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leptospiral antibodies in wild living animals from north tyrol.the authors examined serologically 623 wild living animals (22 species) from north tyrol for the incidence of leptospirosis. positive reactions (mal) in the titre 1: 100 and more were found in 4.5% of the animals examined; the serotypes concerned were these: icterohaemorrhagiae, sorex-jalna, castellonis or arboreae, grippotyphosa, bratislava, pomona, sejroe, saxkoebing. positive reactions were obtained with the sera of sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, putorius putorius, vulpes vulpes, cervus ...1976780229
spread of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. gran. infection to man.the occurrence of t. mentagrophytes var. gran. infection of small mammals in their natural habitat was studied. the most common host of the exoanthropic mammals was clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole); the next most common hosts were hemisynanthropes sorex araneus (common shrew) and eusynathropes mus musculus (common mouse). occurrence of infection increased during the winter months. because small mammals gather in farm outbuilding during cold weather, man is more likely to be exposed to infecti ...19751093983
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in czechoslovakia].the author investigated 4,853 specimens of wild living small mammals (43 species: insectivora, chiroptera, lagomorpha, rodentia, carnivora) from czechoslovakia for blood parasites. trypanosomes were found in talpa europaea, sorex alpinus, crocidura suaveolens, myotis myotis, apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus flavicollis, mus musculus, rattus norvegicus, clethrionomys glareolus and microtus agrestis. babesia was detected in myotis emarginatus, myotis myotis, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis ...19751158292
[observations of fleas of small mammals at the gran paradiso national park (italian occidental alps)].the siphonaptera of small mammals (nearly 200 rodents, insectivora and mustelids) of the parco nazionale del gran paradiso (western italian alps) have been collected and studied during the years 1973-75. all the animals have been captured at altitudes ranging from 1570 to 2400 m during different seasons. twelve genera and sixteen species have been identified, namely: chaetopsylla (c.) homoea homoea from mustela erminea; hystrichopsylla (h.) talpae talpae from clethrionomys glareolus; rhadinopsyl ...19751233394
maximum heart rate of soricine shrews: correlation with contractile properties and myosin composition.maximum heart rates (hr) of three soricine shrews and six other small mammals were measured in response to a single supramaximal dose of isoproterenol (iso) under urethan anesthesia. the highest hr, 1,043 +/- 66 (sd) beats/min (n = 3), was in least shrew (sorex minutus, mean body mass 3.02 +/- 0.81 g). maximum hrs of common shrew (sorex araneus, 7.16 +/- 1.54 g) and water shrew (neomys fodiens, 12.80 +/- 1.54 g) were 938 +/- 29 (n = 7) and 887 +/- 21 (n = 6), respectively. in general, maximum hr ...19921534206
relation of the insular claustrum to the neocortex in insectivora.the claustra of 9 species of insectivora (sorex araneus, sorex minutus, tenrec ecaudatus, solenodon paradoxus, neomys fodiens, erinaceus europaeus, talpa europaea, desmana moschata, potamogale velox) were investigated. in all examined animals we found two parts of the insular claustrum: the main part called by us the pars principalis and more medially situated lamina profunda claustri. in the "basal" insectivora the main part is in close contact with the layer via of the neocortex. in some more ...19901707077
[small mammals at community refuse dumps as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites].five-year studies (1981-1986) were performed to investigate a total number of 2589 small mammals of 18 species. refuse dumps are marked for highly specific conditions. the difference between refuse dumps and natural habitats consists in more sufficient quantity of food, better sheltering possibilities and in highly specific microclimate particularly. as a result of aerobic and anaerobic decompositions of organic materials, temperature in dumps is approximately 50 degrees c. from ecological point ...19911807042
lung and hearth nematodes in some spanish mammals.thirteen host species belonging to the orders rodentia, insectivora and carnivora from various localities in galicia (nw spain) were examined for heart and lung parasites. the following species were found: parastrongylus dujardini (5.5%) in apodemus sylvaticus, crenosoma striatum in erinaceus europaeus (83%), angiostrongylus vasorum, crenosoma vulpis and eucoleus aerophilus in vulpes vulpes (3, 3.46 and 0.50%, respectively), crenosoma taiga in putorius putorius (100%) and crenosoma sp. in meles ...19911844789
longitudinal study of natural foci of central european encephalitis virus in west slovakia.a total of 2922 small terrestrial mammals of 12 species were collected in six localities of west slovakia between 1981 and 1986. when examined for the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (na) to central european encephalitis (cee) virus we found that 14.6% had antibody. nearly all (97%) of the 426 animals with antibody were clethrionomys glareolus, the most abundant species (52.6% of mammals collected, 15.1% of those with antibody). apodemus flavicollis (22.5% of mammals collected, 18.1% of th ...19901983180
the occurrence of centrorhynchus (acanthocephala) in shrews (sorex araneus and sorex minutus) in the united kingdom.encysted acanthocephalans belonging to the genus centrorhynchus were found in the body cavities of sorex araneus (common shrew) and sorex minutus (pygmy shrew) from boxworth, cambridgeshire, u.k. fifty percent of the male s. araneus and 67% of the male s. minutus examined were found to be infected, with the mean intensity (+/-sd) being 54.3 +/- 91.3 and 14.7 +/- 18.4, respectively. the species of centrorhynchus in the shrews may be centrorhynchus aluconis, which is distributed widely in tawny ow ...19912040960
nucleus limitans thalami--comparative anatomical study.cyto- and myeloarchitectonics as well as acetylcholinesterase activity of the nucleus limitans thalami--an important part of the nociceptive system--were studied in insectivora (sorex araneus, erinaceus europaeus, talpa europaeus), rat, rabbit, cat, monkey and man. our results suggest that nucleus limitans is phylogenetically a rather new structure. in insectivora and in the rat we could not find any evident group of neurons resembling nucleus limitans. in the rabbit and cat nucleus limitans is ...19892511740
basic functional properties of the cardiac muscle of the common shrew (sorex araneus) and some other small mammals.the resting heartbeat frequency of all the studied wild small mammals (body mass 3-20 g) was lower than that predicted by the allometric equation for a typical mammal. the heart rate of the laboratory mouse was a little higher than the expected value. the ventricular mass of the small wild mammals was higher than predicted for their size, but that of the laboratory mouse was below the expected value. thus, adequate cardiac output in the wild small mammals is achieved by compensating the low hear ...19892809495
isoenzyme variation in the common shrew (sorex araneus) in britain, in relation to karyotype.samples of common shrews with an aberdeen race, oxford race and hermitage race karyotype and from the oxford-hermitage hybrid zone were screened for genotype at six polymorphic enzyme loci. the common allele at all loci was the same in all samples suggesting that the degree of genic divergence between the karyotypic races is not great. however, shrews of the aberdeen race appear to be somewhat distinct. there were differences in allele frequencies, range of alleles and heterozygosities at the mp ...19852932412
karyotypic races of the common shrew (sorex araneus l.) from northern poland.karyotypic races of the common shrew which differed with respect to the combinations of chromosome arms in certain 2-armed autosomes were distinguished in poland. two eastern races with the arm combination ik, and one western race with the arm combination hi in the third pair of autosomes were established. in the contact area of these chromosomal forms, the fourth karyotypic race with the arm combination hk was found.19863743724
meiotic studies of robertsonian heterozygotes from natural populations of the common shrew, sorex araneus l.adult male common shrews, both robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes, were collected from oxford and elsewhere in britain. in both simple robertsonian heterozygotes and robertsonian heterozygotes with monobrachial homology, regular chain configurations were observed at meiosis i; only 1-2% were incomplete such that univalents were observed. on the average, there was one chiasma per chromosome arm among those that displayed robertsonian variation, including both chain configurations and biva ...19863956265
chromosome banding pattern in a polymorphic population of sorex araneus from northeastern finland. 19744135825
isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from the blood of sorex araneus in a natural focus. 19674383896
a new chromosome race of the common shrew (sorex araneus) in sweden. 19734805483
the autecology of small rodents and insectivores of the tribec mountain range.small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. in order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the tribec region and adjacent parts of the hronský inovec mountains. the following mammals are discussed: ...19675298539
[arthropod population of sorex araneus l. and sorex minutus l. in forests and forest-free areas of the niemczańskie hills]. 19846506730
genetic differentiation in sorex. i. electrophoretic analysis of the karyotypic races of sorex araneus in sweden. 19836668214
some corrections in haemogregarine (apicomplexa: protozoa) nomenclature.the nomenclature of three genera in the family haemogregarinidae (haemogregarina, karyolysus, and hepatozoon) has been reviewed and the following new names are introduced to replace homonyms or for previously unnamed species: haemogregarina carlosi n. nom., in the erythrocytes of the lizard lacerta ocellata; haemogregarina tincae n. nom., in the stomach and intestine of the tench tinca tinca; hepatozoon insectivorae n. sp., in the leucocytes of the shrews sorex araneus and crocidura leucodon; he ...19826757414
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in steiermark and burgenland].a total of 488 wild small mammals (16 species) trapped in two federate units of austria, steiermark and burgenland, were examined on the presence of blood parasites. in steiermark grahamelles were detected in neomys fodiens, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, m. agrestis, apodemus flavicollis and a. sylvaticus, while trypanosoma evotomys and hepatozoon erhardovae were found in c. glareolus, and babesia microti in pitymys subterraneus and m. agrestis. in burgenland grahamelles were demons ...19806778802
prevalence of pneumocystis carinii delanoë & delanoë, 1912 in rodents in denmark.pneumocystis carinii has been found in 17 of 90 (19%) wild living trapped brown rats (rattus norvegicus). the positive brown rats originated from about 25% of the trapping localities examined. among brown rats of two breeding stocks, h and s, pneumocysts were found in 43.5% of the h rats, but in none of the s rats. by keeping brown h rats on a low protein diet for 8 weeks, it was possible to augment the prevalence to 53.8%. pneumocystis carinii has furthermore been found in one of eight (12.5%) ...19806965782
[epidemiological survey in a natural focus of rickettsia transmitted by ixodes ricinus in switzerland (author's transl)].a spotted fever group rickettsia referred to as "swiss agent" was detected in 8.5% of ixodes ricinus collected in a marshy forest of the swiss plateau. this organism, in its tick vector, was found to be transmitted stadially as well as ovarially; of 433 larval, nymphal or adult ticks from 17 parental tick females, all were infected. a total of 3,612 larval i. ricinus were collected from 168 small mammals including 127 clethrionomys glareolus, 29 apodemus sylvaticus and flavicolis, 7 microtus agr ...19817020557
chromosome polymorphism in a population of sorex araneus l. at białowieza. 19807428984
description of chromosomes in a population of sorex araneus l. living in the biebrza valley. 19807450085
descriptive kinetics of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and genome size in the mole talpa occidentalis (insectivora).the male germ cell cytodifferentiative process of the mole talpa occidentalis is described. cytochemical procedures were used 1) to follow acrosome formation and spermatid differentiation, dividing the seminiferous epithelium cycle into ten stages, each characterized by typical germ cell-to-cell associations, and recognizing 13 steps in spermatid differentiation; 2) to monitor, in situ, histones replacement by protamines at step 11 of the spermiogenic process. the seminiferous epithelium cycle o ...19957561724
transmission of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. from mammal reservoirs to the primary vector of lyme borreliosis, ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae), in sweden.factors regulating prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner in ixodes ricinus (l.) were examined during 1991-1992 at bogesund, near stockholm in south-central sweden. nine species of small and medium-sized mammals (sorex araneus l., s. minutus l., neomys fodiens pennant, clethrionomys glareolus [schreber], microtus agrestis [l.], apodemus sylvaticus [l.], a. flavicollis [melchior], lepus europaeus pallas, l. timidus l.) were found to infect feeding tic ...19947815401
cryptosporidiosis in poland: clinical, epidemiologic and parasitologic aspects.stool samples from 692 children hospitalized with symptoms of gastroenteritis, were examined for cryptosporidium parvum. the oocysts were found in 17 (2.4%) children. there was no association with age, sex or location of household. however, relatively higher rate of oocyst exclusion was found among 2-month- to 3-year-old groups (50%) and among children from villages (43%). six children from the group of infected were additionally screened for general immunocompetence. four of these exhibited sig ...19938013931
centrorhynchus aluconis (acanthocephala) and other helminth species in tawny owls (strix aluco) in great britain.observations on the distribution of centrorhynchus aluconis (acanthocephala) and 6 other species of helminths in the definitive host strix aluco, in tawny owl, are presented. infected owls were collected from 16 sites ranging from tarbet, strathclyde, scotland, to ewhurst, surrey, in the south of england. in addition, unidentified cyclophyllidean cestodes were found in the alimentary tract of the tawny owls. centrorhynchus aluconis was the most prevalent helminth found and had the highest intens ...19938277390
borrelia burgdorferi in a focus of lyme borreliosis: epizootiologic contribution of small mammals.the contribution of woodmice (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mice (apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) was compared in a focus of lyme borreliosis in switzerland during a 7 months' study. all three species of mice and one species of shrews (sorex araneus) were shown parasitized by infected ixodes ricinus immatures. about 14% of larvae and 50% of nymphs collected on small mammals were infected with b. burgdorferi. spirochetes were isolated from blood of 3 woodmice ...19938325567
vector and host relationships of california serogroup viruses in western siberia.during 1990 and 1991, adult mosquitoes were collected along the ob river and its tributaries in western siberia from approximately 51 degrees 18'n to 66 degrees 4'n. fifteen virus strains were isolated from 74,196 mosquitoes tested in 1,874 pools. these included tahyna virus from aedes cataphylla-punctor subgroup (one) and ae. excrucians (one), and inkoo (ink) virus from ae. communis (one), ae. communis subgroup (one), ae. hexodontus (two), ae. punctor subgroup (two), ae. punctor complex (one), ...19938352392
maintenance by hares of european borrelia burgdorferi in ecosystems without rodents.during may-october 1991 shrews (sorex spp.), small rodents (apodemus spp., clethrionomys glareolus [schreber]), and hares (lepus spp.) were sampled near stockholm, sweden. nymphal ixodes ricinus (l.) derived from blood-engorged larvae collected from these mammals were investigated by phase-contrast microscopy and immunofluorescence assay (ifa) using the monoclonal antibody h6831 directed against the ospb protein of borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner. three rodent s ...19938433337
characterization of pneumocystis carinii infection in sorex araneus from southern finland.histologic and quantitative techniques were compared in an evaluation of the intensity of pneumocystis carinii infection in common shrews (sorex araneus) at espoo, southern finland, from september 1992 to may 1993. the histological scores were comparable to the results of the cyst count technique. the number of p. carinii cysts found in common shrews was low compared to those reported by others in clinically ill laboratory rats. the inflammatory changes detected in the lung sections had no signi ...19958583642
[shrews as a borrelia reservoir in northwestern russia].the borreliemia was discovered in 22 (44.9%) of 49 common shrews (sorex araneus, soricidae), which were captured in the end of july-august 1995 in the novgorod province. the borreliae were located near the capillaries of the true skin and in the veins of the subcutaneous layer.19968984447
[leptospira antibodies in small mammals in eastern slovakia].during the five years (1991-1995) mostly free living small mammals were examined serologically for the presence of antibodies to leptospira. serological examinations were used by kmety and bakoss (1978). altogether, 2493 individuals of 22 species were examined, an important part of host material (69.6%) was caught in two lowland areas which are intensively cultivated landscapes (east slovakian lowland and kosická kotlina basin). the remaining material comes from submontane areas with less agricu ...19969045500
pneumocystis carinii of the common shrew, sorex araneus, shows a discrete phenotype.we carried out an immunohistological and morphological study on pneumocystis carinii originating from the common shrew, sorex araneus. immunologic properties were studied by applying two commercially available immunofluorescence staining kits with differing developmental form specificity to a lung homogenate. the cyst form-specific staining kit reacted with cysts originating from s. araneus. ultrastructurally this particular antigen epitope specifically deposited on the electron-lucent middle la ...19979109260
lung parasites of shrews from pennsylvania.we examined lung parasites of three species of soricids, sorex cinereus (n = 58), sorex fumeus (n = 23) and blarina brevicauda (n = 45) collected from pennsylvania (usa), from 1990 to 1995. yeast-like cells of hisfoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum were found in lung sections stained with grocott's modification of gomori's methenamine silver, periodic acid-schiff, giemsa, and hematoxylin-eosin in two (3%) s. cinereus, eight (35%) s. fumeus and two (4%) b. brevicauda. the number of spores of h. c ...19979131560
chromosome localization of the gene for growth hormone in the common shrew (sorex araneus).the chromosome localization of the gene encoding growth hormone (gh) was determined by southern blotting of dna obtained from a panel of common shrew x chinese hamster and common shrew x mouse hybrid somatic cell clones using mink gh dna as a probe. the gh gene was found to be localized on chromosome hn of the common shrew.19969225591
the impact of chronic radioactive stress on the immuno-physiological condition of small mammals.the mass of internal organs and cellularity index of thymus and spleen were measured in small mammals inhabiting territories with a low level of chronic irradiation caused by the chernobyl accident. comparing with uncontaminated territories from the same region, bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) demonstrated an increase in liver and thymus mass and cellularity index of thymus, while sub-adult shrews (sorex araneus) at contaminated territories had larger body mass, heavier spleen, kidney, and ...19979281840
disturbances of the mineral incorporation in various species of mice and shrews in the emission area of a phosphate plant.the cd emission of a phosphate plant was clearly reflected by the cd status of herbivorous european wood mice and common field voles as well as of european shrews taking in mostly animal food. the antagonistic effect of the emitted cd and mo better available for plants with high ground ph most probably caused the deterioration in the cu status of the animals of both phases in the nutritional chain. the lower ca, p, and mg incorporation with european wood mouse and common field vole within the co ...19979404674
meiosis and fertility in common shrews, sorex araneus, from a chromosomal hybrid zone in central sweden.adult male common shrews from the uppsala and hällefors robertsonian chromosomal races and hybrids were collected from the area of surahammar in sweden. meiosis and fertility of hybrid (complex heterozygotes) and nonhybrid (homozygotes) individuals were compared based on an analysis of chromosomal interactions and synapsis at pachytene, chiasma characteristics at diakinesis, and germ-cell death. no individuals suffered severe germ-cell loss, and the differences found among the uppsala and hällef ...19979465899
serosurvey for orthopoxviruses in rodents and shrews from norway.two hundred and twenty one blood samples representing eight different rodent species and the common shrew (sorex araneus), collected in norway between 1993 and 1995, were examined for anti-orthopoxvirus antibodies by a competition enzyme linked imunnosorbent assay (elisa) and, when possible, an indirect immunofluorescence assay. the serological results indicated that the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus), woodmouse (apodemus sylvaticus) and norway lemming (lemmus lemmus) may be reservoir speci ...19989577770
naturally occurring orthopoxviruses: potential for recombination with vaccine vectors.orthopoxviruses are being increasingly used as live recombinant vectors for vaccination against numerous infectious diseases in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. for risk assessments and surveillance, information about the occurrence, distribution and ecology of orthopoxviruses in western europe is important but has mainly been based on serological investigations. we have examined kidneys, lungs, spleens, and livers of norwegian small rodents and common shrews (sorex araneus) for the prese ...19989705389
[features of the parasitic system of ixodid ticks--borrelia--small mammals in the russian northwest].mammals and ticks was collected in 1995-1997 years in novgorod region from may to september. traps were exposed during 5 consecutive days every month in 4 different biotopes. 928 hosts were captured during three years. 357 larvae and 59 nymphs of ixodes persulcatus, 356 larvae and 71 nymphs of i. trianguliceps were collected. the clethrionomys glareolus and sorex araneus are main hosts of larvae of i. persulcatus and i. trianguliceps. c. glareolus feed 76.2% of i. persulcatus larvae and 25% of i ...19989859127
seasonal dynamics of pneumocystis carinii in the field vole, microtus agrestis, and in the common shrew, sorex araneus, in finland.seasonal dynamics of pneumocystis carinii in the field vole, microtus agrestis, and in the common shrew, sorex araneus, were investigated in southern and central finland by microscopical examination of methenamine silver-stained tissue sections. in both host species at both localities the number of p. carinii cyst forms was highest in late autumn (november). in s. araneus, prevalence was higher than in m. agrestis during all seasons. none of the animals was heavily infected or apparently ill, an ...199910070655
emmonsiosis of wild rodents and insectivores in czechland.adiaspores of the fungus emmonsia crescens were detected microscopically in the lung tissue of 13% of 10.081 small mammals belonging to 24 species examined in 14 areas of the czech republic between 1986 and 1997; 441/1.934 (23%) clethrionomys glareolus, 1/6 (17%) arvicola terrestris, 357/2.172 (16%) apodemus flavicollis, 220/1.981 (11%). a sylvaticus, 23/265 (9%) a. microps, 11/81 (14%) microtus subterraneus, 93/1.275 (7%) m. arvalis, 98/1.439 (7%) m. agrestis, 1/3 (33%) ondatra zibethicus, 1/1 ...199910231750
[karyologic differentiation in the common shrew sorex araneus l. from the upper and middle volga river basin (insectivora, mammalia)]. 199910420262
[chromosomal localization of 10 genes on the cytogenetic map of the common shrew sorex araneus l].using a panel of hybrid clones (common shrew--chinese hamster and common shrew--mouse), the syntheny and localization of the following genes was determined: genes for alpha-galactosidase (gla), acid phosphatase (acp1), and phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk1) on chromosome de; adenosine kinase (adk) and glucuronidase 2 (gus2) on chromosome ik; glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (got2) and peptidase d (pepd) on chromosome hn; and glyoxalase 1 (glo1) and phosphoglucomutase 2 (pgm2) on chromosome go. ge ...199910420272
pcr detection of granulocytic ehrlichiae in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in western switzerland.the presence of granulocytic ehrlichiae was demonstrated by pcr in ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in switzerland in two areas of endemicity for bovine ehrlichiosis. six ticks (three females and three nymphs) (1.4%) of 417 i. ricinus ticks collected by flagging vegetation contained ehrlichial dna. a total of 201 small mammals from five species, wood mouse (apodemus sylvaticus), yellow-necked mouse (apodemus flavicollis), earth vole (pitymys subterraneus), bank vole (clethrionomys gla ...200010698987
findings of mycobacteria in insectivores and small rodents.the organs of 30 insectivorous mammals and 62 rodents from areas inhabited by people or livestock where cattle paratuberculosis or mycobacterial infections of swine had been found to occur were examined by cultivation during the monitoring of occurrence and spread of mycobacterioses in cattle and swine. mycobacteria were found in the organs of 3 insectivores (10%) and 6 rodents (9.7%). mycobacterium chelonae was isolated from the organs of the lesser white-toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens) an ...200011271823
importance of surveillance of tularemia natural foci in the known endemic area of central europe, 1991-1997.marked activation of natural foci of tularemia in the known endemic area of central europe, comprising the borderland of slovakia, austria and the czech republic, led to an epidemic outbreak in western slovakia and an increase in the number of human tularemia cases in the adjoining regions of northeastern austria and southern moravia from 1995 to 1997. the aim of this paper was to present the results of a longitudinal study on the prevalence of infection with francisella tularensis in small mamm ...200111467089
[involvement of the common shrew, sorex araneus (insectivora, soricidae), in circulation of the tick-borne encephalitis virus in south-western siberia].we presented the data on the abundance of immature instars of the taiga tick ixodes persulcatus schuize on the common shrews sorex araneus l. in natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis in the south of western siberia. basing on the results of virological and serological studies we demonstrated a low effectiveness of this host species as a donor of disease agent strains, which are predominant in the territory under study, for ticks feeding on shrews. the analysis of samples taken from the young s ...200111871252
the evolutionary history of the two karyotypic groups of the common shrew, sorex araneus, in poland.genetic variability within and among two karyotypic groups and five chromosome races of the common shrew (sorex araneus) in poland was assayed by sequencing a 1023 bp part of the cytochrome b gene (mtdna) from 28 individuals. thirty-four variable positions defined 21 distinct haplotypes with a maximum sequence divergence of 0.88%. no significant differentiation in the cytochrome b gene between western and eastern karyotypic groups was found. haplotype diversity estimates within the races and gro ...200211920129
phylogeographical structure, postglacial recolonization and barriers to gene flow in the distinctive valais chromosome race of the common shrew (sorex araneus).using one male-inherited and eight biparentally inherited microsatellite markers, we investigate the population genetic structure of the valais chromosome race of the common shrew (sorex araneus) in the central alps of europe. unexpectedly, the y-chromosome microsatellite suggests nearly complete absence of male gene flow among populations from the st-bernard and simplon regions (switzerland). autosomal markers also show significant genetic structuring among these two geographical areas. isolati ...200211972764
the role of glacial epochs in the formation of chromosomal polymorphism in the common shrew sorex araneus l. (insectivora, mammalia). 200212469415
a population of the common shrew sorex araneus l. (insectivora, mammalia) of the sok race inhabiting a patch of forest at the southern boundary of the species range. 200212474764
bartonella infection in sylvatic small mammals of central sweden.sylvatic small mammals were captured in rural habitats near uppsala, sweden, to measure the prevalence of bartonella infections, characterize bacterial isolates and identify their host range, and increase our understanding of host-pathogen ecology. during 7 nights of trapping at 3 localities, 236 small mammals were captured (trap success 30%). bartonella were isolated from bloods of apodemus flavicollis (19 of 110 tested), apodemus sylvaticus (6/25), clethrionomys glareolus (9/60), microtus agre ...200312613756
grahamella (rickettsiales) in the common shrew sorex araneus. 195613322468
[isolation of coxiella burnetti from the common shrew (sorex araneus) caught in a focus of q-rickettsiosis in northeastern bohemia]. 195913639071
[chromosome polymorphism of sorex araneus l. (mammal-insectivora)]. 196414279999
[biotope distribution of cestodes from the common shrew sorex araneus in southern karelia].specific features in the formation of cestode species composition in the common shrew in different biotopes have been analyzed. four categories of parasites have been recognized depending on a degree of dominance: dominants (neoskrjabinolepis singularis, molluscotaenia crassiscolex), subdominants (ditestolepis diaphana), adominants a (staphylocystis furcata, vigisolepis spinulosa, adominants b (hymenolepis scutigera, dilepis undula, d. secunda, taenia mustelae). a significant similarity was disc ...200314964848
[puumala and dobrava viruses in the northeastern and central regions of bosnia].bosnia and herzegovina has been known as a highly endemic region for hantavirus infections for more than 50 years. previous studies have shown that at least two different hantaviruses, the murine dobrava (dob) and avricoline puumala (puu) viruses, each carried by a different rodent species, have been circulating in the area. however, there is little information on rodent population density fluctuations in bosnia over the past years as well as on the ratio of puumala to dobrava infection in human ...200315011464
development and phenotypic correlations: the evolution of tooth shape in sorex araneus.do morphogenetic processes cause common patterns of phenotypic covariation, and do those patterns evolve over microevolutionary timescales? evolution of molar shape variance-covariance (p) matrixes was studied in five populations of the common shrew, sorex araneus. p matrix evolution was assessed using matrix correlation, matrix disparity, and common principal component analysis (cpca). significant changes in covariance structure were found among the populations, but the differences were small. ...200515642087
ural chromosomal serov race of common shrew sorex araneus l. (insectivora, mammalia) that inhabits polydominant deep coniferous taiga in the north of european russia. 200516405116
pliocene and pleistocene diversification and multiple refugia in a eurasian shrew (crocidura suaveolens group).we sequenced 998 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial dna cytochrome b and 799 bp of nuclear gene brca1 in the lesser white-toothed shrew (crocidura suaveolens group) over its geographic range from portugal to japan. the aims of the study were to identify the main clades within the group and respective refugia resulting from pleistocene glaciations. analyses revealed the asian lesser white-toothed shrew (c. shantungensis) as the basal clade, followed by a major branch of c. suaveolens, subdivided se ...200616426868
risk assessment of metals and organic pollutants for herbivorous and carnivorous small mammal food chains in a polluted floodplain (biesbosch, the netherlands).a risk assessment was made for a carnivorous and a herbivorous food chain in a heavily polluted natural estuary (biesbosch), by determining the most critical pollutants and the food chain most at risk. exposure of food chains to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) was assessed by analyzing dietary concentrations, internal concentrations, and biomarkers of exposure. common shrew (sorex araneus) and bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) were selected ...200616530312
is there an association of pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in finland?as part of studies on the nature of the endemic virus infections in natural rodent hosts, the possible association of cyst forms of pneumocystis spp. with the presence of hanta-, cowpox-, and arenavirus antibodies in wild mice (apodemus flavicollis, n=105; apodemus agrarius, n=63; micromys minutus, n=50) and the common shrew (sorex araneus, n=101) was studied in south-central finland. one hantavirus (saaremaa virus, saav) seropositive a. agrarius, and 2 cowpoxvirus (cpxv) seropositive s. araneus ...200616556344
natural tick-borne encephalitis virus infection among wild small mammals in the southeastern part of western siberia, russia.infestation of small mammals, including common shrews sorex araneus l., field mice apodemus agrarius pallas, and red voles clethrionomus rutilus schreber, with immature ixodes persulcatus ticks and their infection with tickborne encephalitis virus (tbev) were studied in the forest-steppe habitat in the vicinity of novosibirsk, russia. larval ticks parasitize all three host species, but virtually all nymphs were found only on field mice and red voles. detection of the viral rna using reverse tran ...200616584325
speciation by monobrachial centric fusions.fixation of centric fusions in natural populations often encounters minimal meiotic problems due to the ability of trivalents to segregate normally; therefore, little sterility barrier is achieved between a founder population and the parental stock. however, a strong sterility barrier can develop between different founder populations fixed for centric fusions that are monobrachially homologous in the resulting biarmed chromosomes (one arm is homologous but the other is nonhomologous). hybridizat ...198616593777
the cerebellum at birth in therian mammals, with special reference to rodents.the stage of cerebellar development at birth was assessed in 23 species of placental mammals. serial histological sections were examined and five stages in the differentiation of the cerebellar cortical layers were defined. a wide diversity of conditions at birth was found. the available evidence (after parsimony reconstruction) suggests that the last common ancestor of placentals was born with an altricial cerebellum in which the molecular layer was just present between the external granular la ...200212119530
identification of all pachytene bivalents in the common shrew using dapi-staining of synaptonemal complex spreads.a major problem in studies of synaptonemal complexes (sc) is the difficulty in distinguishing individual chromosomes. this problem can be solved combining sc immunostaining with fish of chromosome-specific sequences. however, this procedure is expensive, time-consuming and applicable only to a very limited number of species. in this paper we show how a combination of sc immunostaining and dapi staining can allow identification of all chromosome arms in surface-spreads of the sc of the common shr ...200616964574
[wild small mammals are the reservoir hosts of the bartonella genus bacteria in the south of moscow region].a total of 103 blood samples collected from wild small mammals captured in the prioksko-terrasny reserve on the south of moscow region were studied to determine the bartonellae prevalence. the examined species were the yellow-necked mice apodemus flavicollis (35 samples), the european wood mouse apodemus uralensis (10 samples), the bank vole clethrionomys glareolus (51 samples), the house mouse mus musculus (3 samples), the common vole microtus arvalis (2 samples), and the shrew sorex araneus (2 ...200617094651
[species composition, host association and niche differentiation in fleas of small mammals in the ilmen-volkhov lowland].species composition, abundance, annual cycles, and host association of fleas parasitizing small mammals were investigated. the problem of niche differentiation in these insects is considered on the base of the comparative analysis of their annual cycles. the annual cycles of the fleas are revealed to be similar in the case of few number of flea species in parasite community. thus, two species parasitizing sorex araneus (doratopsylla dasycnema and palaeopsylla soricis), as well as three species a ...200617144403
haemoparasites of common shrews (sorex araneus) in northwest england.the presence of haemoparasites belonging to the taxa anaplasma, bartonella and trypanosoma was determined among 76 common shrews (sorex araneus) from northwest england. anaplasma phagocytophilum dna was recovered from the blood of 1 shrew (1.3%), with the amplified 16s rrna sequence identical to one previously reported from a bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus). trypanosoma spp. dna was detected in 9 shrews (11.8%), the amplified 18s rdna fragments being indistinguishable from one another, and d ...200717288633
chromosome location of sixteen genes in the common shrew, sorex araneus l. (mammalia, insectivora).this report extends the genetic map of the common shrew (sorex araneus) by use of a clone panel of shrew-chinese hamster and shrew-mouse hybrid cells (pack et al., 1995; matyakhina et al., 1996). this set of hybrid clones made it possible to assign the shrew genes for isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (idh2), inorganic pyrophosphatase (pp), glutamicpyruvate transaminase (gpt), adenosine kinase (adk), glucuronidase 2 (gusb) and acid phosphatase 2 (acp2) to chromosome ik; the genes for adenylate kinases ...19979284916
genetic diversity and population size: island populations of the common shrew, sorex araneus.populations of many species are currently being fragmented and reduced by human interactions. these processes will tend to reduce genetic diversity within populations and reduce individual heterozygosities because of genetic drift, inbreeding and reduced migration. conservation biologists need to know the effect of population size on genetic diversity, as this is likely to influence a population's ability to persist. island populations represent an ideal natural experiment with which to study th ...200717498228
mammalian genome projects reveal new growth hormone (gh) sequences. characterization of the gh-encoding genes of armadillo (dasypus novemcinctus), hedgehog (erinaceus europaeus), bat (myotis lucifugus), hyrax (procavia capensis), shrew (sorex araneus), ground squirrel (spermophilus tridecemlineatus), elephant (loxodonta africana), cat (felis catus) and opossum (monodelphis domestica).mammalian growth hormone (gh) sequences have been shown previously to display episodic evolution: the sequence is generally strongly conserved but on at least two occasions during mammalian evolution (on lineages leading to higher primates and ruminants) bursts of rapid evolution occurred. however, the number of mammalian orders studied previously has been relatively limited, and the availability of sequence data via mammalian genome projects provides the potential for extending the range of gh ...200817574247
chromosomal "system mutations" in the common shrew (sorex araneus l., insectivora) populations from the upper volga basin. 200717929669
gene mapping in the common shrew (sorex araneus; insectivora) by shrew-rodent cell hybrids: chromosome localization of the loci for hprt, tk, ldha, mdh1, g6pd, pgd, and ada.we selected the common shrew (sorex araneus) to generate the first insectivore gene map. shrew-chinese hamster and shrew- mouse somatic cell hybrid cells were constructed. when the 119 shrew-rodent clones were characterized, only shrew chromosomes were found to have segregated. a panel of hybrid clones was selected for gene assignment. the genes for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt), glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), and malate dehydrogenase 1 (mdh1) were assigned to shrew ...19958597634
[structure of populations and ecological nishes of ectoparasites in the parasite communities of small forest mammals].the paper reports the results of eight-year investigations on the ectoparasites of rodents and insectivores carried out in southern taiga of the ilmen-volkhov lowland (novgorod region) and kurgolovsky reserve (leningrad region). twelve species of small mammals were captured including three dominate species--bank vole clethrionomys glareolus (2722 specimens), common shrew sorex araneus (1658 specimens), and wood mouse apodemus uralensis (367 specimens). parasite community of the bank vole compris ...200718052001
[helminthofauna of the common shrew sorex araneus l. (soricidae) from samarskaya luka].ecological analysis of the helminthofauna of common shrew sorex araneus l. from samarskaya luka (samara region) has been carried out. twenty-three helminth species are found including 3 species of trematodes, 8 cestodes, 10 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephales. dependence of the structure of helminthofauna on the host age is revealed.200718052006
echinococcus multilocularis in belgium: prevalence in red foxes (vulpes vulpes) and in different species of potential intermediate hosts.echinococcus multilocularis causes a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic infection in humans. this tapeworm is known to be endemic in foxes in several countries of western and central europe. in western europe, the common vole (microtus arvalis) and the water vole (arvicola terrestris) are considered to be the most important intermediate host species of this cestode whereas the red fox is by far the most important final host. the purpose of this study was to provide data on the prevalences in w ...200818164551
recombination map of the common shrew, sorex araneus (eulipotyphla, mammalia).the eurasian common shrew (sorex araneus l.) is characterized by spectacular chromosomal variation, both autosomal variation of the robertsonian type and an xx/xy(1)y(2) system of sex determination. it is an important mammalian model of chromosomal and genome evolution as it is one of the few species with a complete genome sequence. here we generate a high-precision cytological recombination map for the species, the third such map produced in mammals, following those for humans and house mice. w ...200818245365
modelling and monitoring organochlorine and heavy metal accumulation in soils, earthworms, and shrews in rhine-delta floodplains.in the rhine-delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. to investigate organochlorine and metal concentrations in a terrestrial foodchain, samples of soil, earthworms (lumbricus rubellus), and shrew (crocidura russula, sorex araneus) livers and kidneys were taken from two moderately to heavily polluted floodplains. chlorobiphenyl residues in earthworm fat were 0.10 to 3.5 times the concentrations in soil o ...19957794009
new data on soricimyxum fegati (myxozoa) including analysis of its phylogenetic position inferred from the ssu rrna gene sequence.a myxosporean species found to develop in the liver of 10 out of 24 common shrews, sorex araneus l., caught in south bohemia, czech republic, was identified as soricimyxum fegati prunescu, prunescu, pucek et lom, 2007, the unique representative of the genus and the first myxosporean species known to develop from plasmodia to spores in a terrestrial mammal. the original description of this species, based on fixed material, is supplemented with new data based on fresh material and with partial seq ...200718303768
the ecotoxicological significance of cadmium intake and residues in terrestrial small mammals.little is known about the ecotoxicological hazard of cadmium to wild small mammals. this paper reviewed laboratory and field studies to determine: (i) intake and residue lowest-observable-adverse-effect-levels (loaels) for the ecologically important parameters of reproduction and development; (ii) whether these loaels are exceeded by wild small mammals on contaminated habitats and what adverse effects result; and (iii) which species may be at most risk from cadmium. the intake loael in laborator ...19947529157
predator-induced synchrony in population oscillations of coexisting small mammal species.comprehensive analyses of long-term (1977-2003) small-mammal abundance data from western finland showed that populations of microtus voles (field voles m. agrestis and sibling voles m. rossiaemeridionalis) voles, bank (clethrionomys glareolus) and common shrews (sorex araneus) fluctuated synchronously in 3 year population cycles. time-series analyses indicated that interspecific synchrony is influenced strongly by density-dependent processes. synchrony among microtus and bank voles appeared addi ...200515695211
the influence of climatic conditions on long-term changes in the helminth fauna of terrestrial molluscs and the implications for parasite transmission in southern england.the influence of climatic conditions on the prevalence and transmission of helminth parasites in a terrestrial mollusc population was studied in a grassland site in southern england between 1974 and 1983. molluscs were sampled in each september of 5 years over this period (1974, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1983). climatic conditions had a variable effect on parasite prevalence. trematode sporocyst infections increased after wet summer and warm winter conditions and declined in hot, dry periods. cestode in ...200818598579
the taming of the shrew milk teeth.a characteristic feature of mammalian dentition is the evolutionary reduction of tooth number and replacement. because mice do not replace teeth, here we used sorex araneus, the common shrew, as a model to investigate the loss of tooth replacement. historically, shrews have been reported to initiate the development of several, milk or deciduous teeth but these soon become rudimentary and only the replacement teeth erupt. shrews thus offer a living example of a derived mammalian pattern where the ...200818638324
no apparent reduction of gene flow in a hybrid zone between the west and north european karyotypic groups of the common shrew, sorex araneus.the common shrew, sorex araneus, exhibits an unusually high level of karyotypic variation. populations with identical or similar karyotypes are defined as chromosome races, which are, in turn, grouped into larger evolutionary units, karyotypic groups. using six microsatellite markers, we investigated the genetic structure of a hybrid zone between the sidensjö and abisko chromosome races, representatives of two distinct karyotypic groups believed to have been separated during the last glacial max ...200415078456
chromosomal races of the common shrew (sorex araneus l.) inhabiting northeastern european russia: do physical obstacles restrict their distribution? 200819024692
zoo-fish analysis in insectivores: "evolution extols the virtue of the status quo".in evolutionary terms, insectivores are thought to be close to primates. through zoo-fish analysis using human chromosome-specific painting probes, the syntenic relationship between the human and common shrew, sorex araneus, karyotypes was studied. the human karyotype was found to be conserved in the shrew, with 32 autosomal segments of common synteny. special arrangements, already known from similar studies on other species, were noted: fusions of hsa 16 and 19, hsa 3 and 21, and hsa 14 and 15. ...19989678336
muscle capillary supply in hind limb and diaphragm of the common shrew (sorex araneus).shrew species of the subfamily soricinae have unusually high metabolic rates when compared to crocidurinae shrews and other similar-sized mammals. the aim of this study was to clarify whether the high basal metabolic rate of soricinae shrews is reflected in a high capillary density in their muscles. to this end, the capillary supply of four limb muscles and diaphragm of the common shrew (sorex araneus) was quantified from cross-sectioned muscles. the capillary densities of the limb muscles were ...19989646505
cornea, retina, and lens morphology in five soricidae species (soricomorpha: mammalia).we analyzed the cornea, retina, and lens of five species of soricidae (pygmy shrew, sorex minutus; common shrew, sorex araneus; millet's shrew, sorex coronatus; water shrew, neomys fodiens; greater white-toothed shrew, crocidura russula) by light and electron microscopy. in all of these species, the corneal epithelium showed a dead cell layer, which may increase the refractive power of the cornea, thereby reducing the hypermetropy that would be expected in a small eye. moreover, the anterior sur ...200919367448
[dynamics of the helminth fauna in the common shrew (sorex araneus l.) from cut-over lands of different age in karelia].species diversity of helminths in the common shrew from three cut-over lands of different age in karelia was studied. it was shown, that change of the plant cover in cut-over lands have no a significant effect on the species diversity of helminth communities in sorex araneus, but the abundance of individual parasite species changes considerably. changes of the s. araneus infestation with helminths were the greatest in a new cut-over land. structure of the helminth community comprises four catego ...200919370983
no impact of pupal predation on the altitudinal distribution of autumnal moth and winter moth (lepidoptera: geometridae) in sub-arctic birch forest.we tested the hypothesis that pupal predation by shrews underlies the altitudinal distribution pattern of the geometrid moth species operophtera brumata l. (winter moth) and epirrita autumnata bkh (autumnal moth) in a sub-arctic birch forest in northern fennoscandia. in particular, we predicted more intense pupal predation at low altitudes where the two moth species normally do not reach outbreak densities. predation of pupae of both moth species was estimated along 10 parallel altitudinal trans ...200919508770
robertsonian chromosomal rearrangements in the short-tailed shrew, blarina carolinensis, in western tennessee.we report significant heterozygosity for numerous robertsonian translocations in the southern short-tailed shrew (blarina carolinensis) in western tennessee. eight robertsonian rearrangements were documented using g-banding techniques that explain the variability in diploid numbers from 46 throughout most of the range of the species to 34-40 in western tennessee. these fusions resulted in the loss of telomere sequences and were not associated with nucleolar organizer regions. when heterozygocity ...19979186509
genetic diversity and phylogeography of seewis virus in the eurasian common shrew in finland and hungary.recent identification of a newfound hantavirus, designated seewis virus (swsv), in the eurasian common shrew (sorex araneus), captured in switzerland, corroborates decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in this shrew species from russia. to ascertain the spatial or geographic variation of swsv, archival liver tissues from 88 eurasian common shrews, trapped in finland in 1982 and in hungary during 1997, 1999 and 2000, were analyzed for hantavirus rnas by reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...200919930716
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