microanalysis of action patterns of amylolytic enzymes: identification of a glucose-forming amylase in japanese radish root. 19694979926
identification and expression of the kosena radish (raphanus sativus cv. kosena) homologue of the ogura radish cms-associated gene, orf138.a cms-associated gene, orf125, present in the japanese radish cultivar kosena, has a sequence homologous to that of the ogura cms-associated gene, orf138, except for two amino acid substitutions and a 39 bp deletion in the orf138 coding region. in kosena radish, orf125 is linked with orfb, whereas the orf125 locus differs in a brassica napus cms cybrid derived from protoplast fusion between kosena radish and b. napus. a novel mtdna sequence is present in the 3'-flanking region of orf125 in the b ...199910080721
participation of potassium chloroplatinate in peroxidase-catalyzed oxidations by the extract of japanese radish root. 19684297084
antimutagenic and mutagenic potentials of chinese radish.the edible part of fresh chinese radish was chopped into small pieces, lyophilized, and then extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. the solvent in each fraction was removed by evaporation under reduced pressure at 50-55 degrees c, and the residue was dissolved in dimethylsufoxide just before being tested for antimutagenicity as well as mutagenicity using the salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. we found that none of the three fractions exhibited any mutagenici ...19938143625
vernalization, photoperiod and ga3 interact to affect flowering of japanese radish (raphanus sativus chinese radish jumbo scarlet).raphanus sativus l. chinese radish jumbo scarlet has characteristics that make it an excellent plant model for vernalization studies. this study further characterizes flower induction of r. sativus chinese radish jumbo scarlet. seed were imbibed in distilled water containing 0, 10-5 m or 10-3 m ga3 for 24 h and were then exposed to 6 +/- 0.5 degrees c (vernalized) for 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 days. seedlings were then grown under a short- (8 h) or long-day photoperiod (8 h with or without a 4-h night in ...200212060249
chemistry and biology of phototropism-regulating substances in higher plants.most people are familiar with the sight of a young seedling bending towards a window or the brightest source of light to which it is exposed. this directional growth response is known as phototropism, which is caused by a lateral growth-promoting auxin in the bending organ (cholodny-went theory, cited in high school textbook). recently, however, bruinsma et al., weiler et al., and hasegawa et al. independently found that the shaded half did not contain more auxin than the illuminated one. instea ...200111933243
4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, a principal antimutagen in daikon (raphanus sativus; japanese white radish).the antimutagenic activity of n-hexane extracts from eight strains of daikon (raphanus sativus; japanese white radish) have been examined using the uv-induced mutation assay of escherichia coli b/r wp2. a correlation was found between the potency of antimutagenicity and the amount of 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (mtbitc) in their n-hexane extracts. because the pure mtbitc also showed antimutagenicity, mtbitc is presumably the active antimutagen principle in n-hexane extracts of daikon ...200111743759
simultaneous determination of residues of emamectin and its metabolites, and milbemectin, ivermectin, and abamectin in crops by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.a liquid chromatographic (lc) method was developed for the determination of emamectin and its metabolites (8,9-z-isomer, n-demethylated, n-formylated, and n-methylformylated emamectin) in various crops. the analytes were extracted with acetone, cleaned up on cartridge columns (c18 and nh2), derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride and 1-methylimidazole, and determined by lc with fluorescence detection. because radish inhibited the formation of the fluorescent derivatives, an additional bond el ...200111417654
marked increase in the urinary level of n-nitrosothioproline after ingestion of cod with vegetables.when five volunteers were given food containing cod and vegetables (a traditional japanese food, called tara-chiri), their urinary excretion of n-nitrosothioproline increased from 7.9 +/- 4.2 (sd) micrograms/day to 110 +/- 64.5 micrograms/day. this increase was accounted for by in vivo nitrosation of of thioproline by nitrite formed from nitrate in the vegetables. this finding was confirmed by results on a volunteer who ate boiled cod and japanese radish (daikon) (a simple version of the food co ...19883383197
plasma cholesterol-lowering effect on rats of dietary fiber extracted from immature plants.crude dietary fiber samples were prepared from beet, cabbage, japanese radish, onion and mung bean sprouts (bf, cf, rf, of and mf, respectively). these samples contained total dietary fiber at the levels of 814, 699, 760, 693 and 666 g/kg, respectively. to examine the effect of these dietary fiber sources on the plasma cholesterol concentration, male sprague-dawley rats were fed on a fiber-free (ff) diet or on an ff diet supplemented with 5% or 10% dietary fiber. dietary fiber extracted from veg ...200011210115
tissue printing for myrosinase activity in roots of turnip and japanese radish and horseradish: a technique for localizing myrosinases.a method for analyzing the tissue distribution of myrosinase activity in brassicaceous plants was developed. this technique is based on 'tissue printing' to visualize enzyme activity. the freshly-cut surface (transverse direction) of the root of three species, japanese radish (raphanus sativus), turnip (brassica campestris) and japanese horseradish (wasabi, wasabia japonica), was pressed onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (pvdf) filter to immobilize the proteins onto the membrane. the sites of myr ...200111166428
purification, properties, and molecular cloning of a novel ca(2+)-binding protein in radish understand the roles of plant vacuoles, we have purified and characterized a major soluble protein from vacuoles of radish (raphanus sativus cv tokinashi-daikon) taproots. the results showed that it is a novel radish vacuole ca(2+)-binding protein (rvcab). rvcab was released from the vacuolar membrane fraction by sonication, and purified by ion exchange and gel filtration column chromatography. rvcab is an acidic protein and migrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel with an appare ...200011080284
isolation of monomeric cytochrome f from japanese radish and a mechanism of autoreduction.monomeric cytochrome f from japanese radish (raphanus sativus l. var acanthiformis makino) leaves was isolated in a homogeneous state with an a420.5/a277 of 7.6. radish cytochrome f is a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 33,000. the midpoint potential is 350 mv. the amino acid analysis indicates the existence of 3 residues of half-cystine. radish cytochrome f contains one thiol group which reacts with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) only after denaturation by sodium d ...1978701259
[binding of pcb by several types of dietary fiber in vivo and in vitro].we investigated the binding of pcb by dietary fiber in vivo and in vitro. forty male rats consisting of four rats a group were housed and rats of each group were given a treatment diet containing rice-bran fiber, spinach fiber, burdock fiber, cabbage fiber, soybean fiber japanese-radish fiber, carrot fiber, corn fiber and cellulose for five days. the remaining four rats were fed a non-fiber diet as controls. the animals were administered with 0.5 ml of the race-bran oil used by yusho patients an ...19957628811
an unusual case of 'uncompetitive activation' by ascorbic acid: purification and kinetic properties of a myrosinase from raphanus sativus seedlings.myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase; ec is a plant enzyme that hydrolyses glucosinolates, principally to isothiocyanates. myrosinase was purified to homogeneity in good yield from 8-day-old seedlings of raphanus sativus (daikon) using a four-step procedure involving chromatographies on anion exchange, hydrophobic phenyl-sepharose, gel filtration and concanavalin a-sepharose. in order to stabilize the enzyme and to avoid excessive peak broadening during chromatography, 30% (v/v) gly ...199910417337
the zinc uptake regulator zur is essential for the full virulence of xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.zur is a regulator of the high-affinity zinc uptake system in many bacteria. in xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004, a putative protein encoded by the open reading frame designated as xc1430 shows 42% amino acid similarity with the zur of escherichia coli. an xc1430-disrupted mutant 1430nk was constructed by homologous suicide plasmid integration. 1430nk failed to grow in rich medium supplemented with zn2+ at a concentration of 400 microm and in nonrich medium supplemented with zn2+ at a ...200516042011
borate-rhamnogalacturonan ii bonding reinforced by ca2+ retains pectic polysaccharides in higher-plant cell wallsthe extent of in vitro formation of the borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan ii (rg-ii) complex was stimulated by ca2+. the complex formed in the presence of ca2+ was more stable than that without ca2+. a naturally occurring boron (b)-rg-ii complex isolated from radish (raphanus sativus l. cv aokubi-daikon) root contained equimolar amounts of ca2+ and b. removal of the ca2+ by trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-n,n,n',n'-tetraacetic acid induced cleavage of the complex into monomeric rg-ii. these data su ...19999880361
antibody fragments as inhibitors of japanese radish acid phosphatase.vh (heavy-chain variable region) and vl (light-chain variable region) genes were amplified by pcr from hybridomas producing mab-11 and mab-18 which inhibited japanese radish acid phosphatase. nucleotide sequencing of the v genes demonstrates that the mabs contained similar vh and identical vl domains. initially, the vh and vl genes were expressed in escherichia coli as single-chain fv (scfv) fragments. fragments scfv-11 and scfv-18, named for mab-11 and mab-18, respectively, inhibited the enzyme ...19989692184
determination of acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram residues in vegetables and fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.determination of 3 neonicotinoid insecticides, nitenpyram, imidacloprid, and acetamiprid, was studied. vegetables and fruits were extracted with acetonitrile. the crude extract was passed through a weak anion-exchange cartridge (psa). the effluent was subjected to silica gel cartridge. imidacloprid and acetamiprid were eluted with 10 ml of 4:6 (v/v) acetone/hexane, followed by nitenpyram with acetone (20 ml). pesticides were determined by hplc with a c-18 column and diode-array detection system. ...200212137461
allozyme diversity and population structure of japanese and korean populations of wild radish, raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. raphanistroides (brassicaceae).raphanus satiuus var. hortensis f. raphanistroides (wild radish: brassicaceae) is an insect-pollinated wild plant that grows mainly on beaches in east asia. starch gel electrophoresis was used to investigate the allozyme diversity and genetic structure of 25 japanese and 9 korean populations of this plant. although the korean populations were small, isolated, and patchily distributed, they maintained a high level of genetic diversity; the average percentage of polymorphic loci was 63.1%, the mea ...200111376547
[effect of dietary fiber on fecal excretion and liver distribution of pcdf in rats].forty male rats (126 g body weight) consisting of four rats a group were housed and rats of each group were given a treatment diets containing cellulose, rice-bran fiber, spinach fiber, burdock fiber, cabbage fiber, soybean fiber, japanese-radish fiber, carrot fiber and corn fiber for five days. the remaining four rats were fed a non-fiber diet as controls. the animals were orally administered with 0.5 ml of the rice-bran oil used by yusho patients and kept on the same diets for five days. the r ...19957628812
nitrite-researching substances in japanese radish juice and their inhibition of nitrosamine formation. 19807451755
chromatographic separation of a small subunit (psbw/psay) and its assignment to photosystem i reaction using a hydroxyapatite column, the five major photosystem i (psi) subunits (psaa,-b,-c,-d,-e) solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) were fractionated from a spinach psi reaction center preparation. another small (5-6 kda) polypeptide was also separated, and purified to homogeneity. mass spectroscopy yielded its molecular weight to be 5942 +/- 10. this polypeptide had an n-terminal sequence homologous to those of previously reported 5-kda subunits from spinach and wheat and a 6.1-kda sub ...200010924904
determination of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits with solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.a rapid and simple extraction method for the simultaneous analysis of five neonicotinoid insecticides has been developed. twelve different fruit and vegetable matrixes were extracted with methanol and cleaned up using a graphitized carbon solid phase extraction cartridge loading with a 20% methanol solution. the concentrated eluate after methanol elution was then analyzed for pesticide residues by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the apci positive mode. the five pesticides including ni ...200312696927
circular dichroism of turnip peroxidases.circular dichroic (cd) spectra of two turnip isoperoxidases, p1 and p7, and of their derivatives were measured over the wavelength range of 200 to 650 nm. for the two isoenzymes, it was observed that although the visible and soret bands are located at similar wavelengths, their ellipticities are different. these results suggest that the active sites are similar but that differences do exist. the results are compared with those reported for japanese radish peroxidase a and horseradish peroxidase. ...1977890576
bioassay to assess the toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis to daikon leaf beetle (coleoptera: chrysomelidae)we developed a new method to rear daikon leaf beetles, phaedon brassicae baly (coleoptera: chrysomelidae), on a diet of cruciferae leaves in a growth chamber. eggs were stored at 4 degrees c for 30 days without significant loss of viability. a bioassay using artificial diet was developed to standardize the assessment of toxicity of a powdered crystal-spore preparation of bacillus thuringiensis strain ybt-0618 to p. brassicae larvae. when the diet containing this powder preparation was stored at ...199910534412
thermal denaturation and regeneration of japanese-radish peroxidase.thermal denaturation of japanese-radish peroxidase ec was investigated with respect to its spectrophotometric properties and effect on the enzymatic activity. inactivation of the peroxidase occurred at temperatures higher than 60degrees and involved three processes, i.e., dissociation of protohemin from the holoperoxidase, a conformation change in the apperoxidase, and the modification or degradation of protohemin. the splitting process of protohemin from holoperoxidase as followed by t ...19755412
preparation of selenium-enriched sprouts and identification of their selenium species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.sprouts of several plants (10 families and 28 species) were cultivated in a high selenium environment, and the chemical species of selenium in these selenium-enriched sprouts were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (hplc-icpms). cultivation of sprouts of kaiware daikon (type of radish) with 5.0 microg/ml or 10.0 microg/ml of selenium as selenite inhibited the growth. however, no abnormalities in the shape or color were apparent ...200414745183
four ferredoxins from japanese radish leaves.we detected three ferredoxin components, a, b, and c, in green shoots of japanese radish seedlings by hydrophobic hplc analysis using a phenyl-5pw column. all components were also present in mature leaves. component a was further separated into two components, a1 and a2, by reversed-phase hplc after carboxymethylation. the existence of four ferredoxins in the photosynthetic tissue of a single plant species is reported here for the first time. each individual ferredoxin component was isolated, an ...19957864635
p-nitrosodimethylaniline (rno)-based evaluation of enhanced oxidative potential during electrochemical treatment of high-salinity wastewater.the electrochemical bleaching of p-nitrosodimethylaniline (rno) was investigated in order to apply its reactions to evaluating electrochemical oxidation. the bleaching rate of rno during electrochemical treatment was accelerated by the presence of chloride ions. the initial bleaching rate of rno was found to be accelerated during the electrolysis of nh4cl, suggesting that electrochemically generated chloramines are sufficiently strong oxidants to convert rno. a method of evaluating direct or ind ...200415055941
determination of residues of fensulfothion and its metabolites in chinese cabbage, japanese radish , and turnips.a method was developed using a selective nitrogen-phosphorus detector to determine the combined total residues, as the oxygen analogs, of fensulfothion (o,o-diethyl o-[p-(methylsulfinyl)-phenyl] phosphorothioate) and its 3 metabolites. the procedure was used to determine harvest residues in chinese cabbage, japanese radish, and turnips treated with 2 application rates of fensulfothion. residues found after application of 2 oz active ingredient (ai)/100 lineal ft of row ranged from 0.026 ppm for ...19806447687
an important determinant of the ability of turnip mosaic virus to infect brassica spp. and/or raphanus sativus is in its p3 protein.turnip mosaic virus (tumv, genus potyvirus, family potyviridae) infects mainly cruciferous plants. isolates tu-3 and tu-2r1 of tumv exhibit different infection phenotypes in cabbage (brassica oleracea l.) and japanese radish (raphanus sativus l.). infectious full-length cdna clones, ptuc and ptur1, were constructed from isolates tu-3 and tu-2r1, respectively. progeny virus derived from infections with ptuc induced systemic chlorotic and ringspot symptoms in infected cabbage, but no systemic infe ...200415218194
behavior of glucosinolates in pickling cruciferous vegetables.crucifer species, which include widely consumed vegetables, contain glucosinolates as secondary metabolites. cruciferous vegetables are consumed in japan in salt-preserved or pickled form as well as cooked and raw fresh vegetables. in this study, changes in contents of glucosinolates during the pickling process were investigated. 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate, a major glucosinolate in the root of japanese radish, daikon (raphanus sativus l.), was detected in pickled products with a short ...200617147429
allylnitrile: generation from cruciferous vegetables and behavioral effects on mice of repeated exposure.the objective of the present study was to examine the possible generation of allylnitrile from commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables, and to determine the long-term behavioral effects of its oral administration at levels comparable to or greater than human dietary exposures. on the basis of gaschromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses, allylnitrile generation was observed in eight out of twelve vegetables, broccoli, broccoli (young stems and leaves), brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflow ...200414871587
uptake of iron by a vegetable; kaiware daikon (japanese radish sprout).uptake of iron and several other minerals into kaiware daikon (japanese radish sprout) was investigated by changing their supplementary conditions. the supplementation of calcium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 230 ppm as calcium ion) and iron (iii) chloride (0.1% (w/v), 200 ppm as iron ion) in hydroponics promoted the growth of kaiware daikon ca. 1.0-1.5 cm longer than the control group of no additions, while magnesium sulfate (0.1% (w/ v), 100 ppm as magnesium ion) did not affect the length of sprouts so ...200415527072
circular dischroism of japanese-radish peroxidase a. 19695346904
purification and cloning of a chinese red radish peroxidase that metabolise pelargonidin and forms a gene family in anionic peroxidase rsprx1 was purified (rz=3.0) and characterized from roots of chinese red radish (raphanus sativus var. niger, brassicaceae). the specific activity of rsprx1 (micromol mg(-1) min(-1)) is 413.5 (ferulic acid); 258.7 (abts); 177.3 (caffeic acid) and 10.0 (guaiacol acid). the optimum ph is 4.0 (citrate buffer) using abts as substrate. rsprx1 can utilise the red pigment present in the root, pelargonidin, as substrate and the specific activity is 93.6 micromol mg(-1) min(-1). the ...200415588587
incorporation of a high level of vitamin b12 into a vegetable, kaiware daikon (japanese radish sprout), by the absorption from its seeds.high level of vitamin b(12) was incorporated into kaiware daikon (japanese radish sprout) by soaking its seeds in b(12) solutions. vitamin b(12) amount incorporated into kaiware daikon increased up to 1.5 microg/g wet sprout with the soaking time of seeds in 0-200 microg/ml b(12) solution. vitamin b(12) could be extracted more from the sample heated for a short time than from that of control without heat treatment.200415182932
isolation and identification of a new growth inhibitor, raphanusanin, from radish seedlings and its role in light inhibition of hypocotyl growth.a neutral growth inhibitor, for which the name raphanusanin is proposed, has been isolated in crystalline form from light-exposed sakurajima radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) seedlings and identified as a new compound, 3-methoxy-4-methylthio-2-piperithione by spectrometric analyses.applied raphanusanin inhibited the hypocotyl growth of etiolated radish and lettuce seedlings at concentrations higher than 1.5 x 10(-6) molar.the endogenous raphanusanin contents in cot ...198216662545
phototropism in hypocotyls of radish : i. isolation and identification of growth inhibitors, cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide, involved in phototropism of radish hypocotyls.three growth inhibitors which might be involved in phototropism of sakurajima radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) hypocotyls, were isolated as crystalline forms from light-exposed radish seedlings and identified as cis- and trans-raphanusanins and 6-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,3-oxazepin-2-one (designated raphanusamide). the cis- and trans-raphanusanins inhibited growth of etiolated radish hypocotyls at concentrations higher than 1.5 micromolar, raphanusamide at con ...198616664968
effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-thc-9-carboxylic acid in urine.bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. urine samples containing 40 ng/ml of 11-nor-delta9-thc-9-carboxylic acid (thc-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/l of commonly available ...200212423000
phototropism in hypocotyls of radish : ii. role of cis- and trans-raphanusanins, and raphanusamide in phototropism of radish hypocotyls.when etiolated radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) hypocotyls were subjected to a continuous unilateral illumination with white fluorescent light (0.1 watt per square meter), the growth rate at the lighted side was strongly inhibited for the first 2 hours, while that at the shaded side showed no change. after 2.5 hours growth on the lighted side recovered gradually, while that on the shaded side was slightly inhibited. the neutral growth inhibitors, cis- and trans-ra ...198616664969
phototropism in hypocotyls of radish : iii. influence of unilateral or bilateral illumination of various light intensities on phototropism and distribution of cis- and trans-raphanusanins and raphanusamide.when etiolated radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) hypocotyls were subjected to a continuous unilateral illumination with white fluorescent light at 0.05, 0.1, or 1 watt per square meter, the suppression of the growth rate on the lighted side depended on the light intensity. the growth rate at the shaded side was only a little affected by the illumination at 0.05 and 0.1 watt per square meter but considerably suppressed by that at 1 watt per square meter. upon a cont ...198716665305
phototropism in hypocotyls of radish: iv. flank growth and lateral distribution of cis- and trans-raphanusanins in the first positive phototropic curvature.the first positive phototropic curvature induced by a pulse of unilateral white irradiation (0.1 watt per square meter, 30 seconds) of etiolated and de-etiolated sakurajima radish (raphanus sativus var hortensis f. gigantissimus makino) hypocotyls was analyzed in terms of differential growth and growth inhibitor contents of the hypocotyls. in both etiolated and de-etiolated hypocotyls, the growth rates at the lighted sides were suppressed whereas those at the shaded ones showed no change. de-eti ...198716665706
effect of japanese radish (raphanus sativus) sprout (kaiware-daikon) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic information is available about the effects of japanese radish sprout (jrs) on diabetes. to clarify the effects, the influence of jrs on carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. the rats were fed a diet containing 0%, 2.5% or 5% of jrs ad libitum for 21 days. compared with the corresponding control groups, the jrs-fed normal rats showed lower plasma levels of total cholesterol (tc), triglycerides (tg), phospholipids (pl), fructosam ...200616557609
isolation of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate from raphanus sativus sprouts (kaiware daikon) and its redox properties.the most promising among glucosinolates (gls) are those bearing in their aglycon an extra sulfur function, such as glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl gl; grh) and glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl gl; gre). the gre/grh redox couple is typically met among secondary metabolites of raphanus sativus l. and, whereas gre prevails in seeds, grh is the major gl in full-grown roots. during the 10 days of sprouting of r. sativus seeds, the gre and grh contents were determined according to the ...200516366671
antioxidant constituents of radish sprout (kaiware-daikon), raphanus sativus l.methanol extracts of 11 kinds of commonly available vegetables were examined for hydroxyl radical scavenging potency using the bleomycin-fe method. in this method, the iron ion and bleomycin in water form hydroxyl radicals, and the scavenging activity is monitored by the modified thiobarbituric acid method. all extracts showed scavenging capacity, even though the activity of some of them was lower than that of l-ascorbic acid. those vegetables were classified into three groups according to their ...200314690397
the first isolation of two types of trifluoroleucine resistant mutants of saccharomyces servazzii.saccharomyces servazzii plays a crucial role in the making of japanese radish pickles. to make more flavorsome pickles, we sought to generate trifluoroleucine-resistant mutants of s. servazzii. the three resulting mutants could be classified into two types: one that produces more isoamyl alcohol than the parental strain, and one that produces less. the first type has been well documented in saccharomyces cerevisiae but the latter appears to be novel and has been characterized as such.200314626417
[antimicrobial properties of raphanus sativus. ii. antimicrobial properties of a preparation from acid substances from raphanus sativus var. niger]. 196114478783
chemopreventive effect of selenium-enriched japanese radish sprout against breast cancer induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rats.breast cancer is one of the major cancers in women, and dietary intake must be controlled to prevent it. selenium (se), especially se compound in vegetables, is thought to be a promising chemopreventive dietary ingredient for preventing breast cancer. in this study, we developed se-enriched japanese radish sprout using a special se-additional fertilizer, and identified the se chemical forms. the newly developed se-enriched sprout is produced within a week by the tank forming method, and the majo ...200717548963
differing effects of water-soluble and fat-soluble extracts from japanese radish (raphanus sativus) sprouts on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.we have shown previously that japanese radish (raphanus sativus) sprouts (jrs) improve blood glucose levels in diabetic rats. in this study, we investigated the components in jrs that caused this hypoglycemic effect, by examining the effects of water-soluble (wse) and fat-soluble (fse) extracts of jrs on diabetes markers in normal (nm) and streptozotocin (stz)-induced diabetic (dm) rats. the nm and dm rats were divided into a control group and 2 test groups (wse (2.2%) or fse (0.2%)), with the r ...200717874832
dual mode diffusion of nacl in japanese radish under cooking conditions.sorption and diffusion of nacl in japanese radish have been studied. the sorption isotherm was obtained at 98 degrees c by the conventional method. the concentration profile by the 1-dimensional diffusion of nacl in japanese radish from the 3.0% solution was measured at 98 degrees c with the fritruc method involving a foodstuff rod in a thin rubber casing. fick's diffusion coefficient, d, calculated therefrom showed a threefold variation with a maximum. this variation was quantitatively interpre ...200717995794
rapid identification of pickle yeasts by fluorescent pcr and microtemperature-gradient gel electrophoresis.monitoring the yeast populations within pickle soaking fluid is imperative for ensuring optimum taste, but these analyses have proven time-consuming and expensive, limiting their industrial application. here, yeasts were identified in the soaking fluid from japanese radish pickles using fluorescent pcr amplification of the variable d1/d2 region of the 26s rdna, followed by analysis with microtemperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (micro-tgge). this smaller version of the normal tgge apparatus ...200415336401
identification of six type iii effector genes with the pip box in xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and five of them contribute individually to full pathogenicity.xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is the pathogen of black rot of cruciferous plants. the pathogenicity of the pathogen depends on the type iii secretion system (t3ss) that translocates directly effector proteins into plant cells, where they play important roles in the molecular interaction between the pathogen and its hosts. the t3ss of xanthomonas spp. is encoded by a cluster of hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes. it has been demonstrated that the expression of hrp genes ...200919810809
the role of glucose kinase in carbohydrate utilization and extracellular polysaccharide production in xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris.the genome of the xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (xcc) strain 8004 encodes three uncharacterized proteins, xc1166, xc1223 and xc1976, annotated as glucose kinase (glk) by bioinformatic studies. here we have investigated the biochemical characteristics and physiological roles of these proteins with particular reference to the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide (eps). xc1166, xc1223 and xc1976 were overexpressed as fusion proteins with a his(6) affinity tag and purified by nicke ...200718048941
molecular targets and anticancer potential of indole-3-carbinol and its derivatives.indole-3-carbinol (i3c) is produced by members of the family cruciferae, and particularly members of the genus brassica (e.g., cabbage, radishes, cauliflower, broccoli, brussels sprouts, and daikon). under acidic conditions, 13c is converted to a series of oligomeric products (among which 3,3'-diindolylmethane is a major component) thought to be responsible for its biological effects in vivo. in vitro, 13c has been shown to suppress the proliferation of various tumor cells including breast cance ...200516082211
a novel locus involved in extracellular polysaccharide production and virulence of xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris.xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (xcc) is the causal agent of black rot disease in cruciferous plants. the extracellular polysaccharide (eps) produced by xcc is an important pathogenicity factor and also has a range of industrial uses. in preliminary work a number of transposon-mediated insertion mutants in xcc with defects in eps production were identified. here, one of these mutated loci was investigated in detail. six orfs within the locus (orfs xc3811-3816) were disrupted by plasmi ...200717322194
antimicrobial effect of extracts of cruciferous vegetables.the cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, chinese radish, chinese kale, and chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (deae) anion exchange chromatography. water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. the antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteri ...200415696789
the rsma-like gene rsma(xcc) of xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is involved in the control of various cellular processes, including pathogenesis.rsma is an rna-binding protein functioning as a global post-transcriptional regulator of various cellular processes in bacteria and has been demonstrated to be an important virulence regulator in many animal bacterial pathogens. however, its function in other phytopathogenic bacteria is unclear, except for the erwinia carotovora rsma, which acts as a negative virulence regulator. in this work, we investigated the function of the rsma-like gene, named rsma(xcc), of the phytopathogen xanthomonas c ...200818321187
contamination levels of pcdds, pcdfs and co-pcbs in commercial baby foods in examine dioxin contamination in commercial baby foods in japan, congener analyses of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (pcdds), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (pcdfs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-pcbs) were performed on 102 varieties of baby foods obtained from supermarkets in 2001-2002. the toxic equivalent quantity (teq) levels for dioxins in samples ranged from < 0.001 to 0.135 pg-teq/g wet weight when undetected or trace levels of congeners were taken as zero. among 102 sampl ...200516180684
comparison of the glucosinolate-myrosinase systems among daikon (raphanus sativus, japanese white radish) varieties.myrosinase is a cytosolic plant enzyme present in daikon ( raphanus sativus, japanese white radish) roots that hydrolyzes 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate (mtbgls) into the natural pungent agent 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (mtbitc), which possesses antimicrobial, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. the concentration of mtbgls, myrosinase activity, and production of mtbitc in seven daikon varieties (one conventional and six heirlooms) were determined to rank the activity ...200818345631
selenium-enriched japanese radish sprouts influence glutathione peroxidase and glutathione s-transferase in an organ-specific manner in rats.selenium-enriched japanese radish sprouts (se-enriched jrs), in which se-methylselenocysteine accounted for 80% of se compounds, inhibited mammary tumorigenesis induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in rats. the effects of se-enriched jrs on the oxidative stress-scavenging enzymes were investigated in rats. f344 female rats were fed test diets, in which se-enriched jrs was added at 0, 2.4, 5.0, 8.8 or 12.5 ppm se to commercial rodent chow for 3 wk. glutathione peroxidase (gpx) and glutathion ...200818403865
papaya seed represents a rich source of biologically active the present study, papaya (carica papaya) seed and edible pulp were carefully separated and then the contents of benzyl isothiocyanate and the corresponding glucosinolate (benzyl glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin) quantified in each part. the papaya seed with myrosinase inactivation contained >1 mmol of benzyl glucosinolate in 100 g of fresh seed. this content is equivalent to that of karami daikon (the hottest japanese white radish) or that of cress. the papaya seed extract also showed a very h ...200717469845
genetic diversity of spiroplasma citri strains from different regions, hosts, and isolation dates.spiroplasma citri, a phloem-limited pathogen, causes citrus stubborn disease (csd). losses due to csd in california orchards have grown over the past decade. to investigate the possibility of introduction or emergence of a new strain, a study of genetic diversity among s. citri strains from various locations was conducted using random amplified polymorphism dna-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr) of 35 strains cultured from 1980 to 1993, and of 35 strains cultured from 2005 to 2006. analysis us ...200818943733
purification and characterization of cathepsin b-like cysteine protease from cotyledons of daikon radish, raphanus sativus.plant cathepsin b-like cysteine protease (cbcp) plays a role in disease resistance and in protein remobilization during germination. the ability of animal cathepsin b to function as a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase has been attributed to the presence of a dihistidine (his110-his111) motif in the occluding loop, which represents a unique structure of cathepsin b. however, a dihistidine motif is not present in the predicted sequence of the occluding loop of plant cbcp, as determined from cdna sequenc ...200818959767
chemistry and antioxidative activity of hot water extract of japanese radish (daikon).the comparison of antioxidative activity between the hot water extract and ambient water extract of japanese radish (daikon) was carried out. the activity of the hot water extract was higher than that of the ambient water extract. one of the antioxidants was isolated as l-tryptophan that should no change in its amount that was determined between the hot water extract and ambient water extract. moreover, tryptophan changed to 5-hydroxy tryptophan in the rat liver microsome model. this phenomenon ...200415630199
requirement of a mip-like gene for virulence in the phytopathogenic bacterium xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.macrophage infectivity potentiators (mips) are fkbp domain-containing proteins reported as virulence factors in several human pathogens, such as members of genera legionella, salmonella and chlamydia. the putative peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (ppiase) encoded by xc2699 of the plant bacterial pathogen xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 8004 exhibits a 49% similarity at the amino-acid level to the mip protein of legionella pneumophila. this mip-like gene, xc2699, was overexpressed in esch ...200717249419
the design, synthesis and anticancer activity of new nitrogen mustard derivatives of natural indole phytoalexin 1-methoxyspirobrassinol.nitrogen mustards cis-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[n,n-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (4) and trans-1-methoxy-2-deoxy-2-[n,n-bis(2 -chloroethyl)amino]spirobrassinol (5) derived from 1-methoxyspirobrassinol, an indole phytoalexin produced by the japanese radish raphanus sativus var. hortensis were designed as prospective dual-action compounds with dna-alkylating effect and glutathione-depleting effects that may sensitize cancer cells to alkylating agents. both new compounds demonstrated cytostat ...200919473057
a novel rf gene controlling fertility restoration of ogura male sterility by rna processing of orf138 found in japanese wild radish and its sts reveal the molecular and genetic mechanism of fertility restoration in ogura male sterility in japanese wild radish (raphanus sativus var. hortensis f. raphanistroides), we investigated fertility restoration of a plant that lacks the dominant type of orf687, a previously identified fertility restorer gene. a total of 100 f2 plants were made from the cross between a male-sterile strain with the ogura cytoplasm, 'ms-gensuke', and a japanese wild radish plant. segregation of pollen fertility in ...200919483769
cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate from raphanus sativus l. (kaiware daikon) sprouts.there is high current interest in the chemopreventive potential of brassica vegetables (cruciferae), particularly due to their content in glucosinolates (gl), which upon myrosinase hydrolysis release the corresponding isythiocyanates (itc). some itcs, such as sulforaphane (sfn) from broccoli ( brassica oleacea italica), have been found to possess anticancer activity through induction of apoptosis in selected cell lines, as well as indirect antioxidant activity through induction of phase ii detox ...200818189352
involvement of s-adenosylmethionine-dependent halide/thiol methyltransferase (htmt) in methyl halide emissions from agricultural plants: isolation and characterization of an htmt-coding gene from raphanus sativus (daikon radish).biogenic emissions of methyl halides (ch3cl, ch3br and ch3i) are the major source of these compounds in the atmosphere; however, there are few reports about the halide profiles and strengths of these emissions. halide ion methyltransferase (hmt) and halide/thiol methyltransferase (htmt) enzymes concerning these emissions have been purified and characterized from several organisms including marine algae, fungi, and higher plants; however, the correlation between emission profiles of methyl halide ...200919723322
isolation and biochemical characterization of two forms of rd21 from cotyledons of daikon radish (raphanus sativus).rd21 (responsive to desiccation-21) is an arabidopsis cysteine protease which possesses a granulin-like domain at the c-terminus. although two forms of rd21 have been identified, consisting of an intermediate form (ird21) containing a granulin domain and a mature form (mrd21) lacking this domain, the enzymatic properties of these enzymes remain poorly understood. in this study, mrd21 orthologue was purified to homogeneity from the cotyledons of daikon radish (raphanus sativus). rd21 preferential ...200818838434
qtl mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (raphanus sativus l.).a qtl analysis for clubroot resistance (cr) of radish was performed using an f(2) population derived from a crossing of a cr japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (cs) chinese radish. f(3) plants obtained by selfing of f(2) plants were used for the cr tests. the potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. the mean disease indexes of the f(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the f(2). the results of two cr tests were analyzed for the presence of qt ...201020012934
antioxidant and choleretic properties of raphanus sativus l. sprout (kaiware daikon) extract.brassica vegetables and glucosinolates contained therein are supposed to reduce the risk of cancer and to possess health-promoting properties. the benefits of a brassica-based diet may be particularly expressed by eating sprouts, in which the glucosinolate content is higher than in mature vegetables. with this in mind, a first objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of radish (raphanus sativus l.) sprouts (kaiware daikon) extract (kde), in which the glucosinolate gluco ...200617177500
antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of acylated pelargonidin derivatives extracted from red radish (raphanus sativus var. niger, brassicaceae).the antioxidant and pro-oxidant potential of an extract from red radish, in which the major compounds were acylated pelargonidin derivatives, were assessed with a variety of assays in vitro. the extract appeared to form a complex with fe(3+) or cu(2+). it displayed a concentration-dependant reducing power (1.16od(700 nm) at a concentration of 4mm) and scavenging effect against 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals (with ic(50)=1.74 +/- 0.03 mm). it could promote the cle ...201020600520
screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3t3-l1 search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. these activities in 3t3-l1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in japan. komatsuna (brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.), qing geng cai (brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (glycine max) ...201020717728
bioavailability of sulforaphane from two broccoli sprout beverages: results of a short-term, cross-over clinical trial in qidong, of several challenges in design of clinical chemoprevention trials is the selection of the dose, formulation, and dose schedule of the intervention agent. therefore, a cross-over clinical trial was undertaken to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of sulforaphane from two of broccoli sprout-derived beverages: one glucoraphanin-rich (grr) and the other sulforaphane-rich (sfr). sulforaphane was generated from glucoraphanin contained in grr by gut microflora or formed by treatment of g ...201121372038
increased toxicity of bacillus thuringiensis cry3aa against crioceris quatuordecimpunctata, phaedon brassicae and colaphellus bowringi by a tenebrio molitor cadherin fragment.background: biopesticides containing cry insecticidal proteins from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (bt) are effective against many lepidopteran pests, but there is a lack of bt-based pesticides for efficient control of important coleopteran pests. based on the reported increase in bt toxin oligomerization by a polypeptide from the cry3aa receptor cadherin in tenebrio molitor (coleoptera: tenebrionidae), it was hypothesized that this cadherin peptide, rtmcad1p, would enhance cry3aa toxicity ...201121495115
estimation of damage to cells of japanese radish induced by high pressure with drying rate as index.the relative drying rate of samples (rdr), which is the ratio of the drying rate of pretreated samples to that of untreated ones, might be used as a tool to investigate the damage to cells of agroproducts induced by high-pressure treatment. damage to cells induced by high pressure was estimated by comparing the rdr after high-pressure pretreatment with the rdr after chloroform-vapor, heat, and freeze-thaw pretreatments of japanese radish samples. the rdr after high-pressure pretreatment was simi ...200919661692
effect of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides on foliar injury, growth, and net photosynthesis in japanese radish (raphanus sativus).to investigate the effects of ambient-level gas-phase peroxides concurrent with o(3) on foliar injury, photosynthesis, and biomass in herbaceous plants, we exposed japanese radish (raphanus sativus) to clean air, 50 ppb o(3), 100 ppb o(3), and 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb o(3) in outdoor chambers. compared with exposure to 100 ppb o(3), exposure to 2-3 ppb peroxides + 50 ppb o(3) induced greater damage in foliar injury, net photosynthetic rates and biomass; the pattern of foliar injury and the cau ...201020056522
mustard oil in "shibori daikon" a variety of japanese radish, selectively inhibits the proliferation of h-ras-transformed 3y1 cells.cruciferous vegetables and their isothiocyanates are promising foods and agents for cancer prevention. we focus here on the effects of mustard oil (smo) in a variety of the japanese radish, shibori daikon (raphanus sativus), on the proliferation of 3y1 rat fibroblasts and the h-ras-transformed derivative, hr-3y1-2. smo (1.6 microg/ml) inhibited the proliferation of hr-3y1-2, but not 3y1 after 24 h after treatment. a cell cycle analysis showed that smo induced g2/m arrest after 6 h, although this ...200919809176
kaiware daikon (raphanus sativus l.) extract: a naturally multipotent chemopreventive agent.brassica vegetables are attracting major attention as healthy foods because of their content of glucosinolates (gls) that release the corresponding isothiocyanates (itcs) upon myrosinase hydrolysis. a number of studies have so far documented the chemopreventive properties of some itcs. on the other hand, single nutrients detached from the food itself risk being somewhat "reductive", since plants contain several classes of compounds endowed with a polyhedral mechanism of action. our recent findin ...200818665601
the role of pilz domain proteins in the virulence of xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.cyclic di-gmp [(bis-(3'-5')-cyclic di-guanosine monophosphate)] is an almost ubiquitous second messenger in bacteria that is implicated in the regulation of a range of functions that include developmental transitions, aggregative behaviour, adhesion, biofilm formation and virulence. comparatively little is known about the mechanism(s) by which cyclic di-gmp exerts these various regulatory effects. pilz has been identified as a cyclic di-gmp binding protein domain; proteins with this domain are i ...200819019010
brassica cover crops for nitrogen retention in the mid-atlantic coastal plain.brassica cover crops are new to the mid-atlantic region, and limited information is available on their n uptake capabilities for effective n conservation. forage radish (raphanus sativus l. cv. daikon), oilseed radish (raphanus sativus l. cv. adagio), and rape (brassica napus l. cv. dwarf essex) were compared with rye (secale cereale l. cv. wheeler), a popular cover crop in the region, with regard to n uptake ability and potential to decrease n leaching at two sites in maryland. plants were harv ...200919202022
[estimation of the daily intake of nitrate based on analysis of total diet samples].the concentrations of nitrates in total diet samples prepared at 11 places were determined according to the market basket method, and the daily intake of nitrates was estimated based on the analysis results. the mean estimated daily intake of nitrates was 200 mg/man/day (4.0 mg/kg/day) and exceeded the adi (3.7 mg/kg/day) set by the jecfa by 8%. the principal sources of the nitrates were colored vegetables (7th food group) and other vegetables, seaweeds and mushrooms (8th food group), and the in ...200919325223
distribution and major sources of flavonoid intakes in the middle-aged japanese women.we estimated the intake of individual flavonoids in a cross sectional study and clarified the major sources contributing to the flavonoid levels in the middle-aged japanese women by a 24-h weighed dietary record study. the subjects included in the study were 516 free-living women. each subject completed a 24-h weighed dietary record and received a health check-up. we used the functional food factor database for estimating the intake of 5 major flavonoid intakes, i.e. flavan-3-ols, isoflavones, f ...200919430611
antifreeze activity of cold acclimated japanese radish and purification of antifreeze peptide.japanese radish tuber and leaf produced antifreeze proteins (afps) having thermal hysteresis activity (th) and ice recrystallization inhibiting activity (ri). upon cold acclimation, the apoplastic fluid of the japanese radish exhibited hexagonal crystal growth, indicating the presence of an antifreeze protein. the induction patterns of protein and the th activity of apoplastic fraction from both samples were different. the th activities of apoplastic fraction from tuber and leaves were 0.20 +/- ...200919448861
an est-ssr linkage map of raphanus sativus and comparative genomics of the brassicaceae.raphanus sativus (2n = 2x = 18) is a widely cultivated member of the family brassicaceae, for which genomic resources are available only to a limited extent in comparison to many other members of the family. to promote more genetic and genomic studies and to enhance breeding programmes of r. sativus, we have prepared genetic resources such as complementary dna libraries, expressed sequences tags (ests), simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers and a genetic linkage map. a total of 26 606 ests have b ...201121669962
identification of a plant aminopeptidase with preference for aromatic amino acid residues as a novel member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family of serine proteases.genome analysis has indicated that plants, like animals, possess a variety of protease genes. however bulk of putative proteases has not been characterized at the enzyme level. in this paper, a novel enzyme that hydrolyses phenylalanyl-4-methylcoumaryl 7-amide (phenylalanyl-mca) was purified from cotyledons of daikon radish by ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatography with deae-cellulose, phenyl-sepharose, sephacryl s-200 and mini-q. the molecular mass of the enzyme was estima ...201121788307
4-Methylsulfanyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphasatin is a potent inducer of rat hepatic phase II enzymes and a potential chemopreventive agent.The objective of this study was to establish whether the phytochemical glucoraphasatin, a glucosinolate present in cruciferous vegetables, and its corresponding isothiocyanate, 4-methylsulfanyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, up-regulate enzymes involved in the detoxification of carcinogens and are thus potential chemopreventive agents. Glucoraphasatin and myrosinase were isolated and purified from Daikon sprouts and Sinapis alba L., respectively. Glucoraphasatin (0-10 µM) was incubated for 24 h with ...201121960141
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