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modification of mitomycin c-induced clastogenicity by terminalia catappa l. in vitro and in vivo.the water extract of the leaves of terminalia catappa l. was tested for inhibition of mitomycin c-induced micronuclei in cho-k1 cells. the simultaneous and pre-treatment of cho-k1 cells with t. catappa extract (75 and 150 micrograms/ml) significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed mitomycin c-induced micronuclei. furthermore, gastric intubation of t. catappa extract (4.8 and 24 mg/animal per day) to male icr mice for 8 days significantly (p < 0.01) reduced mitomycin c-induced micronuclei in peripheral bl ...19968689625
evaluation of the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of terminalia catappa.the free radical scavenging and antihepatotoxic activity from terminalia catappa was studied. treatment with t. catappa water extracts showed antihepatotoxic activity against ccl4-induced toxicity in the rat liver that was tested. the crude drug also exhibited anti-oxidant effects in fecl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the rat liver homogenate. moreover, the superoxide radical scavenger effect of t. catappa was demonstrated using electron spin resonance (esr) and spintrapping techn ...19979288361
antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of punicalagin and punicalin on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats.punicalagin and punicalin, isolated from the leaves of terminalia catappa l., are used to treat dermatitis and hepatitis. both compounds have strong antioxidative activity. the antihepatotoxic activity of punicalagin and punicalin on carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-induced toxicity in the rat liver was evaluated. levels of serum glutamate-oxalate-transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate-trans-aminase were increased by administration of ccl4 and reduced by drug treatment. histological changes around the l ...19989720629
first isolation of cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype c, from the environment in colombia.the natural habitat of cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype b in the environment was established by australian investigators who demonstrated its association with species of eucalyptus. the aim of the present study was to search for the habitat of this variety in a city of colombia, where clinical cases due to this variety occur with great frequency. for a period of 5 months detritus, vegetable material and air samples in and around 68 almond trees (terminalia catappa) located in the ci ...199810075505
effects of punicalagin and punicalin on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.punicalagin and punicalin were isolated from the leaves of terminalia catappa l. in this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of punicalagin and punicalin carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. after evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effects, the edema rates were increased by carrageenan administration and reduced by drug treatment. after 4 hr of carrageenan administration, the best effect group was the punicalagin (10 mg/kg) treated group (inhibition rate was 58.15%), and t ...199910592846
effects of terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats.to evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of tenminalia catappa linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (ss) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats.200011225980
antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of punicalagin and punicalin on acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats.punicalagin and punicalin were isolated from the leaves of terminalia catappa l., a combretaceous plant distributed throughout tropical and subtropical beaches, which is used for the treatment of dermatitis and hepatitis. our previous studies showed that both of these compounds exert antioxidative activity. in this study, the antihepatotoxic activity of punicalagin and punicalin on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in the rat liver was evaluated. after evaluating the changes of several biochemical ...200111351354
[experimental inoculation of terminalia catappa seedlings with an environmental isolate of cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype c ].in 1997, our laboratory reported for the first time the isolation of cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype c associated with almond tree (terminalia catappa) detritus. this finding led to a more detailed follow up of the association between the plant and the yeast. preliminary data have shown that survival of the yeast in almond trees seedlings goes beyond 100 days. the aim of the present study was to establish if under the conditions previously studied, c. neoformans var. gattii would re ...200212596450
antimutagenicity of supercritical co2 extracts of terminalia catappa leaves and cytotoxicity of the extracts to human hepatoma cells.natural antimutagens may prevent cancer and are therefore of great interest to oncologists and the public at large. phytochemicals are potent antimutagen candidates. when the ames test was applied to examine the antimutagenic potency of supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-co(2)) extracts of terminalia catappa leaves at a dose of 0.5 mg/plate, toxicity and mutagenicity were not detected. the antimutagenic activity of sc-co(2) extracts increased with decreases of temperature (60, 50, and 40 degrees c ...200312769525
antidiabetic activity of terminalia catappa linn fruits.in view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of terminalia catappa linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. all the three extracts of terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by me ...200312902049
experimental infection of almond trees seedlings (terminalia catappa) with an environmental isolate of cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype c.recently, our laboratory reported the isolation of cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype c for the first time from almond trees (terminalia catappa) detritus. the aim of the present study was to establish the survival of c. neoformans in almond trees seedlings. thirty seedlings were infected in the stems and samples were taken and processed at different times and by different techniques. no morphological alterations (macro or microscopic) were observed in the infected plants. however, c. ...200115487923
[hepatoprotective effects of chloroform extract from leaf of terminalia catappa in relation to the inhibition of liver il-6 expression].to study the hepatoprotective effects of terminalia catappa chloroform extract (tcce) and its effects on il-6 gene over expression in liver of ccl4-treated mice.200315617504
[protective effect of the extract of terminalia catappa leaves on acute liver injury induced by d-galn in mice].to study the hepatoprotective effect of the extract of terminala catappa leaves (tce) and the possible mechanisms underlying its protection on acute liver injury induced by d-galactosamine (d-galn).200415656141
modifying effects of terminalia catappa on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male f344 rats.the modifying effects of dietary administration of an herb, terminalia catappa (tc), were investigated on rat colon carcinogenesis induced by a carcinogen azoxymethane (aom). the number of aberrant crypt foci (acf) and beta-catenin accumulated crypts (bcacs) in the colon, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) labelling index in the colonic epithelium were examined in a total of 36 male f344 rats. all animals were randomly divided into five experimental groups (4-10 rats in each group). a ...200515785313
antibacterial screening of some peruvian medicinal plants used in callería district.nine ethanol extracts of brunfelsia grandiflora (solanaceae), caesalpinia spinosa (caesalpiniaceae), dracontium loretense (araceae), equisetum giganteum (equisetaceae), maytenus macrocarpa (celastraceae), phyllanthus amarus (euphorbiaceae), piper aduncum (piperaceae), terminalia catappa (combretaceae), and uncaria tomentosa (rubiaceae), medicinal plants traditionally used in calleria district for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms, were screened for antimicrobial act ...200515894143
[environmental distribution of cryptococcus neoformans in the department of cundinamarca-colombia].cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that could cause infection in patients with immunodeficiency and healthy patients. the aids epidemic has shown the importance of studying the ecology and epidemiology of this fungus. the aim of this investigation was to determine if there was a relationship between the environmental distribution of the different varieties of c. neoformans and the climate zones in two transects located in department of cundinamarca, in colombia. for the ...200516107166
effective protection of terminalia catappa l. leaves from damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in liver mitochondria.the protective effects of chloroform extracts of terminalia catappa l. leaves (tcce) on carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-induced liver damage and the possible mechanisms involved in the protection were investigated in mice. we found that increases in the activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and the level of liver lipid peroxidation (2.0-fold, 5.7-fold and 2.8-fold) induced by ccl4 were significantly inhibited by oral pretreatment with 20, 50 or 100 mg/kg of tcce. ...200616169207
mechanism underlying mitochondrial protection of asiatic acid against hepatotoxicity in mice.asiatic acid (aa) is one of the triterpenoid components of terminalia catappa l., which has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity. this research focused on the mitochondrial protection of aa against acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (lps) and d-galactosamine (d-galn) in mice. it was found that pretreatment with 25, 50 or 100 mg kg(-1) aa significantly blocked the lps + d-galn-induced increase in both serum aspartate aminotransferase (sast) and serum alanin ...200616451751
female-biased attraction of oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from terminalia catappa l.coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (gc-ead) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, terminalia catappa l., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel). both solid-phase microextraction (spme) and porapak q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with spme collections producing larger ead responses from a greater number of compounds. geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest ...200617082987
antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, terminalia catappa l. from okinawa island and its tannin corilagin.the antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of terminalia catappa l. collected from okinawa island were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using leaves extract and isolated antioxidants. a water extract of the leaves of t. catappa showed a strong radical scavenging action for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide (o(2)(.-)) anion. chebulagic acid and corilagin were isolated as the active components from t. catappa. both antioxidants showed a strong scavenging action for o(2)(.-) and peroxyl ...200717293097
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition by brazilian plants.the potential antihypertensive activity of brazilian plants was evaluated in vitro by its ability to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace). forty-four plants belonging to 30 families were investigated. plants were selected based on their popular use as antihypertensive and/or diuretics. the following plants presented significant ace inhibition rates: calophyllum brasiliense, combretum fruticosum, leea rubra, phoenix roebelinii and terminalia catappa.200717513067
host breadth and parasitoids of fruit flies (anastrepha spp.) (diptera: tephritidae) in puerto rico.twenty fruit species representing 12 families were collected from various regions in western puerto rico and monitored for the emergence of anastrepha spp. pupae. we collected 14,154 tephritid pupae from 16 fruit species representing 10 families. the relative infestations of these fruits (pupae per kilogram of fruit) were recorded. recorded host ranges were not in complete agreement with those reported in the literature. this host-use pattern should give pause to regulators of fruit importation ...200818348802
[feeding habits of the squirrel sciurus variegatoides (rodentia: sciuridae) in the nicoya peninsula, costa rica].food items consumed by the squirrel sciurus variegatoides atrirufus were determined in an agricultural setting in the nicoya peninsula (9 degrees 47' n, 84 degrees 56' w), costa rica, where two life zones (premontane moist forest basal belt transition, and tropical dry forest) predominate. by analyzing the gut contents of 120 squirrels, from february 1987 through january 1988, it was determined that coconut (cocos nucifera), indian almond (terminalia catappa) and flamboyant (delonix regia) were ...200618494334
antimicrobial activity of terminalia catappa, manilkara zapota and piper betel leaf extract.aqueous and methanol extract of the leaves of terminalia catappa l., manilkara zapota l. and piper betel l. were evaluated for antibacterial activity against 10 gram positive, 12 gram negative bacteria and one fungal strain, candida tropicalis. piperacillin and gentamicin were used as standards for antibacterial assay, while fluconazole was used as standard for antifungal assay. the three plants showed different degree of activity against the microorganisms investigated. the methanolic extract w ...200820046756
effects of aspergillus niger-fermented terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on selected enzymes of some tissues of broiler chicks.effects of aspergillus niger-fermented terminalia catappa seed meal-based diet on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (alp), alanine transaminase (alt), aspartate transaminase (ast) and gamma-glutamate transferase (gamma-gt) in the crop, small intestine, gizzard, heart, liver and serum of broiler chicks were investigated. milled t. catappa seed was inoculated with spores of a.niger (2.21 x 10(4) spores per ml) for 3 weeks. forty-five day-old broiler chicks weighing between 27.62 and 36.21 g, ...201020170700
the diversity of antibacterial compounds of terminalia species (combretaceae).the antibacterial activity of acetone, hexane, dichloromethane leaf extract of five terminalia species (terminalia alata heyne ex roth., terminalia arjuna (roxb.) wt. and am., terminalia bellerica (gaertn.) roxb., terminalia catappa l. and terminalia chebula retz.) were tested by agar-well-diffusion method against human pathogens e. coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacillus subtilis, staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis. the rf values and relative activities of separated compounds w ...200920180323
in vitro antiplasmodial activity and toxicity assessment of some plants from nigerian ethnomedicine.context: the emergence and spread of plasmodium falciparum-resistant parasites to nearly all available antimalarial drugs pose a threat to malaria control and necessitates the need to continue the search for new effective and affordable drugs. ethnomedicine has been shown to be a potential source of antimalarial compounds or source of template for the synthesis of novel antimalarial molecules. objective: the antiplasmodial activity and toxicity assessment of 30 plant extracts from eight medicina ...201120738218
inhibitory effects of terminalia catappa on uvb-induced photodamage in fibroblast cell line.this study investigated whether terminalia catappa l. hydrophilic extract (tclw) prevents photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts after exposure to uvb radiation. tclw exhibited dpph free radical scavenging activity and protected erythrocytes against aaph-induced hemolysis. in the gelatin digestion assay, the rates of collagenase inhibition by tcl methanol extract, tclw, and its hydrolysates were greater than 100% at the concentration of 1 mg/ml. we found that serial dilutions of tclw (10-500 μg/ ...201020981325
antiplasmodial activity of new caledonia and vanuatu traditional medicines.with the emergence of strains multiresistant to antimalarial drugs, the search for new active molecules remains a priority. ethnopharmacology appears to be a good method of selection in such investigations.201121284535
tannin-rich fraction from terminalia catappa inhibits quorum sensing (qs) in chromobacterium violaceum and the qs-controlled biofilm maturation and lasa staphylolytic activity in pseudomonas aeruginosa.the study aimed to test the activity of terminalia catappa l. against bacterial quorum sensing (qs) in order to provide a potential scientific basis for the traditional use of leaf extracts of this plant as an antiseptic.201121291979
effect of terminalia catappa fruit meal fermented by aspergillus niger as replacement of maize on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens.a feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented terminalia catappa fruit meal (ftcm) with aspergillus niger as replacement for maize on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and serum biochemical constituents. dietary maize was replaced by ftcm at 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80%. one hundred and eighty one-day-old shaver broiler chicks were randomly allocated to the five dietary treatments, three replicate groups of twelve chicks each for a 42-day period. there was ...201021350670
isolation of genomic dna suitable for community analysis from mature trees adapted to arid environment.isolation of intact and pure genomic dna (gdna) is essential for many molecular biology applications. it is difficult to isolate pure dna from mature trees of hot and dry desert regions because of the accumulation of high level of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, tannins etc. we hereby report the standardized protocol for the isolation and purification of gdna from seven ecologically and medically important tree species of combretaceae viz. anogeissus (anogeissussericea var. nummularia, anog ...201121827837
folk medicine in the northern coast of colombia: an overview.traditional remedies are an integral part of colombian culture. here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the atlantic coast of colombia, specifically in department of bolívar. we collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed.201121939522
[presumptive identification of cryptococcus gattii isolated from terminalia catappa in montería city, córdoba, colombia].the members of the cryptococcus neoformans species complex are responsible for cryptococcosis in animals and humans. human infection is thought to be acquired by inhalation of airborne propagules from an environmental source; therefore it is greatly important to study their habitat. objective: to determine the ecological relationship of cryptococcus gattii with terminalia catappa trees present in urban areas of montería city in colombia.201123437518
survival of listeria monocytogenes, and other food spoilage microbes in vacuum packaged west african soft cheese 'wara'.'wara' soft cheese is traditionally produced in nigeria and has a poor microbial quality. this study assessed the survivability of listeria monocytogenes and other food spoilage microbes (enterobacteriacea, molds and yeasts) in vacuum packaged soft cheese treated independently with carica papaya (vcpc), terminalia cattapa (vtcc) crude extracts, nisin (vnc), and the combination of these three treatments (v+3) stored at 15 degrees c and 28 degrees c for a three week storage period. vacuum packagin ...201223678645
an updated review of terminalia catappa.terminalia catappa linn. is known for its nutritional fruit and possesses medicinal benefits as well. this is a comprehensive review of the phytoconstituents and pharmacological benefits. t. catappa has been recognized for its medicinally essential phytoconstituents, such as phenol, flavonoid, and carotenoid. numerous pharmacological investigations have confirmed this plant's ability to exhibit antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer activiti ...201526392705
potential application of extracts from indian almond (terminalia catappa linn.) leaves in siamese fighting fish (betta splendens regan) culture.indian almond (terminalia catappa linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to siamese fighting fish (betta splendens regan). powder of indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (aeromonas hydrophila, edwardsiella tarda, enterobacter spp., plesiomonas shigelloides ...201223885412
cryptococcosis in atlántico, colombia: an approximation of the prevalence of this mycosis and the distribution of the etiological agent in the environment.cryptococcosis is an invasive disease acquired by inhalation of infectious propagules from the environment. currently, compulsory notification of the spread of this disease is not required in colombia. however, reporting of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome cases to the national surveillance system has suggested that there is a growing population at risk of contracting cryptococcosis. few studies have described the occurrence of cryptococcosis in colombia. th ...201526516968
long-term survival of cryptococcus neoformans and cryptococcus gattii in stored environmental samples from colombia.both cryptococcus neoformans and cryptococcus gattii have been isolated from a variety of environmental sources in colombia.201525725529
preparation and properties of cellulose nanocomposite films with in situ generated copper nanoparticles using terminalia catappa leaf extract.in the present work, copper nanoparticles (cunps) were in situ generated inside cellulose matrix using terminalia catappa leaf extract as a reducing agent. during this process, some cunps were also formed outside the matrix. the cunps formed outside the matrix were observed with transmission electron microscope (tem) and scanning electron microscope (sem). majority of the cunps formed outside the matrix were in the size range of 21-30nm. the cellulose/cunp composite films were characterized by f ...201727984140
antimicrobial activity of extracts of terminalia catappa root.the effect against bacteria of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees c), chloroform and methanolic extract of dried root of terminalia catappa linn. (combrataceae) was employed by cup plate agar diffusion method. the chloroform extract showed prominent antimicrobial activity against s. aureus and e. coli as compared to other tested microorganisms, while petroleum ether extract was devoid of antimicrobial activity. the methanolic: extract exhibited mic of 0.065 mg/ml against e. coli. and chloroform extr ...200212649950
the anthelmintic effects of the ethanol extract of terminalia catappa l. leaves against the ruminant gut parasite, fischoederius cobboldi.presently, no effective anthelmintic drugs have been used to treat and control paramphistomosis, a severe disease of ruminants. in this study, we have investigated the in vitro anthelmintic effect of the leaves of terminalia catappa l. crude extract (tcce) and albendazole (abz) on adult fischoederius cobboldi after incubating the flukes in rpmi-1640 medium containing the tcce at various doses and times. the tcce-treated flukes at all dosages exhibited rapid decrease of motility, and the relative ...201626831432
terminalia catappa l.: a medicinal plant from the caribbean pharmacopeia with anti-helicobacter pylori and antiulcer action in experimental rodent models.terminalia catappa l. (combretaceae) is a medicinal plant listed as a pharmacopeia vegetable from caribbean to treat gastritis. the objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effect of the aqueous fraction (fraq) obtained from the leaves of terminalia catappa and to determine the antiulcer mechanism of action in experimental rodent models and its activity to helicobacter pylori.201525460589
exploration of phytochemicals found in terminalia sp. and their antiretroviral activities.the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infects cells of the immune system and destroys their function. approximately, 2 million people die every year from hiv as reported by the world health organization. hiv/aids is difficult to treat as the virus continuously develops resistance to drugs being developed. approach is now turning toward natural products for the development of anti-hiv drugs. although hiv/aids is not a new disease, but research based on plant-derived products is still under clini ...201728082788
plants promote mating and dispersal of the human pathogenic fungus cryptococcus.infections due to cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. the ability of cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. in the western united states and canada, cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree spec ...201728212396
synergism among volatile organic compounds resulting in increased antibiosis in oidium sp.oidium sp. has been recovered as an endophyte in terminalia catappa (tropical chestnut) in costa rica. the volatile organic compounds (vocs) of this organism uniquely and primarily consist of esters of propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and butanoic acid, 3-methyl-. the vocs of oidium sp. are slightly inhibitory to many plant pathogenic fungi. previous work on the vocs of muscodor albus demonstrated that besides esters of small organic acids, a small organic acid and a naphthal ...200818422630
beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria - potential implications for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury.context ischemic-reperfusion injury is accompanied by a decreased contractility of the myocardium. positive-inotropic agents have proven useful for treating this condition but may exert serious side-effects. objective in this study, aqueous preparations from abelmoschus esculentus l. moench (malvaceae), annona muricata l. (annonaceae), bixa orellana l. (bixaceae), cecropia peltata l. (moraceae), erythrina fusca lour. (fabaceae), psidium guajava l. (myrtaceae) and terminalia catappa l. (combretac ...201626730936
biofabrication of ag nanoparticles using sterculia foetida l. seed extract and their toxic potential against mosquito vectors and hela cancer cells.a one-step and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver-(protein-lipid) nanoparticles (ag-pl nps) (core-shell) has been developed using the seed extract from wild indian almond tree, sterculia foetida (l.) (sterculiaceae). the reaction temperature played a major role in controlling the size and shell formation of nps. the amount of nps synthesized and qualitative characterization was done by uv-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (tem), respectively. tem studies exhibit ...201424863217
aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats.to investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of tribulus terrestris, curculigo orchioides, allium tuberosum, cucurbita pepo, elephant creeper, mucuna pruriens, and terminalia catappa in albino rats in specified ratio as suspension.201424761115
sodium metabisulfite-induced polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin incubated in the extracts of three medicinal plants (anacardium occidentale, psidium guajava, and terminalia catappa).the exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyhbs) molecules.201121716622
membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes incubated in extracts of three medicinal plants: anacardium occidentale, psidium guajava, and terminalia catappa.many reports showed that medicinal plant extracts cause alterations on the shape and physiology of erythrocytes.201121716621
host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (diptera, tephritidae) in selected areas of central tanzania.the host range of major fruit fly pests in central tanzania was evaluated from october 2004 to october 2006. samples of 48 potential hosts were collected and incubated for fruit fly emergence. bactrocera invadens was the dominant species in incidence expressed as the ratio of infested to total number samples collected, as well as infestation rate, expressed as number of flies emerging per unit weight. eight new host fruits are reported. infestation by native pests, such as ceratitis capitata and ...200919323850
beach almond (terminalia catappa, combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (ara macao) and variegated squirrels (sciurus variegatoides).knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (terminalia catappa) in the central pacific of costa rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (ara macao). in this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during march and april 2011 on beaches of central pacific coastal costa rica. seed productivity and predation ...201425412525
nutritional composition of fruits selected by long-tailed macaques (macaca fascicularis) in kuala selangor, malaysia.proximate analysis of twelve species of fruits commonly consumed by long-tailed macaques (macaca fascicularis), i.e., arenga pinnata, areca catechu, terminalia catappa, elaeis guineensis, lagerstroemia tomentosa, mangifera indica, cascabela thevetia, muntingia calabura, musa sp., artocarpus heterophyllus, ficus tinctoria ssp. gibbosa and ficus microcarpa, was conducted with the specific objective to determine the nutritional composition of the foodstuffs of long-tailed macaques. the results show ...201728228918
folk medicine terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, are effective against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in chinese hamster ovary cells.terminalia catappa l. is a popular folk medicine for preventing hepatoma and treating hepatitis in taiwan. in this paper, we examined the protective effects of t. catappa leaf water extract (tce) and its major tannin component, punicalagin, on bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in cultured chinese hamster ovary cells. pre-treatment with tce or punicalagin prevented bleomycin-induced hgprt gene mutations and dna strand breaks. tce and punicalagin suppressed the generation of bleomycin-induced intrace ...200010773401
bactrocera invadens (diptera: tephritidae), a new invasive fruit fly pest for the afrotropical region: host plant range and distribution in west and central africa.in 2003, the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens drew, tsuruta & white (diptera: tephritidae) (drew et al. 2005), of possible sri lankan origin, has been detected in the east and about 1 yr later in west africa. in regular surveys in benin and cameroon covering 4 yr, samples from 117 plant species across 43 families have been obtained. incubation of field-collected fruits demonstrate that in west and central africa (wca) b. invadens is highly polyphagous, infesting wild and cultivated fruits ...201122251685
evaluation of the antioxidant activity of environmental plants: activity of the leaf extracts from seashore plants.the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of 39 plant species was examined. these leaves were collected from the plants growing on subtropical seashores. the activity was evaluated by three kinds of assay methods, which included the dpph radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid oxidation assay, and oxidative cell death assay. two extracts from excoecaria agallocha and terminalia catappa showed remarkably potent activity in all assay systems. the hplc analysis of the extrac ...199910564049
a new species of japanagromyza sasakawa (diptera: agromyzidae) from the brazilian amazon with notes on biology.japanagromyza sasakawai sp. n. is described from the brazilian amazon, based on the male, female, third instar larva and puparium. this species is a leaf-miner of terminalia catappa l. (combretaceae), which is an introduced plant from the old world tropics used in brazil as an ornamental. the male aedeagus of j. sasakawai sp. n. differs from other species mainly in having the mesophallus covered with many spine-like processes. this is the third record of japanagromyza sasakawa in brazil and firs ...201525781139
terminalia catappa attenuates urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression through erk pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.the survival rate of malignant tumors, and especially hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc), has not improved primarily because of uncontrolled metastasis. in our previous studies, we have reported that terminalia catappa leaf extract (tce) exerts antimetastasis effects on hcc cells. however, the molecular mechanisms of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-pa) in hcc metastasis have not been thoroughly investigated, and remain poorly understood.201424886639
description of a new species of terminalichus (acari: trombidiformes: tenuipalpidae) from china.a new species terminalichus sanya xu & fan sp. nov. (acari: tenuipalpidae) on terminalia catappa l. (combretaceae) from china is described and illustrated. the ontogenetic changes in ventral and leg chaetotaxy on the female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva are presented. the generic definition of terminalichus is updated and a key to the world species is provided.201424872294
characterization and quantification of compounds in the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves from terminalia catappa linn. (combretaceae) and their mutagenic activity.terminalia is a genus of combretaceous plants widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. thus, the aim of this study was to quantify the majority compounds of the hydroalcoholic extract (7 : 3, v/v) of the leaves from t. catappa by hplc-pda, chemically characterize by hyphenated techniques (hplc-esi-it-ms(n)) and nmr, and evaluate its mutagenic activity by the salmonella/microsome assay on s. typhimurium strains ta98, ta97a, ta100, and ta102. the quantification of analytes was perfo ...201424734110
the in vitro anthelmintic activity of the ethanol leaf extracts of terminalia catappa l. on fasciola gigantica.at present, there are no medicinal plant extracts currently available for treatment and control of fasciolosis. the present work could provide, for the first study, conclusions on the in vitro fasciolicidal properties of the ethanol extract of terminalia catappa l. (tcce) leaves against adult fasciola gigantica after incubation with rpmi-1640 medium containing the tcce at various concentrations and times when compared with triclabendazole (tcz). the relative motility and survival index values of ...201728805167
physicochemical properties of malaysian-grown tropical almond nuts (terminalia catappa).the seeds of terminalia catappa from malaysia were analyzed for their physicochemical properties. the following values were obtained: moisture 6.23 ± 0.09 %, ash 3.78 ± 0.04 %, lipid 54.68 ± 0.14 %, protein 17.66 ± 0.13 %, total dietary fibre 9.97 ± 0.08 %, carbohydrate 7.68 ± 0.06 %, reducing sugar 1.36 ± 0.16 %, starch 1.22 ± 0.15 %, caloric value 593.48 ± 0.24 %. studies were also conducted on amino acid profile and free fatty acid composition of the seed oil. results revealed that glutamic a ...026396409
effect of roasting conditions on color development and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir-atr) analysis of malaysian-grown tropical almond nuts (terminalia catappa l.).proper roasting is crucial to flavor, color, and texture development in the final product. in recent years, several research studies have been carried out to establish the best optimum roasting conditions for some common edible nuts such as; hazelnut, peanut, and pistachio nut. although roasting is an important process for nuts and oilseeds, there is little or no information on the development of color, aroma, and textural changes in terminalia catappa nuts during roasting.025317204
antimicrobial polyphenols from small tropical fruits, tea and spice oilseeds.the polyphenolic fractions of fruits: terminalia catappa, carissa carandas, ziziphus nummularia; spice oilseeds: thymol, mustard, fenugreek and poppy seeds; and herb: green and black teas were analyzed for their total phenolics, flavonoids and antimicrobial potential. all fractions from fruits, except anthocyanin of c. carandas, displayed substantial antibacterial activity in accordance to their phenolic contents, the difference in activity being quite significant (p < 0.05), highest for t. cata ...201423703103
an eels-based study of the effects of pyrolysis on natural carbonaceous materials used for activated charcoal preparation.electron energy-loss spectroscopy (eels) has been used to characterize the electronic structure of charcoal phases at the nanoscale, thus demonstrating that the technique can be applied to environmental science. activated charcoal is extensively used to remove pollutants from liquid and gaseous sewage. it is mainly obtained by activation of coke or charcoal produced from ligneous precursors. the present study concerns the use of by-products of local caribbean agriculture, such as sugar cane baga ...200312694416
terminalia catappa: chemical composition, in vitro and in vivo effects on haemonchus contortus.haemonchus contortus is the most important nematode in small ruminant systems, and has developed tolerance to all commercial anthelmintics in several countries. in vitro (egg hatch assay) and in vivo tests were performed with a multidrug strain of haemonchus contortus using terminalia catappa leaf, fruit pulp, and seed extracts (in vitro), or pulp and seed powder in lambs experimentally infected with h. contortus. crude extracts from leaves, fruit pulp and seeds obtained with 70% acetone were ly ...201728969774
antidepressant like effects of hydrolysable tannins of terminalia catappa leaf extract via modulation of hippocampal plasticity and regulation of monoamine neurotransmitters subjected to chronic mild stress (cms).terminalia catappa l. belonging to combretaceae family is a folk medicine, known for its multiple pharmacological properties, but the neuro-modulatory effect of tc against chronic mild stress was seldom explored. the present study was designed to elucidate potential antidepressant-like effect of terminalia cattapa (leaf) hydro-alcoholic extract (tc) by using cms model for a period of 7 weeks. identification of hydrolysable tannins was done by using lc-ms. after the cms exposure, mice groups were ...201728012396
proposed mechanisms of terminalia catappa in hyperglycaemia and associated diabetic complications.terminalia catappa has shown potent antidiabetic activity in the past; however, the exact molecular mechanisms by which it acts have not been elucidated. this review aims at exploring several hypotheses which have been proposed to explain its mechanism of action, including reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, lipid profile correction and direct hypoglycaemic actions.201728000229
antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activity of an ethanolic extract from the stem bark of terminalia catappa l. (combretaceae): in vitro and in vivo evidences.terminalia catappa linn (combretaceae) is a medicinal plant with anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrhoeal and antioxidant properties, frequently found in tropical regions. considering its characteristics, it could be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, which is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and an immune dysfunction. thus this study evaluates the immunomodulatory properties and the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanolic extract of the stem bark of t. c ...201627452660
corrigendum to "terminalia catappa exerts antimetastatic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma through transcriptional inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by modulating nf-κb and ap-1 activity".[this corrects the article doi: 10.1155/2012/595292.].201526692372
in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extracts and fractions of terminalia catappa and vitex doniana.the spread of microorganisms resistant to some antimicrobial agents necessitates the need to search for novel and effective antimicrobial agents. in this study, the antimicrobial activity of terminalid catappa linn. (combretaceae) and vitex doniana sweet. (verbenaceae), two nigerian medicinal plants used in folk medicines for the management of various ailments related to microbial infections were evaluated.201526548112
formulation of gastric floating system using bio-sourced terminalia catappa gum and in vivo evaluation.a central composite design was applied to design a novel gastric floating drug delivery system comprising propranolol hcl in terminalia catappa gum and to evaluate the buoyancy, in vitro drug release behavior, and pharmacokinetic parameters. all formulations exhibited good buoyancy properties in vitro reflected by floating lag time of 1-110 sec, total floating time of 9-16 h and prolonged release behaviour (upto 12 h). statistically optimised formulation (pbgrso) was orally administered to human ...201626452534
potent and synergistic extract combinations from terminalia catappa, terminalia mantaly and monodora tenuifolia against pathogenic yeasts.mycoses caused by candida and cryptococcus species, associated with the advent of antifungal drug resistance have emerged as major health problems. improved control measures and innovative therapies are needed. this paper describes results from the screening of bio-guided fractionated extracts alone and combinations of terminalia catappa, terminalia mantaly and monodora tenuifolia harvested in cameroon. crude ethanolic, hydro-ethanolic and aqueous extracts and bio-guided fractions were screened ...201528930209
the medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus terminalia (combretaceae).plants of the genus terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. many terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. indeed, the indian specie ...201526226895
a new aromatic compound from the stem bark of terminalia catappa.a new aromatic compound 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-o-(4-sulfo)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), in addition to two triterpenoid saponins (chebuloside ii, arjunoglucoside ii), two triterpenes (arjunolic acid and 3-betulinic acid) and sitosterol-3-o-β-d-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the barks of terminalia catappa. their structures have been established on the basis of spectroscopic techniques (1d/2d nmr) and ms. their cytotoxicity and antiinflammatory activity, together with the antioxidant capac ...201526197537
the effect of thermal processing on protein quality and free amino acid profile of terminalia catappa (indian almond) seed.the study examined the effect of various processing methods- boiling, drying and roasting- on the in vitro and in vivo protein digestibility and free amino acid profiles of terminalia catappa seed. moisture and crude protein of the various samples were determined. in vitro protein digestibility was determined after pepsin digestion. for the in vivo experiment, defatted t. catappa based diet was fed to 3 weeks old wistar rats for 4 weeks and compared with animals maintained on casein based and ni ...201526139937
physicochemical properties of terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source.terminalia catappa linn (tc) is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. it has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg) and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. this study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using tc seed oil as a new die ...201528911374
colon specific drug delivery of tramadol hcl for chronotherapeutics of arthritis.the objective of present work is to develop and evaluate a matrix system for chronotherapeutic delivery of centrally acting of opioid analgesic (tramadol hcl) to treat nocturnal symptoms of arthritis using almond gum as carrier.201725599032
a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of tannin-related marker constituents gallic acid, corilagin, chebulagic acid, ellagic acid and chebulinic acid in four terminalia species from india.a validated rapid hplc-pda method was developed for identification and quantification of five tannin-related constituents gallic acid (ga), corilagin (cl), chebulagic acid (cb), ellagic acid (ea) and chebulinic acid (cn) in the extracts prepared from the bark and fruits of four terminalia species available in india. the separation of the five analytes was achieved on an rp-18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 µm) at 25°c using a solvent mixture comprising of acetonitrile and (0.05%) trifluoroacetic acid-w ...201525190275
badam gum: a natural polymer in mucoadhesive drug delivery. design, optimization, and biopharmaceutical evaluation of badam gum-based metoprolol succinate buccoadhesive tablets.applicability of natural polymers in pharmaceutical drug delivery.201624825493
induction of foetal haemoglobin synthesis in erythroid progenitor stem cells: mediated by water-soluble components of terminalia catappa.current novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of sickle cell anaemia (sca) focus on increasing foetal haemoglobin (hbf) levels in sca patients. unfortunately, the only approved hbf-inducing agent, hydroxyurea, has long-term unpredictable side effects. studies have shown the potential of plant compounds to modulate hbf synthesis in primary erythroid progenitor stem cells. we isolated a novel hbf-inducing terminalia catappa distilled water active fraction (tcdwf) from terminalia catappa leave ...201424470326
effect of terminalia catappa on lipid profile in transplanted fibrosarcoma in rats.to evaluate the effect of an antitumor activity of terminalia catappa on lipid lowering activity in transplanted fibrosarcoma in wistar albino rats. methylcholantherene-induced fibrosarcoma was transplanted in rats. after 30(th) day when tumor became palpable, started the treatment of ethanolic extract of terminalia catappa by orally (250 and 500 mg/kg) for a period of 20 days. the blood sample was collected on 21(st) day, and the liver and the kidney were also removed for studying the lipid pro ...201222701253
hydrolysable tannins of tropical almond show antifibrotic effects in tgf-β1-induced hepatic stellate cells.persistent activation of hepatic stellate cells (hsc-t6) has been known to cause liver fibrosis. in this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid, two hydrolysable tannins of tropical almond (terminalia chebula) fruits, on collagen synthesis and signal transduction in transforming growth factor-β1-stimulated hsc-t6 cells. the expression of smad2, smad3, smad4, collagen i(α1)/iii, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (pai-1) mrnas was determined ...201121725979
influence of sonication on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of terminalia catappa l. leaves.this study was designed to evaluate the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from t. catappa leaves obtained by different intervals of sonication.201021713141
nutritional evaluation of outer fleshy coat of terminalia catappa fruit in two varieties.the nutritional potential of outer (50-55%) fleshy edible cover of terminalia catappa fruit was selected for investigation in search of a new source of nutrients. two different varieties, red and yellow in their ripe and unripe stages, were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition along with phytochemicals. in the results (per 100 g sample), the red variety has shown to be a rich source of protein (1.95 g vs. 1.65 g) while the yellow variety has shown a high content of carbohydrate and ash ...201120707766
analysis of volatile flavour compounds and acrylamide in roasted malaysian tropical almond (terminalia catappa) nuts using supercritical fluid extraction.considering the importance of tropical almond nuts as a snack item, a study was conducted to identify the flavour volatiles and acrylamide generated during the roasting of the nuts. the supercritical fluid extracted flavour components revealed 74 aroma active compounds made up of 27 hydrocarbons, 12 aldehydes, 11 ketones, 7 acids, 4 esters, 3 alcohols, 5 furan derivatives a pyrazine, and 2 unknown compounds. while low levels of acrylamide (8-86 microg/kg) were obtained in the roasted nuts, signi ...201020510332
antimetastatic effects of terminalia catappa l. on oral cancer via a down-regulation of metastasis-associated proteases.the incidence and mortality of oral cancer in taiwan have been increased during the last decade, which could be mainly resulted from the difficulty in treatment related to metastasis. as a potential and popular folk medicine, terminalia catappa leaves have been proven to possess various biological benefits including anti-cancer activities. however, the detailed effects and molecular mechanisms of t. catappa leaves on the metastasis of oral cancer cells were still unclear. thus, scc-4 oral cancer ...201020102732
how dietary plant nectar affects the survival, growth, and fecundity of a cursorial spider cheiracanthium inclusum (araneae: miturgidae).we measured the effects of plant nectar consumption on cheiracanthium inclusum (hentz) (miturgidae), an agriculturally important spider. newly emerged spiderlings were reared on the eggs of helicoverpa zea (boddie) at four prey densities, 1, 5, 25, or 125 eggs, three times a week, with or without nectar. nectar came from the extrafloral nectaries of indian almond, terminalia cattapa l. (combretaceae). the addition of nectar to prey (1) allowed spiderlings on the 1-egg diet to survive longer and ...200919825292
phenotypic diversity in terminalia catappa from south western nigeria.the diversity amongst teminalia catappa population in two different locations in the lagos area of south western nigeria was investigated. forty trees were sampled for twenty eight quantitative and twelve qualitative characters. variability was observed in qualitative characters such as leaf shape and ripe fruit colour. quantitative characters analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis showed high intraspecific variability for most of the characters determined. cluster analysis using the u ...200818819608
rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of terminalia catappa linn.the present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of terminalia catappa linn. (tc gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. the rheological properties of tc gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. the viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and ph. temperature up to 60 degrees c did not show significant effect on viscosity. the rheological kinetics evalu ...200818661243
kinetics of autoxidation of an oil extract from terminalia catappa.soxhlet extractor was used in the extraction of oil from milled seeds of terminalia catappa using petroleum ether (40-60 degrees ). the optimal oil yield was 56.71+/-1.66% with a viscosity of 40.79+/-1.05 centipoises. other parameters of the oil were found as follows; specific gravity-0.9248, refractive index-1.4646, acid value-3.35, peroxide value-8.6, saponification value-166.2, and unsaponifiable matter-1.46. the crude oil extract was water-degummed, bleached and deodorized to generate what w ...201320046729
studies of terminalia catappa l. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.since the biodiesel program has been started in brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for brazilian researchers. thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the terminalia catappa l (tc), popularly known in brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. the oil was obtained from the kernels of ...200818178081
in vitro and in vivo antimetastatic effects of terminalia catappa l. leaves on lung cancer cells.terminalia catappa l. was a popular folk medicine and has several proven biological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. the present study investigated the effect of the extract of t. catappa leaves (tce) on invasion and motility of tumor cells to find that tce exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the invasion and motility of highly metastatic a549 and lewis lung carcinoma (llc) cells. to further investigate the precise involvement of tce in tumor metastasis, a549 and ...200717303298
spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terminalia catappa l. (combretaceae) bark from a selected heavy road traffic area of rio de janeiro city, brazil.the levels of 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) with molecular weights between 128 da (naphthalene) and 300 da (coronene) were determined in terminalia catappa l. (combretaceae) bark. tree bark samples were collected in the campus of oswaldo cruz foundation, a green area located in a very intensive traffic area of rio de janeiro city, brazil and about 10 km away from the city center. samples were submitted to ultrasonic extraction with dichloromethane and analyzed by high-resolution gas ...200717010512
mercury adsorption on a carbon sorbent derived from fruit shell of terminalia catappa.a carbonaceous sorbent derived from the fruit shell of indian almond (terminalia catappa) by sulfuric acid treatment was used for the removal of mercury(ii) from aqueous solution. sorption of mercury depends on the ph of the aqueous solution with maximum uptake occurring in the ph range of 5-6. the kinetics of sorption conformed well to modified second order model among the other kinetic models (pseudo first order and pseudo second order) tested. the langmuir and redlich-peterson isotherm models ...200616326005
chemopreventive effect of punicalagin, a novel tannin component isolated from terminalia catappa, on h-ras-transformed nih3t3 cells.terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, have been characterized to possess antioxidative and anti-genotoxic activities. however, their effects on reactive oxygen species (ros) mediated carcinogenesis are still unclear. in the present study, h-ras-transformed nih3t3 cells were used to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of t. catappa water extract (tce) and punicalagin. in the cell proliferation assay, tce and punicalagin suppressed the proliferation of h-ras-transformed n ...200616242868
hepatoprotective activity of terminalia catappa l. leaves and its two triterpenoids.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the chloroform extract of terminalia catappa l. leaves (tcce) on carbon tetrachloride (ccl(4))-induced acute liver damage and d-galactosamine (d-galn)-induced hepatocyte injury. moreover, the effects of ursolic acid and asiatic acid, two isolated components of tcce, on mitochondria and free radicals were investigated to determine the mechanism underlying the action of tcce on hepatotoxicity. in the acute hepatic damage test, remarkable rises in ...200415525453
inhibitory effect of tcce on ccl4-induced overexpression of il-6 in acute liver injury.terminalia catappa l. leaves have been shown to protect against acute liver injury produced by some hepatotoxicants, but the active components and mechanisms are not clear. this study was designed to characterize the protective effects of the chloroform fraction of the ethanol extract of t. catappa leaves (tcce) against carbon tetrachloride (ccl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice, and analyze the changes in expression level of interleukin-6 (il-6) in the process. it was found that tcce pretreatmen ...200415514851
mechanisms of hepatoprotection of terminalia catappa l. extract on d-galactosamine-induced liver damage.the hepatoprotective effects of the extract of terminalia catappa l. leaves (tce) against d-galactosamine (d-galn)-induced liver injury and the mechanisms underlying its protection were studied. in acute hepatic injury test, it was found that serum alt activity was remarkably increased (3.35-fold) after injection of d-galn in mice. but with oral pretreatment of tce (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg/d) for 7days, change in serum alt was notably reversed. in primary cultured hepatocytes from fetal mice, it wa ...200415481641
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