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salmonella enteritidis and arizona hinshawii isolated from wild sandhill cranes.salmonella enteritidis serotype rubislaw and arizona hinshawii were isolated from cloacal swabs of "healthy" live-trapped sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida) in indiana and wisconsin. these respective isolations were the first reported from wild sandhill cranes.1977343779
use of monoclonal antibodies developed against chicken coccidia (eimeria) to study invasion and development of eimeria reichenowi in florida sandhill cranes (grus canadensis).eimeria gruis and eimeria reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of species of cranes. until recently, little was known about either the site for invasion or the dynamics of early development of the crane coccidia because of the difficulty of identifying sporozoites and early developmental stages of these parasites by conventional staining methods. in the present study, monoclonal antibodies (mabs) elicited against eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys were found to cross-react wit ...200112790396
efficacy of eastern equine encephalitis immunization in whooping cranes.an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) at the patuxent wildlife research center (pwrc), laurel, maryland (usa), in 1989 provided an opportunity to determine if eee immunization protected whooping cranes (grus americana). based on seroconversion of 31% of sympatric hatch-year sandhill cranes, grus canadensis, and a previous 35% case fatality rate in whooping cranes, 17 (37%) of the 46 susceptible whooping cranes should have been exposed to virus and six should have died. as there were ...19979131565
experimental newcastle disease virus infections in three species of wild birds.three species of wild birds--the red-winged blackbird (agelaius phoeniceus), an african weaver finch (quelea quelea), and the sandhill crane (grus canadensis)--were exposed to newcastle disease virus (ndv) to determine susceptibility and host response. the ndv used were a vaccine strain (lasota) and a viscerotropic velogenic strain (new york parrot). host response was monitored by virus isolation, signs of disease, and serologic response. both the red-winged blackbirds and the quelea shed little ...1979486009
pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in blood plasma of quail, pheasants, and cranes.rate of appearance, peak concentration, and the biological half-life of gentamicin in the plasma of quail (coturnix coturnix), pheasants (phasianus colchicus), and cranes (grus canadensis tabida) were studied. gentamicin was given im in doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of body weight. peak plasma concentrations occurred earliest in the quail, latest in the cranes. the peak concentrations varied directly with the administered doses in all species. the biological half-life of gentamicin was 42 +/- 12 ...1979475144
levels of fecal corticosterone in sandhill cranes during a human-led migration.fourteen captive-reared greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida) were conditioned to follow ultralight aircraft to promote migration between wisconsin and florida (usa) after release. fecal samples were collected throughout the training period in wisconsin and during a l977-km human-led migration to florida to determine fecal corticosterone (fc) concentrations by radioimmunnoassay. the mean (+/-se) fc concentration during the training period was 109.5 +/- 7.5 ng/g and was representative ...200415362826
mycobacterium avium serotype 1 infection in a sandhill crane (grus canadensis).tuberculous lesions were observed in the liver of an adult sandhill crane (grus canadensis); mycobacterium avium serotype 1 was isolated. chickens inoculated intravenously with the culture had granulomas in the liver and spleen at necropsy 62 days after inoculation.1977839620
evaluation of the enteric microflora of captive whooping cranes (grus americana) and sandhill cranes (grus canadensis).the enteric flora of captive whooping cranes (grus americana) and sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) has not been well described, despite its potential importance in the understanding of both the normal condition of the intestinal physiology of these animals and the altered colonization within disease states in these birds. nineteen whooping cranes and 23 sandhill cranes housed currently at the calgary zoo or its affiliated devonian wildlife conservation centre (dwcc) in calgary, alberta were sam ...200719360567
a species of plasmodium from sandhill cranes in florida.infections of a species of plasmodium (subgenus giovannolaia) were diagnosed in 3 sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) from north-central florida. this parasite is close morphometrically to plasmodium polare; this finding constitutes the first report of a species of plasmodium from sandhill cranes in north america.19948195957
survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and sandhill cranes of florida, usa.captive-reared whooping cranes (grus americana) released into florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. very little is known about the incidence of ibd in wild bird populations. before this study, natural exposure had not been do ...201020688680
pathogenicity of west nile virus and response to vaccination in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) using a killed vaccine.west nile virus was introduced into the united states in the vicinity of new york, new york, usa in 1999. the virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (corvus brachyrhinchos). one sandhill crane (grus canadensis) at the bridgeport zoo (bridgeport, connecticut, usa) reportedly died from west nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at united states geolog ...200919569472
gentamicin tissue concentration in various avian species following recommended dosage therapy.plasma and tissue drug concentrations were compared in eastern bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus virginianus) and pigeons (columba livia) given gentamicin by im administration at the dosage of 10 mg/kg, and in greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida) and hybrid rosybill ducks (netta sp) given the same antibiotic at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. quail and cranes had significantly higher liver concentrations of gentamicin at 6 hours after injection than did pigeons and ducks. cranes had significa ...19817340581
feather mites of the greater sandhill crane.new taxa are described from grus canadensis tabida: brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (alloptidae); pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (kramerellidae); geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (pterolichidae). observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given.1979512759
pharmacokinetics and tissue concentrations of tylosin in selected avian species.tissue and plasma concentrations and the biological half-life of tylosin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. the species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (colinus virginianus virginianus), pigeons (columba livia), greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida), and emus (dromaius novaehollandiae). in the 1st phase of this study, tylosin was administered im to quail, pigeons, and emus at a dosage rate of 25 mg/kg of body weight and to cranes at a dosa ...19827149381
species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury.we injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. for 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (lc(50)). based on the dose-response curves and lc(50)s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value ...200918421496
lead poisoning in sandhill cranes.seven florida sandhill cranes (grus canadensis pratensis) and 6 greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida) were exposed to lead-base paint containing 27% lead. one bird of each subspecies died enroute to the hospital, with a clinical history of anorexia, weakness, and open-mouth breathing of 36 hours' duration. there were no gross lesions, and microscopic lesions were limited to focal hepatic necrosis and hemosiderosis. two of each subspecies of cranes developed clinical signs of lead pois ...1977411773
capture myopathy in a free-flying greater sandhill crane (grus canadensis tabida) from wisconsin. 19836644929
time within reproductive season, but not age or inbreeding coefficient, affects seminal and sperm quality in the whooping crane (grus americana).all living whooping cranes (grus americana) are descended from 16 or fewer birds that remained alive in the early 1940s, a bottleneck that puts the species at potential risk for inbreeding depression. although ai is commonly used in the management of the captive population of this species, little is known about seminal traits or factors affecting sperm quality in the whooping crane. in the present study, semen samples were collected from 29 adult males (age 3-27 years) during the early (march), ...201526259642
pathology and pathogenesis of disseminated visceral coccidiosis in cranes.disseminated visceral coccidiosis (dvc) caused by eimeria spp. was recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (grus americana) in the late 1970s. while most avian species of eimeria inhabit the intestinal tract of its host, the crane eimerians, eimeria reichenowi and eimeria gruis, invade and multiply systemically and complete their development in both digestive and respiratory tracts. in dvc, cranes, especially chicks, may succumb to acute in ...200415223553
use of monoclonal antibodies against chicken coccidia to study invasion and early development of eimeria gruis in the florida sandhill crane (grus canadensis).eimeria gruis and e. reichenowi are common coccidial parasites of a number of crane species. in the present study, monoclonal antibodies (mcabs), elicited against eimeria spp. of chickens and turkeys, cross-reacted with sporozoites and developmental stages of e. gruis in the tissues of florida sandhill cranes. these mcabs were used to define the area of the intestine that was invaded by sporozoites of e. gruis and to demonstrate the feasibility of using mcabs to study the early development of e. ...19989638620
serum corticosterone response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in florida sandhill cranes.florida sandhill cranes (grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement in an enclosure for 7 days, 6 hr a day. on day 8, cranes were catheterized and then confined in an enclosure. venous blood (2 ml) was collected through the catheter and an attached iv line immediately before (-60 min) and 60 min after (0 min) confinement. using a randomization table and a restricted cross-over experimental design, cranes were injected intravenously with either saline (control) or adrenocorticotro ...19989813840
dermatitis in young florida sandhill cranes (grus canadensis pratensis) due to infestation by the chigger, blankaartia sinnamaryi. 19979267428
osmotic tolerance of avian spermatozoa: influence of time, temperature, cryoprotectant and membrane ion pump function on sperm viability.potential factors influencing sperm survival under hypertonic conditions were evaluated in the sandhill crane (grus canadensis) and turkey (meleagridis gallopavo). sperm osmotolerance (300-3000 mosm/kg) was evaluated after: (1) equilibration times of 2, 10, 45 and 60 min at 4 degrees c versus 21 degrees c; (2) pre-equilibrating with dimethylacetamide (dma) or dimethylsulfoxide (me2so) at either 4 degrees c or 21 degrees c; and (3) inhibition of the na+/k+ and the na+/h+ antiporter membrane ionic ...200818005955
a complex alloantigen system in florida sandhill cranes, grus canadensis pratensis: evidence for the major histocompatibility (b) system.the b blood group system constitutes the major histocompatibility complex (mhc) in birds. the mhc is a cluster of genes largely devoted to the processing and presentation of antigen. the mhc is highly polymorphic in many species and, thus, useful in the evaluation of genetic diversity for fitness traits within populations of a variety of animals. correlations found between particular mhc haplotypes and resistance to certain diseases emphasize the importance of understanding the functional signif ...19957560871
pharmacokinetics of cephalothin and cephalexin in selected avian species.plasma concentrations and the biological half-lives of cephalothin and cephalexin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. the species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (colinus v virginianus), pigeons (columba livia), hybrid rosybill ducks (netta sp), greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida), and emus (dromiceius novaehollandiae). in the 1st phase of the study, cephalothin sodium was given im in a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. plasma concentrati ...19817283231
ultrasonographic imaging of the sandhill crane (grus canadensis) intertarsal joint.tendon ossification in the crus and tarsometatarsal regions of cranes makes ultrasonography difficult everywhere except for joints, where ossification is absent. normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the adult florida sandhill crane (grus canadensis pratensis) intertarsal joint is described on the basis of ultrasonography that was performed on the limbs of a cadaver, which were dissected and cross-sectioned subsequently, to correlate ultrasonographic images with anatomic structures. intertarsal joi ...200312885131
migratory birds of central washington as reservoirs of campylobacter jejuni.migratory ducks, canada geese, and sandhill crane from the pacific north american flyway have been screened for campylobacter spp. samples (298) from these birds were examined and the incidence of campylobacter spp. in the samples were as follows: sandhill crane (grus canadensis tabida), 81%; ducks (aythya collaris, anas carolinensis, aythya americana, and anas platyrhynchos), 73%; and canada geese (branta canadensis), 5%. all isolates were identified as campylobacter jejuni. to our knowledge th ...19883378202
fecal corticosterone reflects serum corticosterone in florida sandhill cranes.florida sandhill cranes (grus canadensis pratensis) were conditioned to confinement 6 hr/day for 7 days. on day 8, each bird's jugular vein was catheterized, blood samples were drawn, and each crane was confined for 6 hr. using a randomized, restricted cross-over design, cranes were injected intravenously with either 0.9% nacl solution or acth (cosyntropin; cortrosyn; 0.25 mg). during the 6 hr of confinement, fecal samples (feces and urine) were collected from each of five cranes immediately aft ...200111504244
helminth and arthropod parasites of experimentally introduced whooping cranes in florida.nine species of nematodes, unidentified larval nematodes, three species of trematodes, two species of acanthocephalans and a single species of chewing louse were collected from 1993 to 1995 from 25 introduced whooping cranes (grus americana) in florida (usa). in spite of a quarantine procedure involving anthelmintic therapy, three helminth parasites may have been introduced from captive populations. other parasites acquired were similar to those found in a local congener, the florida sandhill cr ...19968627935
helminth fauna of sandhill crane populations in texas.three species of trematode [orchipedium jolliei schell, 1967; prohyptiamus grusi kocan, waldrup, ramakka, and iverson, 1982; echinostoma revolutum (froelich, 1802)], three species of nematode (tetrameres grusi shumakovich, 1946; synhimanthus sp.; contracaecum sp.), and one species of cestode (anomotaenia sp.) were recovered from 146 sandhill cranes, grus canadensis (linnaeus), collected in alaska, canada, and two areas in texas. the only common and abundant species were o. jolliei and t grusi. o ...19846492322
successful treatment of capture myopathy in three wild greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida).two adult and 1 juvenile free-flying greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida) were diagnosed with capture myopathy after alpha-chloralose baiting and physical capture during a banding and feeding ecologic study. blood samples were collected for serum biochemical analysis at the time of capture for the 2 adults, and at 24 hours postcapture, at various intervals during treatment, and at the time of release for all 3 birds. concentrations of creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and lact ...200718351009
capture of sandhill cranes using alpha-chloralose.from 1990-2001, we made 188 successful captures of 166 different greater sandhill cranes (grus canadensis tabida) through experimental use of alpha-chloralose (ac). most captures took place during september (72.3%; n = 136), followed by august (14.9%; n = 28), and october (12.8%; n = 24). territorial pairs were captured more successfully than family groups. overall morbidity (6.4%) and mortality (4.3%) were lower than most other capture techniques for sandhill cranes. exertional myopathy (em) wa ...200314733281
avian pox in florida sandhill cranes.cutaneous elevations were present on the feet, legs and heads of four florida sandhill cranes, grus canadensis pratensis, (one free-living, three penreared birds). as a result of examination of the elevations by light- and electron microscopy, it was determined that the lesions were caused by poxvirus. this is the first record of pox in cranes in north america.1996163382
mortality of captive whooping cranes caused by eastern equine encephalitis virus.of 39 captive whooping cranes (grus americana), 7 died during a 7-week period (sept 17 through nov 4, 1984) at the patuxent wildlife research center, laurel, md. before their deaths, 4 cranes did not develop clinical signs, whereas the other 3 cranes were lethargic and ataxic, with high aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and lactic acid dehydrogenase activities, and high uric acid concentrations. necropsies indicated that the birds had ascites, intestinal mucosal discoloration, ...19863505915
antibody response of sandhill and whooping cranes to an eastern equine encephalitis virus vaccine.as a possible strategy to protect whooping cranes (grus americana) from fatal eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viral infection, studies were conducted to determine the immune response of this species and sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) to a formalin-inactivated eee viral vaccine. viral-specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in both species after intramuscular (im) vaccination. subcutaneous and intravenous routes of vaccination failed to elicit detectable antibody in sandhill cranes. amon ...19872824863
multilocus sequence typing confirms wild birds as the source of a campylobacter outbreak associated with the consumption of raw peas.from august to september 2008, the centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) assisted the alaska division of public health with an outbreak investigation of campylobacteriosis occurring among the residents of southcentral alaska. during the investigation, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) of campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, raw pea, and wild bird fecal samples confirmed the epidemiologic link between illness and the consumption of raw peas contaminated by sandhill cranes fo ...201424837383
pulmonary lesions in disseminated visceral coccidiosis of sandhill and whooping cranes.fifty cranes, consisting of 46 sandhill (grus canadensis) and four whooping cranes (grus americana), were studied. eighteen sandhill cranes and the four whooping cranes were naturally infected with disseminated visceral coccidiosis (dvc). the remaining sandhill cranes were chicks experimentally infected with oocysts of eimeria reichenowi and/or e. gruis; five chicks served as controls. there were no clinical signs attributed to respiratory infection. necropsy of naturally infected adult birds re ...19892810553
disseminated visceral coccidiosis in whooping cranes.three 13- to 18-day-old whooping cranes (grus americana) and a 9-year-old whooping crane died in outdoor pens at the patuxent wildlife research center. the deaths were associated with an overwhelming systemic infection by an intracellular protozoan parasite, which resulted in enteritis, granulomatous bronchopneumonia, hepatitis, splenitis, and myocarditis. the clinical, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings were similar to those in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) at the patuxent c ...19807451323
coccidia of whooping cranes.coccidial oocysts were observed in 6 of 19 fecal samples from free-ranging whooping cranes (grus americana) and 4 of 16 samples from captive whooping cranes. eimeria gruis occurred in four free-ranging whooping cranes and e. reichenowi in two free-ranging and two captive whooping cranes. fecal samples from two captive cranes contained oocysts of isospora lacazei which was considered a spurious parasite. oocysts of both species of eimeria were prevalent in fecal samples collected from three free- ...1978633514
coccidia of sandhill cranes, grus canadensis.eimeria gruis yakinoff and matschoulsky 1935, eimeria reichenowi yakimoff and matschoulsky 1935, and an adelina species are described from sandhill cranes in the united states. e. gruis was found in the feces of 11 of 14 florida sandhill cranes (grus canadensis pratensis) and 62 of 72 greater sandhill cranes (g. c. tabida) from florida, 5 of 14 greater sandhill cranes from arizona, and 4 of 16 lesser sandhill cranes (g. c. canadensis) from texas. e. reichenowi was found in the feces of 12 of 14 ...1975809566
allozyme evidence for crane systematics and polymorphisms within populations of sandhill, sarus, siberian, and whooping cranes.electrophoretic analysis of proteins yielded evidence on the relationships of species of cranes and on genetic diversity within populations of some species. diversity within the greater sandhill crane and a florida population of the florida sandhill crane was similar to that of most other vertebrates, but diversity was low in the mississippi sandhill crane, in the okefenokee population of the florida sandhill crane, and within the siberian and sarus cranes. diversity was surprisingly high among ...19921342943
fusarium mycotoxins from peanuts suspected as a cause of sandhill crane mortality.an estimated 9,500 sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) died in gaines county, texas and roosevelt county, new mexico between 1982 and 1987. the predominant clinical sign observed in sick cranes was their inability to hold their heads erect, both while standing and flying. multiple muscle hemorrhages and submandibular edema were the most common lesions seen at necropsy. mycotoxins produced by fusarium sp. growing during cold, wet weather on peanuts left in the field after harvest, the predominant f ...19892915402
vitamin e in cranes: reference ranges and nutrient interactions.fat soluble vitamins e and a (quantified as alpha-tocopherol and all-trans retinol, respectively) were measured in plasma samples from 274 captive cranes from four institutions and five free-ranging birds. ages ranged from 4 mo to 80 yr, and all 15 crane species were represented. captive cranes had a mean +/- standard error (se) of 6.57 +/- 0.82 micrograms/ml alpha-tocopherol; migrating greater sandhill cranes (grus canadenis tabida) had a plasma concentration of 3.71 +/- 0.22 micrograms/ml. sex ...19938445797
some helminth parasites of sandhill cranes from mid-continental north america. 19836842735
iatrogenic salt poisoning in captive sandhill cranes.salt poisoning developed in captive sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) when sea salt was added to normal drinking water to produce a sodium chloride concentration of 1%. two of 18 cranes died and 2 were euthanatized when moribund. muscle weakness, paresis, dyspnea, and depression were observed. brain and serum sodium, serum uric acid, and plasma osmolality values were abnormally high. lesions were those of visceral gout, renal tubular necrosis, nephrosis, and skeletal muscle necrosis.19817328005
disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes.oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) at the patuxent wildlife research center. necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined mic ...1979521379
sperm head length as a predictor of fecundity in the sandhill crane, grus canadensis.semen samples from 14 sandhill cranes were collected for 15 weeks. mean sperm head length which did not vary significantly over weeks was found to be significantly correlated with fertility (p less than 0 . 04; r = 0 . 54, n = 14).1979439075
efficacy of selected coccidiostats in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) following challenge.the anticoccidial efficacy of amprolium, clazuril, and monensin were studied in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) infected with a mixture of eimeria spp. oocysts. five groups of four 1-day-old sandhill crane chicks were maintained on a crumbled ration containing no coccidiostat, amprolium at 2.2 ppm, clazuril at 1.1 ppm, clazuril at 5.5 ppm, or monensin at 99 ppm. after 2 wk on their respective feeding regimens, birds in each of the five groups were administered 25 x 10(3) pooled sporulated eime ...200517312756
genetic differentiation in a captive population of the endangered siberian crane (grus leucogeranus pall.).dna fingerprinting, followed by multivariate analysis of data, was used to characterize genetic heterogeneity in captive populations of the endangered siberian and sandhill cranes. the genetic structure revealed reflected the natural population and species distributions. the relevant groups differed not only from each other, but also from interspecies and inter-population hybrids bred in captivity. in this study we have tested an approach to the analysis of population structure based on individu ...19947808418
genome sizes of cranes (aves: gruiformes).the dna content of blood cell nuclei of 15 species of cranes was determined by feulgen-dna cytophotometry. genome sizes agree with values reported elsewhere for several crane species analyzed by flow cytometry. males have more dna per cell than females in several species. a karyotype where 2n = 80 is reported for a male greater sandhill crane.200617103395
suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.in 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. these birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and al ...20032775094
ambient air concentrations of pcdds, pcdfs, coplanar pcbs, and pahs at the mississippi sandhill crane national wildlife refuge, jackson county, mississippi.our objective was to determine the levels of selected airborne contaminants in ambient air at the mississippi sandhill crane national wildlife refuge, mississippi, that might be affecting the health of endangered cranes living there. two high-volume air samplers were operated at separate locations on the refuge during may-september 1991. the sampling media were micro-quartz filters in combination with polyurethane foam plugs. composite bimonthly samples from each station were analyzed for polych ...199424201889
population genetic structure in migratory sandhill cranes and the role of pleistocene glaciations.previous studies of migratory sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) have made significant progress explaining evolution of this group at the species scale, but have been unsuccessful in explaining the geographically partitioned variation in morphology seen on the population scale. the objectives of this study were to assess the population structure and gene flow patterns among migratory sandhill cranes using microsatellite dna genotypes and mitochondrial dna haplotypes of a large sample of individua ...200516029467
development and evaluation of a quantitative pcr assay targeting sandhill crane (grus canadensis) fecal pollution.while the microbial water quality in the platte river is seasonally impacted by excreta from migrating cranes, there are no methods available to study crane fecal contamination. here we characterized microbial populations in crane feces using phylogenetic analysis of 16s rrna gene fecal clone libraries. using these sequences, a novel crane quantitative pcr (crane1) assay was developed, and its applicability as a microbial source tracking (mst) assay was evaluated by determining its host specific ...201222492437
genetic variation in the midcontinental population of sandhill cranes, grus canadensis.three subspecies of sandhill crane (grus canadensis) are recognized in the midcontinental population, the lesser (grus c. canadensis), canadian (g. c. rowani), and greater (g. c. tabida). blood samples collected on the population's primary spring staging area in nebraska, u.s.a., were used to resolve the genetic relationship among these subspecies. phylogenetic analysis of 27 g. canadensis, by dna sequencing of a 675 bp region of the mtdna, supports the subspecies designations of g. c. canadensi ...200312645869
identification and characterization of highlands j virus from a mississippi sandhill crane using unbiased next-generation sequencing.advances in massively parallel dna sequencing platforms, commonly termed next-generation sequencing (ngs) technologies, have greatly reduced time, labor, and cost associated with dna sequencing. thus, ngs has become a routine tool for new viral pathogen discovery and will likely become the standard for routine laboratory diagnostics of infectious diseases in the near future. this study demonstrated the application of ngs for the rapid identification and characterization of a virus isolated from ...201424880070
fecal corticosterone refects serum corticosterone in florida sandhill cranes. 200028404046
environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered mississippi sandhill crane (grus canadensis pulla).our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered mississippi sandhill crane (grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalit ...199424213965
isoflurane anesthesia in sandhill cranes (grus canadensis): minimal anesthetic concentration and cardiopulmonary dose-response during spontaneous and controlled breathing.information on species differences in responses to inhalation anesthetics has been established in a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species, but comparable studies have not been reported in birds. the purpose of this study was to determine minimal anesthetic concentration and cardiopulmonary concentration-response effects of isoflurane in sandhill cranes. six cranes were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen. gases sampled through a polyethylene tube inserted to the distal end of an endo ...19892929984
outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with consumption of raw peas.campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and most cases are identified as sporadic events rather than as parts of recognized outbreaks. we report findings from a substantial 2008 campylobacteriosis outbreak with general implications for fresh produce safety.201121653299
metastatic cholangiocarcinoma in a florida sandhill crane. 19853001002
haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging florida sandhill crane chicks.we obtained blood smears from 114 florida sandhill crane (grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in osceola and lake counties, florida, usa, during 1998-2000. leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with haemoproteus balearicae. one chick infected with h. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume = 13%) and was later found moribund. at necropsy this bird also had severe anemia a ...200415650085
disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes.disseminated visceral coccidiosis (dvc) caused by eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (g americana) at the patuxent wildlife research center. because cranes produced at the center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of dvc in wild gruidae. nine sandhill cranes dos ...19846511579
optimal population prediction of sandhill crane recruitment based on climate-mediated habitat limitations.1. prediction is fundamental to scientific enquiry and application; however, ecologists tend to favour explanatory modelling. we discuss a predictive modelling framework to evaluate ecological hypotheses and to explore novel/unobserved environmental scenarios to assist conservation and management decision-makers. we apply this framework to develop an optimal predictive model for juvenile (<1 year old) sandhill crane grus canadensis recruitment of the rocky mountain population (rmp). we consider ...201525808951
capture of sandhill cranes using alpha-chloralose: a 10-year follow-up.seasonal adjustment of alpha-chloralose captures of sandhill cranes was associated with a modest increase in capture efficacy (+13%), decreased morbidity from exertional myopathy (-1.4%), and overall mortality (-1.7%) rates despite little change in sedation scores. postcapture fluid administration also decreased confinement times by several hours over most sedation scores.201424171579
comparative cryopreservation of avian spermatozoa: effects of freezing and thawing rates on turkey and sandhill crane sperm cryosurvival.a comparative approach was used to evaluate semen cooling rates, thawing rates and freezing volume on the cryosurvival of avian sperm. turkey (meleagris gallopavo) and sandhill crane (grus canadensis) sperm were cryopreserved with dimethylacetamide (dma) concentrations ranging from 6% to 26%. experiments evaluated the efficacy of (1) rapid, moderate and slow cooling rates, (2) rapid and slow thawing rates, and (3) final volume of semen frozen (0.2 ml compared to 0.5 ml). for crane sperm only, ad ...201222406423
integrating microsatellite and pedigree analyses to facilitate the captive management of the endangered mississippi sandhill crane (grus canadensis pulla).the minimization of kinship in captive populations is usually achieved through the use of pedigree information. however, pedigree knowledge alone is not sufficient if pedigree information is missing, questionable, or when the founders of the captive population are related to one another. if this is the case, higher levels of inbreeding and lower levels of genetic diversity may be present in a captive population than those calculated by pedigree analyses alone. in this study, the genetic status o ...201221604289
testing the utility of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 sequences for phylogenetic estimates of relationships between crane (grus) species.morphology and biogeography are widely used in animal taxonomy. recent study has suggested that a dna-based identification system, using a 648-bp portion of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (co1), also known as the barcoding gene, can aid in the resolution of inferences concerning phylogenetic relationships and for identification of species. however, the effectiveness of dna barcoding for identifying crane species is unknown. we amplified and sequenced 894-bp dna fragments of ...201122194213
haemosporida prevalence and diversity are similar in endangered wild whooping cranes (grus americana) and sympatric sandhill cranes (grus canadensis).the population growth of endangered whooping cranes (grus americana) is not consistent with species recovery goals, and the impact of parasite infection on whooping crane populations is largely unknown. disease ecology and epidemiology research of endangered species is often hindered by limited ability to conduct invasive sampling on the target taxa. accordingly, we hypothesized that sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) would be a useful surrogate species to investigate the health impacts of haemos ...201727938437
monitoring whooping crane abundance using aerial surveys: influences on detectability.the whooping crane (grus americana), an endangered species, has been counted on its winter grounds in texas, usa, since 1950 using fixed-wing aircraft. many shortcomings of the traditional survey technique have been identified, calling into question its efficacy, defensibility, repeatability, and usefulness into the future. to improve and standardize monitoring effort, we began investigating new survey techniques. here we focus on efficacy of line transect-based distance sampling during aerial s ...201426388657
identification, inheritance, and linkage of b-g-like and mhc class i genes in cranes.we identified b-g-like genes in the whooping and florida sandhill cranes and linked them to the major histocompatibility complex (mhc). we evaluated the inheritance of b-g-like genes in families of whooping and florida sandhill cranes using restriction fragment patterns (rfps). two b-g-like genes, designated wcbg1 and wcbg2, were located within 8 kb of one another. the fully sequenced wcbg2 gene encodes a b-g igv-like domain, an additional ig-like domain, a transmembrane domain, and a single hep ...20109987924
molecular detection of campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) at the central platte river.the risk to human health of the annual sandhill crane (grus canadensis) migration through nebraska, which is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution of the central platte river, is unknown. to better understand potential risks, the presence of campylobacter species and three fecal indicator bacterial groups (enterococcus spp., escherichia coli, and bacteroidetes) was assayed by pcr from crane excreta and water samples collected during their stopover at the platte river, nebraska, in 2010 ...201323584775
a novel haemosporida clade at the rank of genus in north american cranes (aves: gruiformes).the unicellular blood parasites in the order haemosporida are highly diverse, infect many vertebrates, are responsible for a large disease burden among humans and animals, and have reemerged as an important model system to understand the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of host-parasite interactions. the phylogenetics and systematics of haemosporida are limited by poor sampling of different vertebrate host taxa. we surveyed the haemosporida of wild whooping cranes (grus americana) and sandhi ...201728012954
coccidiosis of sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) wintering in new mexico.the feces of 212 sandhill cranes (grus canadensis) collected in central new mexico from october 1982 to january 1983 and from october 1983 to january 1984 were examined to determine the prevalence of coccidial oocysts. one hundred forty-five granulomatous nodules from the viscera of 64 cranes and samples of lung, small intestine, and large intestine from 58 birds were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy for the presence of intestinal or extraintestinal coccidiosis. of the 212 ...19863951058
leucocytozoon grusi sp. n. (sporozoa: leucocytozoidae) from a sandhill crane, grus canadensis (l.). 19744206882
presumed reactive polyarthritis and granulomatous vasculitis in a mississippi sandhill crane (grus canadensis pulla).a 1.5-year-old female mississippi sandhill crane (grus canadensis pulla) was presented and managed for a polyarthritis of the intertarsal and tarsophalangeal articulations. results of aerobic bacterial cultures, mycoplasma species culture, and polymerase chain reaction testing of articular fluid did not identify any causative organisms. results of radiographs and cytologic examination of articular fluid were consistent with an inflammatory, nonerosive polyarthritis. the arthritis did not improve ...201324640933
potential natural exposure of mississippi sandhill cranes to aflatoxin b1.a survey was conducted to determine if carcinogenic mycotoxins were present in foods consumed by mississippi sandhill cranes (grus canadensis pulla). samples of field corn (zea mays) (n = 111) and chufa (cyperus esculentus) (n = 20), obtained in 1987, 1988 and 1989 on the mississippi sandhill crane national wildlife refuge (mscnwr) and nearby private lands were analyzed for aflatoxin b1(ab1), ochratoxin a and sterigmatocystin using thin layer chromatography. chufa samples were negative for all t ...19911758031
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