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plaque neutralization of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in bhk21 cells.plaque assay and plaque neutralization of blue-tongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were studied in baby hamster kidney (bhk21) cells grown under an overlay containing gum tragacanth. tests were done in plastic panels, each with 24 wells, and variables were established for achieving reproducible results. four serotypes of bluetongue virus were compared, and their antigenic differences were confirmed with this new plaque-neutralization test.1976185929
transmission of two strains of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in deer by culicoides variipennis.two strains of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), new jersey (nj) and kentucky (ky), of deer were biologically transmitted between white-tailed deer, odocoileus virginianus, by culicoides variipennis. the ky strain, isolated from c. variipennis collected during an epizootic in deer, was identified as ehdv by serological tests. deer exposed to the ky or the nj strains of ehdv developed an acute hemorrhagic disease; most deer died 6 to 13 days after infection. sheep inoculated with ehdv d ...1977190424
isolation and characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in eastern washington.a virus was isolated from the spleen of a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) that had died during an epizootic in washington state in 1967. inoculation of a 10% spleen suspension from the deer caused hemorrhagic disease in normal white-tailed deer. studies were conducted on the biological, physicochemical, and serologic properties of the washington isolate. an in vitro assay system, utilizing a cultured primary of white-tailed deer fetal cells from an entire fetus, was employed for isola ...1977192110
the nucleic acid and proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus.purified epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) was shown to contain 10 double-stranded rna segments and a double-layered protein capsid with 4 major and 4 minor polypeptides. the virus differed from bluetongue virus (btv), the orbivirus prototype, in that ehdv had an additional minor polypeptide component. this component, together with the major polypeptides p2 and p5, formed the outer capsid layer of the virus. the extra polypeptide apparently stabilizes this layer since, unlike btv, ehdv ...1979233147
characterisation of an epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus.a high titre of epizootic haemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus was obtained from roller bottles of african green monkey kidney (vero) cells. cell associated ehd virus was purified by use of genetron-113 and sonication. purified viral particles were probably icosahedral with a diameter of 58 nm and contained capsomeres which appeared to be composed of five and six subunit structures. phenol extracted nucleic acid from purified ehd virus when treated with orcinol or diphenylamine gave colour reactions ...1976968187
hybridization relatedness of israeli and u.s. bluetongue (blu) serotypes using cdna probes from blu virus strain 11-uc8.partial cdna clones representing 47%, 96%, and 98% of genome segments 7, 9, and 10, respectively, of a us bluetongue virus (blu) 11 virulent strain were used to study, for the first time, the genetic relationships between israeli blu proto-serotypes and field isolates, and us blu proto-serotypes. their usefulness as group-specific identification probes was also determined. the viral nucleic acid was extracted from the infected cells and the purified dsrna genome segments were fractionated by pol ...19921309643
detection of bluetongue virus using a cdna probe derived from genome segment 4 of bluetongue virus serotype 2.the double-stranded (ds) rna genome segment 4 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 2 was cloned and used as a serogroup-specific complementary (c) dna probe for btv diagnosis. a cdna representing a 60% copy of genome segment 4 btv-2 prototype was produced. the specificity of the cdna probe was determined by hybridizing this probe to a northern blot of dsrna (separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of plaque-purified btv-2 prototype. this cdna probe was then used to hybridize to the rna sa ...19921313308
antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses from white-tailed deer blood samples dried on paper strips.the feasibility of using dried blood samples for serologic testing of white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) for antibodies to bluetongue virus (btv) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) was tested with matched samples of serum and eluted dried whole blood. results from matched serum virus neutralization (sn) tests indicated that a 1-ml elution from a 1- x 2-cm section of filter paper strip containing dried blood approximated a 1:10 serum dilution. neutralizing antibody titers dete ...19921318425
characterization of the genes encoding two of the major capsid proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus indicates a close genetic relationship to bluetongue virus.the sequences of the genes of two of the major capsid proteins of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1 (ehdv-1, orbivirus genus, reoviridae) have been determined by analyses of cdna clones representing the l2 and s7 rna segments. the ehdv-1 s7 rna segment, which encodes the vp7 core protein, is 1162 nucleotides in length and has the capacity to encode 349 amino acids (m(r) 38,243). the ehdv-1 l2 rna segment, which encodes the outer capsid vp2 protein (m(r) 113,249) is 2968 nucleotides ...19921321879
competitive elisa for serodiagnosis of bluetongue: evaluation of group-specific monoclonal antibodies and expressed vp7 antigen.the performance of 2 competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-elisa) was compared with the reference c-elisa i for the detection of antibodies to bluetongue virus (btv). one of the assays (c-elisa ii) used a group-specific monoclonal antibody (mab) to btv, obtained from the american type culture collection (8a3b-6) and tissue culture (tc)-derived btv antigen (ag), and the other assay (c-elisa iii) used btv core protein vp7 (expressed in yeast) and the reference mab (pirbright laboratory ...19921325189
analysis of genetic variation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and bluetongue virus field isolates by coelectrophoresis of their double-stranded rna.thirty-two bovine field isolates of bluetongue virus (btv), 6 field isolates of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) from deer, 4 btv prototype serotypes (10, 11, 13, and 17), and 2 ehdv prototype serotypes (1 and 2) were coelectrophoresed, using polyacrylamide gels. field isolates were obtained from various regions of the united states. analysis of polyacrylamide gels and scattered plots generated for comparison of migration patterns for different isolates within each serotype of btv reve ...19921326240
evolutionary relationships among the gnat-transmitted orbiviruses that cause african horse sickness, bluetongue, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease as evidenced by their capsid protein sequences.the amino acid sequences of four major capsid proteins of african horse sickness virus (serotype 4, ahsv-4) have been compared with those of bluetongue virus of sheep. epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus of deer, and the phylogenetic relationships established. complete nucleotide sequence analysis of three rna segments (l2, l3, and m6) of ahsv-4 and their encoded products, vp2, vp3, and vp5, together with previously published data for vp7 (roy et al., 1991), have revealed that of the four capsid ...19921329319
experimental bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in california black-tailed deer.four adult black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemioneus columbianus) and five fawns were inoculated with bluetongue virus (btv) and one adult deer was inoculated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus to produce clinical signs and lesions of hemorrhagic disease. serologic response was monitored using the agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa). embryonating chicken eggs and vero cells were used to detect viremia. no animal exhibited ...19921335522
expression of the major core antigen vp7 of african horsesickness virus by a recombinant baculovirus and its use as a group-specific diagnostic reagent.the major core protein, vp7, of african horsesickness virus serotype 4 (ahsv-4), the aetiological agent of a recent outbreak of the disease in southern europe, was expressed in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing a cloned copy of the relevant ahsv gene (s7). analyses of its biochemical and antigenic properties confirmed the authenticity of the protein expressed. the high-level expression of vp7 under the control of the strong polyhedrin promoter of autographa californ ...19921378881
insects feeding on desert bighorn sheep, domestic rabbits, and japanese quail in the santa rosa mountains of southern california.desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates), a domestic rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), and japanese quail (coturnix japonica) were used as bait animals to collect blood-feeding flies in an area of active blue-tongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus transmission. precipitin tests were used to confirm the blood source where feasible. eight species of culicoides, members of the leptoconops kerteszi group, simulium spp., anopheles franciscanus, and stomoxys calcitrans were collected f ...19921512887
a characterization of the nonstructural protein from which the virus-specified tubules in epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus-infected cells are composed.the complete nucleotide sequence of segment 6 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (alberta) which encodes nonstructural protein ns1 was determined from a cdna clone containing a full-length copy of the gene. the gene was found to be 1806 bp in length, constituted by one open reading frame of 1656 bp which is flanked by 5' and 3' noncoding regions of 32 and 118 bp, respectively. the conserved 5' and 3' terminal hexanucleotide sequences were identical to those of btv-10. the 5' nonc ...19911645906
a comparison of different genomic probes in the detection of virus-specified rna in orbivirus-infected cells.different 32p-labelled genomic probes of bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) and equine encephalosis virus (eev) were compared with respect to the detection of virus-specified rna in infected cells. the probe derived from the genome segment that encodes nonstructural protein ns1 was found to be the most sensitive, detecting virus-specified rna in glutaraldehyde-fixed cells as early as 2-3 h p.i. this comparison was based on the observation that the ns1 gene probe ...19911651948
a survey of cattle for antibodies against bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer viruses in british columbia and southwestern alberta in 1987.in 1987 a serological survey of cattle for antibodies (ab) to bluetongue virus (btv) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) was undertaken in british columbia and southwestern alberta after infection with the viruses was diagnosed in wild and domestic ruminants in the okanagan valley. of 4610 cattle tested, five had ab only to btv, 125 had antibodies only to ehdv and 16 had ab to both viruses. the ab were identified as specific for btv type 11 (bt-11) or ehdv type 2 (ehdv-2). all but one ...19911653104
a comparison of the nucleotide sequences of cognate ns2 genes of three different orbiviruses.the genes encoding nonstructural protein ns2 of african horsesickness virus (ahsv) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) were cloned, sequenced, and compared to the ns2 gene of bluetongue virus (btv). nucleotide similarity ranged from 53 to 60%. the length of the proteins varied from 376 amino acids (ehdv) to 365 amino acids (ahsv). the n-terminal half of ns2 is more conserved (+/- 58% similarity) among the three orbiviruses, while the c-terminal half contains a 120 amino acid region of ...19911656603
complete nucleotide sequence of segment 5 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus; the outer capsid protein vp5 is homologous to the vp5 protein of bluetongue virus.the complete nucleotide sequence of a cdna clone representing the segment 5 rna of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) united states serotype 1 was determined. the 5' and 3' termini of the rna are complementary and are capable of forming secondary structures. the comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the encoded outer capsid protein (vp5) with the sequences of vp5 from four serotypes of bluetongue virus, the prototype orbivirus, revealed that the protein shares 59% to 62% ho ...19911662845
a monoclonal antibody blocking elisa detects antibodies specific for epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus.the isolation of a monoclonal antibody (1g9/c9) with specificity for the epizootic haemorrhagic disease (ehd) serogroup has enabled the development of a highly sensitive and specific blocking elisa (b-elisa) for the detection of serum antibodies to ehd viruses. the assay was sensitive to blocking antibodies present in hyperimmune reference antisera to all six ehd serotypes tested but was unaffected by reference antisera to 19 south african and eight australian serotypes of the related orbivirus ...19911663289
epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus antibodies in turkey. 19911665612
precipitating antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses in white-tailed deer in the southeastern united states.from 1981 to 1989, sera were collected from 3,077 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in georgia and from 1,749 deer from 12 additional states in the southeastern united states. in georgia, prevalence of precipitating antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) and bluetongue virus (btv), as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion tests, was dependent on physiographic region, age, and year. overall prevalence of antibodies to ehdv and/or btv was 11, 33, 48, and 14% for the mou ...19911676762
antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in a barrier island white-tailed deer population.from 1981 through 1989, serum samples from 855 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from ossabaw island, georgia (usa), were tested for antibodies to bluetongue virus (btv) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv). during this period, prevalence of precipitating antibodies to btv and ehdv as determined by agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) tests decreased from 74% to 3% and from 34% to 1%, respectively. antibodies were detected in serum samples from 0.5-yr-old deer only during 1981, 198 ...19911684621
a competitive elisa for detection of antibodies to the group antigen of bluetongue virus.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) was developed to detect antibodies to the group antigen of bluetongue virus (btv). the epitope recognized by the btv-specific monoclonal antibody was confirmed, by immunofluorescence staining of monolayers of virus-infected vero cells, to be present on btv serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17 but not on epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) serotypes 1 and 2. sera from btv-inoculated ruminants and rabbits were used to evaluate the celisa a ...19911716467
synthesis and characterization of chimeric particles between epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and bluetongue virus: functional domains are conserved on the vp3 protein.a functional assay has been developed to determine the conservative nature of the interacting sites of various structural proteins of orbiviruses by using baculovirus expression vectors. for this investigation, proteins of two serologically related orbiviruses, bluetongue virus (btv) and the less studied epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), were used to synthesize chimeric particles. the results demonstrate that the inner capsid protein vp3 of ehdv-1 can replace vp3 protein of btv in form ...19911870203
synthesis of the virus-specified tubules of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus using a baculovirus expression system.the formation of virus-specific tubules is one of the most characteristic features in the orbivirus infection cycle, yet little is known about their role in virus replication. the tubuli are composed of a major nonstructural protein, ns1. we have investigated the expression of the ns1-encoding gene of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (alberta-strain) by producing a recombinant autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (acnpv). prior to cloning in the baculovirus transfer v ...19911891959
detection of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in culicoides variipennis (diptera: ceratopogonidae).nucleic acid hybridization was used to detect epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus serotype 1 and serotype 2 in culicoides variipennis (coquillett). adult females were inoculated intrathoracically with virus, then were assayed daily for the presence of viral rna for 2 wk, at which time maximum virus replication is likely to occur. viral rna of ehd serotypes 1 and 2 was first detected by hybridization on days 9 and 7 after infection, respectively, and then for up to 14 days after infection. ...19911941947
a comparison of the genes which encode non-structural protein ns3 of different orbiviruses.the segment 10 (s10) genes of african horsesickness virus (ahsv), palyam virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. each of the s10 genes encoded two proteins ns3 and ns3a, which were shown to be related by peptide mapping. cloned copies of the s10 genes of two ahsv serotypes (ahsv-3 and ahsv-9) and palyam virus were sequenced and compared to each other and to the nucleotide sequence of bluetongue virus (btv) gene s10. two in-p ...19912033391
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for efficient detection of antibody to bluetongue virus in pronghorn (antilocapra americana).an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), using cell-associated viral antigen, was developed for detection of antibody to bluetongue virus (btv) in field-collected pronghorn (antilocapra americana) sera. to test the applicability of the elisa to seroepizootiologic studies, pronghorn serum samples from three wyoming counties (usa) were tested. bluetongue virus elisa results were compared to those of the bluetongue immunodiffusion assay. discrepant serum samples were retested for reac ...19902154627
diagnostic complementary dna probes for genome segments 2 and 3 of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1.potential diagnostic complementary dna (cdna) clones of gene segments 2 and 3 from epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1 (ehdv-1) have been produced. individual segments of ehdv-1 were isolated, denatured with methylmercury hydroxide, and polyadenylated. the polyadenylated rna was reverse-transcribed and self-hybridized into duplex structures, and the incomplete ends were repaired. the resulting product was then cloned into the plasmid vector pbr322, using the complementary tailing meth ...19902164331
detection of bluetongue virus in culicoides variipennis (diptera: ceratopogonidae) by an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect bluetongue virus (btv) in the vector culicoides variipennis (coquillett). this elisa used polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in a biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase system to detect btv in individual adult female flies that had taken an infectious blood meal. detection of btv with the elisa correlated with detection of btv from the same flies by plaque assay in cell culture. the elisa was group-specific for the fi ...19902167373
further studies on bluetongue and bluetongue-related orbiviruses in the sudan.the seasonal incidence of bluetongue virus (btv) in central sudan is related primarily to fluctuations in the prevalence of the vector, culicoides imicola. population densities of this midge begin to rise with the onset of precipitation and peak during october, before falling sharply at the end of the rainy season in november. these are also the months of btv transmission. populations of c. schultzei, the commonest midge in central sudan, are also related to the rainy season but this species doe ...19902174372
purification and characterization of the major group-specific core antigen vp7 of bluetongue virus synthesized by a recombinant baculovirus.the major core protein, vp7, of bluetongue virus serotype 10 (btv-10) has been purified from insect cells infected with a genetically manipulated recombinant baculovirus. the high level expression of vp7 (in excess of 100 mg per litre of culture) and its presence in the soluble fraction of infected cells following lysis by detergent has allowed the purification of the protein virtually to homogeneity (95%) by a simple two-step procedure of ammonium sulphate fractionation and ion-exchange chromat ...19902174958
a comparison of different cloned genome segments of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus as serogroup-specific probes.the eight largest double-stranded (ds) rna genome segments of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) serotype 2 (alberta strain) have been cloned. of these, segments 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are represented by clones that correspond in size to those predicted for full-length clones. the different clones were used as nucleic acid probes to study the nucleic acid homology of cognate genes of four different ehdv serotypes. the results indicated that the 4 isolates may be subdivided in two geographic ...19902310302
characterization and cloning of the african horsesickness virus genome.the dsrna profiles of all nine african horsesickness virus (ahsv) serotypes were compared by agarose gel electrophoresis and page. the agarose profiles were identical, but a unique profile was obtained for each of the nine serotypes by page. nine of the 10 dsrna genome segments of ahsv-3 were cloned and the clones were used in dot-spot and northern blot hybridization experiments to determine intra- and inter-serogroup nucleic acid similarities. segments 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were highly conserved ...19902324709
comparison of competitive elisa, indirect elisa and standard agid tests for detecting blue-tongue virus antibodies in cattle and sheep.the performances of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) using a group specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus, an indirect elisa and the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test were compared in the detection of serum antibody against bluetongue virus. test sera consisted of 1300 bovine, 530 ovine and 160 carpine samples from bluetongue-free areas of canada, 605 bovine and ovine field samples from the usa and barbados and 464 samples from 79 cattle and shee ...19892538952
antigenic relationship among strains of ibaraki virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus studied with monoclonal antibodies.twelve monoclonal antibodies against ibaraki virus (ibv) were established and preliminarily characterised by indirect immunoperoxidase (iip), haemagglutination inhibition (hi) and neutralisation (nt) tests. five antibodies reacted in the iip test with all ibv and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) strains tested, and five antibodies reacted with ibv and alberta strain (serotype 2) but not with new jersey strain (serotype 1) of ehdv. two of 12 antibodies showed both hi and nt activities. ...19892539639
identification of genetic variation between strains of bluetongue virus serotype 11 using cdna probes.recombinant plasmids containing inserts representing genome segments 2, 5, 6, 8, and 9 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11, with tentative coding assignments for viral proteins p2, p5, ns1, ns2, and p6, respectively, have been used to study the genetic diversity within a btv serotype using northern blot hybridization. btv 11 strains were isolated in california, nevada, oklahoma, and mexico from elk, deer, and cattle. diversity was indirectly indicated in the btv 11 strains by comparisons of el ...19892543132
neutralizing antibody responses to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes in beef cattle.blood samples were obtained from sentinel beef cattle at monthly intervals, and the sera were tested for antibodies, using a bluetongue virus (btv) immunodiffusion test (idt) and virus-neutralization test (vnt), for 5 btv serotypes (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) and 2 epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) serotypes (1 and 2). the cattle tested were transported from tennessee to texas in 1984 and 1985. all cattle were seronegative by the btv idt at the initial bleeding in texas in 1984 and 1985. in ...19892543239
the characterization of equine encephalosis virus and the development of genomic probes.equine encephalosis virus (eev) is an orbivirus associated with a peracute illness of horses in southern africa. the virus has now been partially purified for the first time and characterized on a molecular level. the virion is composed of 10 dsrna segments and a protein capsid consisting of at least seven structural proteins that vary in mr from 36,000 to 120,000. partial clones of six of the dsrna segments of eev serotype cascara were obtained and analysed for possible use as serotype-specific ...19892549180
immunodetection of bluetongue virus and epizoötic hemorrhagic disease virus in culicoides variipennis (diptera: ceratopogonidae).the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase system has been used with nitrocellulose membranes to detect bluetongue virus serotypes 10 (btv-10) and 11 (btv-11) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) serotype 1 (ehdv-1) in individual specimens of culicoides variipennis (coquillett). the cross reactivity between btv-10 and btv-11 indicates that polyclonal antisera cannot be used to distinguish between flies infected with btv-10 and btv-11; however, the procedure can be used to discriminate ...19892549249
molecular cloning of serogroup- and serotype-specific genome segments from bluetongue virus serotype 11.genome segments 2, 6, 8, and 9 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11, coding for p2, ns1, ns2, and p6, respectively, were cloned into puc 8. sizes of segment-2 and segment-6 clones indicated partial copies (55% and 80% of full length, respectively), whereas segment 8 and 9 clones represented full-length copies. northern blot hybridizations of the clones to the 5 united states btv prototypic serotypes (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) revealed segment-2 clone to be serotype-specific to btv-11, whereas segm ...19892552873
recombinant cdna probe from bluetongue virus genome segment 10 for identification of bluetongue virus.genome segment 10 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11 uc8 strain was cloned and subsequently hybridized to viral double-stranded rna extracted from 90 field isolates of btv serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17; the prototype strains of btv 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17; the prototype strain epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) serotype 1; and 4 field isolates of ehdv serotype 2. the 90 field isolates were obtained from different counties in california, louisiana, and idaho during the years 1979, 1980, a ...19892562196
comparison of competitive and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of bluetongue virus antibodies in serum and whole blood.an indirect (i) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a competitive (c) elisa, using a group-specific monoclonal antibody against bluetongue virus (btv), are described for the detection of antibodies to btv in cattle and sheep sera. the performance of these assays in detecting anti-btv antibody in sequential serum samples and eluates from whole blood (wb) dried on filter paper from three calves and four sheep experimentally infected with type 10 btv was evaluated. the c-elisa was superio ...19872821063
serologic responses of calves to sequential infections with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes.six calves were inoculated with 1 of 2 north american serotypes of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) and then inoculated with the second serotype 16 weeks later. one calf did not develop an immune response to ehdv after primary inoculation and was removed from the study. viremia after primary inoculation was transient. although each infected calf developed a high serum neutralizing antibody titer to ehdv, at no time after inoculation with one or both viruses was antibody detected that n ...19872823649
the genetic relatedness of a number of individual cognate genes of viruses in the bluetongue and closely related serogroups.genome segments 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 10 were cloned in pbr322. the 2926-bp s2 gene, which codes for the serotype-specific antigen, was cloned as two overlapping 2.4-kb inserts. the relatedness of cognate s2 genes among different isolates of btv10 was investigated by hybridization, restriction enzyme mapping, and sequencing of the terminal ends. hybridization under high stringency conditions indicated a genetic diversity between isolates of btv10 from south ...19872825414
tissue tropism and target cells of bluetongue virus in the chicken embryo.in situ cytohybridization was used to determine the tissue tropism and target cells for replication of bluetongue virus (btv) in the developing chicken embryo. hybridization with a biotinylated probe specific for segment 3 of btv serotype 17 detected viral replication in embryos inoculated with u.s. serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17 or sheep blood containing a btv field strain. at the final stages of infection, when the embryos were hemorrhagic, viral infection could consistently be detected in th ...19882828683
isolation and characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus from sheep and cattle in colorado.epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus was isolated from cattle and sheep in northeastern colorado during july and august 1984. the isolates were identified as serotype 2 by plaque-inhibition serotyping, genome electropherotyping, and protein analysis.19882844106
serologic survey of selected pathogens in white-tailed and mule deer in western nebraska.exposure of free-ranging white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in western nebraska to selected livestock pathogens was determined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies to bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus were present in both species of deer. no serologic reactors to brucella or anaplasma were found. attempts to isolate bluetongue virus were negative.19862845156
genetic relationships of bluetongue virus serotypes isolated from different parts of the world.full-length dna clones representing the 10 double-stranded rna segments of us bluetongue virus serotype 10 (btv-10) have been used in a study to determine the genetic relationships among 20 different btv serotypes. the study was undertaken using northern blot hybridization techniques involving 32p-labelled dna probes and total rna species extracted from bhk-21 cells infected with 20 different btv serotypes. the results obtained indicate that all the genes representing the nonstructural proteins ...19882845682
the cloning of full-length genome segments 2, 5, 6, and 8 of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 17 and studies of their genetic relatedness to united states btv serotypes.the double-stranded (ds) rna genome segments 2, 5, 6, and 8, which encode the outer capsid proteins p2 and p5, and the two nonstructural proteins, ns1 and ns2, respectively, of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 17 have been cloned into pbr322. the length of the cloned genes indicates that the entire respective dsrna genome has been cloned in each case. the four cloned genes were used as 32p-labeled probes to hybridize to page-separated united states btv serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. of these, t ...19882847419
comparison of dot-blot and northern blot hybridizations in the determination of genetic relatedness of united states bluetongue virus serotypes.dot-blot and northern blot hybridization methods to determine the genetic relatedness of united states bluetongue virus serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17 were compared. both plasmid and insert dna probes from cloned btv-17 dsrna segments 2, 5, 6, and 8 were hybridized to dsrna from the btv serotypes and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv). stringencies of hybridization were kept identical, and experiments differed only in the method in which dsrna was applied to the membranes (dot-blot or n ...19882851605
bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer from oklahoma: serologic evaluation and virus isolation.blood samples were collected from 194 white-tailed deer from 27 locations in oklahoma from 1977 through 1984. sixty-eight (35%) of the deer had antibody against bluetongue virus (btv) and 78 (40%) had antibody against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. seropositive deer were detected in each of the 4 geographic quadrants of the state. virus isolation was attempted in 40 deer from the northeast quadrant of oklahoma (1983 through 1984); btv was isolated from 11 deer, but epizootic hemorrhagic di ...19872888426
orbiviruses from culicoides in florida.between 1980 and 1983, 45,484 culicoides spp. collected in florida near cattle have been examined for orbiviruses by attempted isolation in cell cultures and intravenous (iv) inoculations of embryonated chicken eggs. bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 2 was isolated from a pool of culicoides insignis trapped at ona. this is the 1st recovery of btv from this species representing the 2nd new world species of culicoides from which bt viruses have been isolated. c. insignis is a neotropical form which ...19852989853
problems in the interpretation of diagnostic tests due to cross-reactions between orbiviruses and broad serological responses in animals.tests presently used for the diagnosis of infections by bluetongue virus (btv) or related orbiviruses are based on the use of 2 types of serological reactions. those that are considered group-reactive tests are the agar gel diffusion precipitin (agdp), complement-fixation (cf) and fluorescent antibody tests and those that are considered type-specific are a wide variety of virus neutralization tests (50% and 80% plaque reduction, plaque inhibition and microtiter neutralization) and cross-protecti ...19852989884
is the agid test group-specific for epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus? 19852989895
molecular epidemiology of two us orbiviruses: bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.the degree of relatedness between 4 us serotypes (10, 11, 13 and 17) of bluetongue (bt) virus (btv) were determined by both oligonucleotide fingerprint analyses of double-stranded (ds) rna as well as tryptic peptide analyses of viral coded polypeptides. similar studies were undertaken using different alternate isolates of particular serotypes as well as 2 serotypes (1 and 2) of epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus (ehdv), a closely related serogroup of orbiviruses. the results indicate that ...19852989908
orbivirus infection of the bovine fetus.direct inoculation of 85-125 day bovine fetuses with 4 serotypes of bluetongue virus (btv) or 1 serotype of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) resulted in either fetal death or teratogenesis. three serotypes of btv, and 1 of ehdv caused a similar cavitating encephalopathy, the severity of which likely reflected gestational age of the fetus at infection. virus-specific antibody was readily detected in precolostral serum samples from all inoculated fetuses that survived until term, whereas ...19852989930
a genetic probe for identifying bluetongue virus infections in vivo and in vitro.we have used a dna copy of segment 3 rna of bluetongue virus serotype 17 (btv-17) to detect sequence homology among the equivalent segments of five u.s.a. btv serotypes (btv-2, btv-10, btv-11, btv-13 and btv-17) as well as 14 other btvs isolated from different endemic areas of the world. both by in situ and northern hybridization all the btv serotypes were found to have rna that reacted with the dna probe. no homology was detected with epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1, a related o ...19852991433
bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in ruminants in georgia: survey by serotest and virologic isolation.the frequencies of precipitating antibodies to bluetongue virus (btv) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) in domestic ruminants and white-tailed deer (wtd) in georgia were 36% and 32%, respectively (n = 2,200). the frequencies of seropositivity to btv and ehdv were high among cattle (47% and 42%, respectively [n = 1,068]) and less so in wtd (36% and 34% [n = 414]). the frequencies among sheep were 34% for btv and 29% for ehdv (n = 286), whereas among goats, seropositivity was 8% for b ...19852998240
a preliminary report of a comparison of epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses from australia with others from north america, japan and nigeria. 19863022701
diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern alberta.specimens from 28 wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in southwestern alberta in 1984. various tests were performed to detect infections and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in wapiti. serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis (25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza type 3 (13%). no sero ...19873029443
parasites, diseases and health status of sympatric populations of sambar deer and white-tailed deer in florida.from december 1983 to december 1984 a study on parasites, diseases and health status was conducted on sympatric populations of sambar deer (cervus unicolor) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from st. vincent island, franklin county, florida. ten sambar and six white-tailed deer were examined. white-tailed deer had antibodies to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and bluetongue virus. serologic tests for antibodies to the etiologic agents of bovine virus diarrhea, infectious bovine ...19873035242
protein coding assignment for the genome of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus.viral genomic rna was purified from bhk-21 cells infected with epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and the 10 dsrna genome segments were isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. these genome segments were translated in vitro using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system and the synthesized proteins were detected by immune precipitation and gel electrophoresis. this allowed the assignment of protein coding to the genome segments and the identification of two additional virus-specified prote ...19883133450
epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus of deer: an electron microscopic study. 19704192973
bluetongue virus: some relationships among north american isolates and further comparisons with ehd virus.seven isolates of bluetongue virus with different isolation histories and one isolate of the virus of epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer were cloned by three consecutive plaquings in l-929 cells. the isolates were categorized on plaque size and margin. antisera to the bluetongue virus isolates were produced in calves and antiserum to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in deer. plaque reduction neutralization tests were done using the eight isolates and antisera to six of these. the isolates ...19714327870
ultrastructural characterization of genome of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.purified epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus preparations were treated with urea and sodium perchlorate. the viral ribonucleic acid (rna) released when spread on protein monolayers according to the kleinschmidt technique was examined by rotary shadow-casting electron microscopy. the viral rna released by urea treatment had filaments which frequently formed three to five loop-shaped figures of varied length. in 80% of the virus particles the lengths of the viral rna released were 2.5 to 4.5 ...19734354151
experimental infection in north american elk with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. 19734701179
serological survey of ruminants in some caribbean and south american countries for type-specific antibody to bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses.the results of a serological survey of ruminant livestock in some countries of the caribbean and south america for type-specific antibody to bluetongue virus are reported. using the microneutralisation test with the international serotypes 1 to 22 of bluetongue virus, antibodies to several types were detected. analysis of the data indicated that in 1981-82 bluetongue virus types 6, 14 and 17, or viruses closely related to them, were infecting ruminants in this region of the world. antibody to th ...19846087543
serologic survey for selected microbial pathogens in alaskan wildlife.antibodies to brucella spp. were detected in sera of seven of 67 (10%) caribou (rangifer tarandus), one of 39 (3%) moose (alces alces), and six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears (ursus arctos). antibodies to leptospira spp. were found in sera of one of 61 (2%) caribou, one of 37 (3%) moose, six of 122 (5%) grizzly bears, and one of 28 (4%) black bears (ursus americanus). antibodies to contagious ecthyma virus were detected in sera of seven of 17 (41%) dall sheep (ovis dalli) and five of 53 (10%) caribou ...19836139490
simple procedure for preparation of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus antigens for agar gel immunodiffusion.a simplified procedure was developed for preparing soluble antigen from two related orbiviruses, bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, for agar gel immunodiffusion. the antigens gave excellent results in both micro-agar gel diffusion (agar gel precipitin) and macro-agar gel diffusion (bluetongue immunodiffusion). minor modification in the spatial arrangement of reference antisera, commonly utilized in the agar gel immunodiffusion tests, was employed to reduce the possible develop ...19836140269
cloning of the bluetongue virus l3 gene.the genes of the bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 17 have been cloned into pbr322 by tailing both strands of the double-stranded rna with polyadenylic acid, transcribing them with reverse transcriptase with an oligodeoxythymidylic acid primer, hybridizing the cdna products, and completing them into duplex structures with the klenow fragment of escherichia coli dna polymerase. after cloning the double-stranded cdna molecules into pbr322, the complete sequence of the cloned l3 gene was determined. ...19846206235
bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus isolation from vertebrate and invertebrate hosts at a common geographic site.one serotype of bluetongue virus (btv) and two serotypes of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) were isolated from vertebrate and invertebrate hosts on a farm in colorado. the isolations were from blood samples collected a week apart from a dairy heifer with stomatitis and laminitis; ehdv serotypes 1 and 2 were isolated from the first blood sample, and btv serotype 13 and ehdv serotype 1 were isolated from the second. antibodies to ehdv and btv were detected in the serum from this heifer. ...19806243617
evaluation of a hemolysis-in-gel test for detection and quantitation of antibodies to bluetongue virus.a hemolysis-in-gel (hig) test was developed to detect and quantitate antibody to bluetongue virus (btv). the hig test was sensitive and accurate when applied to sera from sheep and cattle infected with btv. sensitized sheep rbc were prepared by adsorption of partly purified btv to the cells. regression analysis of data showed a linear relationship between the diameter of the hemolytic zone and the log of the antibody concentration. the hig test did not differentiate among antiodies to four serot ...19806250425
survey for antibodies to viruses of bovine virus diarrhea, bluetongue, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in hunter-killed mule deer in new mexico.sera from male mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) collected in november 1977 in otero county, new mexico were tested fro antibodies to bovine virus diarrhea virus (bvdv), bluetongue virus (btv), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv). neutralizing antibodies were detected in 26 of 76 (34%) sera tested for bvdv (titer greater than or equal to 1:16). of 46 sera tested for antibodies to btv and ehdv, 10 (22%) and 3 (7%), respectively, were positive. three (7%) of 46 sera were suspect (titer < ...19806256331
epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in montana: isolation and serologic survey.epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) was isolated in vero cell culture from the spleen and whole blood of a white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus). a 10% spleen suspension caused acute hemorrhagic disease (hd) when inoculated into an experimental white-tailed deer and resulted in the recovery of ehdv from the blood of the experimental animal at 5 days after inoculation. the virus was identified as ehdv serotype 2 through indirect fluorescent antibody tests, electron microscopy, and rec ...19816267969
the effect of temperature on the in vitro transcriptase reaction of bluetongue virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and african horsesickness virus.virions of bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) and african horsesickness virus (ahsv) can be converted to core particles by treatment with chymotrypsin and magnesium. the conversion is characterized by the removal of the 2 outer capsid polypeptides of the virion. the loss of these 2 proteins results in an increase in density from 1,36 g/ml to 1,40 g/ml on cscl gradients. the btv, ehdv and ahsv core particles have an associated double-stranded rna dependent rna tra ...19826308533
purification and stability of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.purification of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) from sonicated cell culture supernatant was effected using polyethylene glycol (peg) precipitation and two cscl density gradient centrifugations. during purification procedures the ph was maintained at values close to ph 8.0 as ph stability for ehdv was maximal between ph 7.2 and ph 9.0. during cscl isopycnic centrifugation at ph 8.0, a 0.1 m or greater buffer was necessary to preserve maximum viral infectivity. this method of purificati ...19827107801
replication and release of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus in bhk-21 cells.epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) was seen by light and electron microscopy to replicate in perinuclear locations. tubules, paracrystals and virus matrices were associated with replication sites. as infection proceeded, aggregates of virus migrated towards the cell periphery, resulting in cell membrane rupture near the virus aggregate with the subsequent release of the virus aggregates. virus release, as seen by light microscopy, gave the appearance of occurring by a 'budding' process ...19827119752
hemagglutination of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.hemagglutination of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) with a variety of erythrocyte species at 4 degrees c, room temperature and 37 degrees c was dependent on the nacl molarity and the ph of the diluent. the hemagglutination inhibition test was used to identify ehdv serotypes.19817295043
identification of the major north american bluetongue viruses using nucleic acid amplification techniques.a set of primers (btv-pr1/2) were selected that hybridized to the vp3 gene of the major north american serotypes of bluetongue virus (btv). polymerase chain reaction (pcr) testing yielded positive results from specimens of major north american btv isolates (serotypes 10, 11, 13 and 17) propagated in vero cells. in addition, pcr assays were positive from samples of all other btv serotypes, except btv-16; however, an alternative primer pair (btv-prn1/n2) was devised for amplification of this serot ...19957477017
fine mapping of a continuous epitope on vp7 of bluetongue virus using overlapping synthetic peptides and a random epitope library.two complementary techniques have been used to delineate an epitope on vp7 of bluetongue virus. two mabs (f10 and d11), both of which bound within a region spanning amino acids 255 to 274 in the 349 amino acid protein, were used to probe overlapping synthetic peptides covering this region. a pentapeptide, qypal, and a hexapeptide, qy-palt (amino acids 259-264), preferentially bound both mabs. mab f10 also reacted with a heptapeptide (taeifnv) immediately adjacent to qypalt. the mabs were also us ...19947505073
the multimeric nonstructural ns2 proteins of bluetongue virus, african horsesickness virus, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus differ in their single-stranded rna-binding ability.the structure and single-stranded (ss) rna-binding by the nonstructural protein ns2 of three different orbiviruses were studied and compared. african horsesickness virus (ahsv), bluetongue virus (btv), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) were analyzed in recombinant baculovirus-infected cells and in cells infected with btv and ahsv. sedimentation analysis and nonreducing sds-page revealed that ns2 of all three orbiviruses is a 7s multimer with both inter- and intramolecular disulfide ...19957539971
an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease in white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) in missouri: necropsy findings and population impact.an epizootic occurred among white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) from july through october 1988 in missouri (usa). from late july through september, nine necropsied deer had lesions of the peracute or acute forms of hemorrhagic disease (hd) or no apparent lesions, whereas two deer necropsied in october had lesions of the chronic form of hd. epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus was isolated from two necropsied deer. based on changes in population indices, there is evidence that deer populati ...19957563421
application of pcr for specific identification of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2. 19957578457
low prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in dogs from southern georgia. 19957578458
comparison of polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation for detection of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in clinical samples from naturally infected deer.we compared our recently reported reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-based assay for detection of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) in clinical samples with different virus isolation (vi) procedures. thirty-six blood samples and 1 spleen sample from deer were assessed by the ehdv pcr assay and vi in baby hamster kidney (bhk)-21 cells and embryonated chicken eggs (ece). the ehdv pcr assay detected ehdv rna from 6 blood samples obtained from deer during 1988-1989 outbre ...19957619901
geographical genetic variation in the gene encoding vp3 from the alberta isolate of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.the complete nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences of gene segment 3 and the encoded vp3 from the north american, alberta isolate of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (ehdv-2) are reported. complementary dna corresponding to segment 3 was 2768 nucleotides in length with an open reading frame of 2697 base pairs which encoded a vp3 polypeptide of 899 amino acid residues. sequence comparison with genome segment 3 and vp3 from the australian strain of ehdv-2 indicated genotypic ...19957653105
comparison of the non-structural protein, ns1, of tick-borne and insect-borne orbiviruses.the nucleotide sequence of rna segment 6 of broadhaven virus (brdv), a tick-borne orbivirus, was determined principally from two overlapping cdna clones and rna end sequence analysis. the genome segment is 1714 base pairs in length and has a coding capacity for a protein of 537 amino acids, having a net charge of +4.0 at neutral ph. comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of brdv rna segment 6 with the ns1 sequence of insect-borne orbiviruses, bluetongue virus (btv), african horse sickne ...19957653106
a model for the membrane topology of the ns3 protein as predicted from the sequence of segment 10 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1.segment 10, encoding nonstructural proteins 3 (ns3) and 3a (ns3a) of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1 (ehdv-1) was sequenced. computer motif recognition programs were used for interpretation of the sequence data to predict a structure for ns3. integral membrane protein theories were then applied to produce a general topological model for the ehdv-1 ns3 protein. homology was observed between ehdv-1 ns3 integral membrane motifs and those similarly observed in the cognate proteins of ...19957794120
a rapid indirect elisa for the serogrouping of australian orbiviruses.this communication describes the development and evaluation of a simple and rapid method for the classification of australian orbiviruses into one of seven established serogroups (i.e. bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease of deer, palyam, eubenangee, corriparta, wallal, warrego) or an 'ungrouped' category. the australian orbivirus serogrouping elisa (sg-elisa) utilised a sodium deoxycholate-treated cell lysate preparation from infected bhk cells which was subsequently probed in an indirect ...19947829593
sequence analysis of the non-structural protein 2 from epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses.the non-structural protein 2 (ns2) of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 1 (ehd-1) was cloned and sequenced. the ns2 gene was found to be 1185 bp containing a single open reading frame that encodes a 376 amino acid protein. a 97% nucleic acid identity was found between ehd-1 and a previously published ns2 sequence of ehd-2. only a 60% nucleic acid identity was found between ehd and the bluetongue virus (btv) serogroup. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed 97% identit ...19947831965
experimental epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection in calves: virologic and serologic studies. 19947858031
experimentally induced infection with bluetongue virus serotype 11 in cows.the consequences of inoculation of bluetongue virus (btv) serotype 11 into 16 susceptible cows either at the time of breeding or at specified stages of pregnancy were studied. the cows were free of btv or epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, and none had antibodies to btv before virus inoculation. a group of 4 cows was mated naturally to a bull reported to shed btv-11 (co75b300 strain) in the semen. the bull was suspected of infecting cows at mating with btv-11, which subsequently transplacental ...19947879975
vaccinia virus expression of the vp7 protein of south african bluetongue virus serotype 4 and its use as an antigen in a capture elisa.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the vp7 core protein of south african bluetongue virus serotype 4 (sa-btv4) were identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification. expression of vp7 was verified by radio-immunoprecipitation and a f(ab')2-based elisa. antibodies to vp7 were detected in sera from sheep that had been infected with 20 different virulent btv serotypes by using the vaccinia virus (vv) expressed vp7 as antigen in a capture elisa. f(ab')2-immobilised vv-expressed sa-btv4 vp7 ...19947979976
african horse sickness virus structure.african horse sickness virus (ahsv), of which there are nine serotypes (ahsv-1, -2, etc.), is a member of orbivirus genus within the reoviridae family. both in morphology and molecular constituents ahsv particles are comparable to those of bluetongue virus (btv), the prototype virus of the genus. the two viruses have seven structural proteins (vp1-7) organized in two layered capsid. the outer capsid is composed of vp2 and vp5. the inner capsid, or core, is composed of two major proteins, vp3 and ...19948001348
bluetongue virus infection in pregnant ewes.inoculation of 53 ewes after 35, 45, 60, or 80 days of gestation with bluetongue virus serotypes 10, 11, 13, or 17, or with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes 1 or 2, resulted in overt clinical disease in the 47 ewes inoculated with bluetongue virus but not in the 6 ewes inoculated with epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. none of the lambs produced by these ewes had developmental defects or any evidence of persistence of viremia.19948067615
detection of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotypes 1 and 2 in cell culture and clinical samples using polymerase chain reaction.the potential for the use of the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in detecting epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv) ribonucleic acid in cell cultures and clinical samples was studied. using oligoribonucleotide primers selected from genome segment 6 of ehdv-2 (alberta strain), the pcr-based assay resulted in a 387-base pair (bp) pcr product. ehdv rna from us prototype serotypes 1 and 2 and a number of ehdv field isolates, propagated in cell cultures, were detected by this ehdv pcr-based assa ...19948068743
the smallest gene of the orbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, is expressed in virus-infected cells as two proteins and the expression differs from that of the cognate gene of bluetongue virus.the smallest gene (s10) of the virus of epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (ehd, serotype 2) is expressed as two proteins in virus-infected cells. by contrast, the non-structural proteins (ns3 and ns3a) encoded in the smallest gene of bluetongue (bt) viruses are difficult to detect in virus-infected cells. the nucleotide sequence of s10 of ehdv-2 contains two in-frame initiation codons which allow for translation of proteins of mol. wt. 25503 and 23921 analogous to ns3 and ns3a of bt viruses. ...19948079516
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