purification of polygalacturonases produced by botrytis cinerea e-200. 19751240016
characterization of polygalacturonases of botrytis cinerea e-200. 19751240017
pine stilbene synthase cdna, a tool for probing environmental stress.stilbene synthase cdnas were isolated from a pine (pinus sylvestris) cdna library. poly(a)+rna required for the preparation was obtained from young seedlings challenged with botrytis cinerea. a full-length cdna encoding pinosylvin-forming stilbene synthase was sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequence was compared with sequences of resveratrol-forming stilbene synthases. the cdna coding for the key enzyme of pinosylvin formation is a valuable tool for detecting early effects of environmenta ...19921451785
isolation and characterization of three chitinases from trichoderma harzianum.three proteins which display chitinase activity were purified from the supernatants of trichoderma harzianum cect 2413 grown in minimal medium supplemented with chitin as the sole carbon source. purification was carried out after protein precipitation with ammonium sulphate, adsorption to colloidal chitin and digestion, and, finally, chromatofocusing. by this procedure, two chitinases of 42 kda (chit42) and 37 kda (chit37) were purified to homogeneity, as judged by sds/page and gel filtration, w ...19921606968
pyrazolo[3,4-d][1,2,3]triazole-1-carboxamides and 5-alkylaminopyrazolo[3,4-d]oxazoles: synthesis and evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity.a series of n-alkyl-n'-(4-diazo-5-pyrazolyl)-ureas (4) was thermally and photochemically converted into pyrazolo [3,4-d][1,2,3]triazole derivatives (5,6) and 5-alkylaminopyrazolo[3,4-d]oxazoles (7) respectively. the products were tested for in vitro antifungal activity against fusarium culmorum, botrytis cinerea, phoma betae, pythium ultimum, sclerotinia minor and rhizoctonia solani. the mic and ed50 values of compound (6) against some of the test fungi were comparable to those of the reference ...19921445610
morphogenic effects of ramihyphin a in filamentous fungi.ramihyphin a at subfungistatic concentrations stimulates ramification of hyphae of filamentous fungi. stimulation of terminal ramification of hyphae that can be observed particularly in phytopathogenic fungi is most frequent. hyphae of microsporon canis, trichophyton mentagrophytes, blastomyces dermatitidis, coccidioides immitis and histoplasma capsulatum ramify intensively laterally. stimulation of the lateral ramification was observed in monilia fructigena, penicillium marneffei and penicilliu ...19751176042
the effect of volatile and gaseous metabolites of swelling seeds on germination of fungal spores.effects of volatile and gaseous metabolites of swelling seeds of pea, bean, wheat, corn cucumber, tomato, lentil, carrot, red papper and lettuce on germination of spores of five genera of fungi were found to depend rather on the fungal than on the plant genus. germination of spores of botrytis cinerea, mucor racemosus and trichoderma viride was most severely inhibited. spores of verticillium dahliae were less sensitive and germination of spores of fusarium oxysporum was inhibited only in two cas ...19751176038
role of glycosidases in the membranlytic, antifungal action of studies on the membranlytic action of various saponins on mycelium of botrytis cinerea and rhizoctonia solani digitonin, alpha-hederin and tomatin caused considerable leakage of free amino acids, while aescin and theasaponin were less effective. cyclamin significantly damaged cell membranes of r. solani, but did not change the selective permeability of b. cinerea. cell membrane disruption was accompanied by an enzymatic conversion of saponins into their corresponding aglycones in cell membran ...19751171670
antibiotic-induced changes of mycelial growth of botrytis cinerea.the effect of antibiotics and metabolic inhibitors on mycelial growth of botrytis cinera was followed. inhibitors of protein synthesis, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline inhibit growth or sporulation of botrytis cinera. ethidium bromide, 5-fluorouracil, phenylethylalcohol and k 20 cause granulation, vacuolization and undulation of hyphase. 2,4-dinitrophenol, boromycin, macrotetrolides, monensin, scopathricin and tx2 at subfungistatic concentrations induce intensive branching of hyph ...1976987979
morphogenetic activity of cytochalasins, cyanein, and monorden in botrytis cinerea. 19734771700
light-induced synchronous conidiation in the fungus botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea pers. ex fr. in stationary liquid cultures conidiated asynchronously in darkness after 4 days' growth. synchronous conidiation was induced by irradiating dark-grown cultures with near-ultraviolet light for 12 h. the number of conidia increased very rapidly 10 h after the end of the photo-induction period, and conidiation was completed by the 14th hour. filter paper cultures of the fungus also showed synchronous conidiation upon irradiation with near-ultraviolet light, but the ra ...1976945324
[study of the kinetics and mechanisms of inactivation of the enzymes of the fungus botrytis cinerea pers with uv-rays]. 19704992016
oxidation of alcohols by botrytis cinerea.crude cell-free preparations of botrytis cinerea were found to oxidize straight-chain primary alcohols (except methanol), aromatic primary alcohols, and unsaturated primary alcohols. the resulting products were the corresponding aldehydes and an equal molar quantity of hydrogen peroxide.19715102778
polygalacturonase of botrytis cinerea e-200 pers.a polygalacturonase (poly(1,4-alpha-d-galacturonide)glycanohydrolase, ec was purified from the culture fluid of botrytis cinerea. the polygalacturonase preparation, homogeneous on the basis of disc-gel electrophoresis also showed pectinesterase activity. some properties of the purified polygalacturonase were studied. it had a molecular weight about 69 000. it was inactivated by p-chloromercuribenzoate, tetranitromethane and urea. a 50% loss in viscosity of sodium polypectate solution o ...1975804319
[mechanism of action of uv-rays on the metabolism of amino acids and organic acids in the fungus botrytis cinerea pers]. 19715104359
[new analytic criteria for the characterization of wines].isotopic analysis, determination of radioactivity are factors allowing a better characterization of wines. the analysis of the composition in stable isotopes of the constituants of wine can provide new analytic criteria for characterizing wines. thus, the concentration of 13c in ethanol can allow the disclosure of an addition of cane sugar or maize sugar to the musts. a study of the composition in stable isotopes of the water of wines of a certain region made it possible to show a correlation be ...1978573085
[effect of the fungus botrytis cinerea on incorporation of labeled amino acids by cabbage tissue ribosomes]. 19715167241
[a method of cultivating botrytis cinerea pers. for assaying various fungicides]. 19675629449
the fungal flora of loganberries in relation to storage and spoilage.botrytis cinerea, cladosporium spp., penicillium spp., aureobasidium pullulans, mucor mucedo, phoma state of didymella applanata, cryptococcus laurentii var. laurentii, c. albidus var. albidus, candida sake and sporobolomyces roseus were consistently present on freshly harvested loganberries. botrytis cinerea was the main spoilage organism with mucor mucedo of minor importance. the importance of benomyl-resistant strains of b. cinerea is discussed.1977557301
locus of blue and near ultraviolet reversible photoreaction in the stages of conidial development in botrytis cinerea.the effect of the blue and near ultraviolet reversible photoreaction on conidial development in botrytis cinerea was studied by observing microscopically selected conidiophores. conidiophore development was divided into six stages; when the developing conidiophores from stage 2 (i.e. a mature conidiophore) to stage 5 (i.e. a conidiophore with conidium initial) were exposed to blue light for a short time, conidiation was suppressed; the conidiophores already formed de-differentiated to 'sterile' ...1977556757
cell wall degradation in the autolysis of filamentous fungi.a systematic study on autolysis of the cell walls of fungi has been made on neurospora crassa, botrytis cinerea, polystictus versicolor, aspergillus nidulans, schizophyllum commune, aspergillus niger, and mucor mucedo. during autolysis each fungus produces the necessary lytic enzymes for its autodegradation. from autolyzed cultures of each fungus enzymatic precipitates were obtained. the degree of lysis of the cell walls, obtained from non-autolyzed mycelia, was studied by incubating these cell ...19826219290
herbicidins f and g, two new nucleoside antibiotics.a mutant of streptomyces saganonensis no. 4075, obtained with n-methyl-n'-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine treatment, produced herbicidins f and g without herbicidins a and b. isolation of the antibiotics was performed by adsorption on resinous adsorbent followed by elution with aqueous meoh. herbicidin f was obtained as colorless needles after extraction of the eluate using methylene dichloride. purification of herbicidin g was completed with silica-gel chromatography to give a crystalline powder. phys ...1979511776
stimulation of de novo synthesis of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in relation to phytoalexin accumulation in colletotrichum lindemuthianum elicitor-treated cell suspension cultures of french bean (phaseolus vulgaris).(1) the regulation of the accumulation of the isoflavonoid-derived phytoalexin phaseollin in cell suspension cultures of dwarf french bean (phaseolus vulgaris/ has been investigated. (2) an elicitor preparation from cell walls of colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose disease of french bean, caused a marked accumulation of phaseollin in the cultures. the elicitor induced phaseollin accumulation to a level of 60% that obtained with the artificial elicitor autoclaved ribonu ...1979476149
[properties of the laccase of botrytis cinerea].laccase from botrytis cinerea, secreted by the fungus into the grape berry, is responsible for the oxidation phynomena in musts and wines (oxidasic casse). from a fungus culture, the enzyme was extracted for a study of its properties: specificity; influence of inhibitors, ph and temperature; the results confirm that the enzyme from botrytis cinerea belongs to the laccase family, though it has some characteristic differences from the other laccases previously described.1975238748
extracellular proteinases of the isolate of botrytis cinerea virulent to apple tissues.b. cinerea produces extracellular acid proteinases: aspartic proteinase and carboxypeptidase, separable on cm-sepharose cl-6b. aspartic proteinase showed the maximum activity at ph 2.5-3.0, was inactivated by diazoacetyl-dl-norleucine methyl ester and was unable to hydrolyse carbobenzoxy glu-tyr. carboxypeptidase showed the maximum activity at ph 4.7-5.0, was inactivated by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, and carbobenzoxy-glu-tyr served as an efficient enzyme substrate. the isolated aspartic protei ...19853898682
["berry sorter's lung" or wine grower's lung--an exogenous allergic alveolitis caused by botrytis cinerea spores]. 19873299353
botrytis cinerea: a study of the immunological properties during growth. incidence of antibodies against b. cinerea in a group of patients with aspergillosis.when growing botrytis cinerea in sabouraud medium, different phases of growth could be recognized using ph, mycelium yield, and culture filtrate antigens as parameters of growth. immunological characteristics of the different phases (early, intermediate, and late) of growth were measured using ige and igg binding by enzyme allergosorbent test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and quantities of precipitating components (double immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis). ...19873112026
studies on new phosphate ester antifungal antibiotics phoslactomycins. i. taxonomy, fermentation, purification and biological antibiotics phoslactomycins a, b, c, d, e and f, which contain alpha, beta-unsaturated delta-lactone, phosphate ester, conjugated diene and cyclohexane ring moieties, were isolated from the culture broth of a soil isolate actinomycete. morphological, cultural and physiological studies revealed that the isolate is a strain of streptomyces nigrescens. phoslactomycins were obtained by butanol extraction, gel filtration and reverse phase chromatography. the antibiotics show strong activity again ...19892753808
[search for actinomycetes--antagonists of fungi causing sugar beet root rot].actinomycetes belonging to streptomyces were isolated from the rhizosphere of sugar beet grown on an infected area after cultivation for many years. 44.1 per cent of them proved to be antagonists of phytopathogenic test fungi. the majority of the antagonists were detected among the cinereus. the lowest number of the antagonists was detected among the azureus, the maximum number of the antagonists was observed in the middle and at the end of the sugar beet vegetation period. during various period ...19892534467
compatibility of the two-site exchange model and 1h nmr relaxation rates.we demonstrate a formalism for determining whether 1h longitudinal and transverse magnetic relaxation decay curves are compatible with a model of proton exchange between two sites with inherently different relaxation rates. we apply the method to published data in which both decay curves have been fit to normalized biexponential functions, a prediction of the simplest two-site exchange model. the analysis is applied to relaxation data of adsorbed water vapor on silica gel (j.r. zimmerman and j.a ...19902345517
structural properties of native and sonicated cinerean, a beta- (1-->3) (1-->6)-d-glucan produced by botrytis cinerea.cinerean, the extracellular beta-(1-->3) (1-->6)-d-glucan of the fungus botrytis cinerea was studied. electron micrographs of the native polysaccharide revealed quasi-endless fibrils with an estimated diameter of ca. 1.5 nm. a particle mass of 10(9)-10(10) daltons was determined from dilute solutions by low-angle laser light scattering. sonication of increasing duration led to fragmentation of the native polymer with an approximately exponential decrease of mass in the range of average molecular ...19957697647
biological studies on 2,1-benzisothiazole derivatives. i. evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and genotoxic activities of 1-acyl-3-acylimino-2,1-benzisothiazolines.the in vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and genotoxic activities of some 1-acyl-3-acylimino-2,1-benzisothiazolines is described. compounds 55, 58, 60 and 62 exhibited a selective antibacterial activity. compounds 1, 2, 30, 59 and 63 were active against botrytis cinerea, compounds 6, 20, 39 and 54 against pythium irregulare. dna-damaging activity in the bacillus subtilis rec-assay was demonstrated for compounds 45, 46, 54, 55, 57 and 61. by the salmonella-microsome assay, genotoxic a ...19902128452
[research of antifungal substances secreted by higher fungi in culture].a screening in vitro of antifungic activity of 24 strains of basidiomycetes was realized with their culture filtrate. lycoperdon perlatum pers. = pers., oudemansiella platyphylla (pers. ex fr.) mos., agrocybe dura (bolt) singer have shown an activity against candida albicans, candida tropicalis and aspergillus fumigatus; pholiota spumosa (fr.) singer towards botrytis cinerea and lycoperdon perlatum pers. = pers. towards alternaria solani, botrytis cinerea and verticillium dahliae. more extensive ...19902082797
isolation and characterization of phosmidosine. a new antifungal nucleotide antibiotic.a new nucleotide antibiotic, phosmidosine was isolated from a culture filtrate of a newly isolated streptomycete identified as streptomyces sp. rk-16. hrfab-ms and elemental analysis established the molecular formula of c16h24n7o8p. 1h, 13c and 31p nmr indicated the presence of a methyl phosphate group and uv spectra were similar to those of 8-hydroxyadenosine. the antibiotic inhibited spore formation of botrytis cinerea at the concentration of 0.25 micrograms/ml.19912032945
transformation of botrytis cinerea with the hygromycin b resistance gene, hph.a transformation method has been developed for the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea. protoplasts were transformed with pan7-1 plasmid carrying the escherichia coli hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph), conferring hygromycin b resistance, downstream from an aspergillus nidulans promoter. molecular analysis, showed that transformation resulted in an integration of the plasmid into different regions of the b. cinerea genome and occurred through non-homologous recombination. the frequency ...19947859308
visualization of mitotic chromosomes in filamentous fungi by fluorescence staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization.mitotic chromosomes of the plant pathogenic filamentous fungi botrytis cinerea and alternaria alternata were observed. chromosomes prepared by the germ tube burst method were stained with the fluorescent dye 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (dapi) to yield figures with good resolution. using this method, component chromosomes were clearly distinguished and the chromosome number could be determined. fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) was also successfully applied to the specimens, revealing o ...19947859561
behaviour studies of the fungicide cymoxanil in two strains of the fungus botrytis cinerea and in haemolymph of locust and lobster. i. in situ monitoring by internal surface reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.a method for following the metabolism of the fungicide cymoxanil in various biological media is described. by using a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatographic method, with an internal surface reversed-phase column, it is unnecessary to clean up the sample before analysis. thus this technique makes monitoring in fungi as well as in arthropod haemolymph easier and faster.19911939461
[isolation and characterization of colloidal soluble polysaccharides in raspberry juice].depending on the preparation method, the colloid content of raspberry juices treated with pectolytic enzymes, can be up to 2.5 g/l. analysis of the polysaccharides shows that there are in particular, arabinans, arabinogalactans type ii and rhamnogalacturonans. while the content of arabinans could be reduced by the action of arabinases, the arabinogalactans and rhamnogalacturonans were not degraded by conventional pectic enzymes. besides these cell-wall polysaccharides, it was possible to isolate ...19911927051
infection and pathogenesis of cash crops by botrytis cinerea: primary role of an aspartic proteinase. 19911812708
plate assay for determining the time of production of protease, cellulase, and pectinases by germinating fungal spores.a new method for detecting enzymes produced by fungal spores during germination is described here. with this method, the production of enzymes such as protease, cellulase, or pectinase can be correlated with the extent of spore germination. germination is studied in vitro on agar-based media containing protein, cellulose, or pectin. the spores are immobilized on a permeable membrane mounted on the substrate-containing medium. at various times after inoculation the membrane-bound spores are remov ...19853913330
marine alkaloids, 15. two alkaloids, flustramine e and debromoflustramine b, from the marine bryozoan flustra foliacea.a new alkaloid, flustramine e [1], with inhibitory activity towards rhizotonia solani and botrytis cinerea was isolated by gas-phase extraction from the marine bryozoan flustra foliacea. the structure was determined as 3a,8a-cis-1-methyl-3a-(3-methyl-2- butenyl)-6-bromo-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole, based on spectroscopic investigations. another alkaloid, debromoflustramine b [2a], was detected in trace amounts and identified by comparison of the mass spectrum with that of a synth ...19947964794
conidia of botrytis cinerea: labeling by fluorescent vital a model system, conidia of botrytis cinerea have been vitally stained with optical brighteners to facilitate their location in plant tissue.19664159926
cytochemical evidence for the existence of peroxisomes in botrytis cinerea. 19694186256
growth of helminthosporia on media containing the fungicide benomyl and the assay of benomyl using botrytis cinerea. 19734735621
[protein synthesis in the mitochondria of healthy and botrytis cinerea infected cabbage tissues]. 19734798315
the development of botrytis cinerea in irradiated strawberries during storage. 19715103389
mode of action of pollen in breaking resistance of vicia faba to botrytis cinerea. 19715106745
the effect of pollen grains on infections caused by botrytis cinerea fr. 19685705482
biolistic transformation of conidia of botryotinia fuckeliana.botryotinia fuckeliana, the causal agent of grey mould, was biolistically transformed to hygromycin b resistance using a plasmid (poht) containing a bacterial hygromycin phosphotransferase gene fused to regulatory sequences from aspergillus nidulans. multiple copies of the plasmid, precipitated onto tungsten particles, were delivered into the conidia by a helium-driven gene gun. southern analysis showed that the plasmid was integrated into the fungal genome at one single locus. after five subseq ...19948087880
electron microscopy of botrytis cinerea conidia.buckley, patricia m. (university of california, davis), virginia e. sjaholm, and n. f. sommer. electron microscopy of botrytis cinerea conidia. j. bacteriol. 91:2037-2044. 1966.-sections of germinating and nongerminating botrytis cinerea conidia were examined with an electron microscope. uranyl acetate or lead citrate provided contrast between membranes and cytoplasm. membrane-bounded, dense inclusions previously unreported in dormant spores were termed "storage bodies." whorled structures, sphe ...19665949251
volatile and gaseous metabolites released by germinating seeds of lentil and maize cultivars with different susceptibilities to fusariosis and smut.the effect of volatile and gaseous metabolites released by germinating seeds of lentil cultivars more and less susceptible to fusariosis on the germination of spores of mucor racemosus, trichoderma viride, verticillium dahliae and botrytis cinerea was found to depend rather on the fungal genus than on the lentil cultivar. however, spores of fusarium oxysporum reacted more sensitively during germination to the presence of exudates of both cultivars, when the more susceptible lentil displayed a st ...19807189738
antimicrobial metabolites from a bacterial symbiont.two types of antibiotics, namely, indoles and dithiolopyrrolones, have been isolated and identified from xenorhabdus bovienii a2. compounds 1 and 2 showed strong activity against cryptococcus neoformans, compounds 3 and 4 showed strong activity against botrytis cinerea, and compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed significant activity against phytophthora infestants (2 was not tested). in addition, two lower homologues of xenorhabdins 5 and 6, namely, 6-(n-3'-methylbutanamido)-4,5-dihydro-1,2-dithiolo[4,3-b ...19957561900
disease resistance results from foreign phytoalexin expression in a novel plant.although phytoalexins have long been inferred to be important in the defence of plants against fungal infection, there are few reports showing that they provide resistance to infection. several plants, including grapevine, synthesize the stilbene-type phytoalexin resveratrol when attacked by pathogens. stilbenes with fungicidal potential are formed in several unrelated plant species, such as peanut (arachis hypogaea), grapevine (vitis vinifera) and pine (pinus sylvestris). stilbene biosynthesis ...19938421520
vital fluorochromes as tracers for fungal growth studies.eight fluorescent dyes were tested for staining the spores or mycelia of six fungi and for their translocation into new growth when the preloaded spores or mycelia were incubated on agar coated coverslips. the dyes studied were cellufluor, nile red, fluorescein diacetate (fda), carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cfda), chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (cmfda), aminochloromethyl coumarin (cmac), and the carbocyamines diic18(3) and dioc18(3). the fungi on which the dyes were tested included botrytis c ...19957578589
antifungal activity of myxococcus species 1 production, physicochemical and biological properties of antibiotics from myxococcus fulvus s110 (myxobacterales).chloroform extracts of the culture supernatant of a strain of myxococcus fulvus isolated from soil were fungistatic and prevented germination of spores of botrytis cinerea. the antibiotics were produced during the exponential phase of growth and the effects of altering medium composition are described. the activity was fractionated into neutral, acidic and basic fractions. the neutral fraction had a molecular weight of 244 and was tentatively identified as 11-phenyl-undecadiene-2-ol. the acidic ...19938469176
antimicrobial activities of indolocarbazole and bis-indole protein kinase c inhibitors. ii. substitution on maleimide nitrogen with functional groups bearing a labile compounds, structurally related to the potent protein kinase c inhibitor staurosporine, and substituted on the imide nitrogen with a functional group bearing a labile hydrogen (hydroxymethyl, amino, hydroxy), were synthesized. their in vitro inhibitory potencies towards protein kinase c and protein kinase a showed that n-hydroxymethyl and n-hydroxy substitution, unlike alkyl substitution, can provide efficient protein kinase c inhibitors. the antimicrobial activities of these new compounds a ...19957592032
purification and properties of an extracellular lipase from the fungus botrytis extracellular lipase (ec from the fungus botrytis cinerea has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. the purification included ammonium sulfate fractionation and sequential column chromatography. the purification of the preparation was 31-fold and recovery yield was 21%. the purified enzyme was associated with esterase activity according to activity staining on polyacrylamide gel. the molecular weight was determined as 60 kda on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel elec ...19957609604
characterization of two class ii chitinase genes from peanut and expression studies in transgenic tobacco plants.two different genes encoding class ii chitinases from peanut (arachis hypogaea l. cv. nc4), a.h.chi2;1 and a.h.chi2;2, have been cloned. in peanut cell suspension cultures, mrna levels of a.h.chi2;2 increased after ethylene or salicylate treatment and in the presence of conidia from botrytis cinerea. the second gene, a.h.chi2;1, was only expressed after treatment with the fungal spores. transgenic tobacco plants containing the complete peanut a.h.chi2;1 gene exhibited essentially the same expres ...19968616259
effect of cucurbitacins on mrna coding for laccase in botrytis cinerea.the effect of cucurbitacin and of ecballium extract on the formation of mrna coding for laccase was examined in cultures of botrytis cinerea grown with inducers of laccase formation, in the presence or absence of the inhibitory compounds. rna was isolated from the cultures and probed with specific dna probes for laccase. as an internal control, the rna was probed for botrytis beta-tubulin mrna. from an analysis of the results it is clear that cucurbitacin i and ecballium extract specifically rep ...19968688171
polygalacturonase produced in apple tissue decayed by botrytis exo-polygalacturonase with an isoelectric point of 4.6 and an apparent molecular weight of 45 kda was isolated from apple tissue decayed by botrytis cinerea. this isozyme had a similar isoelectric point, optimum ph, and mode of action as an isozyme produced in liquid culture by b. cinerea. the enzyme produced in the decayed tissue was less sensitive to lower ph and less inhibited by cacl2, mgcl2, or nacl than the enzyme produced in culture. such changes in the properties of the enzyme produce ...19957627131
antibiotic production and biocontrol activity by bacillus subtilis cl27 and bacillus pumilus cl45.bacillus subtilis cl27 and b. pumilus cl45 showed similar activity against botrytis cinerea in in vitro plate assays. in a seedling bioassay, however, b. subtilis cl27 had activity similar to a commercial fungicide while b. pumilus cl45 failed completely to prevent seedling damping-off caused by bot. cinerea. antibiotic production by the two bacillus strains was found to depend on the growth substrate and highest antibiotic production was found on media based on homogenized cabbage tissue. antib ...19957698955
molecular cloning and expression of the nag1 gene (n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase-encoding gene) from trichoderma harzianum p1.a 72-kda n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase was purified from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum p1; antibodies were raised against it, and aa-sequences were obtained. the antibody reacted with a single 72-kda protein band in culture filtrates of t. harzianum grown on chitin, and was subsequently used to clone the corresponding nag1 gene from a lambdagt11 cdna expression library. it was interrupted by two short introns and encoded a protein of 580 amino acids. the deduced protein sequen ...19968781176
partial characterization of chitinolytic enzymes from streptomyces albidoflavus.streptomyces albidoflavus nrrl b-16746 secreted three types of chitinolytic enzymes: n-acetyl-glucosaminidase, chitobiosidase and endochitinase. optimal activity for all three types of enzymes occurred at ph 4-6; however 55-74% of the chitobiosidase and endochitinase activity was detectable at ph 8-10. chitobiosidase activity originated from two strongly acidic (pi < 3.0) proteins with molecular mass of 27 kda and 34 kda, while endochitinase activity originated from five major acidic proteins (p ...19957766226
parallel formation and synergism of hydrolytic enzymes and peptaibol antibiotics, molecular mechanisms involved in the antagonistic action of trichoderma harzianum against phytopathogenic fungi.chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, and protease activities were formed when trichoderma harzianum mycelia, grown on glucose as the sole carbon source, were transferred to fresh medium containing cell walls of botrytis cinerea. chitobiohydrolase, endochitinase, and beta-1,3-glucanase activities were immunologically detected in culture supernatants by western blotting (immunoblotting), and the first two were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. under the same conditions, exogenously added ...19947811076
boty, a long-terminal-repeat retroelement in the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea.the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea can infect an extremely wide range of host plants (tomato, grapevine, strawberry, and flax) without apparent specialization. while studying genetic diversity in this fungus, we found an element which is present in multiple copies and dispersed throughout the genome of some of its isolates. dna sequence analysis revealed that the element contained direct, long-terminal repeats (ltrs) of 596 bp whose features were characteristic of retroviral and retrotr ...19957887592
adhesion of germlings of botrytis cinerea.adhesion of conidia and germlings of the facultative plant parasite botrytis cinerea occurs in two distinct stages. the first stage, which occurs immediately upon hydration of conidia and is characterized by relatively weak adhesive forces, appears to involve hydrophobic interactions (r. p. doss, s. w. potter, g. a. chastagner, and j. k. christian, appl. environ. microbiol. 59:1786-1791, 1993). the second stage of adhesion, delayed adhesion, occurs after viable conidia have been incubated for se ...19957887606
7-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1(3h)-isobenzofuranone and basidalin: antibiotic secondary metabolites from leucoagaricus carneifolia gillet (basidiomycetes) [corrected].two antibiotic metabolites were isolated from cultures of leucoagaricus carneifolia. their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. the first compound, 7-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1(3h)-isobenzofuranone [corrected] (1) had to our knowledge not been described from natural sources whereas the second, basidalin (2), is a known metabolite of l. naucina (h. iinuma et al., 1983). 1 exhibits antibiotic activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 20 micrograms/ml against botrytis cinerea ...19947945669
characterization of chitin synthase from botrytis cinerea.chitin synthase in a microsomal preparation from botrytis cinerea had an apparent km for udp-n-acetylglucosamine of 2.0 mm while nikkomycin z and polyoxin d inhibited enzyme activity competitively with apparent ki values of approximately 0.1 microm and 6 microm respectively. the organophosphorus fungicide edifenphos was a non-competitive inhibitor (ki(app) 54 microm). preincubation of microsomes for 2 h at 25 degrees c resulted in a maximum twofold stimulation of chitin synthase activity while p ...19947952170
characterization of ech-42, a trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene expressed during mycoparasitism.a gene (ech-42; previously named then-42) coding for one of the endochitinases produced by the biocontrol agent trichoderma harzianum imi206040 was cloned and characterized. expression of the cdna clone in escherichia coli resulted in bacteria with chitinase activity. this chitinase has been shown to have lytic activity on botrytis cinerea cell walls in vitro. the ech-42 gene was assigned to a double chromosomal band (chromosome v or vi) upon electrophoretic separation and southern analysis of t ...19947971981
hm17, a new polyene antifungal antibiotic produced by a new strain of antifungal antibiotic (hm17) was obtained from a new isolate classified to the genus spirillospora on the basis of its chemical and morphological properties. on solid media this antibiotic strongly inhibited the growth of strains of fusarium oxysporum formae speciales albedinis, botrytis cinerea, gaeumaniomyces graminis and several other fungi known to be plant and human pathogens. antifungal activity in culture collection strains of spirillospora has not so far been reported. the u.v. absorp ...19948002474
mycoparasitic interaction relieves binding of the cre1 carbon catabolite repressor protein to promoter sequences of the ech42 (endochitinase-encoding) gene in trichoderma harzianum.the fungus trichoderma harzianum is a potent mycoparasite of various plant pathogenic fungi. we have studied the molecular regulation of mycoparasitism in the host/mycoparasite system botrytis cinerea/t. harzianum. protein extracts, prepared from various stages of mycoparasitism, were used in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (em-sas) with two promoter fragments of the ech-42 (42-kda endochitinase-encoding) gene of t. harzianum. this gene was chosen as a model because its expression is trigg ...19968962147
synergistic interaction between fungal cell wall degrading enzymes and different antifungal compounds enhances inhibition of spore germination.different classes of cell wall degrading enzymes produced by the biocontrol fungi trichoderma harzianum and gliocladium virens inhibited spore germination of botrytis cinerea in a bioassay in vitro. the addition of any chitinolytic or glucanolytic enzyme to the reaction mixture synergistically enhanced the antifungal properties of five different fungitoxic compounds against b. cinerea. the chemicals tested were gliotoxin, flusilazole, miconazole, captan and benomyl. dose response curves were det ...19948012584
effect of chitinase antisense rna expression on disease susceptibility of arabidopsis plants.chitinases accumulate in higher plants upon pathogen attack are capable of hydrolyzing chitin-containing fungal cell walls and are thus implicated as part of the plant defense response to fungal pathogens. to evaluate the relative role of the predominate chitinase (class i, basic enzyme) of arabidopsis thaliana in disease resistance, transgenic arabidopsis plants were generated that expressed antisense rna to the class i chitinase. young plants or young leaves of some plants expressing antisense ...19948061313
an autonomously replicating plasmid transforms botrytis cinerea to phleomycin resistance.a transformation system has been developed for the pathogen fungus botrytis cinerea, based on the utilization of the wide host plasmid put737 that contains the sh ble gene, conferring resistance to phleomycin. transformed protoplasts were regenerated at 10-25 micrograms ml(-1) of phleomycin, at a frequency of 25-40 transformants per microgram of dna, and they were resistant up to 50 micrograms ml(-1). southern hybridization using undigested and digested total dna showed the presence of circular ...19968998978
structure and expression of an inhibitor of fungal polygalacturonases from tomato.a polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (pgip) was characterized from tomato fruit. differential glycosylation of a single polypeptide accounted for heterogeneity in concanavalin a binding and in molecular mass. tomato pgip had a native molecular mass of 35 to 41 kda, a native isoelectric point of 9.0, and a chemically deglycosylated molecular mass of 34 kda, suggesting shared structural similarities with pear fruit pgip. when purified pgips from pear and tomato were compared, tomato pgip was appr ...19948061315
antimicrobial activities of indolocarbazole and bis-indole protein kinase c inhibitors.the antimicrobial activities of twenty-two substances structurally related to staurosporine, aglycone in the indolocarbazole and bis-indole series were examined against streptomyces chartreusis and streptomyces griseus, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, candida albicans and botrytis cinerea. inhibition of sporulation was examined also on the two species of streptomyces. unlike literature reports for efficient protein kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and k-252a, no evident correlation could be f ...19948071125
isolation and characterization of a benomyl-resistant form of beta-tubulin-encoding gene from the phytopathogenic fungus botryotinia an initial step to develop a dna-mediated transformation system using benomyl resistance as a dominant selectable marker in the phytopathogenic fungus botryotinia fuckeliana (anamorph, botrytis cinerea), we have constructed a phage lambda genomic dna library of a benomyl-resistant strain 91t-1, and a beta-tubulin-encoding gene bena was isolated, cloned and sequenced. southern blot analysis suggested that a single copy of bena is present in the genome of b. fuckeliana. the bena gene is compose ...19979085273
variations in ploidy among isolates of botrytis cinerea: implications for genetic and molecular analyses.field isolates and laboratory strains of botrytis cinerea, an ascomycetous fungus causing considerable economic losses, e.g., as "grey mould" of vine, were compared for differences in ploidy level by determining their dna content per nucleus. strain sas56, an ascospore line used routinely for genetic analyses, is probably polyploid, since treatment with benomyl causes a significant reduction in dna content per nucleus. this conclusion is substantiated by the increased sensitivity of the putative ...19948082191
[occurrence of an extracellular beta-(1 to 3)-glucanase from botrytis cinerea].like other fungi, botrytis cinera produces an exocellular beta-(1 leads to 3)-glucanase. this constitutive enzyme is produced only when botrytis is cultivated in a glucose depleted medium. the enzyme is precipitated by ammonium sulfate from 20 to 80% saturation. maximum activity is at ph between 5 and 6 and temperature between 40 and 50 degrees c; stability is good up to 30 degrees c. this enzyme cannot be applied to the treatment of wines containing botrytis glucan.19806771030
identification of putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase c genes in filamentous fungi.five putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases c (plc) genes were identified in three species of filamentous fungi. using polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotide primers, gene fragments encoding amino acid sequences homologous to plcs of mammals and other organisms were amplified: one sequence from botryotinia fuckeliana, one from aspergillus nidulans, and three from neurospora crassa. the molecular cloning and sequencing of a putative plc gene (bcplc1) from b. fuckelia ...19979163731
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a putative ras gene of the phytopathogenic fungus botryotinia fuckeliana.we solated and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a ras gene from botryotinia fuckeliana, the causal agent of gray mold disease. furthermore, in two other phytopathogenic fungi, magnaporthe grisea (rice blast fungus) and colletotrichum lagenarium (an anthracnose fungus), ras gene homologs were identified by amplifying gene fragments in polymerase chain reactions. the putative ras gene of b. fuckeliana encoded a polypeptide of 212 amino acids, and the coding sequence was interrupted b ...19979163749
flipper, a mobile fot1-like transposable element in botrytis cinerea.a transposable element, flipper, was isolated from the phytopathogenic fungus botrytis cinerea. the element was identified as an insertion sequence within the coding region of the nitrate reductase gene. the flipper sequence is 1842 bp long with perfect inverted terminal repeats (itrs) of 48 bp and an open reading frame (orf) of 533 amino acids, potentially encoding for a transposase; the element is flanked by the dinucleotide ta. the encoded protein is very similar to the putative transposases ...19979202383
mycoparasitism of sclerotial fungi by teratosperma oligocladum.sclerotia of sclerotinia minor were parasitized by teratosperma oligocladum, a recently described dematiaceous hyphomycete. the mycoparasite was cultured on living sclerotia placed on water agar and on sclerotia in moist sand. it grew poorly on several common laboratory media but growth in vitro was enhanced by supplements of soil extract and, especially, by aqueous extracts of sclerotia. sclerotia of s. minor, s. sclerotiorum, s. trifoliorum, sclerotium cepivorum, and botrytis cinerea were para ...19817198002
polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (pgips) with different specificities are expressed in phaseolus vulgaris.the pgip-1 gene of phaseolus vulgaris, encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (pgip), pgip-1 (p. toubart, a. desiderio, g. salvi, f. cervone, l. daroda, g. de lorenzo, c. bergmann, a. g. darvill, and p. albersheim, plant j. 2:367-373, 1992), was expressed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter in tomato plants via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. transgenic tomato plants with different expression levels of pgip-1 were used in infection experiments w ...19979304859
stability and modulated expression of a hygromycin resistance gene integrated in botrytis cinerea transformants.when transformation of botrytis cinerea occurred in mononucleated protoplasts the hygromycin resistance phenotype was stable and integrated plasmid dna although rearranged was transmitted through meiosis. we observed that transformants were often heterokaryotic and using serial conidial transfer, we showed failure of expression of the entire copies of integrated plasmids in some conidial isolates. a non-mendelian segregation of the hygromycin resistance phenotype was observed in most crosses bet ...19979311115
[antifungal activity of 3,3'-diindolyl-2,2'-tetrasulfide].the compound 3,3'-diindolyl-2,2'-tetrasulfide was studied for in vitro and in vivo fungistatic activity against various fungi causing human and plant diseases. the compound showed marked activity in vitro especially against dermatophytes and in the agrarian field against botrytis cinerea. when the low phytotoxicity of the compound is taken into account, it is concluded that the compound has considerable potential as an anticryptogam.19817308457
ab023, novel polyene antibiotics. i. taxonomy of the producing organism, fermentation and antifungal activity.ab023 is a complex of polyene antibiotics produced by an actinomycete, sd581, which was isolated from a kenyan soil sample. the two main components, pentaene antibiotics ab023a and ab023b, have antifungal activity against some phytopathogenic fungi, particularly against botrytis cinerea (mic of 5 micrograms/ml).19938468239
direct injection into the hplc column for monitoring the behaviour of xenobiotics in biological media. ii. behaviour of cymoxanil in fungus and locust and of e-destruxin in locust.multidimensional chromatographies (mdc) implying either a single column with an unique packing designed for providing several separation modes such as internal surface reversed-phase (isrp), or c1 large pores particles, or multi-column switching technique using the previous supports as guard columns, allow fast and easy direct monitoring of pesticides into plant or animal biological media. in such a way, the comparative study of the agricultural fungicide cymoxanil in two strains of botrytis cin ...19938475374
blasticidin s deaminase gene (bsd): a new selection marker gene for transformation of arabidopsis thaliana and nicotiana tabacum.arabidopsis thaliana and nicotiana tabacum were transformed to blasticidin s (bs) resistance with bsd (the bs deaminase gene from aspergillus terreus) using the agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. expression of bsd allowed direct selection of transformants by the fungicide, and both kinds of transgenic plants showed high level of resistance phenotype at 100 ppm of bs sprayed on the leaves. using botrytis cinerea, the causal fungus of gray mold disease, it was exemplified that applicati ...19958611760
[the antibiotic properties of the phytotoxic metabolites of botrytis cinerea pers].antibiotic properties of substances of a phytotoxic complex from botrytis cinerea have been studied for a number of phytopathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi as well as saprophytic yeast strains. high fungistatic activity of preparations of phytotoxic metabolites (ptm) has been stated for dendrodochium toxicum, myrothecium verrucaria, m. roridum, aspergillus fumigatus, penicillium urticae, agents of heavy human and cattle mycotoxicoses. the studied representatives of phytopat ...19958714399
residues of dicloran in clingstone peaches after pre- and postharvest application.trials were carried out over a period of several years in order to test the efficacy of pre- and postharvest treatments against fungi causing postharvest rots of stored clingstone peaches destined to canning. among the fungicides tested, dicloran (2, 6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline) was applied against botrytis cinerea, monilia cinerea and rhizopus stolonifer. the purpose of this work was to determine the residues of this fungicide in fresh, washed, peeled and canned fruits. no relevant data are repor ...19968720094
homobotcinolide: a biologically active natural homolog of botcinolide from botrytis cinerea.a novel natural product exhibiting biological activity was isolated from a strain of botrytis cinerea that had infected raspberry fruit (rubus ideaus). liquid fermentation and bioassay-directed fractionation of the organism yielded a compound with molecular formula c22h38o8 that is trivially named homobotcinolide. it significantly inhibited etiolated wheat coleoptile growth. greenhouse-grown bean, corn, and tobacco plants were also affected by exogenous application of homobotcinolide, severe chl ...19968829534
structural and antifungal properties of a pathogenesis-related protein from wheat kernel.we have purified and characterized a protein from the water-soluble fraction of wheat kernel (triticum aestivum cv. s. pastore) consisting of a single polypeptide chain blocked at its n-terminus by a pyroglutamate residue; the complete amino acid sequence has been determined by automated sequence analysis performed on peptide fragments obtained by enzymatic hydrolyses of the protein. homology studies have shown that this protein is very similar (97% sequence identity) to the previously character ...19968838588
genes from mycoparasitic fungi as a source for improving plant resistance to fungal pathogens.disease resistance in transgenic plants has been improved, for the first time, by the insertion of a gene from a biocontrol fungus. the gene encoding a strongly antifungal endochitinase from the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma harzianum was transferred to tobacco and potato. high expression levels of the fungal gene were obtained in different plant tissues, which had no visible effect on plant growth and development. substantial differences in endochitinase activity were detected among transfor ...19989653105
antimicrobial peptides from mirabilis jalapa and amaranthus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.the cdnas encoding the seed antimicrobial peptides (amps) from mirabilis jalapa (mj-amp2) and amaranthus caudatus (ac-amp2) have previously been characterized and it was found that mj-amp2 and ac-amp2 are processed from a precursor preprotein and preproprotein, respectively [de bolle et al., plant mol biol 28:713-721 (1995) and 22:1187-1190 (1993), respectively]. in order to study the processing, sorting and biological activity of these antimicrobial peptides in transgenic tobacco, four differen ...19968843942
a novel atp-binding cassette transporter involved in multidrug resistance in the phytopathogenic fungus penicillium digitatum.demethylation inhibitor (dmi)-resistant strains of the plant pathogenic fungus penicillium digitatum were shown to be simultaneously resistant to cycloheximide, 4-nitroquinoline-n-oxide (4nqo), and acriflavine. a pmr1 (penicillium multidrug resistance) gene encoding an atp-binding cassette (abc) transporter (p-glycoprotein) was cloned from a genomic dna library of a dmi-resistant strain (lc2) of penicillium digitatum by heterologous hybridization with a dna fragment containing an abc-encoding re ...19989758830
the endopolygalacturonase gene bcpg1 is required for full virulence of botrytis cinerea.botrytis cinerea, a fungus that causes diseases in over 200 plant species, secretes a number of endopolygalacturonases that have been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis. however, so far the corresponding genes have not been isolated from this fungus. we cloned bcpg1, encoding endopolygalacturonase, with the pgaii gene from aspergillus niger as a heterologous probe. the bcpg1 gene is expressed to similar levels in liquid cultures of b. cinerea containing either 1% polygalacturonic acid or 1 ...19989768518
high field nmr microscopic imaging of cultivated strawberry fruit.the experimental conditions required for discrimination of various types of tissue in fruits of cultivated strawberry (fragaria x ananassa) at high fields (ca. 7 t) have been investigated. in marked contrast to soft fruits of other species, from which informative images have been derived at high fields using a variety of pulse sequences and acquisition parameters, appreciable image intensities from parenchymal and vascular tissues in healthy strawberry fruits were obtained only with a spin-echo ...19968847974
trichoderma/pathogen interactions: measurement of antagonistic chemicals produced at the antagonist/pathogen interface using a tubular bioassay.a tubular bioassay was used to measure analytically the local production and concentration of the antifungal trichoderma secondary metabolite 6-n-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one (6pap) at the trichoderma antagonist/pathogen interface. 6pap levels significantly increased in the presence of the pathogen botrytis cinerea, typically 300-700%, and were highest near the pathogen source. the level of response for a particular trichoderma isolate was found to vary with the test organism used. two products produce ...19989830146
the biotransformation of some clovanes by botrytis cinereathe metabolism of the fungistatic agent 2beta-methoxyclovan-9alpha-ol (2) by the fungus botrytis cinerea has been investigated. biotransformation of compound 2 yielded compounds 3-5, 7, and 9. the major metabolites of compound 2 each show much reduced biological activity when compared with the parent compound. also studied were the effects of b. cinerea on the metabolism of the related compounds 2beta-methoxyclovan-9-one (3), 2beta-methoxyclovan-9beta-ol (4), and clovan-2,9-dione (6). compounds ...19989834150
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