development of immune tolerance in the chick embryo to borrelia hispanica.varying degrees of immune tolerance were induced in chick embryos at 10, 14, and 18 days of age by inoculation of living or dead borrelia hispanica in the yolk sac, allantoic cavity, or intravenously. relative tolerance was measured by responses to challenge with virulent organisms in relation to altered susceptibility to infection and inability to produce agglutinins for b. hispanica or proteus strain oxk. challenges were made 1 week posthatching with the controls and chicks that had received d ...19676057794
lack of endotoxin in borrelia hispanica and treponema pallidum.borrelia hispanica from infected guinea pigs and treponema pallidum from testicular syphilomas of rabbits were assayed for the presence of endotoxin with the limulus lysate test. a suspension of borrelia, containing 1.3 x 10(8) spirochetes/ml, was nonreactive both when it was tested as intact organisms, and when tested after disruption of the spirochetes by sonication. eight different suspensions of treponemes, ranging from 0.6 x 10(9) to 3 x 10(9) treponemes/ml, were negative at a 1:10 dilution ...19836356134
phylogenesis of relapsing fever borrelia spp.the phylogenetic relationships of 20 relapsing fever (rf) borrelia spp. were estimated on the basis of the sequences of rrs genes. complete sequences were aligned and compared with previously published sequences, and the similarity values were found to be 97.7 to 99.9%. phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the three neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. the results of the comparative phylogenetic analysis divided the rf borrelia spp. into three major cluste ...19968863409
phylogenetic analysis of borrelia species based on flagellin gene sequences and its application for molecular typing of lyme disease borreliae.we determined almost complete flagellin gene sequences of various borrelia species and aligned them with previously published sequences. a neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that the genus borrelia was divided into the following three major clusters: new world relapsing fever borreliae (borrelia turicatae, borrelia parkeri, and borrelia hermsii), old world relapsing fever borreliae (borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia hispanica), and lyme disease borreliae (borrelia b ...19968863416
[infectiousness of recurrens ticks according to trials with spirochaeta hispanica and ornithodorus moubata]. 195313103322
[specificity of recurrential immobilizing in borrelia duttoni and in borrelia hispanica]. 195313124977
[immunity and specificity of recurrent immobilisins between borrelia duttoni and borrelia hispanica]. 195413158934
[experimental transmission of spirochaeta hispanica buen, 1926 by guinea pig bite]. 195513283620
[experimental transmission of the spirochaeta hispanica to the dog by rat bite]. 195513293876
[conservation of the mobility and virulence of borrelia hispanica (langeron strain) in diluted serum]. 195613342840
[albumin-globulin relationship in the guinea pig infested by borrelia hispanica]. 195613364642
[preservation of borrelia hispanica in dilute serum at 4degrees with anaerobiosis]. 195613365198
[study on the survival of borrelia hispanica in dilute blood]. 195713469578
[research on antitreponemic immobilizins in spirochetosis due to borrelia hispanica]. 195713479746
[survival of borrelia hispanica (de buen 1926) in blood preserved at 4 degrees c]. 195813534795
[experimental inoculation of the chick embryo with borrelia hispanica]. 196013741052
[experimental infection with borrelia hispanica in the white rat]. 196113750219
[experimental transmission by biting, of spirochaeta hispanica, the causative agent of spanish and moroccan relapsing fever, in white rats and guinea pigs]. 195514352484
the long survival of borrelia hispanica (de buen) in the argasid tick ornithodoros nicollei mooser; a problem in xenodiagnosis. 195514380272
[experimental transmission of spirochaeta hispanica of buen, 1926, by rat bite]. 195514388832
borrelia hispanica relapsing fever, morocco.we found that 20.5% of patients with an unexplained fever in northwestern morocco had tick-borne relapsing fever. molecular detection specific for the 16s rrna gene identified borrelia hispanica. the noncoding intergenic spacer sequence domain showed high sensitivity and good resolution for this species.200919861058
borrelia hispanica in ornithodoros erraticus, portugal.clin microbiol infect abstract: tick-borne relapsing fever (tbrf) is a spirochetal infection caused by the genus borrelia. the disease is distributed in the old and new world with many different species reported. in europe, tbrf is caused by b. hispanica transmitted to man by ornithodoros erraticus, a soft tick usually found in old premises to shelter pig herds. in portugal, the first human case of tbrf was reported in 1942 but since the beginning of the 1960s, the disease has rarely been descri ...201121883668
multiplex real-time pcr diagnostic of relapsing fevers in africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens causing mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. the closely related borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, borrelia recurrentis and borrelia hispanica are rarely diagnosed at the species level, hampering refined epidemiological and clinical knowledge of the relapsing fevers. it would be hugely beneficial to have simultaneous detection and identification of borrelia to species level directly from clinical samples.201323390560
african relapsing fever borreliae genomospecies revealed by comparative genomics.relapsing fever borreliae are vector-borne bacteria responsible for febrile infection in humans in north america, africa, asia, and in the iberian peninsula in europe. relapsing fever borreliae are phylogenetically closely related, yet they differ in pathogenicity and vectors. their long-term taxonomy, based on geography and vector grouping, needs to be re-apprised in a genomic context. we therefore embarked into genomic analyses of relapsing fever borreliae, focusing on species found in africa.201425229054
laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne african relapsing fevers: latest africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. these tropical diseases are responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. cultured borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia hispanica circulate alongside at least six species that have not yet been cultured in vectors. direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. indeed, microsco ...201526618151
blood-borne candidatus borrelia algerica in a patient with prolonged fever in oran, improve the knowledge base of borrelia in north africa, we tested 257 blood samples collected from febrile patients in oran, algeria, between january and december 2012 for borrelia species using flagellin gene polymerase chain reaction sequencing. a sequence indicative of a new borrelia sp. named candidatus borrelia algerica was detected in one blood sample. further multispacer sequence typing indicated this borrelia sp. had 97% similarity with borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borr ...201526416117
hypercholesterolemia and apoe deficiency result in severe infection with lyme disease and relapsing-fever borrelia.the lyme disease (borrelia burgdorferi) and relapsing-fever (borrelia hispanica) agents have distinct infection courses, but both require cholesterol for growth. they acquire cholesterol from the environment and process it to form cholesterol glycolipids that are incorporated onto their membranes. to determine whether higher levels of serum cholesterol could enhance the organ burdens of b. burgdorferi and the spirochetemia of b. hispanica in laboratory mice, apolipoprotein e (apoe)-deficient and ...201525870274
relapsing fever borreliae in africa.the study of relapsing fever borreliae in africa has long suffered from the use of non-specific laboratory tools for the direct detection of these spirochetes in clinical and vector specimens. accordingly, borrelia hispanica, borrelia crocidurae, borrelia duttonii, and borrelia recurrentis have traditionally been distinguished on the basis of geography and vector and the unproven hypothesis that each species was exclusive to one vector. the recent sequencing of three relapsing fever borrelia gen ...201323926141
genome sequence of the relapsing fever borreliosis species borrelia hispanica.borrelia hispanica is the etiological pathogen of tick-borne relapsing fever, transmitted to humans by infected ornithodoros erraticus ticks. here we present the 1,783,846-bp draft genome sequence, with an average g+c content of 28%. it has 2,140 open reading frames, 3 ribosomal rnas, and 32 transfer rnas.201424435869
borrelia crocidurae in ornithodoros ticks from northwestern morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?tick-borne relapsing fever (tbrf) is caused by borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by argasid soft ticks of the genus ornithodoros. we investigated the presence of ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the gharb region of northwestern morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of tbrf in humans. we assessed the borrelia infection rate by nested pcr and sequencing. all sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high pro ...201425424260
a 13-year old girl with pancytopenia at the presentation of a borrelia hispanica infection: a case report and review of the is not uncommon that a child with a febrile illness of unknown etiology is admitted to the hospital. when the complete blood count reveals a pancytopenia, the diagnostic process can be a real challenge.201728238286
portuguese hosts for ornithodoros erraticus ticks.the hematophagous soft tick ornithodoros erraticus feeds nocturnally on multiple warm-blooded vertebrate hosts. this tick is often found living buried in the soil of traditional pigpens. o. erraticus is an important infectious disease vector both for humans and animals. in the iberian peninsula, this tick serves as the vector of human tick-borne relapsing fever caused by the spirochete borrelia hispanica. the natural ecosystems maintaining this spirochete are not well understood, with details of ...201323808979
[spirochaeta hispanica rats of algiers; new survey]. 195413181529
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