the feeding habits and ecology of the tsetse fly glossina morsitans submorsitans newstead in relation to nagana transmission in the gambia.the source of blood meals from 174 fed glossina morsitans submorsitans newstead, captured in malaise traps in savanna woodland in the gambia, were identified by the precipitin test. warthog accounted for 90% of the meals and single bushbuck and ox feeds were identified. nagana is a major problem in the area, but contact between tsetse and livestock is reduced by restricted grazing. in this situation, warthog, with a ubiquitous distribution, appear to be major maintenance hosts for g. m. submorsi ...197935933
[seroepidemiologic studies on reovirus infections of man, domestic and wild animals in tanzania (author's transl)].2238 sera of bovines, 95 of goats, 251 of antelopes (various species), 143 of zebras and 11 of warthogs collected in tanzania as well as 811 sera of men and females of the city and the region of dar es salaam were tested for haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies (ab) to reovirus serotypes (st) 1, 2 and 3. ab to st 1 resp. 2 could be detected in 24--39% of bovines, goats, antelopes and zebras, and in warthogs to 64%. in human beings the positive percentage was 60%. ab to st 3 were most prevalen ...197943091
identification by the blood incubation infectivity test of trypanosoma brucei subspecies isolated from game animals in the luangwa valley, zambia.a total of 7 stocks of trypanosoma brucei subspecies, isolated from naturally infected game animals in the luangwa valley, eastern province, zambia were examined using a modified version of the blood incubation infectivity test (biit). one stock giving consistent biit responses typical of t.b. rhodesiense, was obtained from warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus). four other stocks, 2 from hyaena (crocuta crocuta), 1 from a waterbuck (kobus ellipsiprymnus) and 1 from a lion (panthera leo) responded l ...197944098
african swine fever antibody detection in warthogs. 1979122128
african swine fever: pathogenicity and immunogenicity of two non-haemadsorbing viruses.the virulence of 2 non-haemadsorbing african swine fever virus isolates were compared with 2 haemodsorbing viruses. while 3 of these isolates usually produced acute death in pigs, 1 non-haemadsorbing virus caused either a fatal infection with an extended course, or few or no obvious signs of infection. pigs that survived infection with the latter virus were resistant to the lethal effects of the other 3 strains as well as to a pool of 7 isolates made from ornithodorus porcinus porcinus (senus wa ...1979551362
observations on the histomorphology of sarcosporidian cysts of some east african game animals (artiodactyla).the histomorphology of formalin-fixed micro and macrosarcosporidian cysts of grant's, thomson's gazelle, impala, wildebeest, bubal hartebeest, cape eland, red duiker, kirk's dik-dik, defassa waterbuck, bohor reedbuck, african buffalo, giraffe, warthog, and giant forest hog is described. the wall of microsarcosporidian cysts is smooth and without villi or with villi. the villi are solid or of honeycomb-like structure on tangential sections. in some animals, microsarcosporidian cysts of almost the ...1975807047
attempted artificaial infection or impala, blue wildebeest, buffalo, kudu, giraffe and warthog with heartwater.intravenous injection of cowdria ruminantium infected blood produced no sings of disease in four impala, aepyceros melampus; three blue wildebeest, connochaetes taurinus; a buffalo, syncerus caffer; a kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros; a giraffe. giraffa camelopardalis and a warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus. a control sheep injected with the same blood reacted severely and showed typical lesions of heartwater at autopsy.1976994140
nutritional studies on east african herbivores. 2. losses of nitrogen in the faeces.1. a series of nitrogen-balance trials was done using groups of four animals of various species of wild and domesticated ruminants using pelleted diets (arman & hopcraft, 1975). 2. various herbivores were given grass or grass hays, legumes, herbs and shrubs. food and faecal samples were analysed for n. 3. with the pelleted diets, the n content of the faecal dry matter (dm) was low for eland (taurotragus oryx pallas), high for sheep and cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus) and intermediate for the ...19751115763
vitamin b12 and its binding proteins in the serum of some wild game species.the concentration of vitamin b12 and its binding proteins was measured in the impala, nyala, wildebeest, zebra, bushpig, warthog, and rhino, all existing in their natural state. marked differences were found between some species. the variations observed are probably true species differences, unrelated to environmental factors.19751162511
trypanosome infections in warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus) in the gambia.the prevalence of trypanosome infections in warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus) in the gambia was found to be 11% of a sample of 62 animals. all isolates were identified as trypanosoma simiae. serological evidence indicated a higher level of exposure to t. simiae, but results were inconclusive for the presence of trypanosoma congolense. the course of t. simiae infection in warthog piglets showed a rapidly rising parasitaemia, with a concomitant fall in packed cell volume, and resulted in a prolo ...19921502780
human serum sensitivities of trypanozoon isolates from naturally infected hosts in the luangwa valley, zambia.of 235 trypanozoon stocks isolated from naturally infected hosts in northeastern zambia and tested by the blood incubation infectivity test (biit), 176 came from man, 37 from wild-caught tsetse, 11 from wild animals and 11 from domestic livestock. of those from man, 2 gave unexpected, human-serum-sensitive (hss) reactions on first testing; all 15 stocks from tsetse in the northern area (kampumbu) were strongly serum-resistant (hsr) while 22 other infections, from tsetse in the southern area (kak ...19911800082
parasites of south african wildlife. viii. helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern transvaal.helminth and arthropod parasites were collected from 41 warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the hoedspruit nature reserve, eastern transvaal. this reserve consists of a military base, which is a restricted area and is surrounded by a reserve, which is open to the public. eleven nematode species, 1 or 2 cestode species and the larvae of 2 cestode species were recovered from the animals in the reserve, and 8 nematode species and 1 or 2 cestode species were recovered from those in the military b ...19911923382
parasites of south african wildlife. v. a. description of the males of oesophagostomum mocambiquei ortlepp, 1964 from warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus (pallas, 1766).oesophagostomum mocambiquei ortlepp, 1964 was described from 9 females recovered from a warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus (pallas, 1766), from northern mozambique. large numbers of o. mocambiquei were recovered during subsequent surveys of the parasites of warthogs from the kruger national park and the hoedspruit nature reserve. the males, which have not yet been described, resemble those of oesophagostomum santosdiasi ortlepp, 1964 in the principal measurements. they can, however, be differenti ...19902234863
outbreaks of rinderpest in wild and domestic animals in nigeria.rinderpest, although eradicated from nigeria in 1974 after the jp15 campaign, was reintroduced into sokoto state in 1980 and again into borno state in 1983. the latter outbreak spread rapidly throughout nigeria and severely reduced the cattle population. an estimated one million cattle were lost. an outbreak occurred at the maiduguri zoo, in borno state, in january 1983 and killed 15 elands and six sitatungas. in march 1983, rinderpest appeared in yankari game reserve in adjoining bauchi state a ...19902343518
absence of ornithodoros moubata, the vector of african swine fever virus, from the main pig producing area of evidence for the presence of soft ticks of the ornithodoros moubata complex was found during a survey of african swine fever carried out between 1985 and 1988 in the west province and southern parts of the north west and south west provinces of cameroon. the survey consisted of interviews of veterinary assistants and farmers, distribution of a questionnaire and tick searches both manually and with carbon dioxide traps. the absence of warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus) from these areas was al ...19902371751
production and evaluation of specific antisera against sera of various vertebrate species for identification of bloodmeals of glossina morsitans centralis.specific antisera against sera of 46 species of vertebrates were prepared. the antisera to 21 bovidae species were raised in goats except the antiserum to goat serum which was raised in sheep. the antisera to 3 suidae species were produced either in domestic pigs or warthogs, while antisera to most of the other vertebrate species were raised in rabbits. the antisera were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to identify the source of bloodmeals ingested by teneral and non-teneral ...19862882665
the feeding habits of the tsetse, glossina pallidipes austen on the south kenya coast, in the context of its host range and trypanosome infection rates in other parts of east africa.the results of blood-meal identifications for 651 glossina pallidipes from 5 subpopulations near the kenya coast south of mombasa, and one, 70 km inland, are presented. bushpigs and/or warthogs were important hosts for g. pallidipes at all sites. other major hosts included elephant, buffalo and bushbuck where they were present, and on a dairy ranch nearly 30% of feeds were taken from cattle. there was a general relationship between the numbers and diversity of wild herbivores and the abundance o ...19882907261
periodontal disease in southern african bushpigs (potamochoerus porcus) and warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus).periodontal lesions were found in 14 of 100 bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) skulls and nine of 103 warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) skulls from southern africa. the prevalence of periodontal disease showed a significant increase with age in the bushpig but not in the warthog skulls. all the lesions affected the cheek teeth, particularly the molars. the lower prevalence of lesions in older warthogs may be associated with their specialised molars and abrasive diet.19892915404
survival and reproductive performance of female glossina morsitans morsitans when maintained on the blood of different species of wild mammals.a study was carried out to determine the effect on the reproductive performance of female glossina morsitans morsitans westwood when allowed to feed, in vitro, for 63 days on fresh defibrinated blood of buffalo, bushbuck, cattle, eland, oryx, warthog, waterbuck or wildebeest. there were marginal differences in the survival and reproductive performance between eight different groups of tsetse, 200 per group, when fed on the blood of these mammalian species. when allowed to feed for 14 consecutive ...19882980193
nut-like oil seeds: food for monkeys, chimpanzees, humans, and probably ape-men.the hypothetical hyperrobust australopithecine gnathic nutcracker adaptation is reexamined in light of ecobotanical information on edible wild nuts provided by the flora of tropical and subtropical africa. the nut producing species are tree-forms. those of the forest region do not as a rule produce fruits with edible mesocarps. in contrast, the woodland savanna species (particularly in the zambezian region) characteristically provide an important whole fruit, i.e., a nutritious mesocarp in addit ...19873113265
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xxiii. helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern transvaal lowveld.a total of 69 warthogs, phacochoerus aethiopicus, were collected from 4 localities within the kruger national park, eastern transvaal lowveld. these animals harboured 16 nematode species, 2 trematodes, 1 or 2 species of adult cestodes and the larval stages of 4 cestodes. no pattern of seasonal abundance could be determined for any of the helminths. the warthogs were also infested with 3 flea species, 1 louse species, 8 ixodid tick species, 1 argasid tick and the nymphae of a pentastomid. the sea ...19883194114
genetic diversity of african swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks (ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in zambia.the genomes of african swine fever virus isolates collected from soft ticks (ornithodoros moubata) inhabiting warthog burrows in four areas of zambia were compared by restriction enzyme site mapping. isolates from different areas showed considerable diversity. the regions of genomes that differed between isolates were distributed throughout the virus genome, although some more conserved regions were identified, such as the right-hand third of the genome. the genomes of seven isolates from neighb ...19883199101
some avian and mammalian hosts of amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum (acari: ixodidae).large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the republic of south africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks amblyomma hebraeum and amblyomma marmoreum. every warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), burchell's zebra (equus burchelli), impala (aepyceros melampus) and kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the kruger national park in the north-eastern transvaal lowveld was infested with a. hebraeum. in the eastern cape province every helmet ...19873329327
isolation of african swine fever virus from ticks of the ornithodoros moubata complex (ixodoidea: argasidae) collected within the african swine fever enzootic area of malawi.ticks of the ornithodoros moubata complex were collected from domestic pig sties and dwelling houses, and from a warthog habitat, and tested for the presence of african swine fever (asf) virus. collections were made in 9 of the 24 districts of malawi, these being primarily the districts in which o. moubata is most numerous. asf virus was isolated from ticks collected in both domestic pig sties and houses in certain villages in mchinji district where asf outbreaks had recently occurred. mchinji d ...19883402546
blood chemical parameters in the warthog phacochoerus aethiopicus.concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, total calcium, total magnesium, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, cortisol as well as the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were determined in serum specimens collected from 100 free-ranging warthogs phacochoerus aethiopicus within five minutes after they were killed with a shotgun. average c ...19873508207
the distribution of ticks of the ornithodoros moubata complex (ixodoidea: argasidae) in malawi, and its relation to african swine fever epizootiology.the distribution of ticks of the ornithodoros moubata complex in different habitats in malawi, particularly pigsties and houses, was established from a four-phase survey undertaken between 1982 and 1985. the first phase consisted of preliminary interviews, the second phase consisted of a questionnaire to veterinary assistants (vas) in rural areas, the third involved tick collections by vas and the fourth involved both interviews and tick collections by members of the central veterinary laborator ...19863734435
the life cycle of rhipicephalus lunulatus neumann, 1907 (acarina:ixodidae) under laboratory conditions, with notes on its ecology in zimbabwe.the durations of the developmental periods of rhipicephalus lunulatus at 25 degrees c and 87% rh were: preoviposition, 2-9 days; oviposition, 29-34 days; minimum incubation, 11-27 days; nymphal premoult period, 11-23 days; and adult premoult period, 19-30 days. the durations of the feeding periods on a rabbit were: 3-7 days for larvae and 4-11 days for nymphs. adult feeding was completed on a rabbit and a sheep in 10-22 days in january and 14-64 days in september, and only fertilized females com ...19853870962
a new filarial nematode (onchocercidae) from warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus) of the kruger national park.fifty-five warthogs [phacochoerus aethiopicus (suidae: artiodactyla)] from the kruger national park, republic of south africa, were examined for parasites. adult filarial nematodes were found in lymphatic vessels adjacent to peripheral and visceral lymph nodes, and microfilariae were found in lymph nodes and circulating blood. both the adult parasite and the microfilaria are described. specific identification is pending confirmation and recovery of intact adult specimens and microfilariae identi ...19854067247
besnoitiosis in a warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus cuvier 1822). 19734787766
[the warthog, phacochoerus oethiopicus (pallas, 1766), new host for simondsia paradoxa cobbold, 1864 (nematoda; spiruridae) in tropical africa]. 19734801990
[trichinosis control of warthog meat in senegal]. 19734801991
[note on the pathology and parasitism of the warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus pallas]. 19744857997
[receptivity of the warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) to the west african strain of trichinella spiralis]. 19694983281
the excretion of two virulent strains of african swine fever virus by domestic pigs.daily observations were made on the excretion of african swine fever (asf) virus by pigs infected intranasally or by contact. two strains of virus having mean death times of approximately 3 and 6 days were used, the latter being recently isolated from a warthog.first excretion usually occurred by the nasopharyngeal route, as early as 1 or 2 days before the onset of fever in many cases. the titres of pharyngeal and nasal swabs rose rapidly to reach mean levels of about 10(4)-10(5) had 50 at 48-72 ...19705276336
epizootiology of african swine fever virus in warthogs. 19695386390
[the warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), host of schistosoma sp]. 19695409185
ascaris species in warthogs. 19705474522
pro-complementary activity in sera from warthogs. 19715558570
the genetic distribution of vasopressins in the peccary (tayassu angulatus) and warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus). 19695769950
the chromosomes of the warthog. 19676063062
tsetse fly feeding preference as determined by vehicular trapping in eastern tanzania an electric grid trap carried in the back of a moving pick-up truck was used to capture engorged glossina morsitans morsitans and g. pallidipes for an analysis of their food sources. although 12 000 head of domestic cattle represented c. 75% of the animal biomass in the survey area, they provided only 5.6% of the total blood meals, while 74.8% were from warthogs and bushpigs. the percentage of females among the captured flies was 12 and 47 for g. m. morsitans and g. pallidipe ...19846486936
the prevalence of helminth and arthropod parasites of warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus, in south west africa/namibia.a total of 38 warthog, phacochoerus aethiopicus, shot on a farm in northern south west africa/namibia were examined for internal and external parasites at monthly intervals over a period of 13 months. they harboured cestodes, 9 nematode species, 6 ixodid tick species and 1 species each of an argasid tick, a flea, a louse and larvae of a dipteran fly. clear patterns of seasonal abundance could be determined only for the spirurid stomach worm, physocephalus sexalatus, and the sucking louse, haemat ...19836634088
tuberculosis in wildlife in the ruwenzori national park, uganda (part ii).the results of post-mortem examinations of 90 warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) conducted in the ruwenzori national park, uganda during a survey of tuberculous infection in wildlife are described. nine per cent of warthog were found to show gross lesions on autopsy and of these organisms which could by typed, mycobacterium bovis was isolated in 2 of 6 cases and 5 atypical mycobacterial strains were isolated from the remaining 4. the distribution and character of the lesions is described and it ...19827123664
gastrointestinal parasites and bacteria flora of wild animals in the borgu game reserve in nigeria.faecal droppings from animals in the borgu game reserve were examined between the months of january and march 1981. these animals included buffalo, hartebeest, kob, roan antelope, genu cat, mangoose, warthog and monkey. haemonchus contortus was identified from the faeces of five buffalos, oesophagostomum species was identified from one warthog while strongyloides species was identified from two monkeys. no pathogenic bacteria was isolated in any of the faecal samples examined. the influence of w ...19827174235
a preliminary investigation of the effect of age, sex and time of collection on the feeding patterns of glossina morsitans morsitans westw. in zambia.glossina morsitans morsitans were collected during the dry season of 1975 from two areas in the luangwa valley (zambia) and from one of the areas in the wet season of 1976. in all, 1,190 flies were analysed for sex, wing fray category and source of bloodmeal. differences in the feeding patterns in the morning and afternoon collections reflected host behaviour. warthog consistently emerged as a major host but there appeared to be some local variation resulting from seasonal and diurnal availabili ...19827200644
experimental infection of warthos (phacochoerus aethiopicus) with african swine fever virus.although there were no obvious signs of illness following experimental infection of young warthog with african swine fever virus, the animals developed viraemias between 10(2,4) and 10(3,6) hd50/ml within the first week of infection, and virus concentrations in a number of lymphatic tissues attained high levels (greater than or equal to 10(6) hd50/g). unlike in blood, and to some extent in the spleen, virus titres in lymph nodes did not decline appreciable during the 33-day observation period, s ...19807454231
antibody to porcine parvovirus in warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus).haemagglutination inhibiting antibody to porcine parvovirus was shown to be widespread in all but one of the warthog populations sampled from south africa and zimbabwe rhodesia. in some instances titres as high as greater than or equal to 1/20 000 were detected.19807454234
blood meal sources of glossina pallidipes and g. longipennis (diptera: glossinidae) in nguruman, southwest total, 1,952 glossina pallidipes austen and 1,098 g. longipennis corti adults were collected in forest and savanna habitat in nguruman, southwestern kenya, by ng2g traps during the dry season of 1992. of these, 339 individuals (11.1%) had blood meals, of which 155 (45.7%) were identified by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the most frequent blood meal source was bushbuck, followed by ostrich, elephant, buffalo, and warthog. few meals were taken from cattle. the findings of frequent b ...19957616534
factors affecting the distributions of the ticks amblyomma hebraeum and a. variegatum in zimbabwe: implications of reduced acaricide usage.the ticks amblyomma hebraeum and a. variegatum are the main vectors of heartwater, a disease of ruminants caused by cowdria ruminantium, in the agricultural areas of zimbabwe. at present, a. hebraeum is widely distributed in the dry southern lowveld, and occurs in at least seven foci in the higher rainfall highveld. amblyomma variegatum occurs in the zambezi valley and surrounding dry lowveld areas in the northwest. the distribution of a. hebraeum has changed considerably over the past 70 years, ...19947628253
trypanosoma (nannomonas) godfreyi sp. nov. from tsetse flies in the gambia: biological and biochemical characterization.we provide evidence from isoenzyme analysis, hybridization with repetitive dna probes, behavioural studies and morphometrics that 4 trypanosome isolates from glossina morsitans submorsitans in the gambia constitute a new species now named trypanosoma (nannomonas) godfreyi. the bloodstream trypomastigotes of t. (n.) godfreyi are relatively small with a mean length of 13.7 microns (range: 9.1-21.8 microns) and a mean width of 1.65 microns (range: 0.65-2.69 microns). there is no free flagellum and ...19947800418
antibiotic resistance of escherichia coli and salmonella from apparently healthy slaughtered cattle and pigs, and diseased animals in zambia.escherichia (e.) coli and salmonella (s.) choleraesuis (subsp. choleraesuis and subsp. salamae) from apparently healthy slaughtered cattle and pigs in 1989 in zambia, were examined for antibiotic resistance and the presence of conjugative r plasmid. salmonella strains from diseased animals (cattle, chickens, leopards, lions and warthogs) were similarly tested. the majority of the cattle had been nomadically kept in so-called "traditional farms" while all the pigs were from commercial farms. more ...19938230941
an ikappab homolog encoded by african swine fever virus provides a novel mechanism for downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine responses in host macrophages.cytokines stimulate inflammatory defenses against viral infections. in order to evade host defenses, viruses have developed strategies to counteract antiviral cytokines. african swine fever virus (asfv) is a large, double-stranded dna virus that infects macrophages. this study demonstrates that asfv effectively inhibited phorbol myristic acid-induced synthesis of antiviral, proinflammatory cytokines alpha interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-8 in infected macrophages as asses ...19968970976
contribution to the knowledge of helminthofauna of wild mammals of somalia.within a survey of parasitic infections in wild mammals of somalia, during the first semester of 1983 and the second of 1984, endoparasites were collected from 11 host species: gazella soemmeringi, gazella spekei, madoqua saltiana, phacochoerus aethiopicus, xerus rutilus, lepus sp., genetta genetta, herpestes (galerella) sanguineus, felis sylvestris libyca, felis caracal, canis mesomelas. a total of 22 species of helminths (20 nematode and 2 metacestode species) were identified. lepus sp. is a n ...19969257339
a conserved african swine fever virus ikappab homolog, 5el, is nonessential for growth in vitro and virulence in domestic african swine fever virus (asfv) gene with similarity to the cellular inhibitor of nfkappab (ikappab) was described in the pathogenic african isolate malawi lil-20/1 (orf 5el) and a cell-culture-adapted european virus, ba71v (orf a238l). recently, this gene was shown to be a functional ikappab homolog capable of downregulating nfkappab-regulated gene expression. this observation suggests the gene may be of significance to aspects of asfv pathogenesis and virulence in domestic swine by interfe ...19979281518
antibodies against some viruses of domestic animals in southern african wild animals.twenty-four species of south african wild animals were tested for the presence of antibodies against the viruses of 16 common diseases of domestic animals. positive results were obtained for african horsesickness, equine encephalosis, equid herpes virus-1, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, allerton disease (herpes mammillitis), lumpy skin disease, parainfluenza, encephalomyocarditis, bluetongue, wesselsbron disease, bovine ephemeral fever, and akabane disease complex. no antibodies could be dem ...19979352558
natural host odours as possible attractants for glossina tachinoides and g. longipalpis (diptera: glossinidae).as strictly haematophagous insects, tsetse flies feed on a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. although these are mainly mammals, some tsetse species also feed on reptiles. the present study investigated whether the odours of several potential natural tsetse hosts may be used as novel attractants to improve the catch of glossina tachinoides or g. longipalpis in biconical traps. the odour of a living monitor lizard (varanus niloticus) had no effect on the catch of g. tachinoides. hexane sk ...19979386790
sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and sarcocystis phacochoeri n. sp. (protozoa: sarcocystidae) from the warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) in south africa.sarcocystis dubeyella n. sp. and s. phacochoeri n. sp. from muscle fibers of the skeletal musculature of two warthogs in south africa are described by light and and electron microscopy. sarcocystis dubeyella sarcocysts are macroscopic (up to 12 mm long and 1 mm wide), with a parasite-induced encapsulation of the host muscle fiber in which the plasma membrane of the latter remained unaltered. the sarcocyst wall is characterized by evenly arranged, irregularly semicircular or rectangular villar pr ...19989495038
deletion of a cd2-like gene, 8-dr, from african swine fever virus affects viral infection in domestic african swine fever virus (asfv) gene with similarity to the t-lymphocyte surface antigen cd2 has been found in the pathogenic african isolate malawi lil-20/1 (open reading frame [orf] 8-dr) and a cell culture-adapted european virus, ba71v (orf ep402r) and has been shown to be responsible for the hemadsorption phenomenon observed for asfv-infected cells. the structural and functional similarities of the asfv gene product to cd2, a cellular protein involved in cell-cell adhesion and t-cell-med ...19989525608
host preferences of tsetse (diptera: glossinidae) based on bloodmeal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to identify the origin of vertebrate blood in the guts of 29 245 wild-caught flies of eleven glossina species from various ecological zones of africa. depending on the quality of the bloodmeal samples, 62.8% of the samples were identified and could be assigned to a host-group (e.g. ruminant), family (e.g. bovidae) or species (e.g. bos spp.). a total of 13 145 samples (44.9%) was identifiable up to the species level. with a few exceptions ...19989622371
the pathogenesis of african swine fever in the resistant bushpig.bushpigs and warthogs are natural reservoir hosts of african swine fever virus (asfv) in the wild, showing no clinical signs of disease when infected with the same highly virulent isolates of asfv that induce rapid, haemorrhagic death in domestic pigs. in contrast to domestic pigs, infection of bushpigs with malawi isolate results in low levels of virus replication and lymphocyte apoptosis within the spleen, and a relatively low spread of virus to other lymphoid tissues. however, at 10 days post ...19989634086
african swine fever virus infection of the bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) and its significance in the epidemiology of the disease.warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus), giant forest hog (hylochoerus meinertzhageni) and bushpig (potamochoerus porcus) are known to be susceptible to infection with african swine fever (asf) virus. little however, is known about the ecology of the disease in the bushpig. this study has shown that the bushpig remains viraemic for between 35 and 91 days following infection during which time it is able to infect the tick vector o. moubata. these ticks were able to transmit the disease to pigs. the vi ...19989659687
detection of african swine fever virus in infected pig tissues by immunocytochemistry and in sity hybridisation.the techniques for determining cellular sites of establishment and persistence of african swine fever virus (asfv) were established in susceptible domestic pigs and the resistant african reservoir hosts, the warthog and bushpig. detection, both in vitro and in vivo, was achieved by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry, focusing principally on specific probes for vp73, a major capsid protein. hybridisation of radio-labelled probes for dna and rna was relatively insensitive and time consu ...19989694328
anti-trypanosoma brucei activity of nonprimate zoo sera.constitutive anti-trypanosoma brucei subsp. brucei s 427 clone 1 and 22 activities were evaluated in sera from 22 species of nonprimate mammals. the sera fell into 5 categories. sera from cape buffalo, giraffe, and greater kudu showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of replication of the 2 clones of organisms, which was dependent on the presence of xanthine oxidase. sera from warthog and springbok also severely limited trypanosome replication but lacked xanthine oxidase. their antitrypanoso ...199910207362
prevalence of toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of domestic pigs and some wild game species from zimbabwe.serum samples of domestic pigs (sus scrofa), elands (taurotragus oryx), sable antelopes (hippotragus niger), warthogs (phacochoerus aethiopicus), bushpigs (koiropotamus [potamochoerus] koiropotamus), white rhinos (ceratotherium simus), african buffalos (syncerus caffer), wildebeest (connochaetas taurinus), and african elephants (loxodonta africana) from zimbabwe were tested for toxoplasma gondii igg antibodies by the modified agglutination test (mat) with whole formalized tachyzoites and mercapt ...199910219323
the developmental role of warthog, the notch modifier encoding drab6.the warthog (wrt) gene, recovered as a modifier for notch signaling, was found to encode the drosophila homologue of rab6, drab6. vertebrate and yeast homologues of this protein have been shown to regulate golgi network to tgn trafficking. to study the function of this protein in the development of a multicellular organism, we analyzed three different warthog mutants. the first was an r62c point mutation, the second a genomic null, and the third was an engineered gtp-bound form. our studies show ...199910459009
multiple groups of novel retroviral genomes in pigs and related view of the concern over potential infection hazards in the use of porcine tissues and organs for xenotransplantation to humans, we investigated the diversity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (perv) genomes in the dna of domestic pigs and related species. in addition to the three known envelope subgroups of infectious gamma retroviruses (perv-a, -b, and -c), classed together here as perv group gamma 1, four novel groups of gamma retrovirus (gamma 2 to gamma 5) and four novel groups of beta re ...200111222700
african swine fever virus infection of porcine aortic endothelial cells leads to inhibition of inflammatory responses, activation of the thrombotic state, and apoptosis.african swine fever (asf) is an asymptomatic infection of warthogs and bushpigs, which has become an emergent disease of domestic pigs, characterized by hemorrhage, lymphopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. it is caused by a large icosohedral double-stranded dna virus, african swine fever virus (asfv), with infection of macrophages well characterized in vitro and in vivo. this study shows that virulent isolates of asfv also infect primary cultures of porcine aortic endothelial cel ...200111581405
onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp., a common parasite from wild boar in kyushu island, japan.we describe onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the japanese wild boar, sus scrofa leucomystax, in oita, kyushu island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected. this study began with efforts to identify the causative species in a recent case of zoonotic onchocerciasis. compared with onchocerca dewittei dewittei from sus scrofa jubatus in malaysia, which was reexamined here, our new subspecies has much greater space between the ridges on the females. in addition, its mi ...200111584751
pathogenesis of african swine fever virus in ornithodoros ticks.african swine fever virus (asfv) is the only known dna arbovirus and the sole member of the family asfarviridae. it causes a lethal, hemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs. asfv is enzootic in sub-saharan africa and is maintained in a sylvatic cycle by infecting both wild members of the suidae (e.g. warthogs) and the argasid tick ornithodoros porcinus porcinus. the pathogenesis of asfv in o. porcinus porcinus ticks is characterized by a low infectious dose, lifelong infection, efficient transmissi ...200111831434
a case of anaemia in a neonatal warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) and evaluation of serum-soluble iron in warthogs.a 38-day-old male warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) with marked anaemia (haematocrit = 14 %) presented to the denver zoological gardens hospital with ataxia, tachypnoea, suspected stunted growth and cardiomegaly. the piglet demonstrated some features consistent with both iron deficiency anaemia and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. serum-soluble iron was below the level of detection (< 8.96 micromol/l). iron deficiency anaemia is a well recognised entity in domestic swine reared on concrete and de ...200212515305
phylogeography and population structure of the common warthog (phacochoerus africanus) inferred from variation in mitochondrial dna sequences and microsatellite climate fluctuated considerably throughout the pliocene and pleistocene, influencing the evolutionary history of a wide range of species. using both mitochondrial sequences and microsatellites, we have investigated the evolutionary consequences of such environmental fluctuation for the patterns of genetic variation in the common warthog, sampled from 24 localities in africa. in the sample of 181 individuals, 70 mitochondrial dna haplotypes were identified and an overall nucleotide diversi ...200314512951
antibodies to neospora caninum in wild animals from kenya, east africa.the prevalence of antibodies to neospora caninum was examined in six wild artiodactyla species, and in five wild carnivora species from kenya. blood sera (104 wild ungulates from marula estates (mes), and 31 wild carnivores from masai-mara reserve and from other wildlife areas in northern and southern kenya), were screened using a neospora agglutination test (nat), with a twofold dilution (1:40-1:320 titres). presence of nat antibodies to n. caninun is reported here for the first time in zebra ( ...200314651874
novel herpesviruses of suidae: indicators for a second genogroup of artiodactyl gammaherpesviruses.five novel herpesviruses were identified in suid species from africa (common warthog, phacochoerus africanus) and south-east asia (bearded pig, sus barbatus; babirusa, babyrousa babyrussa) by detection and analysis of their dna polymerase genes. three of the novel species, p. africanus cytomegalovirus 1, p. africanus lymphotropic herpesvirus 1 (pafrlhv-1) and s. barbatus lymphotropic herpesvirus 1 (sbarlhv-1), were closely related to known beta- (porcine cytomegalovirus) and gammaherpesviruses [ ...200415039528
african swine fever virus proteins involved in evading host defence systems.african swine fever virus (asfv) can cause an acutely fatal haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs although in its natural hosts, warthogs, bushpigs and the soft tick vector, ornithodoros moubata, asfv causes inapparent persistent infections. the virus is a large, cytoplasmic, double-stranded dna virus which has a tropism for macrophages. as it is the only member of the asfarviridae family, asfv encodes many novel genes not encoded by other virus families. the ability of the virus to persist in its ...200415207450
nuclear and mitochondrial evolutionary analyses of collared, white-lipped, and chacoan peccaries (tayassuidae).the three extant peccary species, the chacoan (catagonus wagneri), the white-lipped (tayassu pecari) and the collared (pecari tajacu), are morphologically and chromosomally distinct and confined to the new world. there is ongoing paleontological, cytogenetic, and molecular debate about phylogenetic relationships among them. to contribute to the understanding of tayassuidae phylogeny, three mitochondrial (control region, cytochrome b, and 12s rrna) and five nuclear (k-casein, thyrotropin, tyrosin ...200515579391
seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii in farm-reared ostriches and wild game species from hundred and seventy one serum samples from 10 game species from zimbabwe were tested for igg antibodies to toxoplasma gondii infection using the modified agglutination test (mat). significantly higher seroprevalences were found in the felidae (panthera leo) (92% of 26), bovidae (tragelaphus species) (55.9% of 34) and farm-reared struthionidae (struthio camelus) (48% of 50) compared to the other groups tested. among the bovidae, the nyala (tragelaphus angasii) had the highest seroprevalence o ...200515777687
faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs (phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs (potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa (babyrousa babyrussa).the objectives of this study were to analyse faecal steroid metabolites in african and south east asian pig species kept in european zoos. species studied were the warthog (phacochoerus africanus), the red river hog (potamochoerus porcus) and the babirusa (babyrousa babyrussa). faecal samples were collected 1-3 times per week from non-pregnant and pregnant captive female warthogs (n = 9), red river hogs (n = 7) and babirusas (n = 5). enzyme-immunoassays for faecal progesterone, androgen, and oes ...200615876499
artificial larviposition sites for field collections of the puparia of tsetse flies glossina pallidipes and g. m. morsitans (diptera: glossinidae).tsetse flies glossina pallidipes austen and g. morsitans morsitans westwood deposit their larvae in warthog burrows, in august-november, at rekomitjie research station, zambezi valley, zimbabwe. artificial burrows, made from 200-l steel drums, were used to sample these flies and to collect their puparia. sand-filled plastic trays in the burrows served as a substrate for larval deposition. the sand was covered with c. 2 cm of leaf litter after it was shown that only 3% of larvae were deposited on ...200515960876
a preliminary investigation of tuberculosis and other diseases in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) in queen elizabeth national park, uganda.a survey to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis caused by mycobacterium bovis and certain other infectious diseases was conducted on 42 free-ranging african buffaloes, (syncerus caffer) from may to june 1997 in the queen elizabeth national park, uganda. using the gamma interferon test, exposure to m. bovis was detected in 21.6% of the buffaloes. one dead buffalo and an emaciated warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) that was euthanased, were necropsied; both had miliary granulomas from ...200516137132
comprehensive analysis of gene expression patterns of hedgehog-related genes.the caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes ten proteins that share sequence similarity with the hedgehog signaling molecule through their c-terminal autoprocessing hint/hog domain. these proteins contain novel n-terminal domains, and c. elegans encodes dozens of additional proteins containing only these n-terminal domains. these gene families are called warthog, groundhog, ground-like and quahog, collectively called hedgehog (hh)-related genes. previously, the expression pattern of seventeen gene ...200617076889
molecular phylogeny of the filaria genus onchocerca with special emphasis on afrotropical human and bovine parasites.filarial parasites of the genus onchocerca are found in a broad spectrum of ungulate hosts. one species, o. volvulus, is a human parasite that can cause severe disease (onchocerciasis or 'river blindness'). the phylogenetic relationships and the bionomics of many of the nearly 30 known species remain dubious. here, the phylogeny of 11 species representing most major lineages of the genus is investigated by analysing dna sequences from three mitochondrial genes (nd5, 12s and 16s rrna) and portion ...200717174932
sleeping sickness--a re-emerging disease in the serengeti?sleeping sickness is a re-emerging disease in the serengeti ecosystem affecting both local people and tourists. here we report the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in both domestic and wild animals from this area. five hundred and eighteen cattle samples were collected from 12 villages that bordered the serengeti national park and 220 samples from 15 different wild animal species were collected from within the park. pcr analysis, directed against the human serum re ...200717298919
suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an african warthog (phacochoerus africanus).vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. an 8.5-yr female african warthog (phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between c7-t2 was suspected. magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. the acute onset o ...200617319141
risk factors for herd-level bovine-tuberculosis seropositivity in transhumant cattle in uganda.we investigated the prevalence and risk factors to positive herd-level tuberculin reactivity between october 2003 to may 2004 to bovine tuberculosis (btb) in the four transhumant districts of uganda: three districts (karamoja region) of nomadic transhumance cattle rearing (30 superherds and 1522 cattle), and one district (nakasongola) of fixed-transhumance (7 herds and 342 cattle). we used the comparative intradermal skin-test, sampled 50 animals per superherd/herd, and considered herd positive ...200717482694
epizootiological importance of glossina morsitans submorsitans (diptera: glossinidae) (newstead) in the ghibe river valley, southwest ethiopia.the epizootiological importance of glossina morsitans submorsitans in ghibe river valley was undertaken from october 2000 to september 2001. the flies were collected using baited monoconical traps. g. m. submorsitans occurred with a mean apparent density of 4.26+/-0.49 flies/trap/day and the apparent density was characterized by an increase during the wet season and a decrease during the dry season. among 450 g. m. submorsitans, approximately 5% were found to be infected with trypanosome. of the ...200717543265
prevalence of antibodies against rift valley fever virus in kenyan wildlife.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an arbovirus associated with periodic outbreaks, mostly on the african continent, of febrile disease accompanied by abortion in livestock, and a severe, fatal haemorrhagic syndrome in humans. however, the maintenance of the virus during the inter-epidemic period (iep) when there is low or no disease activity detected in livestock or humans has not been determined. this study report prevalence of rvfv-neutralizing antibodies in sera (n=896) collected from 16 keny ...200817988425
detection of trypanosoma brucei in field-captured tsetse flies and identification of host species fed on by the infected flies.the prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies in the chiawa area of lower zambezi in zambia, with endemic trypanosomosis, was determined by a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method that allowed the detection of trypanosome dna and determination of the type of animal host fed on by the tsetse fly glossina pallidipes, using tsetse-derived dna extracts as templates. ninety g. pallidipes (82 females and 8 males; 18.3%) of the 492 flies captured by baited biconical traps tested positive fo ...200818399780
rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the mara-serengeti ecosystem.1. rainfall is the prime climatic factor underpinning the dynamics of african savanna ungulates, but no study has analysed its influence on the abundance of these ungulates at monthly to multiannual time scales. 2. we report relationships between rainfall and changes in age- and sex-structured abundances of seven ungulate species monitored monthly for 15 years using vehicle ground counts in the maasai mara national reserve, kenya. 3. abundance showed strong and curvilinear relationships with cur ...200818422558
shifting prey selection generates contrasting herbivore dynamics within a large-mammal predator-prey web.shifting prey selection has been identified as a mechanism potentially regulating predator-prey interactions, but it may also lead to different outcomes, especially in more complex systems with multiple prey species available. we assessed changing prey selection by lions, the major predator for 12 large herbivore species in south africa's kruger national park. the database was provided by records of found carcasses ascribed to kills by lions assembled over 70 years, coupled with counts of changi ...200818481536
estimation of tsetse challenge and its relationship with trypanosomosis incidence in cattle kept under pastoral production systems in an on-farm trial conducted amongst the maasai pastoralists in nkuruman and nkineji areas of kenya between april 2004 and august 2005 designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse repellent technology, we assessed the relationship between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence in cattle. six villages were used in each area. each of these villages had a sentinel cattle herd that was screened for trypanosomosis on monthly basis using buffy coat technique. animals found infe ...200818602218
prevalence and source of trypanosome infections in field-captured vector flies (glossina pallidipes) in southeastern zambia.the prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, glossina pallidipes, collected from chiawa and chakwenga in zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). out of the 550 g. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome dna. infection rates of tsetse with trypanosoma vivax universal, trypanosoma congolense savannah, t. congolense forest and t. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respecti ...200818840966
pheochromocytoma in an african warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus).a 14-yr-old male african warthog (phacochoerus aethiopicus) with a chronic history of intermittent unilateral epistaxis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and intermittent weakness in the distal lumbar trunk was evaluated to determine the source of epistaxis. no obvious cause was determined, and in light of severe osteoarthritis and a holosystolic cardiac murmur, the animal was euthanized. a tumor of the right adrenal gland involving the medulla was found at gross necropsy. immunohistochemical staini ...200819110715
a survey of echinococcus species in wild carnivores and livestock in east africa.we examined 71 faecal samples of carnivores from queen elizabeth national park (qenp), uganda, for eggs of echinococcus species. thirty-nine faecal samples contained taeniid eggs. for species diagnosis, dna was isolated from a total of 1984 individual taeniid eggs. to differentiate eggs of echinococcus felidis from other taeniid taxa (including the closely related echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto), a restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp)-pcr of the mitochondrial nad1 gene was deve ...200919275902
recombinant antigen targets for serodiagnosis of african swine fever.african swine fever (asf) is an infectious and economically important disease of domestic pigs. there is no vaccine, and so reliable diagnosis is essential for control strategies. the performance of four recombinant asf virus (asfv) protein (pk205r, pb602l, p104r, and p54)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) was evaluated with european porcine field sera that had been established by office international des epizooties (oie)-approved tests to be asfv negative (n = 119) and asfv posi ...200919420186
trichinellosis acquired in senegal from warthog ham, march 2009.three confirmed and three suspected cases of trichinellosis have been reported in france with onset of symptoms in march 2009, linked to consumption of smoked warthog ham in senegal.200919480811
purification and characterisation of a p-selectin-binding molecule from the salivary glands of ornithodoros moubata that induces protective anti-tick immune responses in pigs.ornithodoros moubata is an argasid tick that lives in africa in wild and synanthropic habitats. it feeds on warthogs, domestic swine and humans, and is able to transmit severe diseases such as human relapsing fever and african swine fever. the elimination of o. moubata from the synanthropic surroundings should improve control of the diseases it transmits. previous attempts to develop a vaccine against o. moubata showed that a salivary gland extract (sge) induced a protective response that inhibi ...201019735664
role of wild suids in the epidemiology of african swine fever.there is presently no vaccine to combat african swine fever (asf), a viral hemorrhagic fever of domestic pigs that causes up to 100% morbidity and mortality in naive, commercial pig populations. in its endemic setting, asf virus cycles between asymptomatic warthogs and soft ticks, with persistence in exotic locations being ascribed to the almost global distribution of susceptible soft tick and suid hosts. an understanding of the role played by diverse hosts in the epidemiology of this multi-host ...200919915917
a host species-informative internal control for molecular assessment of african swine fever virus infection rates in the african sylvatic cycle ornithodoros vector.african swine fever virus (asfv) infection in adult ornithodoros porcinus (murry 1877, sensuwalton 1979) ticks collected from warthog burrows in southern and east africa was assessed using a duplex genomic amplification approach that is informative with respect to the invertebrate host species and infecting sylvatic cycle virus. dna extracted from individual ticks was used as template for the simultaneous amplification of a c-terminal 478-bp asfv p72 gene region and a approximately 313-bp fragme ...200919941606
african swine fever.african swine fever (asf) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100% mortality, for which there is no vaccine. it is caused by a unique dna virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known dna arbovirus. asf has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from africa to other continents--europe and subsequently the caribbean and brazil (1957, 1959) and the caucasus (2007). it is also a ...200919967933
molecular characterisation of african swine fever viruses from nigeria (2003-2006) recovers multiple virus variants and reaffirms cvr epidemiological utility.samples collected from wild and domestic suids in nigeria, over a 3-year period (2003-2006), were evaluated for african swine fever (asf) virus genome presence by targeting three discrete genome regions, namely the 478-bp c-terminal p72 gene region advocated for genotype assignment, a 780-bp region spanning the 5'-ends of the pb125r and pb646l (p72) genes and the hypervariable central variable region (cvr) encoded within the 9rl orf (pb602l). asf virus (asfv) presence was confirmed in 23 of the ...201020052526
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