedes cataphylla-punctor subgroup (one) and ae. excrucians (one), and inkoo (ink) virus from ae. communis (one), ae. communis subgroup (one), ae. hexodontus (two), ae. punctor subgroup (two), ae. punctor complex (one), ...19938352392
maintenance by hares of european borrelia burgdorferi in ecosystems without rodents.during may-october 1991 shrews (sorex spp.), small rodents (apodemus spp., clethrionomys glareolus [schreber]), and hares (lepus spp.) were sampled near stockholm, sweden. nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) derived from blood-engorged larvae collected from these mammals were investigated by phase-contrast microscopy and immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using the monoclonal antibody h6831 directed against the ospb protein of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner. three rodent s ...19938433337
robertsonian chromosomal rearrangements in the short-tailed shrew, blarina carolinensis, in western tennessee.we report significant heterozygosity for numerous robertsonian translocations in the southern short-tailed shrew (blarina carolinensis) in western tennessee. eight robertsonian rearrangements were documented using g-banding techniques that explain the variability in diploid numbers from 46 throughout most of the range of the species to 34-40 in western tennessee. these fusions resulted in the loss of telomere sequences and were not associated with nucleolar organizer regions. when heterozygocity ...19979186509
pneumocystis carinii of the common shrew, sorex araneus, shows a discrete phenotype.we carried out an immunohistological and morphological study on pneumocystis carinii originating from the common shrew, sorex araneus. immunologic properties were studied by applying two commercially available immunofluorescence staining kits with differing developmental form specificity to a lung homogenate. the cyst form-specific staining kit reacted with cysts originating from s. araneus. ultrastructurally this particular antigen epitope specifically deposited on the electron-lucent middle la ...19979109260
[karyologic differentiation in the common shrew sorex araneus l. from the upper and middle volga river basin (insectivora, mammalia)]. 199910420262
[chromosomal localization of 10 genes on the cytogenetic map of the common shrew sorex araneus l].using a panel of hybrid clones (common shrew--chinese hamster and common shrew--mouse), the syntheny and localization of the following genes was determined: genes for alpha-galactosidase (gla), acid phosphatase (acp1), and phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk1) on chromosome de; adenosine kinase (adk) and glucuronidase 2 (gus2) on chromosome ik; glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (got2) and peptidase d (pepd) on chromosome hn; and glyoxalase 1 (glo1) and phosphoglucomutase 2 (pgm2) on chromosome go. ge ...199910420272
pcr detection of granulocytic ehrlichiae in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in western switzerland.the presence of granulocytic ehrlichiae was demonstrated by pcr in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in switzerland in two areas of endemicity for bovine ehrlichiosis. six ticks (three females and three nymphs) (1.4%) of 417 i. ricinus ticks collected by flagging vegetation contained ehrlichial dna. a total of 201 small mammals from five species, wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), earth vole (pitymys subterraneus), bank vole (clethrionomys gla ...200010698987
grahamella (rickettsiales) in the common shrew sorex araneus. 195613322468
importance of surveillance of tularemia natural foci in the known endemic area of central europe, 1991-1997.marked activation of natural foci of tularemia in the known endemic area of central europe, comprising the borderland of slovakia, austria and the czech republic, led to an epidemic outbreak in western slovakia and an increase in the number of human tularemia cases in the adjoining regions of northeastern austria and southern moravia from 1995 to 1997. the aim of this paper was to present the results of a longitudinal study on the prevalence of infection with francisella tularensis in small mamm ...200111467089
[chromosome polymorphism of sorex araneus l. (mammal-insectivora)]. 196414279999
[leptospira antibodies in small mammals in eastern slovakia].during the five years (1991-1995) mostly free living small mammals were examined serologically for the presence of antibodies to leptospira. serological examinations were used by kmety and bakoss (1978). altogether, 2493 individuals of 22 species were examined, an important part of host material (69.6%) was caught in two lowland areas which are intensively cultivated landscapes (east slovakian lowland and kosická kotlina basin). the remaining material comes from submontane areas with less agricu ...19969045500
[involvement of the common shrew, sorex araneus (insectivora, soricidae), in circulation of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in south-western siberia].we presented the data on the abundance of immature instars of the taiga tick ixodes persulcatus schuize on the common shrews sorex araneus l. in natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis in the south of western siberia. basing on the results of virological and serological studies we demonstrated a low effectiveness of this host species as a donor of disease agent strains, which are predominant in the territory under study, for ticks feeding on shrews. the analysis of samples taken from the young s ...200111871252
pneumocystis carinii and helminth parasitism in shrews sorex araneus and sorex caecutiens.the prevalence of pneumocystis carinii was compared in two species of shrews, sorex araneus and sorex caecutiens in finnish lapland. the overall prevalence of p. carinii in s. araneus was 70% and in s. caecutiens was 17%. the prevalence for s. araneus is the highest reported for wild animals. the interspecific differences in prevalence were significant for all sex and age groups except for adult males. based on multiway contingency tables (log-linear models), there was no dependence between sex ...19938487377
phylogeographical structure, postglacial recolonization and barriers to gene flow in the distinctive valais chromosome race of the common shrew (sorex araneus).using one male-inherited and eight biparentally inherited microsatellite markers, we investigate the population genetic structure of the valais chromosome race of the common shrew (sorex araneus) in the central alps of europe. unexpectedly, the y-chromosome microsatellite suggests nearly complete absence of male gene flow among populations from the st-bernard and simplon regions (switzerland). autosomal markers also show significant genetic structuring among these two geographical areas. isolati ...200211972764
lung parasites of shrews from pennsylvania.we examined lung parasites of three species of soricids, sorex cinereus (n = 58), sorex fumeus (n = 23) and blarina brevicauda (n = 45) collected from pennsylvania (usa), from 1990 to 1995. yeast-like cells of hisfoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum were found in lung sections stained with grocott's modification of gomori's methenamine silver, periodic acid-schiff, giemsa, and hematoxylin-eosin in two (3%) s. cinereus, eight (35%) s. fumeus and two (4%) b. brevicauda. the number of spores of h. c ...19979131560
[observations of fleas of small mammals at the gran paradiso national park (italian occidental alps)].the siphonaptera of small mammals (nearly 200 rodents, insectivora and mustelids) of the parco nazionale del gran paradiso (western italian alps) have been collected and studied during the years 1973-75. all the animals have been captured at altitudes ranging from 1570 to 2400 m during different seasons. twelve genera and sixteen species have been identified, namely: chaetopsylla (c.) homoea homoea from mustela erminea; hystrichopsylla (h.) talpae talpae from clethrionomys glareolus; rhadinopsyl ...19751233394
a population of the common shrew sorex araneus l. (insectivora, mammalia) of the sok race inhabiting a patch of forest at the southern boundary of the species range. 200212474764
fiber capillarization relative to mitochondrial volume in diaphragm of shrew.the objective was to examine fiber capillarization in relation to fiber mitochondrial volume in the highly aerobic diaphragm of the shrew, the smallest mammal. the diaphragms of four common shrews [sorex araneus; body mass, 8.2 +/- 1.3 (se) g] and four lesser shrews (sorex minutus, 2.6 +/- 0.1 g) were perfusion fixed in situ, processed for electron microscopy, and analyzed by morphometry. capillary length per fiber volume was extremely high, at values of 8,008 +/- 1,054 and 12,332 +/- 625 mm(-2) ...200212070224
the evolutionary history of the two karyotypic groups of the common shrew, sorex araneus, in poland.genetic variability within and among two karyotypic groups and five chromosome races of the common shrew (sorex araneus) in poland was assayed by sequencing a 1023 bp part of the cytochrome b gene (mtdna) from 28 individuals. thirty-four variable positions defined 21 distinct haplotypes with a maximum sequence divergence of 0.88%. no significant differentiation in the cytochrome b gene between western and eastern karyotypic groups was found. haplotype diversity estimates within the races and gro ...200211920129
the cerebellum at birth in therian mammals, with special reference to rodents.the stage of cerebellar development at birth was assessed in 23 species of placental mammals. serial histological sections were examined and five stages in the differentiation of the cerebellar cortical layers were defined. a wide diversity of conditions at birth was found. the available evidence (after parsimony reconstruction) suggests that the last common ancestor of placentals was born with an altricial cerebellum in which the molecular layer was just present between the external granular la ...200212119530
bartonella infection in sylvatic small mammals of central sweden.sylvatic small mammals were captured in rural habitats near uppsala, sweden, to measure the prevalence of bartonella infections, characterize bacterial isolates and identify their host range, and increase our understanding of host-pathogen ecology. during 7 nights of trapping at 3 localities, 236 small mammals were captured (trap success 30%). bartonella were isolated from bloods of apodemus flavicollis (19 of 110 tested), apodemus sylvaticus (6/25), clethrionomys glareolus (9/60), microtus agre ...200312613756
[biotope distribution of cestodes from the common shrew sorex araneus in southern karelia].specific features in the formation of cestode species composition in the common shrew in different biotopes have been analyzed. four categories of parasites have been recognized depending on a degree of dominance: dominants (neoskrjabinolepis singularis, molluscotaenia crassiscolex), subdominants (ditestolepis diaphana), adominants a (staphylocystis furcata, vigisolepis spinulosa, adominants b (hymenolepis scutigera, dilepis undula, d. secunda, taenia mustelae). a significant similarity was disc ...200314964848
[isolation of coxiella burnetti from the common shrew (sorex araneus) caught in a focus of q-rickettsiosis in northeastern bohemia]. 195913639071
no apparent reduction of gene flow in a hybrid zone between the west and north european karyotypic groups of the common shrew, sorex araneus.the common shrew, sorex araneus, exhibits an unusually high level of karyotypic variation. populations with identical or similar karyotypes are defined as chromosome races, which are, in turn, grouped into larger evolutionary units, karyotypic groups. using six microsatellite markers, we investigated the genetic structure of a hybrid zone between the sidensjö and abisko chromosome races, representatives of two distinct karyotypic groups believed to have been separated during the last glacial max ...200415078456
alps, genes, and chromosomes: their role in the formation of species in the sorex araneus group (mammalia, insectivora), as inferred from two hybrid zones.during the pleistocene glaciations, the alps were an efficient barrier to gene flow between isolated populations, often leading to allopatric speciation. afterwards, the alps strongly influenced the post-glacial recolonization of europe and represent a major suture zone between differentiated populations. two hybrid zones in the swiss and french alps between genetically and chromosomally well-differentiated species-the valais shrew, sorex antinorii, and the common shrew, s. araneus-were studied ...200212438784
sex chromosome aneuploidy in wild small mammals.we describe four examples of the xo condition in wild mammals. one xo house mouse (mus musculus domesticus) was caught in nature and subsequently gave birth to three litters in captivity, confirming for wild mice the fertility observed for xo laboratory mice. two other xo house mice were produced from laboratory crosses of wild-caught mice. an immature xo common shrew (sorex araneus) was caught in nature; this appears to be the first xo recorded in the order insectivora. we collected data from r ...200212438805
[structure and seasonal dynamics of an ectoparasite community on the common shrew (sorex araneus) in the il'men'-volkhov lowland].species composition, seasonal dynamics, and a load of ectoparasites per individual and population of the common shrew sorex araneus have been examined in coniferous and mixed forests of the ilmen'-volkhov lowland (a neighbourhood of oskuy village, chudovo district, novgorod province) during the period 1999-2003. trapping of mammals was carried monthly, with exception of few accidental gaps. the gero traps were used for catching micromammalian hosts. the lines of trap were checked 2 times a day, ...200314964844
lack of mitochondrial dna divergence between chromosome races of the common shrew, sorex araneus, in sweden. implications for interpreting chromosomal evolution and colonization history.the common shrew, sorex araneus, has one of the most variable karyotypes among mammals, displaying numerous chromosome races throughout its distribution. the six chromosome races present in sweden can be categorized in two different karyotypic groups, the west and north european karyotypic groups (western and northern). three races belonging to the western group are considered to have arisen through whole arm reciprocal translocations (warts). race formation through this process requires a bottl ...200516029472
metals distribution and interactions in tissues of shrews (sorex spp.) from copper- and zinc-contaminated areas in poland.to assess the risk from heavy metal accumulation to insectivorous species exposed to different pollutants, shrews [sorex araneus (linnaeus 1758) and sorex minutus (linnaeus 1766)] were collected in the olkuski ore region (oor; a zn and cd smelter area), legnicko-głogowski copper mine region (lgcr; a copper ore-mining area), and białowieza forest (bf; a control area). a few sites were chosen in each region and a total of 57 animals were collected from them. the liver and kidneys were dissected fr ...200516091604
findings of mycobacteria in insectivores and small rodents.the organs of 30 insectivorous mammals and 62 rodents from areas inhabited by people or livestock where cattle paratuberculosis or mycobacterial infections of swine had been found to occur were examined by cultivation during the monitoring of occurrence and spread of mycobacterioses in cattle and swine. mycobacteria were found in the organs of 3 insectivores (10%) and 6 rodents (9.7%). mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from the organs of the lesser white-toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens) an ...200011271823
predator-induced synchrony in population oscillations of coexisting small mammal species.comprehensive analyses of long-term (1977-2003) small-mammal abundance data from western finland showed that populations of microtus voles (field voles m. agrestis and sibling voles m. rossiaemeridionalis) voles, bank (clethrionomys glareolus) and common shrews (sorex araneus) fluctuated synchronously in 3 year population cycles. time-series analyses indicated that interspecific synchrony is influenced strongly by density-dependent processes. synchrony among microtus and bank voles appeared addi ...200515695211
development and phenotypic correlations: the evolution of tooth shape in sorex araneus.do morphogenetic processes cause common patterns of phenotypic covariation, and do those patterns evolve over microevolutionary timescales? evolution of molar shape variance-covariance (p) matrixes was studied in five populations of the common shrew, sorex araneus. p matrix evolution was assessed using matrix correlation, matrix disparity, and common principal component analysis (cpca). significant changes in covariance structure were found among the populations, but the differences were small. ...200515642087
[puumala and dobrava viruses in the northeastern and central regions of bosnia].bosnia and herzegovina has been known as a highly endemic region for hantavirus infections for more than 50 years. previous studies have shown that at least two different hantaviruses, the murine dobrava (dob) and avricoline puumala (puu) viruses, each carried by a different rodent species, have been circulating in the area. however, there is little information on rodent population density fluctuations in bosnia over the past years as well as on the ratio of puumala to dobrava infection in human ...200315011464
living at the physiological limits: field and maximum metabolic rates of the common shrew (sorex araneus).shrews (genus sorex, small insectivorous mammals) are well known for their extremely high basal metabolic rates (bmrs) even when corrected for their small body size. we measured energy expenditure of the common shrew (sorex araneus) under natural conditions (field metabolic rate [fmr]) by doubly labeled water method to test whether fmr is proportional to high bmr in this species. the study was performed in summer in northeastern poland. in addition to the fmr, we also measured maximum metabolic ...200516096983
pliocene and pleistocene diversification and multiple refugia in a eurasian shrew (crocidura suaveolens group).we sequenced 998 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial dna cytochrome b and 799 bp of nuclear gene brca1 in the lesser white-toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens group) over its geographic range from portugal to japan. the aims of the study were to identify the main clades within the group and respective refugia resulting from pleistocene glaciations. analyses revealed the asian lesser white-toothed shrew (c. shantungensis) as the basal clade, followed by a major branch of c. suaveolens, subdivided se ...200616426868
meiosis and fertility in common shrews, sorex araneus, from a chromosomal hybrid zone in central sweden.adult male common shrews from the uppsala and hällefors robertsonian chromosomal races and hybrids were collected from the area of surahammar in sweden. meiosis and fertility of hybrid (complex heterozygotes) and nonhybrid (homozygotes) individuals were compared based on an analysis of chromosomal interactions and synapsis at pachytene, chiasma characteristics at diakinesis, and germ-cell death. no individuals suffered severe germ-cell loss, and the differences found among the uppsala and hällef ...19979465899
serosurvey for orthopoxviruses in rodents and shrews from norway.two hundred and twenty one blood samples representing eight different rodent species and the common shrew (sorex araneus), collected in norway between 1993 and 1995, were examined for anti-orthopoxvirus antibodies by a competition enzyme linked imunnosorbent assay (elisa) and, when possible, an indirect immunofluorescence assay. the serological results indicated that the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), woodmouse (apodemus sylvaticus) and norway lemming (lemmus lemmus) may be reservoir speci ...19989577770
[structure of parasitic arthropod communities in forest small mammals].species composition and structure of ectoparasite arthropod communities were examined all year round six years in the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus, ural wood mouse apodemus uralensis and the common shrew sorex araneus in forests of the ilmen'-volkhov depression. in total, 4500 host samples have been examined and all ectoparasites have been collected. the species composition of ectoparasite community in small mammal species are as follows: the bank vole--29 insect, tick and mite species, the ...200415656091
the role of glacial epochs in the formation of chromosomal polymorphism in the common shrew sorex araneus l. (insectivora, mammalia). 200212469415
naturally occurring orthopoxviruses: potential for recombination with vaccine vectors.orthopoxviruses are being increasingly used as live recombinant vectors for vaccination against numerous infectious diseases in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. for risk assessments and surveillance, information about the occurrence, distribution and ecology of orthopoxviruses in western europe is important but has mainly been based on serological investigations. we have examined kidneys, lungs, spleens, and livers of norwegian small rodents and common shrews (sorex araneus) for the prese ...19989705389
[seasonal dynamics of a flea number (siphonaptera) on the common shrew (sorex araneus) in the north part of the novgorod oblast].in the course of 5-year stationary investigations of the common shrew sorex araneus in the north part of the novgorod oblast, 12 flea species have been recorded on this host. among them, palaeopsylla soricis and doratopsilla dasycnema are specific parasites of small insectivores, including the common shrew. hystrichopsylla talpae is a polyxenous species, parasitizing both rodents and insectivores. other 9 flea species are not common parasites of s. araneus and apparently have come to this host f ...200415656093
zoo-fish analysis in insectivores: "evolution extols the virtue of the status quo".in evolutionary terms, insectivores are thought to be close to primates. through zoo-fish analysis using human chromosome-specific painting probes, the syntenic relationship between the human and common shrew, sorex araneus, karyotypes was studied. the human karyotype was found to be conserved in the shrew, with 32 autosomal segments of common synteny. special arrangements, already known from similar studies on other species, were noted: fusions of hsa 16 and 19, hsa 3 and 21, and hsa 14 and 15. ...19989678336
emmonsiosis of wild rodents and insectivores in czechland.adiaspores of the fungus emmonsia crescens were detected microscopically in the lung tissue of 13% of 10.081 small mammals belonging to 24 species examined in 14 areas of the czech republic between 1986 and 1997; 441/1.934 (23%) clethrionomys glareolus, 1/6 (17%) arvicola terrestris, 357/2.172 (16%) apodemus flavicollis, 220/1.981 (11%). a sylvaticus, 23/265 (9%) a. microps, 11/81 (14%) microtus subterraneus, 93/1.275 (7%) m. arvalis, 98/1.439 (7%) m. agrestis, 1/3 (33%) ondatra zibethicus, 1/1 ...199910231750
new data on soricimyxum fegati (myxozoa) including analysis of its phylogenetic position inferred from the ssu rrna gene sequence.a myxosporean species found to develop in the liver of 10 out of 24 common shrews, sorex araneus l., caught in south bohemia, czech republic, was identified as soricimyxum fegati prunescu, prunescu, pucek et lom, 2007, the unique representative of the genus and the first myxosporean species known to develop from plasmodia to spores in a terrestrial mammal. the original description of this species, based on fixed material, is supplemented with new data based on fresh material and with partial seq ...200718303768
speciation by monobrachial centric fusions.fixation of centric fusions in natural populations often encounters minimal meiotic problems due to the ability of trivalents to segregate normally; therefore, little sterility barrier is achieved between a founder population and the parental stock. however, a strong sterility barrier can develop between different founder populations fixed for centric fusions that are monobrachially homologous in the resulting biarmed chromosomes (one arm is homologous but the other is nonhomologous). hybridizat ...198616593777
genetic and karyotypic structure in the shrews of the sorex araneus group: are they independent?the species of the common shrew (sorex araneus) group are morphologically very similar but exhibit high levels of karyotypic variation. here we used genetic variation at 10 microsatellite markers in a data set of 212 individuals mostly sampled in the western alps and composed of five karyotypic taxa (sorex coronatus, sorex antinorii and the s. araneus chromosome races cordon, bretolet and vaud) to investigate the concordance between genetic and karyotypic structure. bayesian analysis confirmed t ...200616629812
identification of all pachytene bivalents in the common shrew using dapi-staining of synaptonemal complex spreads.a major problem in studies of synaptonemal complexes (sc) is the difficulty in distinguishing individual chromosomes. this problem can be solved combining sc immunostaining with fish of chromosome-specific sequences. however, this procedure is expensive, time-consuming and applicable only to a very limited number of species. in this paper we show how a combination of sc immunostaining and dapi staining can allow identification of all chromosome arms in surface-spreads of the sc of the common shr ...200616964574
[wild small mammals are the reservoir hosts of the bartonella genus bacteria in the south of moscow region].a total of 103 blood samples collected from wild small mammals captured in the prioksko-terrasny reserve on the south of moscow region were studied to determine the bartonellae prevalence. the examined species were the yellow-necked mice apodemus flavicollis (35 samples), the european wood mouse apodemus uralensis (10 samples), the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus (51 samples), the house mouse mus musculus (3 samples), the common vole microtus arvalis (2 samples), and the shrew sorex araneus (2 ...200617094651
muscle capillary supply in hind limb and diaphragm of the common shrew (sorex araneus).shrew species of the subfamily soricinae have unusually high metabolic rates when compared to crocidurinae shrews and other similar-sized mammals. the aim of this study was to clarify whether the high basal metabolic rate of soricinae shrews is reflected in a high capillary density in their muscles. to this end, the capillary supply of four limb muscles and diaphragm of the common shrew (sorex araneus) was quantified from cross-sectioned muscles. the capillary densities of the limb muscles were ...19989646505
[features of the parasitic system of ixodid ticks--borrelia--small mammals in the russian northwest].mammals and ticks was collected in 1995-1997 years in novgorod region from may to september. traps were exposed during 5 consecutive days every month in 4 different biotopes. 928 hosts were captured during three years. 357 larvae and 59 nymphs of ixodes persulcatus, 356 larvae and 71 nymphs of i. trianguliceps were collected. the clethrionomys glareolus and sorex araneus are main hosts of larvae of i. persulcatus and i. trianguliceps. c. glareolus feed 76.2% of i. persulcatus larvae and 25% of i ...19989859127
seasonal dynamics of pneumocystis carinii in the field vole, microtus agrestis, and in the common shrew, sorex araneus, in finland.seasonal dynamics of pneumocystis carinii in the field vole, microtus agrestis, and in the common shrew, sorex araneus, were investigated in southern and central finland by microscopical examination of methenamine silver-stained tissue sections. in both host species at both localities the number of p. carinii cyst forms was highest in late autumn (november). in s. araneus, prevalence was higher than in m. agrestis during all seasons. none of the animals was heavily infected or apparently ill, an ...199910070655
ural chromosomal serov race of common shrew sorex araneus l. (insectivora, mammalia) that inhabits polydominant deep coniferous taiga in the north of european russia. 200516405116
cornea, retina, and lens morphology in five soricidae species (soricomorpha: mammalia).we analyzed the cornea, retina, and lens of five species of soricidae (pygmy shrew, sorex minutus; common shrew, sorex araneus; millet's shrew, sorex coronatus; water shrew, neomys fodiens; greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula) by light and electron microscopy. in all of these species, the corneal epithelium showed a dead cell layer, which may increase the refractive power of the cornea, thereby reducing the hypermetropy that would be expected in a small eye. moreover, the anterior sur ...200919367448
is there an association of pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in finland?as part of studies on the nature of the endemic virus infections in natural rodent hosts, the possible association of cyst forms of pneumocystis spp. with the presence of hanta-, cowpox-, and arenavirus antibodies in wild mice (apodemus flavicollis, n=105; apodemus agrarius, n=63; micromys minutus, n=50) and the common shrew (sorex araneus, n=101) was studied in south-central finland. one hantavirus (saaremaa virus, saav) seropositive a. agrarius, and 2 cowpoxvirus (cpxv) seropositive s. araneus ...200616556344
risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (biesbosch, the netherlands).a risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. common shrew (sorex araneus) and bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) were selected ...200616530312
[species composition, host association and niche differentiation in fleas of small mammals in the ilmen-volkhov lowland].species composition, abundance, annual cycles, and host association of fleas parasitizing small mammals were investigated. the problem of niche differentiation in these insects is considered on the base of the comparative analysis of their annual cycles. the annual cycles of the fleas are revealed to be similar in the case of few number of flea species in parasite community. thus, two species parasitizing sorex araneus (doratopsylla dasycnema and palaeopsylla soricis), as well as three species a ...200617144403
chromosome location of sixteen genes in the common shrew, sorex araneus l. (mammalia, insectivora).this report extends the genetic map of the common shrew (sorex araneus) by use of a clone panel of shrew-chinese hamster and shrew-mouse hybrid cells (pack et al., 1995; matyakhina et al., 1996). this set of hybrid clones made it possible to assign the shrew genes for isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (idh2), inorganic pyrophosphatase (pp), glutamicpyruvate transaminase (gpt), adenosine kinase (adk), glucuronidase 2 (gusb) and acid phosphatase 2 (acp2) to chromosome ik; the genes for adenylate kinases ...19979284916
cross-species chromosome painting unveils cytogenetic signatures for the eulipotyphla and evidence for the polyphyly of insectivora.insectivore-like animals are traditionally believed among the first eutherian mammals that have appeared on the earth. the modern insectivores are thus crucial for understanding the systematics and phylogeny of eutherian mammals as a whole. here cross-species chromosome painting, with probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of human, was used to delimit the homologous chromosomal segments in two soricidae species, the common shrew (sorex araneus, 2n = 20/21), and asiatic short-tailed shrew ( ...200616544189
chromosomal "system mutations" in the common shrew (sorex araneus l., insectivora) populations from the upper volga basin. 200717929669
natural tick-borne encephalitis virus infection among wild small mammals in the southeastern part of western siberia, russia.infestation of small mammals, including common shrews sorex araneus l., field mice apodemus agrarius pallas, and red voles clethrionomus rutilus schreber, with immature ixodes persulcatus ticks and their infection with tickborne encephalitis virus (tbev) were studied in the forest-steppe habitat in the vicinity of novosibirsk, russia. larval ticks parasitize all three host species, but virtually all nymphs were found only on field mice and red voles. detection of the viral rna using reverse tran ...200616584325
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