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dynamics of a mutualism in a multi-species context.despite recent findings that mutualistic interactions between two species may be greatly affected by species external to the mutualism, the implications of such multi-species interactions for the population dynamics of the mutualists are virtually unexplored. in this paper, we ask how the mutualism between the shoot-base boring weevil apion onopordi and the rust fungus puccinia punctiformis is influenced by the dynamics of their shared host plant cirsium arvense, and vice versa. in particular, w ...200212137583
foraging ecology of bison at the landscape and plant community levels: the applicability of energy maximization principles.predictions of animal distribution and resource use require multi-scale consideration because animals can use different sets of selection criteria at different scales. we investigated whether patterns of distribution and resource use by free-ranging bison (bison bison) in prince albert national park, saskatchewan, follow rules of energy maximization that hold across multiple scales. optimality theory predicts specialization on carex atherodes and frequency-independent selection among plant speci ...200312647163
polyphenolic compounds and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of some cirsium species.crude aqueous extracts from leaves of cirsium arvense, c. oleraceum, c. palustre, c. rivulare and c. vulgare were investigated. the content of tannins in mentioned sources, determined by the weight method with hide powder, varied between 1 and 7.63%. total phenolic content, analysed by using folin-ciocalteau's method, ranged between 54 and 96 mg g(-1), was expressed as milligrams of gallic acid per gram of dry extract. phenolic acids were identified by hplc method. antimicrobial activity of thos ...200819085412
enhancement of antibacterial effects of extracts from cirsium species using sodium picolinate and estimation of their toxicity.in this study, antimicrobial properties and toxicity of extracts from cirsium spp.: cirsium arvense, c. oleraceum, c. palustre, c. rivulare and c. vulgare in combination with sodium picolinate (ps) or sodium benzoate (bs), were investigated. three micro-organisms were used: staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of extracts was found at 1.56-50.0 mg ml(-1). unlike the case of bs, adding ps to extracts from flowers of c. palustr ...201020397105
anatomy of subterranean organs of medicinally used cardueae and related species and its value for discrimination.numerous species of the asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. the presente ...201121617780
investigating the potential of under-utilised plants from the asteraceae family as a source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant extracts.antimicrobial properties of ethanol and water extracts from eight asteraceae species were investigated against three gram positive (staphylococcus aureus, mrsa and bacillus cereus) and two gram negative (escherichia coli and salmonella typhimurium) bacterial strains. ethanol extracts from centaurea scabiosa, arctium minus, taraxacum officinale, centaurea nigra and cirsium palustre demonstrated antimicrobial activity against strains of s. aureus, mrsa and b. cereus (mic=187.5-365μg/ml). ethanol e ...201424837924
seed germination strategies of five perennial weeds.the germination responses of seeds of achillea millefolium l., artemisia vulgaris l., cirsium arvense (l.) scop., taraxacum officinale weber, sensu lato, and tussilago farfara l. to light, nitrate, alternating temperatures, chilling, light quality, and water availability were studied in laboratory tests, using fresh seed and seed stored for 6 months at 27°c and buried in the soil. a factorial experiment with light, nitrate, alternating temperatures, and seed age as factors found that all four af ...197828309232
getting the smell of it--odour cues structure pollinator networks.floral visitors vary greatly among plant species and depend on the volatiles emitted by the flowers. creeping thistle is normally visited by bees and bumblebees while common yarrow is rather visited by flies. manipulating the flower volatiles caused pollinator communities to become more similar among the two plant species. image credit: robert junker and anna-amelie larue. in focus: larue, a.-a.c., raguso, r.a. & junker, r.r. (2015) experimental manipulation of floral scent bouquets restructures ...201626899420
enhanced visible light photocatalytic inactivation of escherichia coli using silver nanoparticles as photocatalyst.the silver nanoparticles (agnps) were green synthesized using cirsium arvense plant extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent, with superior photo inactivation activity against escherichia coli (e. coli). the synthesized agnps had crystalline structure and were characterized by uv-vis spectroscopy, xrd, hrtem, sem, edx and ft-ir. the formation of nanoparticles was observed at different ph and different plant extract concentrations and it was found that at higher ph (ph>6) and at lower concentr ...201526479585
gall formation on cirsium arvense by ditylenchus dipsaci.ditylenchus dipsaci was found to cause gall formation on the stems of cirsium arvense. the galls were characterized by extensive hypertrophy and hyperplasia, differentiation of nutritive tissue, nuclear modification, and a central cavity containing nematodes. these findings emphasize the importance of host response in investigations of host-parasite interactions and suggest that d. dipsaci may be evolving a host race by reproductive isolation within the confines of a plant gall.197919305522
occurrence of ditylenchus weischeri and not d. dipsaci in field pea harvest samples and cirsium arvense in the canadian prairies.the stem nematode, a parasite of the herbaceous perennial weed, cirsium arvense (l.) scop. and identified as ditylenchus dipsaci (kühn) filipjev, was reported in the canadian prairies in 1979. recently, d. weischeri chizhov parasitizing cirsium arvense was described in russia, and it has been shown that this species is not an agricultural pest. in this study, we examined ditylenchus species found in field pea (pisum sativum l.) grain harvest samples in 2009 and 2010 and from c. arvense shoots in ...201425580031
phylogeny of cirsium spp. in north america: host specificity does not follow phylogeny.weedy invasive cirsium spp. are widespread in temperate regions of north america and some of their biological control agents have attacked native cirsium spp. a phylogenetic tree was developed from dna sequences for the internal transcribed spacer and external transcribed spacer regions from native and non-native great plains cirsium spp. and other thistles to determine if host specificity follows phylogeny. the monophyly of cirsium spp. and carduus within the tribe cardinae was confirmed with n ...201227137640
organic parasite control for poultry and rabbits in british columbia, canada.abstract: plants used for treating endo- and ectoparasites of rabbits and poultry in british columbia included arctium lappa (burdock), artemisia sp. (wormwood), chenopodium album (lambsquarters) and c. ambrosioides (epazote), cirsium arvense (canada thistle), juniperus spp. (juniper), mentha piperita (peppermint), nicotiana sp. (tobacco), papaver somniferum (opium poppy), rubus spp. (blackberry and raspberry relatives), symphytum officinale (comfrey), taraxacum officinale (common dandelion), th ...201121756341
determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of tokat, turkey.this study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on chenopodium album l., cirsium arvense (l.) scop., convolvulus arvensis l., cynodon dactylon (l.) pers., delphinium consolida l., portulaca oleracea l., rumex crispus l., solanum nigrum l., sorghum halepense (l.) pers. and xanthium strumarium l. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. surveys were conducted in may-june and august-september in 2004-2005 growing seasons. during the surveys density and frequency of the abo ...201021542473
favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.river valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. to consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded ...201020945766
arsenic-resistant bacteria associated with roots of the wild cirsium arvense (l.) plant from an arsenic polluted soil, and screening of potential plant growth-promoting characteristics.a rhizobacterial community, associated with the roots of wild thistle cirsium arvense (l.) growing in an arsenic polluted soil, was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) analysis in conjunction with cultivation-based methods. in the bulk, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane fractions of the soil, the qualitative picture obtained by fish analysis of the main phylogenetic bacterial groups was similar and was predominantly comprised of alphaproteobacteria, betaproteobacteria, and gammaproteo ...201020303688
selenium concentrations of common weeds and agricultural crops grown in the seleniferous soils of northwestern india.the plants grown in seleniferous soils constitute a major source of toxic selenium levels in the food chain of animals and human beings. greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to study selenium concentrations of weeds, forages and cereals grown on seleniferous soils located between 31.0417 degrees to 31.2175 degrees n and 76.1363 degrees to 76.4147 degrees e in northwestern india. eleven winter season (november-april) weed plants were grown in the greenhouse in a soil treated with diffe ...200919800657
reproduction of pratylenchus penetrans on 24 common weeds in potato fields in québec.twenty-four weeds commonly found in commercial potato fields in quebec were evaluated for their host suitability to the root-lesion nematode, pratylenchus penetrans, under greenhouse conditions. brown mustard (brassica juncea) and rye (secale cereale) were included as susceptible controls and forage pearl millet hyb. cfpm 101 (pennisetum glaucum) as a poor host. pratylenchus penetrans multiplied well on 22 of the 24 weed species tested (pf/pi >/= rye or brown mustard). cirsium arvense, leucanthe ...200719259506
stagonolides g-i and modiolide a, nonenolides produced by stagonospora cirsii, a potential mycoherbicide for cirsium arvense.stagonospora cirsii davis, a fungal pathogen isolated from cirsium arvense (commonly called canada thistle) and proposed as a potential mycoherbicide of this perennial noxious weed, produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid and solid cultures. stagonolide, the main phytotoxic metabolite, and five new related nonenolides, named stagonolides b-f, were isolated from the fungus. when grown on solid culture, nonenolide yields increased. a further four nonenolides were isolated and characterized by sp ...200818959441
insect-transmitted urediniospores of the rust puccinia punctiformis cause systemic infections in established cirsium arvense plants.abstract the rust fungus puccinia punctiformis has potential as a biological control agent for creeping thistle cirsium arvense, because systemically infected shoots usually die before flowering. the mechanism of rust transfer as well as the spore type responsible for systemic infections have been a source of controversy. one possibility of successful transmission is the use of the weevil ceratapion onopordi as a vector. our results from a garden experiment show that urediniospores transmitted b ...200618943745
the relative importance of resources and natural enemies in determining herbivore abundance: thistles, tephritids and parasitoids.1. the relative importance of host-plant resources and natural enemies in influencing the abundance of insect herbivores was investigated in potted plant and natural population experiments, using tephritid (diptera: tephritidae) flies, their host plant, creeping thistle cirsium arvense, and their hymenoptera parasitoids. 2. experimental manipulation of host-plant quality (i.e. levels of host-plant nutrients) and resource availability (i.e. the number of buds) increased tephritid abundance. there ...200818507695
parasitic hymenoptera fauna on agromyzidae (diptera) colonizing weeds in ecological compensation areas in northern italian agroecosystems.parasitoids (hymenoptera) associated with agromyzid leafminers (diptera: agromyzidae) were studied in three rural farms located in northern italy. the parasitoids were reared from mined foliage of weeds growing in field margins. we reared 998 hymenoptera specimens, representing five families, 23 genera, and 53 species, from leafminers infesting weeds. eulophidae was the most abundant family (67.64%), followed by braconidae (28.86%), eucoilinae (1.40%), tetracampidae (1.40%), and pteromalidae (0. ...200717461050
effect of fertilization on the weediness of maize in a long-term field experiment.we carried our examination in a long-term fertilization field experiment in 2005. in the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in npk and npk + fym1 treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing n dosis on the weeds and maize. the bi-factorial trial was arranged in split plot design with three replications. the weed survey was made 25 days after seeding in the 27th of may. for the weed survey the balázs-ujvárosi method was applied. after the weed survey we collected al ...200617390821
herbicide-affected plant metabolism reduces virus propagation.it has been previously shown that certain herbicides or plant extracts inhibited the viral infection. the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of obuda pepper virus (obpv) infection and herbicide or plant extract treatments on the photosynthetic processes of the host plants to get informations about the interactions of these factors. in capsicum annuum-obpv host-virus relations the virus infection slightly increased the activity of photosystem ii (psii), as it was supposed from fluor ...200617139793
traditional phytotherapy in central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium).in this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of central italy (marche, abruzzo, and latium) have been reported and compared. the usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. among the wild plant mainly sti ...200515664457
evaluation of the growth response of six invasive species to past, present and future atmospheric carbon dioxide.the response of plant species to future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations [co(2)] has been determined for hundreds of crop and tree species. however, no data are currently available regarding the response of invasive weedy species to past or future atmospheric [co(2)]. in the current study, the growth of six species which are widely recognized as among the most invasive weeds in the continental united states, canada thistle (cirsium arvense (l.) scop.), field bindweed (convolvulus arvens ...200312493868
chemical control of perennial and annual weeds in herbicide resistant soybean crops.in romania, the first tests with roundup ready on soybean crops were performed in 1998, on 2 soil types: a) at teleorman station on chernozem containing 3.5% humus, 4.5% clay b) at brăila station placed in danube meadow on alluvial soil containing 3.90% humus and 46% clay. in every locality cultivated soybean cultivar s.2254 was resistant to glyphosate. during the three years of experiments (1998-2000) the crop of soybean was infested with various species of weeds (both annual and perennial) of ...200112425098
yeasts associated with an abandoned mining area in pernek and their tolerance to different chemical elements.four plants, cirsium arvense (creeping thistle), equisetum arvense (field horsetail), oxalis acetosella (wood sorrel) and phragmites australis (common reed), which grew in an abandoned sb-mining area in pernek (malé karpaty mts., slovakia), were investigated for the yeast species. yeasts were isolated from both the leaves of the plants and the soil adjacent to the plants. in total, 65 yeast cultures, belonging to 11 ascomycetous and 5 basidiomycetous yeast species, were isolated. the species mos ...201626358066
optimum yields of dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans from cynareae fruits, during their ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, determined by on-line chromatographic methods.dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans are the physiologically active constituents of the achene fruits of cynareae. these lignans occur in glycoside/aglycone forms: in the highest quantity of the arctiin/arctigenin, matairesinoside/matairesinol and tracheloside/trachelogenin pairs found in the fruits of arctium lappa l., centaurea scabiosa l. and cirsium arvense (l.) scop.201322396124
Differential effects of foliar endophytic fungi on insect herbivores attacking a herbaceous plant.Foliar endophytic fungi appear to be ubiquitous in nature, occurring in a very wide range of herbaceous plants. However, their ecological role within forbs is very poorly known and interactions with foliar-feeding insects virtually unexplored. In this study, leaves of Cirsium arvense were infected with different combinations of endophyte fungi that had been previously isolated from this plant species. Two months later, leaf material was fed to larvae of a generalist insect, Mamestra brassicae, a ...201121989607
production of phytotoxins by phoma exigua var. exigua, a potential mycoherbicide against perennial thistles.the potential of the different phoma exigua var. exigua strains for the biocontrol of the perennial weeds sonchus arvensis and cirsium arvense, occurring throughout temperate regions of the world, has been evaluated in previous studies. the majority of the above strains produced ascosonchine, a newly discovered enol tautomer of 4- pyridylpyruvic acid, whereas strains c-177 and s-9, though virulent to weeds, did not produce the above metabolite. in this study, it was demonstrated that the above t ...200818598037
above- and below ground trophic interactions on creeping thistle (cirsium arvense) in high- and low-diversity plant communities: potential for biotic resistance?the capacity of local communities to control introduced plants is called biotic resistance. biotic resistance has been almost exclusively tested for plant competition and above ground herbivores and pathogens, while neglecting root herbivores and soil pathogens. here, we present biotic resistance by above- and below ground herbivores in concert, and relate the abundance of the plant enemies to the species diversity of the local plant communities. the study was carried out in a 7-year-old biodive ...200815045676
antifungal and herbicidal effects of fruit essential oils of four myrtus communis genotypes.the chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected myrtus communis l. genotypes from turkey was characterized by gc-fid and gc/ms analyses. 1,8-cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all m. communis genotypes investigated. the oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygen ...201626765354
chenopodolin: a phytotoxic unrearranged ent-pimaradiene diterpene produced by phoma chenopodicola, a fungal pathogen for chenopodium album biocontrol.a new phytotoxic unrearranged ent-pimaradiene diterpene, named chenopodolin, was isolated from the liquid culture of phoma chenopodicola, a fungal pathogen proposed for the biological control of chenopodium album, a common worldwide weed of arable crops such as sugar beet and maize. the structure of chenopodolin was established by spectroscopic, x-ray, and chemical methods as (1s,2s,3s,4s,5s,9r,10s,12s,13s)-1,12-acetoxy-2,3-hydroxy-6-oxopimara-7(8),15-dien-18-oic acid 2,18-lactone. at a concentr ...201323786488
the effect of pollination on floral fragrance in thistles.we investigated postpollination changes in fragrance composition and emission rates, as well as pollinator discrimination in hand-pollinated flower heads of two thistle species: canada thistle (cirsium arvense) and sandhill thistle (c. repandum). following pollination, neither species emitted any novel compounds that could function as repellents. scent emission rates declined in pollinated plants of both species by approximately 89% within 48 hr. this decline was evident in all 13 scent componen ...200516273430
antennal responses to floral scents in the butterfly heliconius melpomene.floral scent, together with visual floral cues, are important signals to adult butterflies searching for food-rewarding plants. to identify which compounds in a floral scent are more attractive and, thus, of biological importance to foraging butterflies, we applied electrophysiological methods. antennal responses of male and female adults of the tropical butterfly heliconius melpomene l. (lepidoptera: nymphalidae: heliconiinae) to individual compounds of natural floral scents and synthetic flora ...200314682514
mutualistic interaction between a weevil and a rust fungus, two parasites of the weed cirsium arvense.we present a mutualism between a stem-boring weevil, apion onopordi kirby (coleoptera: apionidae), and a rust fungus, puccinia punctiformis (str.) röhl. (uredinales), both parasites of the creeping thistle, cirsium arvense (l.) scop. (asteraceae). females, but not males, of a. onopordi induced systemic rust infections of thistle shoots in the season after they were attacked by the weevil, indicating that insect oviposition is a crucial stage in pathogen transmission. adult weevils emerged from s ...200124577697
modest enhancements to conventional grassland diversity improve the provision of pollination services.grassland for livestock production is a major form of land use throughout europe and its intensive management threatens biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in agricultural landscapes. modest increases to conventional grassland biodiversity could have considerable positive impacts on the provision of ecosystem services, such as pollination, to surrounding habitats.using a field-scale experiment in which grassland seed mixes and sward management were manipulated, complemented by surveys on work ...201627609988
the effect of cirsium arvense extract on antioxidant status in quail.1. the herb creeping thistle, cirsium arvense (c. arvense), has been used in folk medicine due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. 2. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary c. arvense extract supplementation on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and antioxidant status in quail. 3. quails (n = 150) were allocated randomly to one of the three dietary treatments: basal diet and basal diet enriched with 100 and 200 mg c. arvense extract per kg die ...201323957289
phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential of plants grown in the vicinity of heavy metal-contaminated soils: a case study at an industrial town site.with the development of urbanization and industrialization, soils have become increasingly polluted by heavy metals. phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, nonintrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements, can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. in this research, two processes of phytoremediation (phytoextraction and phytostabilization) were surveyed in some plant species around an industrial town ...201323856813
a syrphid fly uses olfactory cues to find a non-yellow flower.syrphid flies are frequent flower visitors, but little is known about the cues they use to find flowers. we determined the importance of visual and olfactory cues in a flight cage bioassay using cirsium arvense (asteraceae) flower heads and experienced episyrphus balteatus (diptera, syrphidae). we tested the response of antennae of the flies to headspace inflorescence scent samples by using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennography (gc-ead). the bioassays revealed that both sexes of exp ...201020924654
floral attractants for the female soybean looper, thysanoplusia orichalcea (lepidoptera: noctuidae).the soybean looper, thysanoplusia orichalcea (f.), is a polyphagous insect pest of vegetable crops. indonesian in origin, it has spread to europe, india, africa, australia and new zealand. the identification of an attractant for female t. orichalcea could enable the development of alternative pest management strategies to those provided by insecticides or sex pheromones, which are often only attractive to males.200818615789
rna-seq analysis of allele-specific expression, hybrid effects, and regulatory divergence in hybrids compared with their parents from natural populations.hybridization is a prominent process among natural plant populations that can result in phenotypic novelty, heterosis, and changes in gene expression. the effects of intraspecific hybridization on f1 hybrid gene expression were investigated using parents from divergent, natural populations of cirsium arvense, an invasive compositae weed. using an rna-seq approach, the expression of 68,746 unigenes was quantified in parents and hybrids. the expression levels of 51% of transcripts differed between ...201323677938
transcriptome divergence between introduced and native populations of canada thistle, cirsium arvense.introduced plants may quickly evolve new adaptive traits upon their introduction. canada thistle (cirsium arvense - cardueae, asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive weeds worldwide. the goal of this study is to compare gene expression profiles of native (european) and introduced (north american) populations of this species, to elucidate the genetic mechanisms that may underlie such rapid adaptation. we explored the transcriptome of ten populations (five per range) of c. arvense in response to ...201323586922
auxin and aba act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in canada thistle (cirsium arvense).dormancy in underground vegetative buds of canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. in this study, ~65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. rna samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°c under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four mid-tagged cdna libraries. analysis o ...201222580957
phenotypic variability in five aceria spp. (acari: prostigmata: eriophyoidea) inhabiting cirsium species (asteraceae) in serbia.from about 250 cirsium spp., only two aceria spp. (acari: eriophyoidea) have been described, aceria anthocoptes (nal.) and aceria cirsii pet. b. & shi. host specificity, which generally characterizes eriophyoid mites, potentially leads to speciation, so we may expect more than two aceria spp. and/or other infraspecific taxa. furthermore, studies on host-related variability in the morphology of aceria mites are generally lacking. the purpose of this study was to investigate quantitative morpholog ...201020309722
the foliar endophytic fungal community composition in cirsium arvense is affected by mycorrhizal colonization and soil nutrient content.foliar fungal endophytes are ubiquitous, but understudied symbionts of most plant species; relatively little is known about the factors affecting their occurrence, diversity and abundance. we tested the effects of soil nutrient content and arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) colonization on the occurrence of foliar endophytic fungi in cirsium arvense in two field studies. in the first study, we assessed relationships between soil moisture, organic matter, carbon and nitrogen content and plant water, nit ...201021036343
geometric morphometric study of geographic and host-related variability in aceria spp. (acari: eriophyoidea) inhabiting cirsium spp. (asteraceae).the russet mite, aceria anthocoptes (nalepa), is the only eriophyoid that has been recorded on cirsium arvense (l.) scop. it has been noted in several european countries and recently in the usa. in this study we explored the geographic and host-related variability of aceria spp. inhabiting different cirsium spp. we applied landmark-based geometric morphometric methods to study morphological variability of three body regions (ventral, coxigenital and prodorsal) of 13 aceria spp. populations inhab ...201424943490
technical note monitoring native vegetation on a dumpsite of pcb-contaminated soil.composition of native vegetation on a polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb)-contaminated soil dumpsite at lhenice, south bohemia (czech republic), was determined and species variability in the accumulation of pcbs in plant biomass was investigated. soil stripping contaminated by pcbs originated at a factory producing electrical transformers that mostly used the commercial pcb mixture delor 103 and 106. the pcb content of soil in the most contaminated part of the dumpsite reached 153 mg kg(-1) dry soil ...201318246716
early vegetation development after grassland restoration by sowing low-diversity seed mixtures in former sunflower and cereal fields.we studied the early vegetation dynamics in former croplands (sunflower and cereal fields) sown with a low-diversity seed mixture (composed of 2 native grass species) in egyek-pusztakócs, hortobágy national park, east-hungary. the percentage cover of vascular plants was recorded in 4 permanent plots per field on 7 restored fields between 2006 and 2009. ten aboveground biomass samples per field were also collected in june in each year. we addressed two questions: (i) how do seed sowing and annual ...201021565780
evolution of specialization of cassida rubiginosa on cirsium arvense (compositae, cardueae).the majority of herbivorous insects are specialized feeders restricted to a plant family, genus, or species. the evolution of specialized insect-plant interactions is generally considered to be a result of trade-offs in fitness between possible hosts. through the course of natural selection, host plants that maximize insect fitness should result in optimal, specialized, insect-plant associations. however, the extent to which insects are tracking plant phylogeny or key plant traits that act as he ...201627602042
a study on pyrolysis of canada thistle (cirsium arvense) with titania based catalysts for bio-fuel production.the catalytic pyrolysis of cirsium arvense was performed with titania supported catalysts under the operating conditions of 500°c, 40°c/min heating rate, 100ml/min n2 flow rate in a fixed bed reactor for biofuel production. the effect of catalysts on product yields was investigated. the amount of pyrolysis products (bio-char, bio-oil, gas) and the composition of the produced bio-oils were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)h nmr), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ft-ir), ...201627490443
nine eriophyoid mite species from iran (acari, eriophyidae).nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from iran are described and illustrated. they are aceria acroptiloni shevchenko & kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on rhaponticum repens (l.) hidalgo (asteraceae); aceria anthocoptes (nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on cirsium arvense (l.) scop. (asteraceae); aceria lactucae (canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on lactuca virosa l. (asteraceae); aceria pulicarissp. n. on pulicaria gnaphalodes (vent.) boiss. (asteraceae); aceria tosichella keifer, 1969 o ...201122144865
exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks.the majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. the particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network st ...201627182727
tlc profiles of selected cirsium species with chemometrics in construction of their fingerprints.the dried aerial parts of 12 plants of cirsium species were extracted with the soxhlet apparatus using dichloromethane and methanol as solvents. next, the extracts were separated by tlc methods to obtain the fingerprint chromatograms. the analysis was performed on silica gel or rp-18 layers as stationary phases using the following eluents: ethyl acetate/formic acid/acetic acid/water (12/1.5/1.5/4; v/v) for silica gel, and 5% (v/v) aqueous solution of formic acid/methanol (70/30; v/v) for the fir ...201627130878
mowing strategies for controlling cirsium arvense in a permanent pasture in new zealand compared using a matrix model.defoliation has frequently been proposed as a means of controlling cirsium arvense (l.) scop. (californian thistle, canada thistle, creeping thistle, perennial thistle), an economically damaging pastoral weed in temperate regions of the world, but its optimization has remained obscure. we developed a matrix model for the population dynamics of c. arvense in sheep-grazed pasture in new zealand that accounts for the effects of aerial shoot defoliation on a population's photosynthetic opportunity a ...201627069591
'candidatus phytoplasma cirsii', a novel taxon from creeping thistle [cirsium arvense (l.) scop].creeping thistle [cirsium arvense (l.) scop.] and dahlia (dahlia sp.) plants showing typical symptoms of phytoplasma infection including yellowing, stunting, inflorescence and proliferation, were sampled; the presence of phytoplasma was confirmed by standard pcr using universal primers. rflp analysis allowed classification of the detected phytoplasma strains cirys, cirys1 and dahlp within the 16srxi group, the unique restriction profile f2nr2 fragment obtained in silico by iphyclassifier indicat ...201626849880
predicting developmental timing for immature canada thistle stem-mining weevils, hadroplontus litura (coleoptera: curculionidae).predictions of phenological development for insect biological control agents may facilitate post-release monitoring efforts by allowing land managers to optimize the timing of monitoring activities. a logistic thermal time model was tested to predict phenology of immature stem-mining weevils, hadroplontus litura f. (coleoptera: curculionidae), a biological control agent for canada thistle, cirsium arvense l. (asterales: asteraceae). weevil eggs and larvae were collected weekly from canada thistl ...201526314053
rhizobacterial communities associated with spontaneous plant species in long-term arsenic contaminated soils.the microbial community composition in three soil fractions (bulk soil, rhizosphere and rhizoplane) of the root-soil system of a thistle, cirsium arvense, and of a tufted hair grass, deschampsia caespitosa, was investigated. the two spontaneous wild plant species were predominant in two italian lands contaminated since centuries by arsenic and at present show high levels of arsenic (from 215 to 12,500 mg kg(-1)). in order to better understand how the rhizobacterial ecosystem responds to a long-t ...201525700744
the potential medicinal value of plants from asteraceae family with antioxidant defense enzymes as biological targets.plants and most of the plant-derived compounds have long been known for their potential pharmaceutical effects. they are well known to play an important role in the treatment of several diseases from diabetes to various types of cancers. today most of the clinically effective pharmaceuticals are developed from plant-derived ancestors in the history of medicine.201525339240
floral scent of canada thistle and its potential as a generic insect attractant.the flowers of canada thistle, cirsium arvense (l.), attract a wide range of insects, including pollinators and herbivorous species. this attraction is primarily mediated by floral odor, which offers potential for developing generic insect attractants based on odor. in this study, we have analyzed the chemical composition of the volatiles produced by canada thistle flowers. nineteen floral compounds were identified in the headspace, including phenylacetaldehyde (55%), methyl salicylate (14%), di ...200818613571
phyllostoxin and phyllostin, bioactive metabolites produced by phyllosticta cirsii, a potential mycoherbicide for cirsium arvense biocontrol.phyllosticta cirsii, a fungal pathogen isolated from diseased cirsium arvense leaves and evaluated as a biocontrol agent of this noxious perennial weed, produces different phytotoxic metabolites with potential herbicidal activity when grown in liquid cultures. phyllostictines a-d, four novel oxazatricycloalkenones, were recently isolated from this pathogen and chemically and biologically characterized. further purification of the same organic extract provided two other metabolites, named phyllos ...200818197625
phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.the floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. the restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "nikola tesla-a" thermoelectric power plant in obrenovac (serbia) is an extremely slow process. unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxici ...200616418890
nonenolides and cytochalasins with phytotoxic activity against cirsium arvense and sonchus arvensis: a structure-activity relationships study.a structure-activity relationships study was conducted assaying 15 natural analogues and derivatives belonging to two groups of organic compounds, nonenolides and cytochalasins, for their toxicity against the composite perennial weeds cirsium arvense and sonchus arvensis occurring through the temperate region of world. the toxic nonenolides (stagonolide, putaminoxin, pinolidoxin) and cytochalasins (deoxaphomin, cytochalasins a, b, f, t, z2 and z3) were isolated from phytopathogenic stagonospora, ...200818155260
stagonolides b-f, nonenolides produced by stagonospora cirsii, a potential mycoherbicide of cirsium arvense.stagonospora cirsii, a fungal pathogen isolated from cirsium arvense and proposed as a potential mycoherbicide of this perennial noxious weed, produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid and solid cultures. recently, the main metabolite, stagonolide (1), with interesting phytotoxic properties, was isolated from a liquid culture and characterized as a new nonenolide. in the present work this same fungus, grown in solid culture, exhibited an increased capacity to produce nonenolides. five new noneno ...200818088096
[interrelation between the flower structure and composition of the pollinator groups for dipsacaceae and asteraceae with externally similar anthodia].the competitive relations between members of phylogenetically distant plant families asteraceae (centaurea and cirsium) and dipsacaceae (knautia and succisa) with purple anthodia, sharing a common wide range of pollen vectors and competing for them, were studied. the composition of pollen vectors is somewhat different in different plant species. only bumble-bees, the most effective pollinators, were observed visiting every studied plants species. syrphidae flies, lepidoptera, coleoptera, and som ...200718038649
herbicidal potential of stagonolide, a new phytotoxic nonenolide from stagonospora cirsii.stagonospora cirsii is a pathogen of cirsium arvense, causing necrotic lesions on leaves of this noxious weed. the fungus produced toxic metabolites when grown in liquid culture. a new phytotoxin, named stagonolide, was isolated and characterized as (8r,9r)-8-hydroxy-7-oxo-9-propyl-5-nonen-9-olide by spectroscopic methods. stagonolide was shown to be a nonhost-specific but selective phytotoxin. leaves of c. arvense were most sensitive and leaves of tomato and pepper (both solanaceae) were less s ...200717715893
morphological variation in different populations of aceria anthocoptes (acari: eriophyoidea) associated with the canada thistle, cirsium arvense, in serbia.the russet mite, aceria anthocoptes (nal.), is the only eriophyid that has been recorded on canada thistle, cirsium arvense (l.) scop. it has been noted in several european countries and recently in the usa. with its apparent host specificity and because of the damage it causes to its host plant, a. anthocoptes is being studied as a potential candidate for classical biological control. the aim of the present study was to examine quantitative morphological traits in four populations of a. anthoco ...200717611806
study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.the study was carried out in keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in april of 2005. in the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in npk and npk + fym* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing n dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. the weed survey was made on the 20th of april at the end of tillering. for the weed survey used the balázs-ujvárosi method. after that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. we counted, measured the fre ...200617390822
impact of field margin vegetation and herbage removal on ingrowing and anemochorous weeds.this research studies the effect of different ways to establish and to maintain unfertilised field margins on the development of potential weed plants and seed dispersal into adjacent crops. plant communities in field margins either developed spontaneously or were sown with different seed mixtures of grasses and forbs. margins were mown twice a year and the cuttings were either removed or not. three years after establishment, the importance of important weeds elymus repens, cirsium arvense and u ...200617390818
relation between in vitro production of ascosonchine and virulence of strains of the potential mycoherbicide ascochyta sonchi: a method for its quantification in complex samples.the potential of the fungus ascochyta sonchi as a mycoherbicide for the biocontrol of the perennial weeds sonchus arvensis and cirsium arvense that occur throughout temperate regions of the world is under evaluation. ascosonchine, a newly discovered enol tautomer of 4-pyridylpyruvic acid with potential herbicidal properties, is the main phytotoxin produced by this fungus. a simple and sensitive method has been developed for the rapid quantitative analysis of ascosonchine based on hplc with uv de ...201317019938
fragrance of canada thistle (cirsium arvense) attracts both floral herbivores and pollinators.the evolution of floral scent as a plant reproductive signal is assumed to be driven by pollinator behavior, with little attention paid to other potential selective forces such as herbivores. i tested 10 out of the 13 compounds emitted by dioecious cirsium arvense, canada thistle, including 2-phenylethanol, methyl salicylate, p-anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde, linalool, furanoid linalool oxides (e and z), and dimethyl salicylate. single compounds (and one isomer) s ...200616739013
anatomical injury induced by the eriophyid mite aceria anthocoptes on the leaves of cirsium arvense.anatomical injury of the leaves of the invasive species, cirsium arvense (l.) scop., caused by the eriophyid mite aceria anthocoptes (nal.), which is the only eriophyid mite that has been recorded on c. arvense worldwide, is described. the injury induced by the mite feeding on the leaves of c. arvense results in visible russeting and bronzing of the leaves. other conspicuous deformations are folding and distortion of the leaf blade and curling of leaf edge, as well as gradual drying of leaves. t ...200616612668
herbicidal potential of catechol as an allelochemical.catechol is an allelochemical which belongs to phenolic compounds synthesized in plants. its herbicidal effects on weed species; field poppy (papaver rhoeas), creeping thistle (cirsium arvense), henbit (lamium amplexicaule) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) were investigated using wheat (triticum vulgare) and barley (hordeum vulgare) species as control plants. in comparison to 2,4-d (a common synthetic herbicide), 13.64 mm of catechol have been found to have a strong herbicidal effect, as effe ...201316610220
changes in nutrient content of cirsium arvense (l.) scop. during the vegetation period.cirsium arvense /l/ scop. nowadays is popular in all territory of hungary, it can be found almost on every soil types. cirsium arvense is one of the most difficulty eradicated weed of the fields, the ruderals, and also the roadsides. on the base of iv. hungarian weed survey 1996-1997, it takes the fifth place in the dominance sequence of the weeds, with 1.8% average covering. in the interest of effective weed control we can know the biological characteristics of the weeds in detail. in our exper ...200315149143
secondary succession is influenced by belowground insect herbivory on a productive site.we investigated the effects of insect herbivory on a plant community of a productive old-field community by applying foliar and soil insecticides in a full factorial design. during the first 3 years of succession, insecticide treatments had only minor effects on total cover abundance and species richness. however, species ranking within the plant community was strongly affected by soil insecticide but not by foliar insecticide. creeping thistle, cirsium arvense, dominated the experimental plots ...200414566558
metabolites from fungi 15. new isocoumarins from an endophytic fungus isolated from the canadian thistle cirsium arvense.one known (1) and five new polyketide metabolites (2-6) were isolated from the culture extract of an endophytic fungus, mycelia sterila, from the canadian thistle cirsium arvense. compounds 1-4 are members of the isocoumarin family, whereas metabolite 5 is a dihydrobenzofuran and 6 has an open chain structure. all compounds have an unusual methyl group at the aromatic ring that does not fit into the usual polyketide pattern.200111841120
the problem of optimal clutch size in a tritrophic system: the oviposition strategy of the thistle gallfly urophora cardui (diptera, tephritidae).the problem of optimal clutch sizes is a central theme in life history theory. optimal allocation of eggs is especially complicated for insects in tritrophic systems. in this study we analyze some of the processes determining clutch sizes of the thistle gallfly urophora cardui, a monophagous tephritid fly associated with cirsium arvense. u. cardui forms multilocular shoot galls, which vary broadly in their size and number of their gall cells. we investigate various fitness consequences of gall s ...199628307842
growth and development of larvae and galls of urophora cardui (diptera, tephritidae) on cirsium arvense (compositae).the tephritid fly urophora cardui induces a large multi-chambered gall within the stems of cirsium arvense. three distinct phases of gall development have been identified as initiation, growth, and maturation. during initiation the insect gains control of tissue development and during the gall's growth phase parenchyma cells proliferate rapidly surrounding the larvae with thick layers of cells. patches of primary nutritive cells appear along the surface of larval chambers during the growth phase ...198528310661
the negative effects of litter of parent plants of cirsium vulgare on their offspring: autotoxicity or immobilization?it is shown that litter of flowering plants of cirsium vulgare inhibits the growth of seedlings of the same species at concentrations as low as 0.4% (g litter/g soil). the inhibition of growth cannot be fully compensated by adding nutrients, which indicates that autotoxicity may occur. it must be concluded, however, from an analysis of the results that immobilization of nutrients by microorganisms is the main cause of growth reduction if litter is added to the soil. in a field experiment under n ...198528310660
[phytochemical study of cirsium arvense l. i]. 19705487994
orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and pyrophosphorylase of bean leaves.this report includes results demonstrating the existence of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase and orotidine-5'-phosphate pyrophosphorylase in plant leaves. the decarboxylase enzyme, purified 8 fold from leaves of etiolated pinto beans (phaseolus vulgaris l.), had a ph optimum of 6.3. it was strongly inhibited by 6-azauridine-5'-phosphate; a concentration of 12 mum decreased the reaction rate 60%. the enzyme was not dependent upon magnesium ions or inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. it was ...19676040896
[antihemorrhagic action of cirsium arvense]. 200613199136
[fluorescent microscopic and microchemical observations of cirsium arvense]. 195313086643
granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion.seed predation is an important biotic filter that can influence abundance and spatial distributions of native species through differential effects on recruitment. this filter may also influence the relative abundance of nonnative plants within habitats and the communities' susceptibility to invasion via differences in granivore identity, abundance, and food preference. we evaluated the effect of postdispersal seed predators on the establishment of invasive, naturalized, and native species within ...201425163110
an ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "nikola tesla-a" thermal power station in serbia.this ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "nikola tesla-a" thermal power station in serbia covered 10 plant species (tamarix gallica, populus alba, spiraea van-hauttei, ambrosia artemisifolia, amorpha fruticosa, eupatorium cannabinum, crepis setosa, epilobium collinum, verbascum phlomoides, and cirsium arvense). this paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (b, cu, mn, zn, pb, and cd) content in vegetative plant parts. ...200415503386
infection by a foliar endophyte elicits novel arabidopside-based plant defence reactions in its host, cirsium arvense.endophytic fungi live asymptomatically within plants. they are usually regarded as nonpathogenic or even mutualistic, but whether plants respond antagonistically to their presence remains unclear, particularly in the little-studied associations between endophytes and nongraminoid herbaceous plants. we investigated the effects of the endophyte chaetomium cochlioides on leaf chemistry in cirsium arvense. plants were sprayed with spores; leaf material from both subsequent new growth and the sprayed ...201525266631
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