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production of an extracellular ribonuclease by pseudomonas maltophilia.as part of a screening program for pseudomonad enzymes having an industrial interest, we selected ribonuclease (rnase) producing strains. of the 150 pseudomonads screened, 6 were found to produce an extracellular rnase activity when grown on solid medium. in broth culture, the rnase activity from these six species remained bound to the cells unless gelatin was added to the medium. gelatin was essential for the release of rnase in the broth culture, but the ph of the medium, addition of potential ...197936976
search by immunofluorescence for antigens of rotavirus, pseudomonas maltophilia, and mycobacterium kansasii in crohn's disease.crohn's-disease tissue was tested by indirect immunofluorescence for antigens of rotavirus, pseudomonas maltophilia, and mycobacterium kansasii. no reactions were obtained with anti-serum to p. maltophilia and m. kansasii, and a granular fluorescence seen with rotavirus antibody was probably non-specific.197880631
phosphatase activity of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria.1115 strains of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria were tested for phosphatase activity by a conventional plate method and a microtest. the microtest was devised to allow results to be read after 4 h cultivation. phosphatase activity was found in wide range of species and strains. besides staphylococci, where the test for phosphatase is successfully used, it may be applied as one of the valuable tests for the differentiation of the following species: bacillus cereus, b. licheniformis, ...1978216188
purification and properties of a serine protease from pseudomonas matophilia.the extracellular protease of pseudomonas maltophilia was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on sephadex g-75 and bio-rex 70. gel electrophoresis revealed minor impurities. the enzyme exhibited the following properties: (i) molecular weight, 35,000; (ii) a see article; 10.8; (iii) isoelectric point, 9.3; (iv) ph optimum, 10.0; (v)s20, w equal 3.47. the enzyme was rapidly inactivated by ethylenediaminetetracetate, but activity could be partially restored with ...1975234950
metabolism of glycosides by pseudomonas maltophilia.a study of the abilities of 23 strains of pseudomonas maltophilia to hydrolyze synthetically-prepared and naturally-occurring glycosides is presented. direct detection of liberated aglycones was used to determine hydrolysis of the five most-commonly-used glycosides (amygdalin, arbutin, esculin, onpg (o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactoside), and salicin). the capabilities of the strain for acid production from 17 glycoside substrates were also determined using a medium designed to minimize the producti ...1978250499
specific gonadotropin binding to pseudomonas maltophilia.binding of 125i-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin to pseudomonas maltophilia is dependent on time, temperature, and ph and the binding to this procaryotic species is hormone-specific and saturable. the equilibrium dissociation constant is 2.3 x 10(-9) m. there are no cooperative interactions between binding sites (hill coefficient, 1.05). the number of sites is estimaated as 240 fmol/100 mug of protein. nacl and kcl, at concentrations from 1 to 10 mm, have no effect on binding. divalent catio ...1977265583
gentamicin resistance in christchurch hospitals.prior to june 1976, the isolation of gentamicin resistant organisms was an infrequent occurrence in north canterbury hospital board institutions. during july 1976, 20 different gentamicin resistant organisms were isolated from patients in christchurch hospital. gentamicin resistant organisms hav e been continually isolated from an increasingly wide area since then. the organisms involved are: providence species; pseudomonas aeruginosa; klebsiella species; e coli; staphyloccus aureus; proteus mir ...1979381994
nonfermentative bacilli: evaluation of three systems for identification.three systems for the identification of nonfermentative bacilli were evaluated for their rapidity and accuracy of identification of 217 strains. two of the systems, api 20e (api) and oxi/ferm tube (oxif), are available as kits; the oxidative attack (oa) system is not commerically available. the overall accuracies of the oa, api, and oxif systems were 91, 69, and 50%, respectively. identification within 48 h was achieved for 98% of the strains by oa, for 50% by api, and for 18% by oxif. most of t ...1979389945
primary pseudomonas maltophilia infection of the lung.to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary pseudomonas maltophilia pneumonia. presenting symptoms were fever and chills of two days' duration and a density in the right upper lobe. sputum culture showed normal flora, and multiple blood cultures were negative. antibiotic therapy initially with penicillin and then with carbenicillin was unsuccessful. selective bronchial aspiration yielded pure cultures of p maltophilia. when an appropriate antibiotic, chloramphenicol, was given, ...1979419020
physiological responses of bacteria to cytochalasin a: effects on growth, transport, and enzyme induction.cytochalasin a at 5 to 25 microgram/ml (1.0 x 10(-5) to 5.2 x 10(-5) m) inhibited the growth of three gram-positive bacteria, arthrobacter sialophilus, staphyloccus aureus, and bacillus amyloliquifaciens, but had little or no effect on the growth of three gram-negative bacteria, excherichia coli, pseudomonas maltophilia, and aeromonas proteolytica. a. sialophilus and s. aureus recovered spontaneously from cytochalasin a-mediated growth inhibition after a considerable lag period, which was depend ...1979422516
lipopolysaccharides from pseudomonas maltophilia: structural studies of the side-chain polysaccharide from strain n.c.t.c. 10257.a lipopolysaccharide has been isolated from pseudomonas maltophilia n.c.t.c. 10257. monosaccharide components identified were l-rhamnose, 3-o-methyl-l-xylose, l-xylose, d-glucose, d-mannose, d-galacturonic acid, 2-amino-2-deoxy-galactose, 2-amino-2-deoxyglucose, and a 3-deoxy-2-octulosonic acid. heptose was absent. in this and other respects, the lipopolysaccharide resembles the corresponding products from xanthomonas species. mild hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide with acid, followed by chro ...1979427832
the sensitivity of gentamicin-resistant gram-negative bacilli to cefotaxime, other cephalosporins and aminoglycosides.the sensitivities of 80 gentamicin-resistant gram-negative bacilli to cefotaxime, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefazolin, tobramycin, netilmicin and amikacin were determined. amikacin was the most active amino-glycoside. however, the percentage sensitivity to cefotaxime of most of the species was higher than, or equal to any of the other antibiotics tested. cefotaxime was particulary active against providencia spp., serratia spp., klebsiella spp., and pseudomonas maltophilia, being 16 to ...1979478651
susceptibility of pseudomonas maltophilia to antimicrobial agents, singly and in combination.pseudomonas maltophilia is resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobial agents including those active against pseudomonas aeruginosa. the susceptibility of 14 clinical isolates of p. maltophilia to 18 antimicrobial agents was determined by broth dilution testing. all organisms were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (tmp-smz), minocycline, and ly127935. a total of 87 and 79% of the organisms were susceptible in vitro to colistin and chloramphenicol, respectively. with the excep ...1979533264
[study of 2 cases of pseudomonas maltophilia meningitis observed in senegal]. 1977589735
pseudomonas maltophilia pseudosepticemia.during a 17 month period, 25 hospitalized adult patients had blood cultures reported as positive for pseudomonas maltophila. review of the hospital records suggested that these were contaminants and that blood for coagulation studies and for cultures that were subsequently positive had been drawn simultaneously. the source of contamination appeared to be black-top evacuated collection tubes used for coagulation studies in adults. cultures of the liquid anticoagulant tubes yielded a pure growth o ...1978637055
[clinical and bacteriological study on pseudomonas maltophilia (author's transl)]. 1978642210
aminoglycoside 6'-n acetyltransferase production by an isolate of pseudomonas maltophilia. 1978690050
pseudomonas maltophilia causing heroin-associated infective endocarditis.the association of pseudomonas maltophilia endocarditis in three patients with recent history of intravenous drug abuse is reported. all three patients had abnormal heart valves (two prosthetic and one rheumatic). a prominent characteristic of this uncommon pathogen is its in vitro resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials. cure was achieved in all three cases. in two cases, synergistic antibiotic combinations were used. in one case, plasmid-mediated resistance to amikacin sulfate (amikan, ...1978718316
bacterial variants: etiologic agent in crohn's disease?bacterial variants of pseudomonas maltophilia and pseudomonas-like bacteria were recovered from tissues removed during the surgical treatment of three successive patients with crohn's disease and from one patient with clinical and pathological features of both crohn's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis. bacterial variants were not cultured from colonic specimens of one patient with classical features of chronic ulcerative colitis and two patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon. the finding ...1976780185
competitive effects of intestinal microflora on vibrio cholerae in gnotobiotic mice.the coexistence of vibrio cholerae and several intestinal bacteria was determined in gnotobiotic mice. the bacteria tested included a bacteroides sp, clostridium difficile, clostridium perfringens type a, 2 separate isolates of escherichia coli, 2 different lactobacilli, 2 separate isolates of proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas maltophilia, and streptococcus faecalis. each species of bacteria became established and was recovered repeatedly from the stools during the studies. no single strain or spec ...1975807775
pseudomonas maltophilia infection in an abattoir worker.a case of infection with pseudomonas maltophilia is described. the clinical record and bacteriological findings are reported, and the possible aetiology is discussed.1977865359
pseudomonas maltophilia bacteremia associated with a prolapsed mitral valve.a 53-year-old man had had recurrent episodes of transient visual loss, malaise and a heart murmur. blood cultures repeatedly grew pseudomonas maltophilia, a frequent opportunistic pathogen, and echocardiogram documented mitral-valve prolapse. the risk of bacterial endocarditis is stressed.1977879107
[characterization of telluric bacteria attributable to pseudomonas maltophilia].the taxonomic position of some telluric non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria collected into a phenon representing about a quarter of the soil isolates by an earlier numerical analysis is specified. the shapiro--chargaff coefficient determined by thermal-transition curves of the dna and their hybridization by nitrocellulose filters method show a close affinity with pseudomonas maltophilia.1977907912
infection with pseudomonas maltophilia hospital outbreak due to contaminated disinfectant.between august, 1973, and may, 1974, pseudomonas maltophilia was isolated from 63 patients in the king edward memorial hospital for women, subiaco, western australia. primary cultures were obtained mainly from specimens of urine from adults, and from intraarterial catheter tips and umbilical swabs from neonates. in most cases the organism appeared to be a contaminant, but in seven it was responsible for infection. the source of the organism was deionized water used for diluting savlon concentrat ...19761004317
in vitro susceptibility of pseudomanas cepacia and pseudomonas maltophilia to trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.our earlier studies had shown that the two pseudomonads, pseudomonas cepacia and pseudomonas maltophilia, were organisms that were highly resistant to most antibiotics. the present study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility of these bacteria to trimethoprim and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination which has been used with apparent success in treating infections caused by these pseudomonads. all 51 strains of p. cepacia were inhibited by 2 mug or less of trimethoprim per ml, wh ...19751155926
regulation of extracellular protease secretion in pseudomonas maltophilia.cells grown in minimal medium and harvested in late exponential phase secreted extracellular protease linearly when suspended at high density in fresh medium. if the cells were suspended with 0.2% (wt/vol) yeast extract and no additional carbon source, the rate of exoenzyme production was increased several-fold. when pyruvate, l-malate, succinate, or alpha-ketoglutarate was added, repression of exoenzyme secretion was observed. the most effective repressor was alpha-ketoglutarate. these compound ...19751158851
meningitis caused by pseudomonas maltophilia.a case of meningitis caused by pseudomonas maltophilia is described, which was unusual in that it appeared to lack the predisposing factors commonly associated with this organism. attention is drawn to the difficulties which may be encountered in the identification of ps. maltophilia.19751165296
[comparative studies on lh/cg receptor from rat testes and hcg-binding protein from pseudomonas maltophilia by antibodies against the hcg-binding protein].an indirect immunoprecipitation experiment was developed to characterize the antigenic determinants of the hcg-binding protein and the rat testicular lh/cg receptor. the hcg-binding protein preincubated with 125i iodo hcg was immunologically precipitated by the antibodies against the hcg-binding protein in the presence of goat anti-rabbit igg. similarly, the lh/cg receptor solubilized with 1% triton x-100 from the rat testes was also immunoprecipitated by the antibodies. furthermore, the antibod ...19921284344
activity of meropenem against imipenem-resistant bacteria and selection in vitro of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae.the activity of meropenem against 106 imipenem-resistant (mic > or = 8 mg/l) clinical isolates, and the frequency of resistance to meropenem and imipenem among 24 enterobacteriaceae was determined. both agents selected colonies on agar but 20-80% were susceptible after one subculture and 72% of the mutants reverted to susceptibility 1 to 6 months after selection. all isolates and stable mutants were inhibited by > 1 mg/l meropenem, although the mic of imipenem was 4-16 mg/l. three of six xanthom ...19921291320
comparison of the autoscan-w/a and vitek automicrobic systems for identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria.the identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria by the autoscan-w/a rapid panels and vitek automicrobic systems were compared. a total of 291 clinical isolates, including 207 members of the enterobacteriaceae, 41 nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli, 31 staphylococcus aureus strains and 12 enterococcus faecalis strains, were tested. autoscan-w/a and vitek correctly identified 93% and 94% respectively of the enterobacteriaceae, the identification in an additional 2% and 5% of strains r ...19921295766
antibacterial in vitro-activity of meropenem against 200 clinical isolates in comparison to 11 selected antibiotics.the antimicrobial activity of meropenem, a new parenteral carbapenem, was tested in vitro by an agar dilution method against 200 clinical isolates (gram-negative/positive aerobes and anaerobes). meropenem was compared with imipenem, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin; and metronidazole, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, vancomycin when appropriate. meropenem and imipenem exhibited an extended spectrum of activity with low minimal inhibitory concentrations (mi ...19921303691
[studies on human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg)-binding protein from pseudomonas maltophilia by ligand blotting assay].a ligand blotting technique was developed to study the hcg-binding protein from pseudomonas maltophilia after size separation by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions. the separated proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet, which was subsequently incubated with [125i]iodo hcg, and subjected to determination for radioactivity in gamma-counter. a radioactivity peak equivalent to an m(r) 70000 appeared, which was not observed when the hormone incubation was ...19921304539
in vitro activity of sparfloxacin (ci-978), a new broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone.the in vitro activity of sparfloxacin (ci-978, at-4140), a new fluoroquinolone, was compared with ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and other commonly used antimicrobial agents against 650 strains of enterobacteriaceae, 237 isolates of other gram-negative bacilli and 318 strains of gram-positive cocci. the mics of sparfloxacin against 90% of the members of enterobacteriaceae were between 0.12 and 0.5 microgram/ml. all the 48 isolates of notoriously drug-resistant serratia marcescens were inhibited by l ...19921317282
in vitro activity of sparfloxacin compared with those of five other quinolones.the in vitro activity of sparfloxacin, a new difluorinated quinolone, was evaluated against 857 gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates and compared with those of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, fleroxacin, and lomefloxacin. the mic of sparfloxacin for 90% of the members of the family enterobacteriaceae tested was 0.5 microgram/ml (range, 0.06 to 4.0 micrograms/ml); only for members of the genera serratia, citrobacter, and providencia were mics above 1 microgram/ml. some 90% of ...19921320362
in vitro evaluation of e-4695, a new fluoro-naphthyridine.compound e-4695, a c-7 azetidinyl fluoro-naphthyridine, was compared to six structurally related quinolones and was generally two- to four-fold more active than ciprofloxacin. e-4695 was particularly active against staphylococcus aureus (mic90 0.06 mg/l), staphylococcus haemolyticus (mic90 0.5 mg/l), klebsiella spp. (mic90 less than or equal to 0.015 mg/l), serratia marcescens (mic90 0.06 mg/l), acinetobacter spp. (mic90 less than or equal to 0.015 mg/l), pseudomonas aeruginosa (mic90 0.5 mg/l), ...19921327787
in vitro activity of cp-74667 compared with four other fluoroquinolones.cp-74667 is a new, novel c-7 diazabicyclo-fluoroquinolone. its spectrum of activity includes the enterobacteriaceae, most nonenteric gram-negative bacilli, and gram-positive cocci. particularly high activity was demonstrated against xanthomonas maltophilia (mic50, 1 microgram/ml), staphylococcus spp. (mic50s, 0.06-0.12 micrograms/ml) and enterococci (mic50s, 0.5-4 micrograms/ml). several staphylococci resistant to ciprofloxacin had potentially susceptible range mics for cp-74667, for example, le ...19921330419
in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of am-1155, a new 6-fluoro-8-methoxy quinolone.am-1155 is a new quinolone with a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against various bacteria including anaerobes and mycoplasma pneumoniae. am-1155 was 2- to 16-fold more active than ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant strains, staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and enterococcus faecalis; its mics for 90% of strains tested were 0.10 to 0.78 micrograms/ml. the activity of am-1155 was comparable to that of ciprofloxacin ...19921332587
microbial contamination of brushes used for preoperative shaving.microbial contamination of brushes used for preoperative shaving was investigated. of the 24 brushed examined, 18 were contaminated with 10(6)-10(9) colony forming units (cfu) per brush. non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli such as pseudomonas aeruginosa and xanthomonas maltophilia, and yeast-like fungi such as candida parapsilosis were the primary contaminants. the mean bacterial count on the skin after the use of contaminated brushes (having a mean bacterial count 2.2 x 10(8) cfu) in 14 subj ...19921353085
bacteraemia caused by non-aeruginosa pseudomonas species in a cancer centre.fifty-one episodes of bacteraemia due to pseudomonas species other than pseudomonas aeruginosa occurring between 1980 and 1990 in a belgian cancer centre were reviewed. this corresponded to an incidence of 0.62/1000 admissions, or 1.5% of all bacteraemic episodes. twenty-nine episodes, each with several positive blood culture sets were considered clinically significant, including six patients belonging to a well-documented outbreak of pseudobacteraemia with xanthomonas maltophilia and associated ...19921363110
controlled study of pseudomonas cepacia and pseudomonas maltophilia in cystic fibrosis.in a retrospective study, children with cystic fibrosis who were colonised with pseudomonas cepacia were compared with a control group who were colonised with pseudomonas maltophilia. out of 216 children with cystic fibrosis seen between 1983 and 1990, p cepacia was recovered from 13 (median age at colonisation 12.2 years) and p maltophilia from 23 (median age at first colonisation 6.1 years), and both organisms were recovered in five cases. with the exception of two patients with p cepacia in w ...19921371914
antibacterial activity of the investigational oral and parenteral cephalosporin bk-218.bk-218 is a novel cephalosporin with a dual route of administration and spectrum of activity most similar to that of second-generation cephalosporins. bk-218 was active against streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae and moraxella catarrhalis but strains resistant to penicillins had higher mics. bk-218 had greater activity (8-fold) than cefuroxime or cefaclor against oxacillin-susceptible staphylococcus spp. moderate bk-218 activity was observed against neisseria gonorrhoeae and commonl ...19921396735
graft eosinophilia in lung transplantation.graft eosinophilia was observed in lung biopsies from nine patients who received lung allografts. five cases were associated with moderate to severe acute cellular rejection and responded well to steroid therapy. in this group the eosinophilia occurred early after transplantation and was associated with an elevated white blood cell count and occasional peripheral blood (one of five cases) and bronchoalveolar lavage (one of five cases) eosinophilia. a second group of four patients had graft eosin ...19921398645
acanthamoeba keratitis: synergy between amebic and bacterial cocontaminants in contact lens care systems as a prelude to infection.we encountered a patient with acanthamoeba keratitis whose contact lens care solution contained numerous trophozoites and cysts admixed with xanthomonas maltophilia organisms, many of which were adherent to the trophozoite surface and internalized within endocytic vacuoles. because of this finding, we investigated the role of bacterial cocontaminants in contact lens care systems as substrates for the growth of acanthamoeba spp. individual cocultivation of acanthamoeba castellanii and a. polyphag ...19921401013
efficacy and tolerability of norfloxacin vs. ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infection.this prospective, open, randomized clinical study compared the efficacy and tolerability of norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin in adult patients with complicated urinary tract infection, defined as infection in the presence of an underlying anatomic or functional abnormality of the urinary tract. seventy-two patients were randomized, 37 received norfloxacin (400 mg orally twice daily for 10-21 days) and 35 received ciprofloxacin (500 mg orally every 12 hours for 14-21 days). patients were clinically ...19921441044
beta-lactam resistance in gram-negative bacteria: global trends and clinical impact.microbial drug resistance is an inescapable consequence of the utilization of antimicrobial agents in a given environment. nowhere is the importance of resistance more evident than among agents of the beta-lactam family. trends toward increased resistance can be seen among fastidious gram-negative bacteria like haemophilus influenzae, where ampicillin resistance varies from 1% to 64% globally. for escherichia coli, ampicillin resistance has risen to > or = 50% in high-risk populations, and resis ...19921445981
[nosocomial infection by xanthomonas maltophilia]. 19921460947
[studies of plasmids of pseudomonas maltophilia].eighteen strains of p. maltophilia were screened for the occurrence of plasmid using four different methods. five of them were harbor plasmids. the results of plasmid detection in different growth phase of p2 strain showed that the highest amount of plasmids in the strain was observed in stationary growth phase. the characteristics of plasmid of p. maltophilia p2 was investigated by methods of agarose gel electrophoresis, restriction endonucleases analysis, determination of molecular weight. the ...19921466912
beta-lactamase stability and inhibitory activity of meropenem combined with a potent antibacterial activity.the affinity of meropenem for various known types of beta-lactamases and its stability to them were tested in comparison with other beta-lactams, including imipenem. meropenem exhibited a marked stability to all beta-lactamases tested and was only hydrolyzed by xanthomonas maltophilia beta-lactamase, as were other beta-lactams. this was responsible for the potent antibacterial activities of meropenem against beta-lactamase-producing strains. meropenem and imipenem had almost the same, relatively ...19921473360
biphenomycin a production by a mixed culture.production of biphenomycin a by streptomyces griseorubiginosus 43708 was stimulated by a mixed culture with a partner strain, pseudomonas maltophilia 1928. this stimulatory effect on biphenomycin a accumulation by the mixed culture was caused by the enzyme activity which strain 1928 possessed. it is suggested that in a mixed culture strain 43708 produces a precursor of biphenomycin a in culture broth and that strain 1928 converts the precursor to biphenomycin a.19921476432
[antimicrobial activities of ceftazidime on fresh clinical isolates].antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime (caz) was compared with those of other cephem antibiotics against clinically isolated strains sent to us by medical institutions throughout japan in 1989 and 1991. those strains separated and identified from samples collected from patients with various infections were also examined, and the following results were obtained. 1. the results suggested that, compared with reports of studies conducted with clinical isolates in early 1980's, mic90 of caz in 1991 we ...19921494227
in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of levofloxacin (l-ofloxacin), an optically active ofloxacin.the antibacterial activity of levofloxacin was compared with those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and other antibiotics. in general, levofloxacin was equally active or up to fourfold more active than ofloxacin against all 801 organisms tested. levofloxacin was twofold [corrected] more active than ciprofloxacin against streptococcus pneumoniae and 2- to 4-fold more active than ciprofloxacin against staphylococcus aureus, xanthomonas maltophilia, and bacteroides fragilis. levofloxacin was two- to ei ...19921503449
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of ljc 10,627.the in vitro activity of ljc 10,627, a new carbapenem, was compared with those of imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and gentamicin. ljc 10,627 inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, klebsiella oxytoca, enterobacter aerogenes, enterobacter agglomerans, enterobacter cloacae, hafnia alvei, citrobacter freundii, citrobacter diversus, proteus mirabilis, morganella morganii, proteus rettgeri, serratia marcescens, pseudomonas cepacia, salmonellae, shigellae, aeromonas, and yersiniae ...19921510436
stimulation of candida albicans transition by human chorionic gonadotrophin and a bacterial protein.candida albicans, a dimorphic fungus, is involved commonly in human infections with the mycelium form more associated with pathogenicity. the influence of various hormones and a bacterial protein on the transition from blastospore to mycelium was assessed. human luteinizing hormone (hlh), chorionic gonadotrophin (hcg), and an hcg-like material purified from a bacteria, xanthomonas maltophilia (pcg), were able to increase the rate of transition when compared with the controls. the effect of the t ...19921516564
comparative in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a novel cephalosporin with a catechol moiety.the in vitro activity of ro 09-1428, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with that of other beta-lactams and aminoglycosides in 1230 clinical isolates from 1028 consecutive patients. using an agar dilution method, the drugs were tested against 625 isolates of enterobacteriaceae, 68 pseudomonas aeruginosa, 36 xanthomonas maltophilia, 20 aeromonas hydrophila, 54 acinetobacter, 373 staphylococci, and 54 strains of enterococci. more than 98% of enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to ro 09-1 ...19921525790
pseudomonas infections in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection.thirteen bacteremias and 25 nonbacteremic infections caused by pseudomonas spp. occurred in 22 of 236 children with human immunodeficiency virus infection with a rate of infection of 0.098 (bacteremia, 0.030) per patient year. four patients were neutropenic (less than 500/microliters). central venous catheter (cvc)-related infections were most frequent (n = 20) followed by otitis externa (n = 6) and pneumonia (n = 5). pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate and caused both cvc-related ...19921528645
pseudomonas septicemia due to deficient disinfectant mixing during reuse.we describe a cluster of four septicemias with pseudomonas, that occurred in a unit performing formaldehyde reuse of capillary dialyzers. samples of blood, heparin solutions, dialysate and effluent of reused dialyzers, were evaluated bacteriologically and upon the adequacy of the reuse procedure. pseudomonas aeruginosa, vesicularis and/or xanthomonas maltophilia were found on the blood cultures obtained during the septicemic reactions, and in the effluent of two reprocessed dialyzers not yet use ...19921551723
prevalence of serotypes of xanthomonas maltophilia from world-wide sources.since its development in 1988, a serologic typing scheme for xanthomonas maltophilia, based on 31 o antigens, has been successfully used to serotype isolates involved in nosocomial outbreaks in the united states. to determine if this serotyping scheme would be useful in typing x. maltophilia isolates from world-wide sources, we obtained additional isolates from 10 countries; of 900 isolates tested, 795 (88.3%) were typable. in order of predominance, the three most common serotypes were 10, 3 and ...19921582474
[xanthomonas maltophilia in a case of mixed infectious panniculitis]. 19921583952
production and characterisation of mouse monoclonal antibodies reactive with the lipopolysaccharide core of pseudomonas aeruginosa.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to the core antigen region of lipopolysaccharide (lps) of pseudomonas aeruginosa were produced from mice immunised with whole cells of heat-killed rough mutants of pseudomonas aeruginosa expressing partial or complete core lps. mabs were screened in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) against three different antigen cocktails: s-form lps from three p. aeruginosa strains, r-form lps from six p. aeruginosa strains and, as a negative control, r-form lps from sa ...19921588587
in vitro evaluation of ro 09-1227, a novel catechol-substituted cephalosporin.ro 09-1227 is a novel 7-position catechol-substituted parenteral cephalosporin that also has a 3-position radical similar to previously described cephems. the ro 09-1227 spectrum was slightly wider than that of ceftazidime against members of the family enterobacteriaceae tested, principally because of greater activity against species producing richmond-sykes type i beta-lactamases. ro 09-1227 was also more active than ceftazidime against some strains producing extended-spectrum plasmid-encoded b ...19921590695
risk factors for epidemic xanthomonas maltophilia infection/colonization in intensive care unit patients.to determine risk factors for and modes of transmission of xanthomonas maltophilia infection/colonization.19921593100
purification and characterisation of an nad(+)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from pseudomonas maltophilia mb11l.a constitutive nad(+)-linked alcohol dehydrogenase was purified 338-fold from cells of pseudomonas maltophilia mb11l grown on glucose. maximum activity was observed with cyclic and linear secondary alcohols, with little activity seen against primary or aromatic alcohols. substrate oxidation activity was maximal at ph 10.0, while substrate reduction was optimal at ph 4.5. the km values for propan-2-ol, nad+ and acetone were 87, 413 and 143 microm respectively. the enzyme is a tetramer with subuni ...19921612417
susceptibility of xanthomonas maltophilia to six quinolones and study of outer membrane proteins in resistant mutants selected in vitro.the in vitro susceptibilities of 75 clinical isolates of xanthomonas maltophilia to nalidixic acid, five fluoroquinolones, latamoxef, and doxycycline were determined. spontaneous mutants were selected, at a frequency of about 10(-5) to 10(-7) from four strains by culturing the strains in the presence of each quinolone. selection in the presence of nalidixic acid provided mutants that were either resistant only to that compound or that exhibited cross-resistance to all the fluoroquinolones tested ...19921622183
permeability of dialyzer membranes to tnf alpha-inducing substances derived from water bacteria.pro-inflammatory cytokine-inducing substances derived from cultured e. coli have previously been shown to pass across low-flux regenerated cellulosic dialyzer membranes. in the present study, a sterile filtrate of pseudomonas maltophilia grown from standard bicarbonate dialysis fluid was used to test the permeability of various dialyzer membranes (regenerated cellulose, cellulose triacetate, polyacrylonitrile, polysulfone and polyamide) to tnf alpha-inducing bacterial substances. pyrogen-free ti ...19921635355
the in-vitro activity of temafloxacin compared with other antimicrobial agents.temafloxacin, like other 4-quinolones, was highly active against most isolates of enterobacteriaceae. it was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin but approximately as active as ofloxacin and enoxacin. it was the most active of the quinolones against acinetobacter spp. and xanthomonas maltophilia but was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin against pseudomonas spp. temafloxacin was highly active against haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis and neisseria gonorrhoeae and was the most ...19911657855
comparative in-vitro susceptibilities of pseudomonas aeruginosa, xanthomonas maltophilia, and pseudomonas spp. to sparfloxacin (ci-978, at-4140, pd131501) and reference antimicrobial agents.the susceptibility of sparfloxacin, a new broad spectrum fluoroquinolone, was determined for 72 clinical isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa, 15 xanthomonas maltophilia, and 19 pseudomonas spp. the activity of sparfloxacin was compared with that of ciprofloxacin and other reference antibiotics. sparfloxacin was the most active antibiotic tested against x. maltophilia (mic90 1 mg/l) and the most active quinolone against p. cepacia and p. putrifaciens. ciprofloxacin, however, demonstrated greater a ...19911657857
the in-vitro activity of tosufloxacin, a new fluorinated quinolone, compared with that of ciprofloxacin and temafloxacin.tosufloxacin was highly active in vitro against most isolates of enterobacteriaceae. it was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin for most species but more active than temafloxacin. it was the most active agent against acinetobacter spp., xanthomonas maltophilia and some pseudomonas spp. but was slightly less active than ciprofloxacin against the fluorescent pseudomonads. tosufloxacin was highly active against strains of haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis, neisseria gonorrhoeae and ...19911663930
dna restriction fragment length polymorphism differentiates crossed from independent infections in nosocomial xanthomonas maltophilia bacteremia.restriction fragment length polymorphisms of total dna and rdna were used to study the relationship between 11 isolates of xanthomonas maltophilia, obtained from seven patients with nosocomial bacteremia in four distinct wards of a single hospital, and the type strain of the species, atcc 13637. our results indicated that there were episodes of cross-infection among the patients of two wards, but there were also independent infectious episodes in the two other wards.19911679437
in-vitro susceptibility of xanthomonas maltophilia to aztreonam and clavulanic acid as a test for the presumptive identification of the species. 19911682373
survival of bacteria under dry conditions; from a viewpoint of nosocomial infection.the viability of non-sporing bacteria in a dry state was examined. the number of viable cells was determined at various time intervals, after inoculation onto cotton lint and a glass plate. viable cells of mycobacterium bovis were detected more than 2 months after inoculation, and this was the most resistant species to dry conditions among the bacteria tested. in the case of the gram-positive cocci tested and one species of gram-negative rods, acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, the viab ...19911685507
antibiotic susceptibility and outer membrane proteins of clinical xanthomonas maltophilia isolates.twenty clinical xanthomonas maltophilia isolates were studied for their susceptibility to various antibiotics and for their outer membrane protein profiles and compared to pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. among the antibiotics studied, fleroxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited the greatest activity (mic90 4 micrograms/ml). all the x. maltophilia isolates exhibited similar outer membrane protein profiles with 40, 23 and 21 major proteins, whereas the outer membrane of p. aeruginosa revealed at least ...19911790722
[susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents, 1989. a study mainly focused on imipenem. the research group for testing imipenem susceptibilities of clinical isolates].we investigated susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to imipenem (ipm) and other antimicrobial agents at hospital laboratories throughout japan from september to december of 1989. the susceptibility testing was carried out according to the 1-dilution or 3-dilution disc technique in which susceptibilities are classified into 4 grades: (+++), (++), (+) and (-). ipm showed markedly high in vitro activities against streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria gonorrhoeae, moraxella catarrhalis, es ...19911798067
antimicrobial activity of ru29246 (hr916 metabolite) compared with four other oral beta-lactams tested against more than 5000 clinical isolates.the activity of ru29246, the active metabolite of the oral cephalosporin ester hr916, was compared in a multicenter study with that of the four oral beta-lactam antibiotics cephalexin, cefaclor, cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate (amoxicillin/ca). ru29246 was generally 2- to 8-fold more active than the other oral cephalosporins and comparable to amoxicillin/ca against staphylococci, and was the most active cephalosporin against group b streptococci. all four cephalosporins were ineffective aga ...19911810737
[preparation of monoclonal antibodies against chorionic gonadotropin receptor and study of its characteristics].we reported the production of monoclonal antibodies (mcabs) against chorionic gonadotropin hormone (cg) receptor by fusing spleen cells of balb/c mice which had been immunized by purified bacteria (pseudomonas maltophilia) cg receptor with mouse myeloma line sp2/0. four hybridoma cell lines secreting cg receptor mcabs were obtained (ed490 dg390, ab890 and ge590). the titers of specific antibodies of both mice ascites and culture supernatant were 10(-2)-10(-6) and 1-10(-2) respectively, by solid ...19911814814
effect of media composition on the susceptibility of xanthomonas maltophilia to beta-lactam antibiotics.the susceptibility of xanthomonas maltophilia strains to beta-lactams was shown to depend on the concentrations at which individual media were prepared. mic and disc susceptibility tests were performed on solidified mueller-hinton and iso-sensitest media prepared at 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 x the concentrations recommended by the manufacturers. nine of ten x. maltophilia strains tested showed increasing sensitivity to meropenem, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, piperacillin and latamoxef as the nutrient conc ...19911816181
antimicrobial activity of ro 41-1879, a new catechol cephalosporin.the antimicrobial activity and spectrum of ro 41-1879, a new 7'-catechol substituted cephalosporin, was assessed in a broth microdilution system against 312 clinical isolates. ro 41-1879 demonstrated a slightly superior spectrum of activity (2- to 32-fold) compared to ceftazidime against gram-positive cocci, pseudomonas spp. and xanthomonas maltophilia. enterobacteriaceae strains were more susceptible (97% versus 96%) to ceftazidime at less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml. these results repres ...19911819614
[bsoai--a new site specific endonuclease from bacillus coagulans].a new site-specific endonuclease was detected in toluene lysates of bacillus coagulans aucm b-732 and designated as bcoai. the enzyme was purified by fractionation of the cell-free extract in the two-phase peg/dextran system followed by chromatography on deae-sepharose and phosphocellulose and shown to be free of nonspecific nucleases and phosphatases. bcoai has three cleavage sites on lambda dna, but does not cleave sv40, pbr322 and puc19 dna. bcoai recognizes the sequence 5' cac decreases gtg ...19911839653
in vitro evaluation of gr69153, a novel catechol-substituted cephalosporin.gr69153 is a c-7 catechol cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity against members of the family enterobacteriaceae (mics for 50% of strains tested [mic50s], 0.008 to 0.5 micrograms/ml), staphylococcus aureus (mic50, 4 micrograms/ml), pseudomonas aeruginosa (mic50, 0.25 micrograms/ml), haemophilus influenzae (mic50, 0.03 micrograms/ml), neisseria gonorrhoeae (mic50, 0.03 micrograms/ml), and acinetobacter spp. (mic50, 2 micrograms/ml). potent gr69153 activity was also demonstrated against ...19911854174
kinetics of antimicrobial activity of aztreonam/clavulanic acid (2:1) against xanthomonas maltophilia. 19911856134
susceptibility of xanthomonas maltophilia and amikacin-resistant gram-negative bacteria to newer antimicrobials.the susceptibility of xanthomonas maltophilia and amikacin-resistant gram-negative bacteria to a variety of newer antimicrobials was determined. sixty-three amikacin-resistant isolates were collected from 61 inpatients at a tertiary-care hospital between 1985 and 1988. the organisms included xanthomonas maltophilia (24 isolates), pseudomonas aeruginosa (16), pseudomonas species (3), serratia marcescens (10), flavobacterium meningosepticum (4), enterobacter species (3), acinetobacter calcoaceticu ...19911860303
newly documented antimicrobial activity of quinolones.the improved antimicrobial activity of newer fluoroquinolones and novel applications recently found for the drugs already marketed are reviewed. several new compounds are more active against gram-positive bacteria than the presently marketed fluoroquinolones. win 57273, the most potent compound in vitro on a weight basis, is 16 to 128 times more active than ciprofloxacin against various staphylococci, streptococci, enterococcus spp., corynebacterium spp., listeria monocytogenes and bacillus spp. ...19911864284
isolation of a 30 kda immunoglobulin binding protein from pseudomonas maltophilia.we have demonstrated that pseudomonas maltophilia (atcc no. 13637) possesses an exposed, immunologically accessible protein which binds to the fc region of several species of immunoglobulins. whole bacteria suspensions were incubated for 18 h with purified 125i-labelled antibodies with and without added non-labelled immunoglobulins. the suspensions were centrifuged for 30 min and the pellet containing bacteria was assessed for radioactivity. using this crude assay, the whole organism bound 125i- ...19911880425
in vitro activity of lomefloxacin, a difluorinated quinolone, compared with other antimicrobials.a total of 3,144 clinical isolates from 3,011 consecutive patients were tested against lomefloxacin by the agar dilution method. they consisted of 1,380 isolates of enterobacteriaceae, 527 pseudomonads, 47 haemophilus influenzae, 53 acinetobacter, 42 brucella melitensis, 903 staphylococci and 192 strains of enterococci. in vitro activity of lomefloxacin was compared with ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. over 98% of enterobacteriaceae were susceptible to lomefloxacin ...19911889304
combination effect of sce-2787 and cefepime with aminoglycosides on nosocomial gram-negative bacteria.the in vitro activity of cefepime and sce-2787, two new parenteral cephalosporins, and the combination effect with tobramycin and gentamicin against nosocomial gram-negative rods was studied using checkerboard agar dilution technique. cefepime showed excellent in-vitro activity against klebsiella pneumoniae, enterobacter cloacae, serratia marcescens and proteus vulgaris (mic90 0.03-0.125 mg/l) and good to moderate activity against acinetobacter anitratus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas c ...19911889877
bacterial arthritis.in this review of the 1990 septic arthritis literature, we revisit synovial fluid leukocytosis, examine the utility of synovial fluid glucose and protein measurements, and look at the levels of two cytokines, tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1, in infected joint fluids. we see the many faces of gonococcal arthritis and the ravages of septic arthritis when the host has rheumatoid arthritis. should we recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for the rheumatoid patient with a prosthetic joint who is u ...19911911055
treatment of pseudomonas infections in peritoneal dialysis patients.pseudomonas species infections in the peritoneal dialysis population consist primarily of peritonitis or exit site infections. these organisms have traditionally proven difficult to eradicate, and the standard antibiotic regimen has carried the potential for nephrotoxicity. at our institution, all peritoneal dialysis patients with pseudomonas exit site infections or peritonitis were treated with an antibiotic combination of intraperitoneal ceftazidime and oral ciprofloxacin. treatment duration w ...19911912015
purpura fulminans secondary to xanthomonas maltophilia sepsis in an adult with aplastic anemia.purpura fulminans is a rare disease characterized by purpura ecchymosis, hypotension, and fever associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. it often begins as a benign infectious process and subsequently progresses to a severe, catastrophic outcome. it is recognized to originate from congenital or acquired protein c deficiency. we present an unusual case of an adult with xanthomonas maltophilia sepsis that subsequently developed into purpura fulminans with involvement of the four ext ...19911918597
in-vitro activity of meropenem, a new carbapenem, against imipenem-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa and xanthomonas maltophilia.the activity of meropenem, a new carbapenem, as well as imipenem, ceftazidime, aztreonam, tobramycin, amikacin and ciprofloxacin against 18 strains of xanthomonas maltophilia and 23 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to imipenem was tested. all strains of x. maltophilia were resistant to both penems. ceftazidime, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin were the most active antimicrobial agents against this specie. 17% of imipenem-resistant strains of p. aeruginosa were sensitive to meropenem. cipr ...19911919651
infections due to xanthomonas maltophilia in patients with hematologic malignancy. 19911925296
in vitro comparison of gr69153, a novel catechol-substituted cephalosporin, with ceftazidime and ceftriaxone against 5,203 recent clinical isolates.the activity of gr69153, a novel catechol-substituted cephalosporin, was compared with those of ceftazidime and ceftriaxone in a multicenter study against 5,203 fresh clinical isolates of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. gr69153 was generally very active at concentrations equivalent to or two- to fourfold lower than those of ceftazidime and ceftriaxone against gram-negative bacilli other than citrobacter freundii, enterobacter cloacae, and xanthomonas maltophilia. against pseudomonas ae ...19911929319
in vitro antibacterial activity of me1207, a new oral cephalosporin.me1207 is the prodrug of me1206. its in vitro antibacterial activity was compared with that of cefteram, cefpodoxime, cefixime, and cefaclor against various clinical isolates. me1206 was more active than the other cephems tested against staphylococci, streptococci, morganella morganii, pseudomonas cepacia, and flavobacterium meningosepticum and had the most potent activity against haemophilus influenzae and neiserria gonorrhoeae. the drug also showed a wide spectrum of activity against other gra ...19911929344
imipenem/cilastatin as secondary therapy for bacterial infections.imipenem/cilastatin (ipm/cs) was used to treat 39 documented infections in patients who had failed to respond to other antibiotic regimens. the overall response rating was 76.9%. respiratory infections responded less frequently (efficacy rating, 55.6%) to ipm/cs than abdominal infections, urinary tract infections, or sepsis. methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, xanthomonas maltophilia, and acinetobacter calcoaceticus were less sensitive to ipm/cs therapy than the other bacterial strains ...19911933995
beta-lactam antibiotic therapy in febrile granulocytopenic patients. a randomized trial comparing cefoperazone plus piperacillin, ceftazidime plus piperacillin, and imipenem alone.to compare the efficacy, toxicity, and cost-effectiveness of double beta-lactam therapy with monotherapy.19911952471
characterization of pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to cultured hamster tracheal epithelial cells.this study reports an in vitro system that allows the convenient study of both microenvironmental and bacterial factors affecting adherence of pseudomonas aeruginosa to tracheal epithelium. primary cultures of mixed ciliated and nonciliated epithelial cells isolated from hamster tracheas were grown on collagen-coated multiwell plates containing 10(5) epithelial cells/well at confluence. when 10(7) 14c-labeled p. aeruginosa (nonmucoid, strain y-4) suspensions were added to each well, 8.13 +/- 2.6 ...19911958384
[antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from patients at 6 hospitals in osaka].we examined mics of 6 oral new quinolones and 4 oral cephems against bacteria isolated from patients at 6 hospitals in osaka during the period from january to june in 1990, and the following results were obtained. 1. all species excluding streptococcus pyogenes were more sensitive with less frequencies of resistance to new quinolones than to cephems. in new quinolones, tosufloxacin (tflx) was the most active against gram-positive cocci and ciprofloxacin (cpfx) and tflx had the highest activities ...19911960855
application of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis to epidemiologic investigations of xanthomonas maltophilia.to test the utility of a newly developed multilocus enzyme electrophoresis typing method for xanthomonas maltophilia.19912022862
in vitro activity and beta-lactamase stability of gr69153, a new long-acting cephalosporin.gr69153, a new parenteral cephalosporin, inhibited 90% of escherichia coli, klebsiella oxytoca, proteus mirabilis, citrobacter diversus, shigellae, and salmonellae at less than 0.25 micrograms/ml (mic90). it had activity comparable to those of ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefepime, and e-1040. against cephalosporinase-producing enterobacter cloacae, citrobacter freundii, and serratia marcescens, mics ranged from 0.12 to greater than 32 micrograms/ml, and cefpirome and cefepime were the most active ag ...19912024959
isolation of a 48.5-kda membrane protein from pseudomonas maltophilia which exhibits immunologic cross-reaction to the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.in separate studies we have shown that pseudomonas maltophilia (american type culture collection 13637) possesses an immunoglobulin fc-binding protein. we have found that this protein prevents the application of immunoassays using monoclonal antibodies to study possible production of a cg-like material by this bacteria. employing an immunoglobulin saturation technique to block this protein as well as a zwitterion detergent membrane solubilization technique, we now report the isolation of a membr ...19912036979
deoxyribonuclease from pseudomonas maltophilia. 19912037173
in-vitro and in-vivo antimicrobial activities of a novel cephalosporin derivative, cp6162, possessing a dihydroxypyridone moiety at the c-3 side chain.the antibacterial activity of a novel cephalosporin derivative, cp6162, possessing a dihydroxypyridone moiety at the c-3 side chain, was evaluated in vitro and in vivo, with ceftazidime, aztreonam and cefoperazone as the reference antibiotics. cp6162 showed weak or little activity against gram-positive bacteria, but potent activity against clinical isolates of the gram-negative species including strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa, ps. cepacia, acinetobacter sp., xanthomonas maltophilia, serratia ...19912050596
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