helminth parasitisms among intermingling insular populations of white-tailed deer, feral cattle, and feral swine.helminth infections among free-ranging, intermingling populations of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), cattle (bos taurus), and swine (sus scrofa) on an island off the georgia coast were studied. of 39 species of helminths collected, 19 were found in deer, 17 in cattle, and 13 in swine. of 28 species of helminths recovered from ruminants, 8, viz, capillaria bovis, cooperia punctata, dictyocaulus viviparus, gongylonema pulchrum, g verrucosum, haemonchus contortus, moniezia benedeni, and ...1975123523
occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in georgia cattle.a survey of gastrointestinal nematodes in georgia cattle was conducted from 1968 through 1973 from actual worm counts from viscera of 145 slaughtered beef cattle or from egg counts made from fecal samples from 3,273 beef and 100 dairy cattle. beef cattle were grouped as calves, yearlings, and cows. dairy cattle were grouped as calves, replacement heifers, and cows. results of fecal examinations positive; 99.5, 99.3, 99.6, and 41.2% of the calves, yearlings, drylot calves, and cows, respectively, ...1975123711
controlled test of anthelmintic activity of levamisole administered to calves via drinking water, subcutaneous injection, or alfalfa pellet premix.a controlled test of the activity of 3 formulations of levamisole, at the dose level of approximately 8 mg/kg, against naturally occurring infections of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms was made in 24 calves allotted to 4 groups of 6 calves each. levamisole was administered to group i calves in the drinking water, to group ii calves by subcutaneous injection, and to group iii calves by feeding alfalfa pellets mixed in corn silage; group iv calves were nontreated controls. group i calves ...1975125055
effect of albendazole on gastrointestinal parasites of cattle.the efficacy of albendazole in removing gastrointestinal nematodes and tapeworms was studied in 16 treated and 16 untreated (control) beef calves. the anthelmintic was administered as an oral drench at a dose level of 5 ml/45.5 kg of body weight (5 mg/kg). percentage of efficacy against the various genera was: trichostrongylus axei, oesophagostomum radiatum, and moniezia-100.0; haemonchus placei, cooperia spp, and trichostrongylus colubriformis - greater than 99.0; ostertagia ostertagi -98.3; an ...1977145816
ostertagiosis in captive bison in new york state: report of nine cases.type ii ostertagiosis was found at necropsy in 9 american bison (bison bison) from 3 farms in new york. clinical signs included severe diarrhea, emaciation, unthrifty coats, anemia, and weakness. in severely affected animals, the macroscopic abomasal changes consisted of irregular thickening and edema of the mucosa, resulting in a pebbly or morocco-leather appearance. microscopically, many gastric pits and glands were dilated, lined by hyperplastic epithelium, and contained nematode sections or ...1979157257
efficacy of oxfendazole against natural infestations of nematodes and cestodes in sheep in egypt.oxfendazole liquid suspension (systamex; wellcome) was administered orally at the dose of 4.5 mg per kg to 800 indigenous egyptian sheep clinically affected with dictyocaulus filaria, moniezia expansa, haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, nematodirus spp, trichostrongylus axei, cooperia curticei, trichuris ovis and oesophagostomum spp. a 100 per cent clearance was recorded for all parasites with the exception of t ovis which were markedly reduced in number.1979157586
field observations on the epidemiology of abomasal parasites in young sheep during winter and spring.a flock of spring born lambs was continuously exposed to natural parasite infection from birth until selected for slaughter in groups of two or three, at monthly intervals throughout winter and spring for abomasal worm counts. meteorological data were recorded and regular estimates of infective pasture larval availability were made. parasite population changes and inhibition patterns for ostertagia spp, haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus axei were recorded. ostertagia spp were found to su ...1979262603
controlled trials of the anthelmintic oxfendazole in ewes and lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.oxfendazole doses at a rate of 5 mg per kg, before or after lambing, reduced nematode egg output to insignificant levels in ewes, most of which were not exposed to re-infection. ewes treated with oxfendazole had a significantly lower egg output than those treated with levamisole, although the latter anthelmintic was also highly effective. in lambs, oxfendazole at a dose rate of 5 mg per kg, showed 100 per cent efficacy for ostertagia circumcincta, o trifurcata, teledorsagia davtiani, trichostron ...1977335633
an evaluation of the efficacy of oxfendazole against the common nematode parasites of the a controlled trial in naturally-infected young ponies, oxfendazole administered orally at dose-rates of 10 mg per kg and 50 mg per kg resulted in complete elimination of trichostrongylus axei, parascaris equorum, oxyuris equi and adult strongylus vulgaris. also, all migrating strongylus edentatus larvae recovered from the subperitoneal tissues of the flank were found to be dead. minimum efficiencies of 99.8 per cent and 99.1 per cent were obtained against adult small strongyles (trichonema sp ...1978364817
in vitro development of trichostrongylus axei, from infective larvae to young adults.advanced stages of trichostrongylus axei were grown from exsheathed infective larvae in roller culture systems consisting of a complex cell-free medium, api-6, when used alone or supplemented for 8- or 21-day intervals with pepsin or reducing agents, or both. young adult males and females were the most advanced stages attained. this stage was attained by days 18--21, when medium api-6 contained pepsin for 8 or 21 days, with or without reducing agents for the first 8 days; and by days 24--26, whe ...1979376816
[presence of trichostrongylus axei (cobbold, 1879) raillet et henry, 1909, in cattle in cuba].the first finding of trichostrongylus axei (cobbold, 1879) railliet et henry, 1909 in the cuban bovine cattle is reported. its characteristics are described and measurements obtained by authors are compared to those from others. fifty animals were examined and a 94% invasion was found.1979382284
[helminth fauna of syrian cattle].in this work the stomach and the small intestine of 34 and the large intestine of 4 more cattle were examined. 91,17% of the examined cattle (31 in 34 animals) had infected the stomach and/or the small intestine by parasites. 14 kinds of nematodes were found. the average intensity of infection of the stomach was higher than that of the small intestine. with the exception of higher infection in 3 stomachs and 2 small intestines the intensity of infection in all other cases was from small to mediu ...1979453633
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xii. artificial transmission of nematodes from blesbok and impala to sheep, goats and cattle.sheep were successfully infested artificially with the larvae of haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus falculatus and impalaja nudicollis, cultured from the faeces of blesbok naturally infested with these nematodes. haemonchus placei, longistrongylus sabie, trichostrongylus colubrifomis, t. falculatus, impalaia tuberculata and cooperia hungi likewise became established in sheep, goats and calves dosed with larvae cultured from the faeces of infested impala. sheep and goat ...1979460820
oxfendazole--anthelmintic activity in egyptian goats artificially infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.the recently developed benzimidazole anthelmintic, oxfendazole, was tested against artificial nematode infestations in egyptian goats using oral dosing at 4.5 and 2.8 mg/kg. a 100% clearance of mature and immature haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, ostertagia circumcincta, coopera curticei, bunostomum trigonocephalum and chabertia ovina was obtained at the 4.5 mg/kg level. very high levels of clearance against the mature worms were obtained at 2.8 mg/kg but the drug was less effective ...1979462559
avermectins, new family of potent anthelmintic agents: efficacy of the b1a component.when given to sheep as a single oral dose at 0.1 mg/kg, the b(1a) component of the avermectins caused a reduction of >95% in the numbers of haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta (including inhibited l(4) larvae), trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia oncophora, and oesophagostomum columbianum. when given to cattle as a single oral dose at 0.1 mg/kg, avermectin b(1a) was >95% effective in reducing the numbers of haemonchus placei, ostertagia ostertagi (including ...1979464563
anthelmintic efficiency of oxfendazole, fenbendazole and levamisole against naturally acquired infections of ostertagia ostertagi and trichostrongylus axei in cattle.the anthelmintic efficiencies of oxfendazole, fenbendazole and levamisole, each at 4 dose rates spanning the manufacturers' recommended dosages were compared in beef cattle with naturally acquired infections of ostertagia ostertagi and trichostrongylus axei. in 8 of the 9 cases tested there was no significant increase in anthelmintic efficiency due to increased dose rates of any of the drugs. percentage efficiencies and their standard errors, calculated from mean worm counts of pooled data for a ...1979464935
investigations of 'transfer factor' activity in the transfer of immunity to trichostrongylus axei infections in sheep.three investigations are described in which non-dialysed and dialysed leucocyte lysates, 'transfer factor' prepared from the blood of sheep infected with trichostrongylus axei successfully transferred immunity to challenge infection with that parasite in susceptible lambs. similar leucocyte lysates from parasite-free lambs failed to transfer a similar resistance to challenge infection. 'transfer factor' treatment produced a 30--72 per cent reduction in a total worm burden compared to susceptible ...1979472488
infection and immune kinetics of trichostrongylus axei in one experiment, 21 calves were given daily oral immunizing inoculations of 1,000 infective larvae (l3) of trichostrongylus axei, an abomasal nematode parasites, for 35 weeks. calves were euthanatized in groups of three every 5 weeks to determine infection kinetics. worm populations steadily increased through week 30, but the percentage of total inoculum that became established was about the same through week 30. at week 35, the number of worms dropped markedly. in a second experiment, 27 calv ...1979475128
the activity of albendazole against adult and larval gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected calves in the netherlands.the activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected calves in the netherlands was tested. the calves were in their first grazing season and kept in two groups of ten. one of these groups was grazed alternately with sheep. five out of each group were drenched with albendazole (7.5 mg/kg) on the day they were housed (november 1). before and 2, 14, and 28 days after treatment individual faecal samples were taken from all calves and larval cultures were made. ten cal ...1979494213
seasonal transmission of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes in the texas gulf coast.sentinel calves were placed in pastures for 1 month in two environmentally dissimilar areas of the texas gulf coast to determine the seasonal transmission of various gastrointestinal nematodes. transmission was determined for cooperia spp, haemonchus placei, ostertagia ostertagi, and trichostrongylus axei. large numbers of cooperia spp were acquired from may through november, with the peak of transmission occurring in july and august. haemonchus placei was encountered on both field sites but was ...1979500427
gastrointestinal nematode immunization trials in cattle.three experiments were conducted to immunize calves against ostertagia ostertagi, trichostrongylus axei, and t colubriformis. calves were given intraperitoneal injections with in vitro-grown parasitic larvae of the three species and iv and intraperitoneal injections of exoantigens obtained from culture media used to grow o ostertagi. none of the treatments provided immunity to subsequent oral challenge exposure with normal infective larvae.1979525900
anthelmintic activities of b1a fraction of avermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.anthelmintic activities of the b1a fraction of avermectin were evaluated in a controlled experiment. twenty 12-week-old calves artificially infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to four groups. calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; other calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (orally) b1a avermectin at dosage levels of 50, 100, and 200 microgram/kg of body weight, respectively. these treatments were given 35 days after calves were inoculated with infective nemat ...1979525922
efficacy of anthelmintics against cattle nematodes.the efficacies of fenbendazole and thiabendazole against artifically acquired cattle nematodes and the efficacies of fenbendazole, prabendazole and levamisole against naturally acquired cattle nematodes were studied in western victoria. fenbendazole significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced numbers of late and early fourth stage larvae (greater than 96%), artificially acquired cooperla spp (100%) and naturally acquired adult ostertagia ostertagi (98%) and trichostrongylus axei (90%). thiabendazol ...1979533489
studies on haemonchus contortus. ii. the effect of abomasal nematodes on subsequent challenge with h. contortus.fifty-thousand infective larvae of trichostrongylus axei dosed to 7-9-month-old merinos protected them against a subsequent challenge with 50 000 infective larvae of haemonchus contortus. protection varied with the period between an initial dosage of t. axei and challenge with h. contortus as follows: after 90 days it was more than 80% effective in more than 80% of sheep; at 119 and 180 days there was still a significant reduction in the numbers of h. contortus recovered (p < 0,05 and p < 0,001, ...1979551369
cryopreservation of the infective larvae of the common nematodes of ruminants.exsheathed infective larvae (l 3) of 19 species of nematodes were tested for infectivity in either sheep or cattle after they had been frozen in 0,9% nacl solution, stored for a relatively short time in the gas phase of liquid nitrogen and subsequently thawed. in addition, 13 of these species were tested after similar storage for up to 18 months. in sheep, haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematodirus spathiger and oesophagostom ...1977566412
anthelmintic efficacy of oxfendazole in calves.oxfendazole, methyl [5-(phenylsulfinyl)-1h-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate given to calves at dose level of 2.5 mg/kg as a paste, as a bolus, or as a drench resulted in excellent (97 to 100%) anthelmintic efficacy against mature ostertagia ostertagi, trichostrongylus axei, cooperia oncophora, c mcmasteri, c pectinata, c punctata, nematodirus helvetianus, trichostrongylus longispicularis, chabertia ovina, and oesophagostomum radiatum. against the early 4th stage larvage of o ostertagia and n helvetia ...1978567947
[distribution of nematode parasites of the digestive system in sheep (ovis aries) and goats (capra hircus) of the piedmontese and valdostano alpine arc].a survey, carried out on gastro-intestinal nematodes of sheep and goats of piemonte and of valle d'aosta (87 sheep and 12 goats) has shown the presence of the following species in sheep, bunostomum trigonocephalum, chabertia ovina, cooperia curticei, haemonchus contortus, marshallagia marshalli, nematodirus abnormalis, nematodirus filicollis, nematodirus helvetianus, nematodirus spathiger, oesophagostomum venulosum, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia lyrata, ostertagia trifurcata, skrjabinema o ...1977572958
the effect of dermally applied levamisole against the parasitic nematodes of cattle.a series of trials to establish the anthelmintic efficiency of levamisole, when applied dermally to calves, is described. the levamisole base was formulated in a suitable solvent system at 100 g/l and applied dermally at a dose rate of 8 mg base/kg. this gave efficiencies of 97.1-100%, 88.5-100%, 100%, 98.7-100% and 89.2-100% against adult haemonchus placei, ostertagia spp, cooperia spp, oesophagostomum radiatum and trichostrongylus axei, respectively. activity against the immature stages of h. ...1977588176
studies on nematode infections of beef cattle in new south wales.the occurrence and seasonal trends of nematode parasite infections in beef cattle on the tablelands and north coast regions of new south wales are described, based on worm counts from 627 spring-born steers slaughtered at 2-monthly intervals from 6 to 24 months of age. the predominant parasites were ostertagia ostertagi, trichostrongylus axei and cooperia spp. large burdens of adult ostertagia were seen in 12-month-old animals in late winter and early spring, and later in 18- to 20-month-old cat ...1977614021
anthelmintic activity of fenbendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.anthelmintic activities of fenbendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. forty calves artificially infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; the other calves were given (orally) fenbendazole at the dose level of 5 mg/kg in the forms of a suspension (group 2), medicated feed to individual calves (group 3), and medicated feed to the group (group 4). these treatments were given on day 35 after calves were inoc ...1978677528
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. ix. helminths in blesbok.four blesbok culled in the rietvlei nature reserve during may 1972 were each infested with trichostrongylus axei and impalaia nudicollis. some of these animals also harboured haemonchus bedfordi, haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus falculatus, skrjabinema alata and avitellina centripunctata. thirty-two blesbok were culled in pairs at approximately 4-5 week-intervals in the percy fyfe nature reserve from july 1972 to november 1973. adult h. contortus were recovered in fair numbers from buck sl ...1978714392
the ecology of the free-living stages of trichostrongylus axei. 1978748218
[natural development of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in calves born during the dry season in guaira, state of são paulo, brazil].proceeding with their observations on bovine nematode epidemiology in guaíra, state of são paulo, the authors carried a study on the natural development of nematode infections in crossbred calves born at the dry season. the fecal nematode egg counts per gram (e.p.g.) performed every fortnight were positive at the start, in october, when calves were two months old, and reached the peak when they were five months old; cultures of faeces revealed larvae of cooperia, haemoncus, oesophagostomum and t ...1978754678
[clinical examination of the blood of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) naturally infested with parasites].in six animals hunted and four immobilized animals of red deer (cervus elaphus l.) of both sexes and of different age, kept at three game preserves in bohemia, the psychological values were ascertained: the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes, the hemoglobin content, the hematocrit, mcv, mch, mchc, the white blood count, the total serum protein, the fractions: albumin, alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulin, the activity of sgot, and sgpt, the alkaline phosphatase and the metabolism of calcium, phos ...1976820034
evaluation of less than recommended dosages of levamisole phosphate for the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.the anthelmintic activity of 3 dosages of injectable levamisole phosphate was evaluated in 84- to 145-kg calves from a herd of cattle with a history of heavy gastrointestinal nematode infections. trichostrongylid egg counts in the calves varied from 450 to 700/g of feces. the anthelmintic was administered subcutaneously to 3 groups of 10 calves each, at the rate of 8 mg/kg of body weight (current manufacturer's recommendation), 6 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg. a 4th group of 10 calves was utilized as untre ...1977833031
an evaluation of ethyl-6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-carbamate (sch 18099) for anthelmintic activity in domestic animals.ethyl-6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-carbamate (sch 18099) was evaluated for efficacy against natural helminth infections in ponies, pigs, lambs and chickens. sixteen critical trials were conducted in ponies at dosages of 15 to 150 mg/kg. at 15 mg/kg, efficacy against adult and larval oxyuris equi was 100% and 91% and against small strongyles it was 98%. efficacy levels were 95% against strongylus vulgaris and s. edentatus at the 20 mg/kg dosage. in two trials at 100 mg/kg efficacy against parascaris e ...1977864223
helminth parasites of bighorn sheep in oregon.the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts from 18 hunter-killed bighorn rams (ovis canadensis californiana) were examined in total or in part for helminth parasites during a two-year study of three separate herds in eastern oregon. prevalence was 100% with the lungworm protostrongylus stilesi. the gastrointestinal fauna from 11 rams comprised cooperia oncophora, marshallagia marshalli, nematodirus oiratianus, oesophagostomum spp., ostertagia occidentalis, o. ostertagi, skrjabinema ovis, trichostrong ...1977864844
critical anthelmintic trials in ponies with four benzimidazoles: mebendazole, cambendazole, fenbendazole, and albendazole.the comparative efficacy of four benzimidazoles against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critical test method. mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg), cambendazole (20 mg/kg), fenbendazole (5 mg/kg), and albendazole (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) given in single oral doses were highly effective against adult large strongylids (strongylus vulgaris, s. endentatus, s. equinus) and adult small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: cylicostephanus, cylicocyclus, cyathostomum, triodontoph ...1977886410
anthelmintic efficiency of oxfendazole in california lambs.oxfendazole, methyl 5(6)-phenylsulfinyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate, was given by oral drench (5 mg/kg) to california lambs harboring natural infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. ninety-nine percent of adult ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia trifurcata, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus vitrinus, trichostrongylus colubriformis, nematodirus filicollis, and nematodirus spathiger were removed by the anthelmintic.1977921025
anthelmintic activity of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes in calves.anthelmintic activities of albendazole were evaluated in a controlled experiment. forty calves experimentally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were allotted to 4 groups. calves in group 1 were used as nonmedicated controls; calves in groups 2, 3, and 4 were given (by oral route) a suspension containing albendazole at dose concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg/kg of body weight on the 35th day after administration of infective nematode larvae. in groups 2, 3, and 4 calves, average overal ...1977921039
efficacy of albendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.forty-five calves with artificial and pasture-acquired nematode infections were medicated with albendazole at dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10 mg/kg of body weight. a dose level of 2.5 mg/kg removed at least 99% of adult trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia oncophora, and bunostomum phlebotomum. burdens of haemonchus contortus, strongyloides papillosus, and ostertagia ostertagi were reduced 79, 88, and 97%, respectively. at a dose level of 5.0 mg/kg, at least 95% of a ...1976999077
egg output by trichostrongylus axei in sheep given a single infection. 19751141467
the anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole against a mixed nematode infection in sheep.fenbendazole (methyl-5-(phenylthio)-2-benzimidazole carbamate) at dose rates of 5 mg/kg and above was 100 per cent effective in eliminating a naturally acquired dictyocaulus filaria infection in sheep. the drug was 100 per cent effective in eliminating concurrent infections of adult trichostrongylus axei, haemonchus contortus, haemonchus placei, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia ostertagii, cooperia oncophora, cooperia mcmasterii, nematodirus spathiger, neumatodirus filcollis, oesophagostomum ...19751153893
[course of the parasite phase of development of trichostrongylus axei (cobbold, 1879) railliet et henry, 1909, in the domestic rabbit].rabbits of the new zealand white and small chinchilla breeds were each infected at 3-4 months of age with 4-10 thousand invasive trichostrongyle larvae. prepatent period of the infection was 22-32 days. third-stage larvae were present up to the 6th day of infection, fourth-stage from the 8th day, fifth-stage from the 14th day and sexually mature trichostrongyles on the 18th day. the period of patency of the infection lasted for over a year, but only small numbers of eggs were passed in faeces, a ...19751200742
the effect of mixed grazing of sheep and cattle on worm burdens in lambs.lambs from ewes grazed without cattle at 4.9, 7.4 and 9.9 ewes and lambs per hectare and from ewes run with steers at an equivalent median stocking rate at four ratios in which sheep comprised 30%, 40%, 50% and 70% of the animal equivalents were killed and examined for worms. when sheep grazed alone, there was no significant increase in the number of worm species normally found in sheep, namely ostertagia circumcincta and nematodirus spathiger, with an increase in stocking rate. when sheep graze ...19751200936
the efficacy of thiabendazole against the arrested larvae of some trichostrongylidae and chabertia ovina in sheep.the activity of thiabendazole at 100 mg/kg was tested against the arrested larvae of ostertagia spp, haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, nematodirus spp and chabertia ovina in natural infections, in 10-month-old lambs. the result, assessed by means of worm counts, showed the treatment to be very effective.19761257622
critical tests with oxibendazole against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies.twenty ponies were allotted to 4 groups of 5 ponies each, and oxibendazole was orally administered at dose levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg. in the 3 groups of ponies given the largest doses, efficacy against 3 species of strongylus was between 92 and 100% and that against small strongylids of the genera cyathostomum, cylicocyclus, cylicodontophorus, and cylicostephanus was more than 99%. all adults and 95 to 100% of larvae of the pinworm oxyuris equi were removed. in the group of ponies given ...19761267243
anthelmintic activity of paraherquamide in calves.paraherquamide, an oxindole alkaloid metabolite of penicillium paraherquei and penicillium charlesii, was tested against the adult stages of nine common gastrointestinal and lung nematodes of calves at single, oral dosages of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg kg-1. at dosages 1.0-4.0 mg kg-1 there was 95% or more removal of haemonchus placei, ostertagia ostertagi, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, cooperia oncophora, nematodirus helvetianus, oesophagostomum radiatum, and dictyocaulus ...19921413457
efficacy of cydectin moxidectin 1% injectable against experimental infections of dictyocaulus viviparus and bunostomum phlebotomum superimposed on natural gastrointestinal infections in calves.twenty male holstein calves averaging 105 kg in weight and naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes and small numbers of lungworm and hookworm, were given experimental infections with the two latter species to provide adult and larval stages for anthelmintic evaluation. following random allotment, one group of 10 calves was injected subcutaneously with moxidectin at a dosage of 0.2 mg kg-1 of body weight. a second group of 10 was injected subcutaneously with unmedicated blank vehicle a ...19921413460
benzimidazole resistance in trichostrongylus axei in australia. 19921441136
efficacy of moxidectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.three groups of 11 naturally infected crossbred beef calves were injected subcutaneously with moxidectin 1 per cent injectable at 0.2 or 0.3 mg moxidectin/kg bodyweight or with the unmedicated vehicle. nematode infections had been acquired during grazing from december to april. based on the faecal egg counts and total worm counts of the control calves at necropsy (11 to 13 days after treatment) most of the calves had heavy parasitic burdens. ostertagia ostertagi was predominant and the mean numb ...19921441146
epidemiological observations on stomach worms of donkeys in morocco.over two consecutive years, weekly examinations for the presence of nematodes were conducted on 185 stomachs from donkeys originating mainly from the rabat, casablanca and settat regions of morocco. all the animals, except one, were infected by at least one of four helminth species. trichostrongylus axei was found in 93.5%, habronema muscae in 89.7%, h. majus in 85.4% and draschia megastoma in 1.1% of donkeys. most animals were infected by two (23.8%) or three (71.9%) species. high burdens of t. ...19921466146
efficacy of moxidectin against naturally acquired nematode infections in cattle.the efficacy of moxidectin, a new endectocide against natural nematode infections, was evaluated. twenty-five calves were divided into two groups of eight calves each and a third group of nine calves. moxidectin was administered s.c. to two groups (i, 0.2 mg kg-1 body weight (bw); ii, 0.3 mg kg-1 bw) and the third group (iii) received the vehicle (placebo) s.c. two pre-treatment and one post-treatment faecal nematode egg count determinations were made from all calves, and they were necropsied 2 ...19921502785
efficacy of abamectin against natural infections of gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworm of cattle with special emphasis on inhibited, early fourth stage larvae of ostertagia ostertagi.the anthelmintic efficacy of abamectin (avermectin b1) was evaluated against gastrointestinal nematodes, including ostertagia ostertagi inhibited larvae and lungworm, in yearling crossbred beef heifers during late spring. the calves were grazed on contaminated pasture for 10 weeks and then held under conditions free of nematode infection for 3 weeks prior to allotment and treatment on 5 june. thirteen calves were randomly assigned to two groups of six by restricted randomization on body weights; ...19921532875
controlled tests on activity of contemporary parasiticides on natural infections of helminths in lambs, with emphasis on strains of haemonchus contortus isolated in 1955.ten controlled tests were done between 1972 and 1989, in lambs on pasture, evaluating activity of fenbendazole (fbz; 5 mg/kg of body weight), oxfendazole (ofz; 3.5 and 10 mg/kg), oxibendazole (obz; 10 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (prt; 25 mg of base/kg), and thiabendazole (tbz; 44 and 50 mg/kg) against natural infections of helminths, with emphasis on 2 strains (a and b) of haemonchus contortus. strain a was phenothiazine-susceptible and strain b was phenothiazine-resistant when isolated in 1955. fo ...19921539921
prevalence of benzimidazole-resistance in equine cyathostome populations in south east order to study the prevalence of benzimidazole-resistance in equine cyathostomes, 30 stables in south east england were selected according to strict criteria but with minimum bias to provide three matched groups of 100 horses. one group was treated with fenbendazole, one with pyrantel embonate and the third was left untreated. the overall efficacies of fenbendazole and pyrantel embonate, as judged by the faecal egg-count reduction test, were 56.3 and 95.8 per cent, respectively. the numbers o ...19921595158
interspecific interactions in naturally acquired nematode communities from sheep abomasum in relation to age of host and season in four areas of león (spain).the abomasa of naturally infected ewes (407) and lambs (190) from four areas of león were collected weekly over 2 years in the abattoir of león (north-west spain). the major species and morphs found were teladorsagia circumcincta and trichostrongylus axei and to a lesser extent marshallagia marshalli and teladorsagia trifurcata. the putative interactions between species were assessed by euclidian distances based on the results of multivariate analyses. the estimation of interaction was either ba ...19921639568
efficacy of albendazole, levamisole and fenbendazole against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle, with emphasis on inhibited early fourth stage ostertagia ostertagi experiment was conducted to compare the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole (abz), levamisole (lev) and fenbendazole (fbz) against inhibited early fourth stage larvae (el4) of ostertagia ostertagi during april in louisiana. forty cross-bred beef heifers (average weight 165 kg) were acquired during winter and grazed on pastures contaminated with o. ostertagi and other nematodes until early april. the cattle were weighed and randomly allotted into four groups of ten animals on 6 april and trea ...19911763491
trichostrongylus axei infection as a cause of deaths and loss of weight in sheep. 19911776938
periparturient rise in faecal nematode egg counts in west african dwarf sheep in southern ghana in the absence of arrested strongyle larvae.the nematode egg output of two groups of ewes, a pregnant test group (2-3 years of age) mated between march and april and a non-pregnant control group (5-6 years of age) was followed. the worm burdens acquired by worm-free 'tracer' lambs were also followed on the same pasture from march 1988 to february 1989. there was a significant difference (p less than 0.05) in the magnitude of the egg output in the test group compared with the control group. in the test ewes, an initial rise in egg producti ...19911897121
efficacy of ivermectin administered via sustained-release bolus against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle.twelve calves (mean weight, 175.5 kg) were used to confirm efficacy of ivermectin delivered from a prototype sustained-release bolus against naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes including early fourth-stage (inhibited) larvae of ostertagia ostertagi. the calves were allocated by restricted randomization on weight to 1 of 2 groups: controls, to which a placebo bolus was given orally, and treated calves, to which a sustained-release bolus designed to deliver 8 mg of ivermectin/day at a st ...19912021255
effects of ivermectin and fenbendazole in strategic treatment of gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle.four groups of 18 beef calves each were used to evaluate effects of different treatments on parasite control and weight gains. the investigation extended from november 1986 (weaning) to october 1987. group-1 calves were treated with ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg of body weight, sc) at approximately 6-week intervals for a total of 8 treatments; group-2 calves were given the same dosage of ivermectin by the same route of administration as group-1 calves in november, march, and july; group-3 calves ...19902085231
absence of hypobiosis in abomasal nematodes of sheep and goats in egypt.a total of 96 abomasa from sheep and goats at the zagazig abattoir, sharkia province, egypt, were examined, during the four climatic seasons from april 1986 to march 1987, for the presence of adult and larval nematodes. adults of trichostrongylus axei were most numerous followed by adult haemonchus contortus. adult ostertagia sp. and parabronema skrjabini were less prevalent. there was no significant difference between sheep and goats in infection rates, but worm burdens of the nematodes other t ...19902238430
anthelmintic activity of the macrocyclic lactone f28249-alpha in sheep.the macrolytic lactone f28249-alpha was titrated in experimentally infected sheep and found to be highly effective against most of the common gastrointestinal nematodes as a single oral dose, given at a rate of 0.025, 0.05, or 0.1 mg/kg. specifically, maximal activity was evident at even the lowest dosage against adult haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcinta, trichostrongylus axei, and t colubriformis and l4 o circumcinta. activity against oesophagostomum columbianum was also high at all do ...19902240816
the relationships among ecto- and endoparasite levels, class i antigens of the bovine major histocompatibility system, immunoglobulin e levels and weight gain.natural infestations of the cattle tick boophilus microplus, levels of the buffalo fly haematobia irritants exigua and faecal nematode egg concentrations (bunostomum phlebotomum, cooperia spp., haemonchus placei, oesophagostomum radiatum and trichostrongylus axei) were assessed in 221 belmont red calves during the post-weaning period, when the animals were between 9 and 18 months of age. in addition, the 98 males of this group were challenged with b. microplus larvae on two separate occasions. t ...19902316176
cryopreservation of some common nematodes of ruminants for up to 11,3 years.infective larvae of selected batched of the following nematode species from sheep and cattle were examined for survival and infectivity (by injection into either the abomasum, the duodenum, or the jugular vein) after having been stored in liquid nitrogen for 103-136 months: haemonchus contortus, haemonchus placei, ostertagia circumcincta, ostertagia ostertagi, marshallagia marshalli, cooperia spp., trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus falculatus, nematodirus sp ...19902338992
epidemiology of abomasal nematodes of dairy cattle in hokkaido, northern japan.the prevalence and intensity of infection with abomasal nematodiasis was studied in dairy cattle of hokkaido, northern japan, for successive two years. during the period of march in 1985 to september in 1987, a total number of 393 abomasa of holstein-friesian cows was examined for nematode parasites. nematodes were detected from 75% of the cows. the prevalence of nematode species detected was ostertagia ostertagi 250 (63.6%), mecistocirrus digitatus 181 (46.1%), trichostrongylus axei 85 (21.6%) ...19902348599
anthelmintic activity of paraherquamide in sheep.paraherquamide, an oxindole alkaloid metabolite of penicillium paraherquei, was tested against the common gastrointestinal nematode species of sheep at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, per os. it was highly efficacious (greater than or equal to 98% reduction) as a single oral treatment dosages greater than or equal to 0.5 mg/kg against adult haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis and cooperia curticei, and the l4 stage of cooperia spp. ...19902352063
anthelmintic efficacy of febantel paste in naturally infected calves.the purpose of the present study was to verify results of the lowest dose (5 mg kg-1) of febantel evaluated in an earlier trial in which there were no differences in efficacies of three dose rates (5, 7.5 and 10 mg kg-1 body weight) against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections of cattle. fourteen angus calves (mean weight and age of 155 kg and 525 days, respectively), from the same farm, with relatively heavy (mean of 448 eggs g-1 feces (epg] parasite burdens were selected. after an adju ...19902353426
[the helminth fauna of the gastrointestinal tract of young cattle in northwest germany].ten unmedicated animals of a controlled anthelmintic trial were used to analyse the present gastrointestinal helminth fauna of young cattle from the northwest of germany. this survey done in august revealed ostertagia ostertagi to represent the most prevalent and abundant species followed by cooperia oncophora and nematodirus helvetianus. o. lyrata, o. leptospicularis, c. zurnabada, c. punctata, trichostrongylus axei, haemonchus contortus, bunostomum phlebotomum, capillaria bovis and trichuris d ...19892598802
controlled test and clinical evaluation of dienbendazole against naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites in ponies.a controlled test was performed to titrate the anthelmintic dosage of dienbendazole in 24 mixed-breed ponies naturally infected with strongylus vulgaris, s edentatus, and small strongyle species, as determined by parasitic egg and larval counts in feces. comparison of results of treatment was made among 3 dienbendazole dosages--2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of body weight--and a gum (excipient) mixture given by nasogastric intubation. all ponies were euthanatized and necropsied at 7 or 8 days after treat ...19892619127
availability of infective larvae of parasitic nematodes of sheep grazing on kikuyu (pennisetum clandestinum) pastures in the winter rainfall area.thirteen groups of 4 south african mutton merinos grazed for 4 weeks with the flock on kikuyu pastures and were slaughtered for total and differential worm counts at necropsy. subsequently 12 groups of 8 week tracers grazed on the pastures and were killed for worm counts post mortem. the following were present in most sheep: teladorsagia (syn. ostertagia) circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus colubriformis, dictyocaulus filaria and oesophagostomum venulosum. haemonchus contortus, ...19892626260
helminth parasites of intermingling axis deer, wild swine and domestic cattle from the island of molokai, hawaii.helminth infections of axis deer (cervus axis), wild swine (sus scrofa) and domestic cattle (bos taurus) were studied among intermingling herds on the puu-o-hoku ranch, molokai, hawaii. twenty-four species of helminths were collected from the 10 deer, 10 swine and 10 cattle. capillaria bovis, cooperia punctata, haemonchus contortus and trichostrongylus axei infected both axis deer and cattle, whereas gongylonema pulchrum infected both axis deer and wild swine. none of the species of helminths oc ...19892716106
efficacy of oxfendazole against inhibited larvae of ostertagia ostertagi in naturally infected calves in the southern usa.forty yearling calves were assigned to four equal groups; three of the groups were treated with oxfendazole at dose rates of 6.75 mg/kg, 4.50 mg/kg, or 2.25 mg/kg bodyweight while the fourth group served as an untreated control. the calves were native to north-east mississippi, usa, and harboured natural infections of gastrointestinal nematodes. the study was conducted during july when inhibited early fourth-stage larvae may be found in large numbers after their acquisition in the spring. the ca ...19892728298
the relation between the natural worm burden of steers and the faecal egg count differentiated to species.the relation between the faecal egg count and the worm burden was investigated in 104 steers of three breeds, 9-24 months of age, which were subjected to natural infection with nematode larvae from pasture at the national cattle breeding station near rockhampton in central queensland. the worm species found were cooperia spp., haemonchus placei, trichostrongylus axei, oesophagostomum radiatum and small numbers of bunostumum phlebotumum. the faecal egg count was found to be a reliable measure of ...19892728323
efficacy of levamisole against immature and mature nematodes in goats with induced infections.anthelmintic efficacy of levamisole against induced infections with 7- and 21-day-old haemonchus contortus, ostertagia circumcincta, trichostrongylus axei, and t colubriformis was evaluated as an oral drench in goats. group 1 (n = 8) was not treated, group 2 (n = 8) was given 3.96 mg of levamisole/kg of body weight, group 3 (n = 8) was given 7.92 mg of levamisole/kg, and group 3 (n = 7) was given 11.88 mg of levamisole/kg. efficacy against all worms was low in goats given 3.96 mg of levamisole/k ...19892774328
helminth parasites of grysbok, common duikers and angora and boer goats in the valley bushveld in the eastern cape province.helminth parasites were collected from 13 grysbok, raphicerus melanotis, 12 common duikers, sylvicapra grimmia, 24 angora goats and 24 boer goats killed on a farm in valley bushveld in the eastern cape province. nematodes belonging to 9 species and a further 2 genera and cestodes belonging to 1 species and a further genus were recovered from the grysbok. of these, worms of the genus skrjabinema, trichostrongylus rugatus, trichostrongylus pietersei and nematodirus spathiger were the most prevalen ...19892812700
common internal parasites found in the stomach, large intestine, and cranial mesenteric artery of thoroughbreds in kentucky at necropsy (1985 to 1986).a total of 278 thoroughbreds (less than 1 to 31 years old) were examined at necropsy (july 9, 1985, to feb 2, 1986) in kentucky for various internal parasites. examination was not made of all the horses for each of the parasites. specific parasites recovered from the stomach of foals (n = 30) and yearlings and older horses (n = 96) and percentage (in parentheses) of each age category infected, respectively, were as follows: gasterophilus intestinalis 2nd instar (53% and 32%) and 3rd instar (37% ...19872950814
parasites of the stomach in donkeys of the highveld of zimbabwe.fourteen donkeys from a communal area of the zimbabwean highveld were examined for stomach parasites during july and november of 1986 and january and april of 1987. all 14 animals were infected. habronema muscae occurred in 12, draschia megastoma in 11, h. majus in 9, trichostrongylus axei in 9, gasterophilus intestinalis in 14 and g. nasalis in 1 donkey. the lowest level of infection was in january for the helminths and in april for gasterophilus larvae. the peak burdens of parasites were in ju ...19882975414
efficacy of febantel against abomasal nematodes and lungworms in cattle.the efficacy of febantel at a dosage of 5 mg/kg (45.5% paste formulation) against inhibited early 4th-stage larvae (el4) of ostertagia ostertagi, other nematodes of the abomasum, and dictyocaulus viviparus was investigated in 4- to 6-month-old holstein calves that grazed on pasture heavily contaminated with parasites from february 24 to april 1, 1986 (36 days). in louisiana, this is the first month of a 3-month period in which increasing numbers of inhibition-prone o ostertagi larvae are acquire ...19882977070
prophylactic efficacy of an ivermectin sustained-release bolus against challenge exposure with gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematode infective larvae in calves.twelve holstein calves were used to determine the prophylactic efficacy of ivermectin against challenge exposure with gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes. two groups of 6 calves (mean body weight, 205 kg) each were formed by restricted randomization according to body weight. group-1 calves served as nonmedicated controls. each calf of group 2 was orally given one prototype sustained-release bolus designed to deliver ivermectin at a continuous daily dose of 8 mg. third-stage nematode infecti ...19883189987
effect of strategic anthelmintic treatment and pasture management on productivity and control of nematode parasites in weaner-yearling beef cattle.three groups of 17 beef calves were used to evaluate effects of strategic anthelmintic treatment on safe (group 1) and contaminated (group 2) pasture in comparison with minimal treatment at weaning and contaminated pasture (group 3). the investigation extended from weaning in november 1982 to the following august. results of faecal egg counts, herbage larval counts, plasma pepsinogen and tracer calf worm counts in autumn and spring indicated minimal levels of infection on safe pastures provided ...19883222550
high concentration of serum gastrin immunoreactivity and abomasal mucosal hyperplasia in calves infected with ostertagia ostertagi and/or trichostrongylus axei.parasite-free, 4-month-old-calves were inoculated with ostertagia ostertagi and/or trichostrongylus axei, followed 6 weeks later by inoculation with increasing doses of o ostertagi for 8 weeks in the 2 groups (n = 4) of calves that had been given o ostertagi. gastrin immunoreactivity concentration in serum was measured before and after infection and was correlated with changes in mucosal thickness. gastrin immunoreactivity concentration in preinoculation control sera ranged from 95.2 to 287.1 pg ...19883239847
prophylactic efficacy of sustained-release ivermectin against induced nematode infestations in cattle.the efficacy of sustained-release ivermectin was evaluated against challenge infestations of gastro-intestinal nematodes in a laboratory study involving 12 treated and 12 untreated control cattle. a weighted, orally administered osmotically activated device designed to lodge in the rumeno-reticulum and to deliver ivermectin at a dosage rate of approximately 8 mg/day for a 120-day period, was administered to treated cattle. animals were challenged with infective larvae of bunostomum phlebotomum a ...19883361567
seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes of beef calves grazed on irrigated pastures in the lower sacramento valley of california.two worm-free calves were allowed to graze on irrigated pasture with a naturally infected herd for each of 34 one-month periods from november 1979 to august 1982. after each grazing period, the calves were transferred to a cement-floored pen for 3 weeks and then were euthanatized and necropsied. ostertagia ostertagi and cooperia oncophora were the most prevalent species of nematodes recovered. adults and larvae of ostertagia spp and cooperia spp were most numerous in winter and spring and least ...19883377319
efficacy of ivermectin against the abomasal nematode mecistocirrus digitatus in naturally infected zebu calves.anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin against mecistocirrus digitatus was evaluated in 10 naturally infected zebu calves. group 1 (n = 5) was not treated, and group 2 (n = 5) was treated sc with 200 micrograms of ivermectin/kg of body weight. calves were euthanatized 14 or 15 days after treatment. there was 100% overall reduction of m digitatus in treated calves, which was significant (p = 0.0079) compared with reduction in controls. cooperia punctata, haemonchus similis, and trichostrongylus axei ...19873434907
abomasal parasitism in dairy cows in belgium.over a period of one year, from march 1984 to april 1985, the abomasa of 157 dairy cows in east flanders (belgium) were collected and examined for the presence of nematodes. faeces and blood were also collected from the animals. no worms were recovered from 18 cows (11.5%), 118 cows (75%) had a low to moderate worm burden (10-10,000) and 21 cows (13.5%) a high worm burden (greater than 10,000). the geometric mean total number was 2171. ostertagia ostertagi and trichostrongylus axei were the main ...19863564332
monthly and seasonal fluctuations in abomasal nematode worm burden of naturally infected cattle in austria.from october 1980 until september 1981, 191 abomasa of naturally infected cattle were obtained from the slaughter-houses of mürzhofen and graz in the province of styria, and of wiener neustadt in the province of lower austria and examined to study the monthly and seasonal occurrence of hypobiosis in ostertagia ostertagi and trichostrongylus axei. infections in pastured animals (cows, steers and heifers) were compared with those in stabled animals (bulls fed on green forage and silage). except fo ...19873564352
prevalence of internal parasites in horses in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983) in kentucky.the prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); g. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); ...19873564356
[microecological characterization of parasitic nematoda present in goats of arid zones of venezuela].goats from the venezuelan northern arid zones were found infested by the following nematodes: haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, t. colubriformis, cooperia curticei, oesophagostomum columbianum, skrjabinema ovis y trichuris globulosa. the shannon-weaver index of diversity values oscillated between 0.045 and 1.73 bits (means = 1.16 +/- 0.24 bits). the maximum value of montly diversity ranged from 1 to 2.80 bits (means = 2.49 +/- 0.28 bits) and the equitability ranged from 0.045 to 0.67 ...19863587000
parasites in sheep grazing on kikuyu (pennisetum clandestinum) pastures in the winter rainfall region.regular worm counts were done post-mortem on sheep that had grazed on kikuyu pastures at the elsenburg research station near stellenbosch, a winter rainfall region. major species were trichostrongylus colubriformis, trichostrongylus axei, while ostertagia circumcincta was usually present in large numbers. minor species were haemonchus contortus, nematodirus spathiger, dictyocaulus filaria, oesophagostomum venulosum, trichuris spp., chabertia ovina and larvae of the arthropod oestrus ovis. muelle ...19873587925
efficacy of fenbendazole-medicated feed blocks against gastrointestinal nematode infections in anthelmintic trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of fenbendazole (fbz) incorporated into two types of feed blocks given daily for 3 or 10 days to calves naturally parasitized with gastrointestinal nematodes. each treated calf consumed 5 mg of fbz/kg of body weight. the fbz was greater than 99% effective in removing adults of haemonchus contortus, ostertagia ostertagi, o lyrata, cooperia punctata, c pectinata, c onchophora, trichostrongylus axei, bunostomum phlebotomum, and oesophago ...19873605803
parasites of south african wildlife. i. helminths of bushbuck, tragelaphus scriptus, and grey duiker, sylvicapra grimmia, from the weza state forest, natal.thirteen bushbuck, tragelaphus scriptus, and 13 grey duikers, sylvicapra grimmia, were culled in the weza state forest, natal, from may 1983-may 1984. the maximum number of worms recovered from a single bushbuck was 393. of the total number of worms recovered from all the bushbuck, paracooperia devossi were the most numerous, followed by ostertagia harrisi, a cooperia sp. and haemonchus vegliai. p. devossi and o. harrisi were more numerous during winter and the cooperia sp. more numerous during ...19873627728
the epidemiology of ostertagia ostertagi and other gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in louisiana.the epidemiology of ostertagia ostertagi and other gastrointestinal nematodes in yearling beef cattle was examined in each of 2 successive years. during each year 50 head of newly weaned beef calves were given a single dose of thiabendazole and then placed on experimental pastures. twenty-four of the animals were designated for monthly slaughter (n = 2) and analysis of worm population characteristics and 25 were designated for blood and faecal collection and for weighing. parasite-free tracer ca ...19873670895
the helminth parasites of various artiodactylids from some south african nature reserves.the helminth species composition and helminth burdens of 4 grey duikers, 12 bushbuck, 2 nyala, 2 giraffe, a steenbok, an oribi, a waterbuck and a tsessebe from the kruger national park (knp); of a steenbok and a greater kudu from the farm riekerts laager, transvaal; of a single blue duiker from the tsitsikama forest national park, and of a blue wildebeest, a red hartebeest, a gemsbok and 2 springbok from the kalahari gemsbok national park (kgnp) were collected, counted and identified. new parasi ...19863725333
the occurrence and abundance of helminth parasites of the mountain hare lepus timidus (l.) and the wild rabbit oryctolagus cuniculus (l.) in aberdeenshire, scotland.mountain hares were collected each month between april 1984 and march 1985 and their intestines examined for helminths. 26 rabbits were also collected between july and december 1984 and examined for gastro-intestinal helminths. three nematode and two cestode species were found in the hares while only two nematode and one cestode species were found in the rabbits. trichostrongylus retortaeformis was recorded from 88% of the 193 hares and 92% of the rabbits while comparable figures for passalurus ...19863734402
the comparative efficacy of oxfendazole administered as bolus and suspension to naturally infected sheep in a flock of 20 ewes naturally infected with those parasites of sheep most common in greece, and kept indoors during the whole trial, oxfendazole at the dose rate of approximately 2.9 and 2.8 mg/kg body-weight was tested as a 4 g bolus containing 112 mg active ingredient and a 2.265% suspension. the evaluation of its efficacy was based on the necropsy findings which were also supported by faecal egg counts. no differences in efficacy were noticed between the two formulations of the drug. both b ...19863745877
activity of ivermectin against natural infections by abomasal nematodes in lambs in controlled tests: evaluation of equine and bovine injectable formulations administered intraorally.the efficacy of 2 injectable formulations of ivermectin, administered intraorally at the dosage of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight, was evaluated against naturally occurring infections by abomasal nematodes in lambs in 2 controlled tests. one test (a) included 17 lambs treated with the equine formulation and 16 nontreated lambs. for the other test (b), 14 lambs were treated with the bovine formulation, and 12 were nontreated. in controlled test a, only mature nematodes were recovered, and remov ...19863755309
prophylaxis of nematode infections in cattle with an indwelling rumino-reticular ivermectin sustained release bolus.ivermectin delivered continuously from a rumino-reticular sustained release device was prophylactically effective in preventing establishment of nine nematode parasite species in multiply-exposed cattle. ivermectin dosages which permitted less than or equal to 1% of infected control calf worm populations to establish ranged from less than 2.5 micrograms kg-1 day-1, which totally prevented infection with dictyocaulus viviparus and oesophagostomum radiatum, to approximately equal to 30 micrograms ...19863788027
epidemiology and control of equine strongylosis at newmarket.seasonal rises in mean faecal egg output were observed in grazing ponies in spring (578 eggs per gram) and in summer (930 epg) on 30 april and 2 september, respectively, in untreated ponies. pasture infectivity reached a peak of 18,486 third stage larvae (l3)/kg on 17 september, two weeks after peak egg counts, coincidental with abundant september rainfall (103.0 mm). differentiation of infective larvae from pasture showed the cyathostomes (small strongyles) to be predominant, but trichostrongyl ...19863803357
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