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synergism between phyllobacterium sp. (n(2)-fixer) and bacillus licheniformis (p-solubilizer), both from a semiarid mangrove rhizosphere.mangrove seedlings were treated with a mixture of two bacterial species, the slow-growing, n(2)-fixing bacterium phyllobacterium sp. and the fast-growing, phosphate-solubilizing bacterium bacillus licheniformis, both isolated from the rhizosphere from black, white, and red mangroves of a semiarid zone. nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization increased when the mixture was used compared to the effects observed when adding individual cultures, notwithstanding that there was no increase in b ...200111295457
impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in south mexico: cost/benefit analysis.environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in barra de tecoanapa, guerrero, mexico. original forest included rhizophora mangle, laguncularia racemosa, avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha) and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day). a total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. later, an average of 2,555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 usd). succession when the area was abandoned ...200111935907
antitumour activity of 3-chlorodeoxylapachol, a naphthoquinone from avicennia germinans collected from an experimental plot in southern florida.as part of an ongoing collaborative effort to discover new anticancer agents from plants, an extract obtained from the leaves and twigs of avicennia germinans, collected in a coastal area of southern florida, was identified as possessing cytotoxic activity in a panel of human cancer cell lines. fractionation of the petroleum ether partition, using cytotoxicity to guide the fractionation, led to the isolation of 3-chlorodeoxylapachol. the antitumour potential of 3-chlorodeoxylapachol was demonstr ...200516105231
spectral characterization of mangrove leaves in the brazilian amazonian coast: turiaçu bay, maranhão state.mangrove communities are tropical systems which have fewer species than tropical forests, especially in latin america and display a single architecture, usually lacking the various strata commonly found in other forest ecosystems. the identification of mangrove communities by orbital data is not a difficult task but the most interesting challenge is to identify themselves by the dominant species. the first step toward that floristic identification is the spectral characterization of detached lea ...200718066436
halobacillus mangrovi sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from the black mangrove avicennia germinans.a moderately halophilic, spore-forming, gram-positive, short-rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain ms10(t), was isolated from the surface of leaves of the black mangrove avicennia germinans and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. strain ms10(t) was able to grow at nacl concentrations in the range 5-20% (w/v) with optimum growth at 10% (w/v) nacl. growth occurred at temperatures of 10-50 degrees c (optimal growth at 33-35 degrees c) and ph 6.0-9.0 (optimal growth at ph 7.0). phylogen ...200818175696
[structure and dynamics of the mangrove forest in the rancheria river delta, colombian caribbean].we registered seedling survival and biomass increase for rhizophora mangle l., avicennia germinans l. and laguncularia racemosa (l.) gaertn. f, main mangrove species in the rancheria river delta, colombia. only seedlings of r. mangle were found to survive. we also measured maximum rate of litterfall. we estimated annual litterfall through interpolation within an exponential regression performed with maximum and annual litterfall data published in other sources; the value of annual litterfall for ...200718457110
genetic diversity enhanced by ancient introgression and secondary contact in east pacific black mangroves.regional distribution of genetic diversity in widespread species may be influenced by hybridization with locally restricted, closely related species. previous studies have shown that central american east pacific populations of the wide-ranged avicennia germinans, the black mangrove, harbour higher genetic diversity than the rest of its range. genetic diversity in this region might be enhanced by introgression with the locally restricted avicennia bicolor. we tested the hypotheses of ancient hyb ...200818466233
the effects of co2 and nutrient fertilisation on the growth and temperature response of the mangrove avicennia germinans.in order to understand plant responses to both the widespread phenomenon of increased nutrient inputs to coastal zones and the concurrent rise in atmospheric co2 concentrations, co2-nutrient interactions need to be considered. in addition to its potential stimulating effect on photosynthesis and growth, elevated co2 affects the temperature response of photosynthesis. the scarcity of experiments testing how elevated co2 affects the temperature response of tropical trees hinders our ability to mod ...201627259536
osmotic and hydraulic adjustment of mangrove saplings to extreme salinity.salinity tolerance in plant species varies widely due to adaptation and acclimation processes at the cellular and whole-plant scales. in mangroves, extreme substrate salinity induces hydraulic failure and ion excess toxicity and reduces growth and survival, thus suggesting a potentially critical role for physiological acclimation to salinity. we tested the hypothesis that osmotic adjustment, a key type of plasticity that mitigates salinity shock, would take place in coordination with declines in ...201627591440
chronic warming stimulates growth of marsh grasses more than mangroves in a coastal wetland ecotone.increasing temperatures and a reduction in the frequency and severity of freezing events have been linked to species distribution shifts. across the globe, mangrove ranges are expanding toward higher latitudes, likely due to diminishing frequency of freezing events associated with climate change. continued warming will alter coastal wetland plant dynamics both above- and belowground, potentially altering plant capacity to keep up with sea level rise. we conducted an in situ warming experiment, i ...201627870028
potential for sulfate reduction in mangrove forest soils: comparison between two dominant species of the americas.avicennia and rhizophora are globally occurring mangrove genera with different traits that place them in different parts of the intertidal zone. it is generally accepted that the oxidizing capacity of avicennia roots is larger than that of rhizophora roots, which initiates more reduced conditions in the soil below the latter genus. we hypothesize that the more reduced conditions beneath rhizophora stands lead to more active sulfate-reducing microbial communities compared to avicennia stands. to ...201627917167
mangrove expansion and contraction at a poleward range limit: climate extremes and land-ocean temperature gradients.within the context of climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand the ecological implications of changes in the frequency and intensity of climate extremes. along subtropical coasts, less frequent and warmer freeze events are expected to permit freeze-sensitive mangrove forests to expand poleward and displace freeze-tolerant salt marshes. here, our aim was to better understand the drivers of poleward mangrove migration by quantifying spatiotemporal patterns in mangrove range ex ...201727935029
pollinator-mediated competition between two co-flowering neotropical mangrove species, avicennia germinans (avicenniaceae) and laguncularia racemosa (combretaceae).three ecological relationships are possible between co-flowering plant species; they may have no effect on one another, compete for pollination services, or facilitate one another by attracting more pollinators to the area. in this study, the pollinator-mediated relationship between two mangrove species with overlapping flowering phenologies was investigated in one south florida community.201323235696
anthelmintic activity of acetone-water extracts against haemonchus contortus eggs: interactions between tannins and other plant secondary compounds.this study aimed at (i) describing the effects of acetone-water extracts obtained from a range of different plant materials, on the hatching process of haemonchus contortus eggs under in vitro conditions and (ii) identifying the role of tannins and other plant secondary compounds (psc), on these ah effects by using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (pvpp), an inhibitor of tannins and other polyphenols. an egg hatch assay (eha) was used to determine the ah effect. acetone-water (70:30) extracts from diffe ...201425468031
[costa rica mangroves: the north pacific].costa rica has mangrove forests on both the caribbean and pacific coasts. the pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. in this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north pacific coast of costa rica, from bahía salinas, on the border with nicaragua, to the tip of the peninsula de nicoya at cabo blanco. we provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. these mangrove communities are smaller in ...200919928448
description of kushneria aurantia gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family halomonadaceae, and a proposal for reclassification of halomonas marisflavi as kushneria marisflavi comb. nov., of halomonas indalinina as kushneria indalinina comb. nov. and of halomonas avicenniae as kushneria avicenniae comb. nov.an aerobic, moderately halophilic, gram-negative, motile, non-sporulating rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain a10(t), was isolated from the surface of leaves of the black mangrove avicennia germinans and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. strain a10(t) was able to grow at nacl concentrations in the range 5-17.5 % (w/v) with optimum growth at 10 % (w/v) nacl. growth occurred at temperatures of 20-40 degrees c (optimal growth at 37 degrees c) and ph 5.5-8.5 (optimal growth at ph 7. ...200919196785
properties of thylakoid membranes of the mangroves, avicennia germinans and avicennia marina, and the sugar beet, beta vulgaris, grown under different salinity conditions.properties of thylakoids isolated from leaves of three salt tolerant species, avicennia germinans l., avicennia marina var resinifera, and beta vulgaris l., were not affected by the salinity in which the plants were grown. with increase in the growth salinity from 50 to 500 millimolar nacl, there were no major effects on the per chlorophyll concentrations of lipids or proteins, or on the rates of uncoupled electron transport per chlorophyll mediated by either the whole chain or the partial react ...198416663875
nmr study of chloride ion interactions with thylakoid membranes.the role of cl(-) in photosynthetic o(2) evolution has been investigated by observing the (35)cl nmr linewidth under a variety of conditions in aqueous suspensions of chloroplasts, primarily for the halophytes avicennia germinans, avicennia marina, and aster tripolium but also for spinach. the line broadening shows there is weak, ionic binding of cl(-) to thylakoids, the bound cl(-) exchanging rapidly (>>10(4) sec(-1)) with free cl(-) in solution. the binding is necessary for o(2) evolution to o ...198416593474
[the mangrove and others vegetation associations in de gandoca lagoon, limón, costa rica].six plant associations were identified at gandoca lagoon by photointerpretation and field verification: a) mangroves, b) palm trees swamp, and palm trees with acrostichum aureum and a. danaefolium, c) mixed palm trees, d) very humid tropical rain forest, and e) tropical beach vegetation. the mangroves cover 12.5 ha surrounding the lagoon and extend 2 km up the gandoca river. rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) was the dominant species, with avicennia germinans (black mangrove), laguncularia racemos ...200115264546
propagule size and predispersal damage by insects affect establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings.variation in rates of seedling recruitment, growth, and survival can strongly influence the rate and course of forest regeneration following disturbance. using a combination of field sampling and shadehouse experiments, we investigated the influence of propagule size and predispersal insect damage on the establishment and early growth of the three common mangrove species on the caribbean coast of panama: avicennia germinans, laguncularia racemosa, and rhizophora mangle. in our field samples, all ...200312684857
[foliage production of the mangrove from san andrés island, colombian caribbean coast].litter fall from a san andres island mangrove (12 degrees 32' n, 81 degrees 41' w, colombian caribbean coast), was collected monthly (1994-1995) with mesh baskets, keeping results separate for the three species (rhizophora mangle, avicennia germinans and laguncularia racemosa), and taking a sample and a replica per case. nine sampling sites were selected in two groups of woodlands: one in the inner side behind a sand-bar and the coast road (mount pleasant, salt creek, sound bay and smith channel ...200212298255
nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. at a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. hence, nitrat ...201525784903
changes in bioaccumulation and translocation patterns between root and leafs of avicennia schaueriana as adaptive response to different levels of metals in mangrove system.espírito santo estuaries (brazil) are impacted by industrial activities, resulting in contamination of water and sediments. this raise questions on biological uptake, storage and consequences of metal contamination to mangrove plants. the goal of this work was evaluating accumulation and translocation of metals from sediment to roots and leaves of avicennia schaueriana, growing in areas with different degrees of contamination, correlating bioaccumulation with changes in its root anatomy. highest ...201525818856
the contribution of mangrove expansion to salt marsh loss on the texas gulf coast.landscape-level shifts in plant species distribution and abundance can fundamentally change the ecology of an ecosystem. such shifts are occurring within mangrove-marsh ecotones, where over the last few decades, relatively mild winters have led to mangrove expansion into areas previously occupied by salt marsh plants. on the texas (usa) coast of the western gulf of mexico, most cases of mangrove expansion have been documented within specific bays or watersheds. based on this body of relatively s ...201525946132
assessing the influence of artificially constructed channels in the growth of afforested black mangrove (avicennia germinans) within an arid coastal region.hypersaline conditions are common in sub-tropical latitudes where freshwater availability is seasonal. hence, hydroperiod plays a crucial role in providing a suitable area for the establishment of new mangrove seedlings. the purpose of this study was to assess the function of hydrological change and irradiance in the growth of afforested black mangrove (avicennia germinans) along the upper saltpan area by creating six channels of 1 m wide by 0.3 deep and 30 m length. all channels were constructe ...201526100688
environmental tolerances of rare and common mangroves along light and salinity gradients.although mangroves possess a variety of morphological and physiological adaptations for life in a stressful habitat, interspecific differences in survival and growth under different environmental conditions can shape their local and geographic distributions. soil salinity and light are known to affect mangrove performance, often in an interactive fashion. it has also been hypothesized that mangroves are intrinsically shade intolerant due to the high physiological cost of coping with saline flood ...201526267403
contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the central american isthmus.comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the neotropics. the black (avicennia germinans, avicenniaceae) and the red (rhiz ...201526380680
comparative phylogeography of black mangroves (avicennia germinans) and red mangroves (rhizophora mangle) in florida: testing the maritime discontinuity in coastal plants.previous studies of the comparative phylogeography of coastal and marine species in the southeastern united states revealed that phylogenetically diverse taxa share a phylogeographic break at the southern tip of florida (the maritime discontinuity). these studies have focused nearly exclusively on animals; few coastal plant species in florida have been analyzed phylogeographically. we investigated phylogeographic patterns of black mangroves (avicennia germinans) and red mangroves (rhizophora man ...201627056925
nutrient enrichment intensifies hurricane impact in scrub mangrove ecosystems in the indian river lagoon, florida, usa.mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. these ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. these stressors will likely intera ...201527070015
heterogeneity of elemental composition and natural abundance of stables isotopes of c and n in soils and leaves of mangroves at their southernmost west atlantic range.mangrove communities were selected in the state of santa catarina, brazil, near their southernmost limit of distribution, to study mineral nutrient relation in soils and plants. communities included three true mangrove species, rhizophora mangle, laguncularia racemosa and avicennia germinans, and two associated species, the fern acrostichum danaeifolium, and the grass spartina densiflora. the sites included communities in the lower río tavares near florianopolis city, sonho beach near palhoça ci ...201727191466
microsatellites for the mangrove tree avicennia germinans (acanthaceae): tools for hybridization and mating system studies. 201021616893
commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the wouri estuary and the douala-edea reserve (cameroon).worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in cameroon. the aims of this study were a) to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of wouri estuary and b) to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the douala-edea reserve.200919919680
root biomechanics in rhizophora mangle: anatomy, morphology and ecology of mangrove's flying buttresses.rhizophora species of mangroves have a conspicuous system of stilt-like roots (rhizophores) that grow from the main stem and resemble flying buttresses. as such, the development of rhizophores can be predicted to be important for the effective transmission of dynamic loads from the top of the tree to the ground, especially where the substrate is unstable, as is often the case in the habitats where rhizophora species typically grow. this study tests the hypothesis that rhizophore architecture in ...201525681823
mangrove trees growing in a very saline condition but not using seawater.mangrove trees, which develop along tropical coasts, are known to use saline water uptake. in french guiana, the high salinity condition is the result of seawater evaporation on mud banks formed from the amazon sediment flumes. in the back mangrove a few kilometres inland, groundwater, soil water and the xylem sap uptake in the trees remain highly salty, and only very tolerant plants like avicennia germinans can flourish, whereas the less salt-tolerant rhizophora mangle is more difficult to find ...200818712706
differential leaf gas exchange responses to salinity and drought in the mangrove tree avicecennia germinans (avicenniaceae).leaf gas exchange was assessed in avicennia germinans l. grown under different nacl concentrations (0-40 per thousand), after salt-relief, and then during drought. stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic rate (pn) decreased with increasing nacl concentration, and intrinsic water use efficiency (pn / gs) increased. under desalinization pn / gs declined. thus, gs did not change in plants grown at low nacl concentration (10 per thousand), but increased up to 30-32% at higher nacl concentra ...200618494307
integrating physiological threshold experiments with climate modeling to project mangrove species' range expansion.predictions of climate-related shifts in species ranges have largely been based on correlative models. due to limitations of these models, there is a need for more integration of experimental approaches when studying impacts of climate change on species distributions. here, we used controlled experiments to identify physiological thresholds that control poleward range limits of three species of mangroves found in north america. we found that all three species exhibited a threshold response to ex ...201525558057
an improved method for the isolation of total rna from avicennia germinans leaves.isolation of high-quality rna of avicennia germinans l. tissue is difficult due to high levels of phenols and other substances that interfere when using conventional procedures for the isolation. these substances not only decrease the yield but also the quality of rna is almost poor. we present here a simple rna protocol and fast methodology that effectively removes these contaminating substances without affecting the yield. the protocol developed is based on the sds/phenol method with modificat ...200918386500
coordinated responses of phytochelatin synthase and metallothionein genes in black mangrove, avicennia germinans, exposed to cadmium and copper.to evaluate the role of phytochelatins and metallothioneins in heavy metal tolerance of black mangrove avicennia germinans, 3-month-old seedlings were exposed to cadmium or copper for 30 h, under hydroponic conditions. degenerate mt2 and pcs primers were synthesized based on amino acid and nucleotide alignment sequences reported for mt2 and pcs in other plant species found in genbank. total rna was isolated from a. germinans leaves and two partial fragments of metallothionein and phytochelatin s ...200717582515
nutrient removal in a closed silvofishery system using three mangrove species (avicennia germinans, laguncularia racemosa, and rhizophora mangle).the removal of ammonium (nh4(+)), nitrite (no2(-)), nitrate (no3(-)), and phosphate (po4(-3)) in a closed silvofishery system was examined using three mangrove species (i.e., avicennia germinans, laguncularia racemosa, and rhizophora mangle). specifically, six closed tanks were installed for this experiment with a population of 60 dormitator latifrons fishes per tank. we planted 40 seedlings in each of three experimental tanks separated by species, while the remaining tanks were used as control. ...201525499182
avicennia germinans (black mangrove) vessel architecture is linked to chilling and salinity tolerance in the gulf of mexico.over the last several decades, the distribution of the black mangrove avicennia germinans in the gulf of mexico has expanded, in part because it can survive the occasional freeze events and high soil salinities characteristic of the area. vessel architecture may influence mangrove chilling and salinity tolerance. we surveyed populations of a. germinans throughout the gulf to determine if vessel architecture was linked to field environmental conditions. we measured vessel density, hydraulically w ...201425309570
the effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on the performance of the mangrove avicennia germinans over a range of salinities.by increasing water use efficiency and carbon assimilation, increasing atmospheric co2 concentrations could potentially improve plant productivity and growth at high salinities. to assess the effect of elevated co2 on the salinity response of a woody halophyte, we grew seedlings of the mangrove avicennia germinans under a combination of five salinity treatments [from 5 to 65 parts per thousand (ppt)] and three co2 concentrations (280, 400 and 800 ppm). we measured survivorship, growth rate, phot ...201525263409
aboveground allometric models for freeze-affected black mangroves (avicennia germinans): equations for a climate sensitive mangrove-marsh ecotone.across the globe, species distributions are changing in response to climate change and land use change. in parts of the southeastern united states, climate change is expected to result in the poleward range expansion of black mangroves (avicennia germinans) at the expense of some salt marsh vegetation. the morphology of a. germinans at its northern range limit is more shrub-like than in tropical climes in part due to the aboveground structural damage and vigorous multi-stem regrowth triggered by ...201424971938
dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.• premise of the study: xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• methods: we collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of avicennia germinans and laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. following a series of extractions with the pressure ch ...201424907254
effects of increased summer flooding on nitrogen dynamics in impounded mangroves.mangroves are important for coastal protection, carbon sequestration and habitat provision for plants and animals in the tropics and subtropics. mangroves are threatened by habitat destruction and sea level rise, but management activities such as impounding for mosquito control can also have negative effects. we studied the effects of rotational impoundment management (rim) on nitrogen dynamics in impoundments dominated by three types of black mangrove (avicennia germinans) stands along the indi ...201424751377
post-glacial expansion and population genetic divergence of mangrove species avicennia germinans (l.) stearn and rhizophora mangle l. along the mexican coast.mangrove forests in the gulf of california, mexico represent the northernmost populations along the pacific coast and thus they are likely to be source populations for colonization at higher latitudes as climate becomes more favorable. today, these populations are relatively small and fragmented and prior research has indicated that they are poor in genetic diversity. here we set out to investigate whether the low diversity in this region was a result of recent colonization, or fragmentation and ...201424699389
evaluating the condition of a mangrove forest of the mexican pacific based on an estimated leaf area index mapping approach.given the alarming global rates of mangrove forest loss it is important that resource managers have access to updated information regarding both the extent and condition of their mangrove forests. mexican mangroves in particular have been identified as experiencing an exceptional high annual rate of loss. however, conflicting studies, using remote sensing techniques, of the current state of many of these forests may be hindering all efforts to conserve and manage what remains. focusing on one su ...200919023672
halomonas avicenniae sp. nov., isolated from the salty leaves of the black mangrove avicennia germinans in puerto rico.a gram-negative, short rod to oval-shaped bacterium (strain mw2a(t)) was isolated from the surface of leaves of the black mangrove avicennia germinans and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. strain mw2a(t) was moderately halophilic, growing at nacl concentrations in the range 0-25 % (w/v) with optimum growth at 5 % (w/v) nacl. growth occurred at 12-40 degrees c (optimum, 30-35 degrees c) and at ph 5.0-9.0 (optimum, ph 7.0-8.0). strain mw2a(t) was strictly aerobic. phylogenetic analysis ba ...200717473230
changes in community composition of ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria from stands of black mangrove (avicennia germinans) in response to ammonia enrichment and more oxic conditions.in flooded and non-flooded impounded forests of black mangrove (avicennia germinans), the community structure of the ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria (β-aob) differed among distinct mangrove vegetation cover types and hydrological regimes. this had been explained by a differential response of lineages of β-aob to the prevailing soil conditions that included increased levels of moisture and ammonium. to test this hypothesis, slurries of soils collected from a flooded and a non-flooded impound ...201324312088
functional patterns of microbial communities of rhizospheric soils across the development stages of a young mangrove in french guiana.the functional patterns of microbial communities (microbial respiration, enzyme activities, functional diversity) and the relevant physico-chemical characteristics of rhizospheric soils were studied during the process of mudflat colonization by mangrove. the study site is a fringe mangrove stand located in montabo bay at cayenne (french guiana). it is characterized by different vegetation development stages dominated by an assemblage of avicennia germinans and laguncularia racemosa. rhizospheric ...201424141938
[natural regeneration response in mangroves of the gulf of urabá (colombia) to the environmental and intra-annual climate variability].the natural regeneration process allows the mangrove forests remain over time. both, biological and physical factors can affect the establishment and early stages along the development of trees. this study examined the response of natural regeneration of mangroves in the turbo river delta and el uno bay (urabá gulf, colombia) to intra-annual environmental variability. we quantified mortality, survival and recruitment of seedlings of three mangrove species, seasonally during one year, in 72 semi- ...201324027935
biotic interactions mediate the expansion of black mangrove (avicennia germinans) into salt marshes under climate change.many species are expanding their distributions to higher latitudes due to global warming. understanding the mechanisms underlying these distribution shifts is critical for better understanding the impacts of climate changes. the climate envelope approach is widely used to model and predict species distribution shifts with changing climates. biotic interactions between species, however, may also influence species distributions, and a better understanding of biotic interactions could improve predi ...201323580161
[effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the turbo river delta (urabá gulf, caribbean coast of colombia)].mangrove deforestation is widespread in the greater caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. in order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (neritina virginea and melampus coffeus) were compared among four mangrove types: 1) rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2) avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3) mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4) a. germinans- basin mangroves con ...201223342523
comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in caribbean and pacific estuaries of panama.mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. we analyzed 980 avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpdna regions in order to understand population s ...201223078287
tidal events and salt-marsh structure influence black mangrove (avicennia germinans) recruitment across an ecotone.field experiments were conducted at a black mangrove-salt-marsh ecotone in southwest florida (u.s.a.) to investigate retention of propagules of the black mangrove, avicennia germinans, by salt-marsh plants as a mechanism of facilitation operating on recruitment success at landward boundaries. buoyant a. germinans propagules are dispersed by tides, and stranding is required for establishment; therefore, processes that enable stranding should facilitate mangrove recruitment. we expected the physic ...201222919911
the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria in stands of black mangroves (avicennia germinans).the distribution of species of aerobic chemolitho-autotrophic microorganisms such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are governed by ph, salinity, and temperature as well as the availability of oxygen, ammonium, carbon dioxide, and other inorganic elements required for growth. impounded mangrove forests in the indian river lagoon, a coastal estuary on the east coast of florida, are dominated by mangroves, especially stands of black mangrove (avicennia germinans) that differ in the size and density of ...201222536201
seedling recruitment patterns in a belizean mangrove forest: effects of establishment ability and physico-chemical factors.a field study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting seedling establishment and survival on a mangrove-dominated island in belize. an examination of spatial patterns of seedling relative densities in relation to reproductive adults and physico-chemical conditions provided correlative information on factors affecting mangrove regeneration patterns. distance from reproductive adults explained 89-94% of the variation in relative density of rhizophora mangle seedlings ...199528306959
distribution and ecology of haemagogus aeritinctus in belize, central america.immatures of haemagogus aeritinctus are reported from a black mangrove (avicennia germinans) tree hole on an offshore key in the belize barrier reef. this is the first report of this species from other than coastal mainland sites in central america. the high salinity (10,000 ppm) recorded in the tree hole water suggests that this species has a tolerance, or possibly a requirement, for soluble salts that may explain its affiliation solely with mangrove habitats.19938096870
aedes taeniorhynchus (diptera: culicidae) oviposition patterns in a florida mangrove forest.the association of aedes taeniorhynchus eggs and several variables was studied in a florida mangrove forest. eggs were limited to stands of red mangrove (rhizophora mangle l.) that were embedded within a black mangrove (avicennia germinans l.) forest. the occurrence of eggs was related significantly to elevation and the amount of detritus. field and laboratory studies indicated that grazing on black mangrove detritus by the snail melampus coffeus l. may have limited detritus accumulation and soi ...19911941908
antidiabetic effect of a black mangrove species aegiceras corniculatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.earlier ethnopharmacological records divulged the traditional usages of mangrove aegiceras corniculatum (linn.) blanco distributed in coastal and estuarine areas of southeast india. excluding scientific knowledge of a. corniculatum against diabetes an upgrowing endocrinal disorder, our present study evaluated the effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. diabetes was induced in adult rats of the wistar strain by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. the experimental rats were administ ...201222470894
a socio-ecological assessment aiming at improved forest resource management and sustainable ecotourism development in the mangroves of tanbi wetland national park, the gambia, west africa.although mangroves dominated by avicennia germinans and rhizophora mangle are extending over 6000 ha in the tanbi wetland national park (twnp) (the gambia), their importance for local populations (both peri-urban and urban) is not well documented. for the first time, this study evaluates the different mangrove resources in and around banjul (i.e., timber, non-timber, edible, and ethnomedicinal products) and their utilization patterns, including the possibility of ecotourism development. the ques ...201222351596
biological dinitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) associated with florida mangroves.biological dinitrogen fixation in mangrove communities of the tampa bay region of south florida was investigated using the acetylene reduction technique. low rates of acetylene reduction (0.01 to 1.84 nmol of c(2)h(4)/g [wet weight] per h) were associated with plant-free sediments, while plant-associated sediments gave rise to slightly higher rates. activity in sediments increased greatly upon the addition of various carbon sources, indicating an energy limitation for nitrogenase (c(2)h(2)) acti ...1978637550
assessing forest products usage and local residents' perception of environmental changes in peri-urban and rural mangroves of cameroon, central africa.deforestation is one of the most ubiquitous forms of land degradation worldwide. although remote sensing and aerial photographs can supply valuable information on land/use cover changes, they may not regularly be available for some tropical coasts (e.g., cameroon estuary) where cloud cover is frequent. with respect to mangroves, researchers are now employing local knowledge as an alternative means of understanding forest disturbances. this paper was primarily aimed at assessing the mangrove fore ...201122146073
cell viability and leakage of electrolytes in avicennia germinans exposed to heavy metals.the effect of heavy metal stress on the cell viability and leakage of electrolytes of avicennia germinans leaf discs was investigated by the tissue tolerance test. foliar discs were incubated with different cd2+ or cu2+ concentrations for 24 h; thereafter, the cell membrane stability of the tissue was assayed by the cell viability evans blue and leakage electrolytes methods. the results indicated that electrolyte leakage of the leaf discs increased 24 h after exposure to heavy metal stress, as s ...201319678544
[leaf consumption by herbivores in mangroves of the dagua river estuary, pacific coast of colombia].herbivore leaf consumption of various mangrove species in relation to environmental factors and leaf hardness were studied in the dagua river estuary, colombia. leaf consumption and damage were assessed by measuring the percentage of area attacked by herbivores, distinguishing between consumption and damage. the species that suffered the highest consumption, such as avicennia germinans (avicenniaceae) and laguncularia racemosa (combretaceae), had softer leaves and less herbivore species when com ...200618457159
multiple effects of cadmium on the photosynthetic apparatus of avicennia germinans l. as probed by ojip chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.the toxic effects of cadmium on the photosynthetic apparatus of avicennia germinans were evaluated by means of the chlorophyll fluorescence transient o-j-i-p. the chlorophyll fluorescence transients were recorded in vivo with high time resolution and analyzed according to the ojip-test that can quantify the performance of photosystem ii. cadmium-treated plants showed a decrease in yield for primary photochemistry, tr0/abs. the performance index of photosystem ii (psii), pi(abs), decreased due to ...201317542495
drifting propagules and receding swamps: genetic footprints of mangrove recolonization and dispersal along tropical coasts.two issues that have captured the attention of tropical plant evolutionary biologists in recent years are the relative role of long distance dispersal (ldd) over vicariance in determining plant distributions and debate about the extent that quaternary climatic changes affected tropical species. propagules of some mangrove species are assumed to be capable of ldd due to their ability to float and survive for long periods of time in salt water. mangrove species responded to glaciations with a cont ...200717439624
sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils.effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. in this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (j(s)) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south florida mangrove species growing in rookery bay. this was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. for most species and diameter ...200717267368
the influence of radical architecture on cadmium bioaccumulation in the black mangrove, avicennia germinans l.two groups of avicennia germinans plants with differences in the radical architecture were exposed under hydroponic conditions to 95ppm of cadmium (cd) for a period of 24h. later, cd concentration in roots, stems and leaves was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. our results showed that, for both groups of plants, the roots accumulated higher concentration of cd as compared to stems and leaves, though, the plants of group b displayed enhanced radical architecture, ...200717109924
differences in plant function in phosphorus- and nitrogen-limited mangrove ecosystems.mangrove ecosystems can be either nitrogen (n) or phosphorus (p) limited and are therefore vulnerable to nutrient pollution. nutrient enrichment with either n or p may have differing effects on ecosystems because of underlying differences in plant physiological responses to these nutrients in either n- or p-limited settings. using a common mangrove species, avicennia germinans, in sites where growth was either n or p limited, we investigated differing physiological responses to n and p limitatio ...200617083681
salinity and light interactively affect neotropical mangrove seedlings at the leaf and whole plant levels.we have studied the interactive effects of salinity and light on avicennia germinans mangrove seedlings in greenhouse and field experiments. we hypothesized that net photosynthesis, growth, and survivorship rates should increase more with an increase in light availability for plants growing at low salinity than for those growing at high salinity. this hypothesis was supported by our results for net photosynthesis and growth. net daily photosynthesis did increase more with increasing light for lo ...200717024379
leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod.we determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species avicennia germinans (l.) stearn., laguncularia racemosa (l.) gaertn. f., and rhizophora mangle l. hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separa ...200616585041
fluorescence shell: a novel view of sclereid morphology with the confocal laser scanning microscope.confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm) was used to observe sclereids from stems of avicennia germinans and from fruits of two species of pear (pyrus calleryana "bradford" and p. communis "red bartlett"). the images obtained from thick (25 to 100 microm) free-hand sections were, in certain respects, far superior to those obtained by other, more invasive and time-consuming microscopic techniques upon which previous reports of sclereid morphology were based. the cell wall surfaces, including the ...200415170758
adjustments in leaf water relations of mangrove (avicennia germinans) seedlings grown in a salinity gradient.we used pressure-volume analysis and dewpoint hygrometry to determine leaf water relation parameters of mangrove (avicennia germinans l.) seedlings grown at salinities of 0, 8, 20 and 32 per thousand. seedlings responded to an increase in salinity from 0 to 32 per thousand by an increase in leaf succulence as reflected in an increase in leaf water content per unit area from 300 to 360 g m(-2). additionally, osmotic potential at full turgor decreased from -2.3 to -3.5 mpa and osmotic potential at ...200012651465
nitrogen limitation of growth and nutrient dynamics in a disturbed mangrove forest, indian river lagoon, florida.the objectives of this study were to determine effects of nutrient enrichment on plant growth, nutrient dynamics, and photosynthesis in a disturbed mangrove forest in an abandoned mosquito impoundment in florida. impounding altered the hydrology and soil chemistry of the site. in 1997, we established a factorial experiment along a tree-height gradient with three zones, i.e., fringe, transition, dwarf, and three fertilizer treatment levels, i.e., nitrogen (n), phosphorus (p), control, in mosquito ...200312647149
mangrove expansion and salt marsh decline at mangrove poleward limits.mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. there is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. avicennia germinans has extended ...201423907934
copper stress on photosynthesis of black mangle (avicennia germinans).the effects of copper toxicity on the photosynthetic activities of avicennia germinans was investigated using two cuso4 concentrations (0.062 and 0.33 m) added in hoagland's solution in an aerated hydroponic system. photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 30 h of copper stress. results obtained in this study show that increasing levels of cu(+2) of 0.062 and 0.33 m cu(+2) resulted in a general reduction of the stomatal conductance (28 and 18%, respectively) and 100% of in ...201323828363
leaf secretion composition of the mangrove species avicennia germinans (l.) in relation to salinity: a case study by using total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis.the aim here was to use total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (txrf) to determine the elemental composition (besides na), and the relative contribution of each element in leaf secretion of the mangrove species avicennia germinans, grown under contrasting salinities (0-865 mol m(-3) nacl). na was determined by conventional atomic absorption spectrometry (aas). total secretion was 2.00+/-0.28 mmol m(-2) per day in control plants (at 0 nacl) and increased progressively up to 46.87+/-7.14 mmol m(-2) p ...200011011087
structure, above-ground biomass and dynamics of mangrove ecosystems: new data from french guiana.the article presents new results on the structure and the above-ground biomass of the various population types of mangroves in french guiana. nine mangrove stands were studied, each composed of three to ten adjoining plots with areas that varied depending on the density of the populations. structural parameters and indices were calculated. individuals representative of the three groups of taxa present were felled:avicennia germinans (l) stearn, rhizophora spp., and laguncularia racemosa (l) gaer ...199828308466
salinity effects on the leaf water relations components and ion accumulation patterns in avicennia germinans (l.) l. seedlings.physiological traits involved in leaf water relations were evaluated in avicennia germinans (l.) l. seedlings growing at different salinities in the field. analysis of pressure-volume (p-v) curves and sap osmometry were combined to evaluate osmotic adjustment and cell elasticity, and the contribution of accumulated inorganic ions to osmotic potential was estimated. seedlings growing in soils with interstitial water salinity above that of normal sea water showed a modification of the relationship ...199828307772
growth and physiological responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings to root zone hypoxia.seedlings of rhizophora mangle l., avicennia germinans (l.) stearn., and laguncularia racemosa (l.) gaertn. f. were cultured in aerated or n(2)-purged solution for 12 weeks to assess their relative responses to low oxygen tensions. all three species responded to low oxygen treatment by modifying physiological and morphological patterns to decrease carbon loss by root respiration. however, the extent to which seedling physiology and morphology were altered by low oxygen treatment differed among s ...200414871780
a simulation model of water depth in mangrove basin forests.the construction and validation of a model simulating the water depth within mangrove basin forests is described. rainfall, water table, water depth and tide data collected from a red mangrove basin forest on marco island, fl, was used to estimate model parameters. these included the basin spillover height, evapotranspiration-infiltration rate and the functional relationship of water depth change to rainfall, tide and basin spillover. the model was constructed with lotus 123 and calibrated from ...19902370528
electron spin resonance studies of ionic permeability properties of thylakoid membranes of beta vulgaris and avicennia germinans.measurement of intrathylakoid aqueous volumes by electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to study ionic permeability properties of thylakoid membranes isolated from beta vulgaris l. and avicennia germinans l. the thylakoids behaved as perfect osmometers in the presence of sorbitol and betaine. thylakoids exposed to hypertonic solutions of nacl and kcl shrank and subsequently swelled, requiring 10 minutes to regain their original volume. the initial influx rate calculated from the kinetics ...198516664179
adenosine triphosphatase activities in leaves of the mangrove avicennia nitida jacq: influence of sodium to potassium ratios and salt concentrations.homogenates from the salt-excreting leaves of the mangrove avicennia nitida were subjected to differential centrifugation and investigated for adenosine triphosphatase activities. at ph 6.75 a salt stimulation with peaks at three different sodium to potassium ratios could be demonstrated above the activity due to mg(2+) ions. the stimulation by sodium and potassium depends on the ionic strength of the test medium, higher salt concentrations being inhibitory. the plant system seems thus more comp ...197016657297
photosynthetic performance and resource utilization of two mangrove species coexisting in a hypersaline scrub forest.in a hypersaline mangrove scrub forest in northern florida, coexisting trees of laguncularia racemosa and avicennia germinans were either fertilized with nitrogen or phosphorus, or not fertilized (controls). we aimed to test whether nutrient additions differentially altered photosynthetic performance and resource utilization in these two species. in control trees, photosynthetic rates were higher in l. racemosa than a. germinans. however, leaf nitrogen concentrations were higher in a. germinans ...200312647116
land barriers and open oceans: effects on gene diversity and population structure in avicennia germinans l. (avicenniaceae).avicennia germinans l. is a widespread mangrove species occupying the west coast of africa and the atlantic and pacific coasts of the americas from the bahamas to brazil and baja california to peru. an amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) molecular analysis was carried out to assess genetic architecture within this species and to evaluate the effects of the atlantic ocean and the central american isthmus (cai) on population and regional genetic diversity and differentiation. in total, 3 ...200212144655
pinoresinol and syringaresinol: two lignans from avicennia germinans (avicenniaceae). 200111152952
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