concurrent west nile virus and mycobacterium avium infection in a black-necked swan (cygnus melanocoryphus).an adult male black-necked swan (cygnus melanocoryphus) was evaluated for a routine physical examination and west nile virus vaccination. nine days later, the swan was hospitalized for weakness, dehydration, tremors, and leukocytosis. gradual clinical improvement was seen over a 2-wk course of supportive care. however, the animal became acutely weak and was found dead. histopathology revealed severe granulomatous pneumonia and air sacculitis with dissemination to the liver, spleen, intestine, an ...200717679526
evaluation of newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light the present study a monoclonal antibody (mab 14a3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin y (igy) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum igy light chain of different duck species: muscovy duck (cairina moschata), mallard (anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (dafila acuta). ...200818568660
using haematological parameters to infer the health and nutritional status of an endangered black-necked swan organisms are continuously faced with several forms of environmental perturbation, one of the most important being human activity. in this scenario, the role of physiological studies on wildlife has proved to be important given that in vivo physiological variables reflect a great deal how sensitive animals are to acute environmental changes. we studied the haematological parameters in black-necked swans (cygnus melanocoryphus) at the ramsar site at the carlos anwandter sanctuary, which we ...200717448718
identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic hplc, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, cygnus melanocoryphus. the bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)h and (13)c nmr and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine n-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. the compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the t ...200616648547
mineral metabolism in a black-necked swan (cygnus melanocoryphus) population from southern chile.a population of black-necked swans (cygnus melanocoryphus) residing in a perturbed habitat revealed a low body mass, malnutrition, and hyperferremia during 2005; the swans main dietary item, egeria densa, was lost during an environmental crisis which occurred in 2004. the objective of this study was to monitor the diet and nutritional status of this population during 2006, as well as to verify how the consumption of sediment, as part of their new diet, may explain the mineral disorders observed ...200920063806
emigration and mortality of black-necked swans (cygnus melancoryphus) and disappearance of the macrophyte egeria densa in a ramsar wetland site of southern chile. 200718074900
short-term thermoregulatory adjustments in a south american anseriform, the black-necked swan (cygnus melanocoryphus).avian bioenergetic studies suggest that, compared with other vertebrates, birds are efficient thermoregulators. however, most avian physiological studies have been performed in species of small body masses (less than 1 kg). in contrast to what might be anticipated, thermoregulatory abilities of large, flying birds are scarcely studied, especially in temperate zones and aquatic systems. in order to determine short-term metabolic adjustment after thermal challenge, we studied the bioenergetics of ...200818511316
health and nutritional status of a perturbed black-necked swan (cygnus melanocoryphus) population: diet quality.the cayumapu river's black-necked swan population in southern chile lost its main dietary item, egeria densa, during an environmental crisis which occurred in 2004 in the carlos andwanter nature sanctuary. the main goal of this study was to test the effect of diet on the physiologic response to this new ecologic challenge. the results revealed that the new diet of this population was composed primarily of roots and sedimentary microalgae, with chemical and energetic content similar to the diet o ...200920063805
effect of malnutrition on iron homeostasis in black-necked swans (cygnus melanocoryphus).the cayumapu river black-necked swan (cygnus melanocoryphus) population in southern chile suffered a syndrome of malnutrition and hyperferremia in 2005. the iron metabolic imbalance could not be explained on the basis of the quality of their diet. hence, the primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between malnutrition and iron homeostasis in black-necked swans. it was proposed that catabolic processes could increase serum iron levels due to the release of endogenous iro ...200920063807
stomach nematodes of three sympatric species of anatid birds off the coast of patagonia.the present study focuses on the nematode community in the stomachs of three sympatric anatid bird species from the central patagonian coast, argentina. the bird species include the chubut steamer duck, tachyeres leucocephalus, the crested duck, lophonetta specularioides, and the black-necked swan, cygnus melancoryphus. up to 138 nematodes representing five species were recovered from 10 of the 13 ducks examined, with an overall prevalence of 77% and a mean intensity of 13.8. nematodes isolated ...201626522056
testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: are colour differences among swans (cygnus) attributable to variation at the mcir locus?the mc1r (melanocortin-1 receptor) locus underlies intraspecific variation in melanin-based dark plumage coloration in several unrelated birds with plumage polymorphisms. there is far less evidence for functional variants of mc1r being involved in interspecific variation, in which spurious genotype-phenotype associations arising through population history are a far greater problem than in intraspecific studies. we investigated the relationship between mc1r variation and plumage coloration in swa ...200818789136
[animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].the main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of encephalitozoon intestinalis, e. hellem, e. cuniculi, and enterocytozoon bieneusi in poland in animal faecal using the fish (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and multiplex fish techniques. additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite i ...200919579789
leeches affecting a black-necked swan. 19911962408
blood biochemistry reveals malnutrition in black-necked swans (cygnus melanocoryphus) living in a conservation priority area.the application of clinical biochemical techniques to determine the products of intermediary metabolism has proved to be a reliable approach for the study of the physiological state of animals in nature. more specifically, the determination of plasma metabolites, such as glucose, total proteins (pro), albumin (alb), globulins (gl), urea, uric acid, triglycerides (tg) and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (bhb), and plasma enzymes such as creatine kinase (ck) and aspartate aminotransferase (ast) in wild anim ...200717158079
outbreak of type c botulism in captive wild late summer 2010, an outbreak of type c botulism affected the birds kept in a dam at a southern brazilian zoo. a total of 14(10 black-necked swans, cygnus melancoryphus; 3 muscovy ducks, cairina moschata; and 1 fulvous whistling-duck, dendrocygna bicolor) out of 100 birds died after showing flaccid paralysis of the skeletal muscles characterized by general locomotion deficit, flight and swimming disorders, dropped neck, and severe dyspnea. carcasses of dead birds (some infested by larvae of s ...201222779246
[new hosts for the nasal mite rhinonyssus rhinolethrum (trouessart) (gamasida: rhinonyssidae) in brazil].the black-necked swan, cygnus melanocoryphus, and the ringed teal, callonetta leucophrys, are reported as new hosts for the nasal mite rhinonyssus rhinolethrum (trouessart) in brazil.200919943024
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