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exoantigen test for cladosporium bantianum, fonsecaea pedrosoi, and phialophora verrucosa.exoantigens from 10-day-old cultures of 100 isolates of pathogenic and saprophytic dematiaceous fungi were analyzed by the exoantigen test. antisera to cladosporium bantianum atcc 10958, fonsecaea pedrosoi cdc amo-b06, and phialophora verrucosa cdc amo-c12 were prepared in new zealand rabbits immunized with soluble antigens from 1-month-old cultures. absorbed and nonabsorbed antisera and exoantigens from the same organisms were used as reference reagents. serologic reactions were analyzed in ter ...19863084549
the relationship of phialophora verrucosa to phialophora americana.phialophora verrucosa and p. americana, two dematiaceous hyphomycetes, are known to cause chromoblastomycosis. even though most medical mycologists consider p. americana as synonymous with p. verrucosa, others maintain them as two distinct species on the basis that the phialides of p. americana have deeper collarettes than those of p. verrucosa. thirty-two isolates, identified either as p. americana or p. verrucosa, were studied for their morphologic, physiologic, and antigenic characteristics t ...19863084750
potted plants in hospitals as reservoirs of pathogenic fungi.the soils of five potted plants cultivated within a hospital were investigated for the presence of fungal opportunistic pathogens of humans. a total of 16 potentially pathogenic species were isolated, including aspergillus fumigatus at up to 53.5 colony-forming units (cfu) per gram dry soil and scedosporium apiospermum (pseudallescheria boydii) at up to 97.0 cfu/g. other common species included phialophora verrucosa and fusarium solani. scedosporium inflatum, a recently described emerging pathog ...19892671744
physiological characteristics of environmental isolates of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi.a total of 39 environmental isolates of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi (fonsecaea pedrosoi: 14 isolates, phialophora verrucosa: 6, cladosporium carrionii: 9, exophiala jeanselmei: 2, ramichloridium subulatum: 6, cladosporium tenuissimum: 1 and phaeoisaria clematidis: 1) were evaluated for their various physiological characteristics including the ability to produce extracellular enzymes. significant physiological characteristics included the ability of isolates of all the species except c. tenuiss ...19892710157
septal ultrastructure in phialophora pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa and cladosporium carrionii. 19734127193
the frequent isolation of phialophora verrucosa and phialophora pedrosoi from natural sources. 19724640043
chromoblastomycosis.chromoblastomycosis, together with phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma, makes up the disease entities caused by the dematiaceous fungi. most cases of chromoblastomycosis are caused by five genera of fungi: fonsecaea compactum, fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, cladosporium carrionii, and rhino-cladiella aquaspersa. the disease has a cosmopolitan distribution but predominates in rural, agricultural settings. clinically, chromoblastomycosis is hallmarked by verrucous nodules at the site of fun ...19892670367
control of dimorphism in phialophora verrucosa. 19744851175
[a case of chromoblastomycosis due to phialophora verrucosa thaxter, 1915]. 19685735698
[morphologic and physiologic characteristics of costa rica pathogenic fungi (dermatiaceae)].forty one strains of dematiaceous fungi from the mycology collection of the university of costa rica were studied. thirty three were pathogenic (fonsecaea pedrosoi, cladosporium carrionii, xylohypha bantiana, exophiala jeanselmei, rhinocladiella aquaspersa, phialophora verrucosa) and the other eight were contaminants (hormodendrum sp.). morphological studies were done using the slide culture technique. the physiological criteria used were: urease production, gelatin and loeffler media liquefacti ...19911844148
subcutaneous cystic granuloma caused by phialophora verrucosa.a case of subcutaneous cystic granuloma caused by phialophora verrucosa was reported. the patient was 21-year-old japanese female with systemic lupus erythematosus (sle) who had received prolonged steroid therapy. p. verrucosa has occasionally been isolated from patients as one of etiological agents of chromomycosis. there have been, however, no paper published to report an isolation of this fungus from subcutaneous cyst or abscess of a patient. this case is the first report of subcutaneous cyst ...1978732865
imi descriptions of fungi and bacteria no. 1090 phialophora verrucosa. 19911779998
evaluation of skin test for chromoblastomycosis using antigens prepared from culture filtrates of fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, wangiella dermatitidis and exophiala jeanselmei.antigenic substances were prepared from culture filtrates of fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, wangiella dermatitidis and exophiala jeanselmei. these antigenic substances were evaluated for detecting cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity in rats experimentally-infected with f. pedrosoi, p. verrucosa. w. dermatitidis, e. jeanselmei, cladosporium carrionii and fonsecaea compactum and in patients with chromoblastomycosis caused by f. pedrosoi. the f. pedrosoi antigen elicited positive reactio ...19827070478
corneal chromomycosis: double infection by phialophora verrucosa (medlar) and cladosporium cladosporioides (frescenius).phialophora verrucosa and cladosporium cladosporioides were isolated from a corneal ulcer. the lesion had been previously treated with antivirals and steroids and did not respond to pimaricin therapy or conjunctival flap. a penetrating keratoplasty was performed with good functional and optical results. chromomycosis of the cornea is an unusual infection. this is the second case of phialophora in florida and the first case of cladosporium infection.19761108737
auricular chromomycosis.chromomycosis, a relatively uncommon infection caused by a variety of dematiaceous fungi, eg, phialophora verrucosa, fonsecaea pedrosoi, fonsecaea compacta, cladosporium carrionii, rhinocladiella aquaspersa, and cladophialophora ajelloi, reflects a spectrum of disease ranging from an usually localized cutaneous form to rare visceral involvement. the cutaneous form has been reported to involve almost any site on the body surface. however, the lesions are usually confined to the extremities, face, ...19836849572
use of the polymerase chain reaction to identify coding sequences for chitin synthase isozymes in phialophora verrucosa.based on conserved amino-acid regions predicted for the chitin synthases (chs) of saccharomyces cerevisiae, two different primer sets were synthesized and used in polymerase chain reactions (pcrs) to amplify 614-bp and 366-bp sequences from genomic dna of the zoopathogenic fungus phialophora verrucosa. dna-sequencing and southern-blotting analyses of the 614-bp dna amplification products suggested that portions of two distinct p. verrucosa chitin synthase genes (pvchs1, pvchs2), coding for two d ...19957553935
study of the conidial development and cleistothecium-like structure of some strains of fonsecaea pedrosoi. comparison with other close dematiaeae.the production of twenty-seven strains of fonsecaea pedrosoi was studied. the denticulate type (asexual reproduction) showed three morphological variations: medium-size, long and sessile forms. these forms can be used to characterize the different strains isolated especially for epidemiological purposes. only one strain (mr 1335) isolated from a chromomycosis case in martinique showed a cleistothecium-like structure. this formation was compared to that observed in phialophora verrucosa, another ...19846538933
characterization of two melanins produced by phialophora verrucosa. 19744211867
[auricular chromoblastomycosis. a case report].it is presented a case of auricular chromoblastomycosis mimicking an eczematous lesions. the authors refer the rarity of this localization. all reported cases of auricular chromoblastomycosis have been caused by fonsecaea pedrosoi but in the present case the etiologic agent was phialophora verrucosa.19947732272
a serological comparison of phialophora verrucosa, fonsecaea pedrosoi and cladosporium carrionii using immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. 19704993154
dematiaceous fungal pathogens isolated from nature.this study was conducted to demonstrate the presence of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi in nature. using hamster and mouse inoculation techniques, 43 isolates of dematiaceous fungi were recovered from 39 samples of woody plant material and soil from the virginia environment. thirteen species were identified and included 4 phialophora spp., 3 cladosporium spp., 2 exophiala spp., sporothrix sp., wangiella dermatitidis, bispora betulina, and scytalidium lignicola. evidence is presented for the first ...19807189579
studies on pathogenic dematiaceous fungi, ii. pathogenicity of fonsecaea pedrosoi and phialophora verrucosa for laboratory mice. 19863796678
use of carbohydrate and nitrate assimilations in the identification of dematiaceous fungi.a total of 61 isolates of dematiaceous fungi, including exophiala jeanselmei, wangiella dermatitidis, fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, and a few isolates of related organisms were evaluated for their ability to assimilate 13 carbohydrates and sodium nitrate. results indicated that patterns of assimilations can facilitate specific identifications when used with microscopic morphologic features. eleven isolates of w. dermatitidis demonstrated negative results for nitrate assimilation, al ...19863709095
phialophora verrucosa infection in an aids patient.phialophora verrucosa is one of several pathogenic dematiaceous fungi associated with chromomycosis and occasionally phaeohyphomycosis. infection appears to be increasing in frequency in both immunocompromised and presumably healthy patients. medical therapy is often difficult, and a wide variety of antifungal agents have been tried with varying degrees of success. we report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) and extensive cutaneous fungal infection due to phialophora verru ...19958531934
studies on pathogenic dematiaceous fungi. 1. isolation from natural sources.two hundred and twenty-six samples of woody materials, vegetable matter and soil were processed by the direct plating and mouse inoculation technique for the isolation of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi. the species of fungi isolated were fonsecaea pedrosoi - 13, cladosporium carrionii - 7 and phialophora verrucosa -4 isolates. the mouse inoculation technique was found to be much better than direct plating for the recovery of these fungi. woody plant materials proved to be a good sample source for ...19863724831
mitochondrial dna analysis of exophiala spinifera.restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) was examined in 36 isolates of exophiala spinifera (8 isolates from brazil, 9 from china, 15 from columbia, 1 from the united states and 2 from venezuela). e. spinifera isolates displayed a high degree of mtdna diversity in rflp patterns and were clustered into six genetically heterogeneous groups (group 1 through group 6). isolates of group 2 including the type strain seemed to have a worldwide distribution. rflp patte ...19958532056
in vitro sensitivity of environmental isolates of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi to azole compounds and a phenylpropyl-morpholine derivative.the in vitro sensitivity (minimum inhibitory concentrations; mics) of 42 environmental isolates of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi to 7 azole compounds, viz. thiabendazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, econazole bifonazole, bay n 7133, bay 1 9139 and phenylpropyl-morpholine derivative, ro14-4767/002 was studied by an agar dilution method using emmon's sabouraud dextrose agar (esda) as the culture medium. the isolates of fonsecaea pedrosoi, cladosporium carrionii, exophiala jeanselmei and ramichloridi ...19873657909
sex hormone effects on phialophora verrucosa in vitro and characterization of progesterone receptors.to determine the effects of sex steroid hormones on the growth of an aetiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis, we studied the dematiaceous fungus phialophora verrucosa. the in vitro growth of this species on culture media containing either progesterone, testosterone or oestradiol at various concentrations was assessed. both progesterone and testosterone inhibited the growth of p. verrucosa, whereas oestradiol did not. in other experiments, fungal cytosolic fractions were obtained and steroid bind ...19958531021
a case of chromoblastomycosis due to phialophora verrucosa responding to treatment with fluconazole.we report the case of a 40-year-old filippino woman, with a 5-year history of a slowly spreading, painful skin lesion on her left foot. histological examination showed a dermal, granulomatous infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, histiocytes and lymphocytes, with "sclerotic bodies" in the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells. mycological culture revealed the presence of phialophora verrucosa and confirmed the histopathological diagnosis of chromo-blastomycosis. association of surgical curettage of the ...19989649717
phialophora verrucosa-induced subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. fine needle aspiration findings.a 34-year-old woman on immunosuppressive therapy presented with a subcutaneous, cystic lesion on the dorsum of the right foot. cytologic examination of material obtained by fine needle aspiration (fna) revealed a mixture of acute and granulomatous inflammation as well as brown-pigmented fungi in the form of budding yeast, pseudohyphae and septate hyphae. the findings suggested subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis (phaeomycotic cyst). culture grew phialophora verrucosa. the cytologic, histologic and cu ...19863461651
specific oligonucleotide primers for identification of cladophialophora carrionii, a causative agent of chromoblastomycosis.cladophialophora carrionii is one of the relatively common causative agents of chromoblastomycosis. we have developed the specific oligonucleotide primer set based on the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal dna for the rapid identification of this pathogen. pcr with this primer set amplified a 362-bp amplicon from c. carrionii strains. from other relevant dematiaceous species, including medically important dematiaceous fungi, such as fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, and ex ...200414715791
lipases of fonsecaea pedrosoi and phialophora verrucosa.lipase activity was demonstrable titrimetrically in the culture filtrates of fonsecaea pedrosoi and phialophora verrucosa on the 6th day of incubation reaching a peak on the 15th and 12th days respectively for the two fungi. purified lipases of f. pedrosoi and p. verrucosa, with specific activities of 36.0 and 39.4 fold increase respectively, were obtained by cold acetone extraction, gel filtration followed by ion exchange chromatography. the lipases had the same optimum ph (5.5) and temperature ...19892729958
partial chemical characterization of antigenic preparations of chromoblastomycosis agents.antigenic preparations (saline, methylic, metabolic and exoantigens) of four agents of chromoblastomycosis, fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, cladophialophora (cladosporium) carrionii and rhinocladiella aquaspersa were obtained. partial chemical characterization of these antigenic preparations was obtained by determination of the levels of total lipids, protein, and carbohydrates, and identification of the main sterols and carbohydrates. methylic antigens presented the highest lipid con ...199910671287
multifocal subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa.an otherwise healthy 85-year-old woman presented with purulent multifocal subcutaneous nodules on the dorsal side of the right forearm and hand. histopathologic examination of the biopsied specimen showed a subcutaneous granuloma with central abscess and necrosis, consistent with phaeomycotic cyst. faint brown septate hyphae and moniliform fungal elements were found in the granuloma. culture of the discharge grew phialophora verrucosa. this fungus has rarely been reported as a pathogen of subcut ...200312521375
in vitro activity of anidulafungin against selected clinically important mold isolates.in this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of anidulafungin against selected mold isolates. anidulafungin showed promising activity against bipolaris spicifera, exophiala jeanselmei, fonsecaea pedrosoi, madurella mycetomatis, penicillium marneffei, phialophora verrucosa, pseudallescheria boydii, sporothrix schenckii, and wangiella dermatitidis.200415105159
case report. phaeohyphomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa developed in a patient with non-hiv acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.a 53-year-old woman had asymptomatic multiple nodules on her gluteal region for 6 months. she had a history of systemic corticosteroid treatment for evans' syndrome. recently she had developed an immunodeficiency condition with cd4+ cell depletion without an hiv infection and a normal serum gamma globulin level. a smear from the purulent exudate of the nodules revealed many brown-coloured hyphae, spores and few large dark-brown cells. a short, hairy, dark-brown coloured colony was cultivated on ...200211856438
[cladosporium carrionii and phialophora verrucosa; induction of the parasitic form in culture]. 19902135559
dematiaceous fungal pathogens: analysis of ribosomal dna gene polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.restriction fragment length polymorphisms (rflp) of ribosomal gene small subunit (ssu rdna) and internal transcribed spacer (its) regions was examined in 12 isolates of dematiaceous agents of chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. the amplicon length of the fragment its1-its4, comprising the 5.8 rdna and its1-its2 spacers, ranged in size from 620 to 690 bp. this result indicated a polymorphism of size in this region. additionally the rflp profiles showed a high degree of inter- and intra-spe ...199910680436
calcium regulates in vitro dimorphism in chromoblastomycotic fungi.cladosporium carrionii, fonsecaea pedrosoi and phialophora verrucosa, the three most important agents of chromoblastomycosis, produced large numbers of sclerotic bodies at 25 degrees c, and greater numbers at 37 degrees c, after inoculation into a defined ph 2.5 medium containing 0.1 mmol l-1 ca2+. higher concentrations of ca2+ reversed this tendency and promoted maintenance of hyphal growth. addition of the ca2+ chelator egta to the same medium buffered at ph 6.5 also induced sclerotic bodies, ...19938264711
phaeohyphomycotic ulcer caused by phialophora verrucosa: successful treatment with itraconazole.we report the first well documented case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic infection caused by phialophora verrucosa in india. examination of the biopsied tissue from an ulcerating lesion on the shin of the left leg of a 45-year-old woman from bombay, india, showed numerous dematiaceous, septate, branching hyphal elements and thick-walled cells characteristic of phaeohyphomycosis. cultures of the scrapings from the lesion and of the biopsied tissue yielded a pigmented fungus that was identified ...19989515684
chromoblastomycosis: a review of 100 cases in the state of rio grande do sul, brazil.if not diagnosed earlier, chromoblastomycosis has a chronic evolutional course that may cause several problems, such as difficulty in managing therapy because of the recrudescent character of the disease, potential association with the growth of epidermoid carcinoma in affected regions, and poor quality of life and work incapacity to the patient. although infrequent, new cases are reported in the state of rio grande do sul every year, ratifying the necessity for further studies on this disease.200111260530
phaeomycotic cyst (chromoblastomycosis) of the neck.an unusual fungal infection of the neck caused by phialophora verrucosa (chromoblastomycosis) is presented. the patient acquired this fungus by cutting his chin on a wooden floor. surgical and medical therapy of this unusual disease is discussed.19883408571
phialophora verrucosa: a new cause of mycetoma.a 29-year-old thai woman had draining sinus tracts, tumefaction, and granules on the plantar aspect of the foot. phialophora verrucosa was isolated from the lesion. p. verrucosa is a major agent of chromoblastomycosis, which is known to rarely cause subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. this dematiaceous fungus has not been previously reported to cause mycetoma. this case illustrates the clinical spectrum of disease of this fungus. the salient features of mycetoma and management options are presented.19957829731
a case of polymicrobial keratitis violating an intact lens capsule.to report a case of polymicrobial keratitis resistant to topical and intraocular antibiotics with recurrence after penetrating keratoplasty.200818812771
phaeohyphomycosis by phialophora verrucosa: first european case in a cat. 200516024677
mitochondrial dna analysis of phialophora verrucosa.restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) was examined in 32 isolates of phialophora verrucosa (eight isolates from japan, 10 from china, four from the usa, six from venezuela and four from colombia) and in three of phialophora americana using five restriction enzymes. p. verrucosa isolates were divided into 10 mtdna types based on rflp patterns. phylogeny constructed on sequence divergence of mtdna indicated that p. verrucosa is a single species and isolates a ...19979470416
lipolytic activity of chromoblastomycosis agents measured by infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods.the lipase activity of nine strains of six chromoblastomycosis agents (fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, cladophialophora bantianum, cladophialophora carrionii, rhinocladiela aquaspersa and exophiala jeanselmei) grown on solid medium was investigated using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hierarchical clustering analysis. the data was quantified by p-nitrophenyl palmitate assay using partial least squares (pls) regression. these methods allowed the correlation of six genera a ...200919101839
specific oligonucleotide primers for identification of hortaea werneckii, a causative agent of tinea nigra.hortaea werneckii, a black yeast-like hyphomycete that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical environments, can cause superficial mycotic infection in humans. this fungus was recently isolated from superficial infectious lesions of a guinea pig in japan. an oligonucleotide primer set specific for hortaea werneckii was designed on the basis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal dna (rdna). polymerase chain reaction (pcr) with this primer set yielded a 306 bp pcr a ...200312812723
application of fluorescent-antibody procedures to the study of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi.ii. serological relationships of the genus fonsecaea.gordon, morris a. (new york state department of health, albany), and yousef al-doory. application of fluorescent-antibody procedures to the study of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi. ii. serological relationships of the genus fonsecaea. j. bacteriol. 89:551-556. 1965.-the staining spectra of fluorescein-labeled antiglobulins to fonsecaea compactum, f. dermatitidis, and f. pedrosoi were determined with respect to 71 strains of morphologically related and 21 miscellaneous molds (including so-called " ...196514273627
environmental isolation of black yeast-like fungi involved in human infection.the present study focuses on potential agents of chromoblastomycosis and other endemic diseases in the state of paraná, southern brazil. using a highly selective protocol for chaetothyrialean black yeasts and relatives, environmental samples from the living area of symptomatic patients were analysed. additional strains were isolated from creosote-treated wood and hydrocarbon-polluted environments, as such polluted sites have been supposed to enhance black yeast prevalence. isolates showed morpho ...200819287536
a cutaneous infection caused by a new fungus, phialophora verrucosa, with a study of the fungus. 191519972251
identification of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and related taxa based on large subunit ribosomal dna d1/d2 domain sequence analysis.the nucleotide sequences of the d1/d2 domains of large subunit (26s) ribosomal dna for 76 strains of 46 species of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and related taxa were determined. intra-species sequence diversity of medically important dematiaceous fungi including phialophora verrucosa, fonsecaea pedrosoi, fonsecaea compacta, cladophialophora carrionii, cladophialophora bantiana, exophiala dermatitidis, exophiala jeanselmei, exophiala spinifera, exophiala moniliae, and hortaea werneckii were extr ...200414734185
a case of chromoblastomycosis with an unusual clinical manifestation caused by phialophora verrucosa on an unexposed area: treatment with a combination of amphotericin b and 5-flucytosine.chromoblastomycosis is a cutaneous and subcutaneous mycotic disease caused by the dematiaceous (black) fungi. five species of fungi are known generally to be the cause: fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, cladosporium carrionii, f. compacta and rhinocladiella cerphilum. in infected tissue they can appear as pigmented sclerotic bodies, commonly called 'copper pennies', which are pathognomonic of chromoblastomycosis. the infection usually occurs through traumatic skin inoculation, with the ...200515787829
treatment of chromoblastomycosis with terbinafine: experience with four cases.chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis that occurs more frequently in tropical and subtropical areas and is caused by a group of dematiaceous fungi. it is a difficult-to-treat mycosis with low cure rates and a high rate of relapses.200515897168
[chronic fistula of the forefoot in a moroccan man: bone chromomycosis due to phialophora verrucosa].chromomycosis is a chronic infection caused by various fungi. bone involvement is exceptional. the purpose of this report is to describe a case of chromoblastomycosis localized on the tarsal bone in a 27-year-old man from southern morocco. the patient was a former barefoot long-distance runner. he presented with thickening of the skin with a cutaneous fistula on the left forefoot. these manifestations had been ongoing for 2 years. imaging demonstrated scattered lytic lesions involving tarsal bon ...201020486359
phagocytosis, production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages in the presence of dematiaceous [correction of dematiaceus] fungi that cause chromoblastomycosis.chromoblastomycosis is characterized by the slow development of polymorphic skin lesions (nodules, verrucas, tumores, plaques and scar tissue). inside the host, infectious propagules adhere to epithelial cells and differentiate into sclerotic forms, which effectively resist destruction by host effector cells and allow onset of chronic disease. a cellular immune response against fungi is essential to control infection. amongst the cells of the immune system, macrophages play the most important ro ...200616970678
phialophora verrucosa infection in a bmt patient.phialophora is a dematiaceous fungus isolated from soil and wood. human infections including chromoblastomycosis, mycotic keratitis, cutaneous infections, and prosthetic valve endocarditis have been reported. we report a case of fatal hemorrhage due to phialophora verrucosa in a patient with prolonged neutropenia undergoing autologous bone marrow transplant (bmt) for acute myelogenous leukemia (aml). bacterial infections complicated induction and consolidation chemotherapies. liposomal amphoteri ...19979384484
feline phaeohyphomycosis: treatment with ketaconazole and 5-fluorocytosine.two cats with phaeohyphomycosis, one infected with phialophora verrucosa and the other with exophiala jeanselmei, were treated with ketaconazole alone and in combination with 5-fluorocytosine after recurrence of the infections following surgical excision. the drugs were given orally at various doses and for various lengths of time, but were ineffective. hepatocellular damage occurred in one cat.198417422372
chromoblastomycosis--a clinical and mycological study of 71 cases from sri lanka.chromoblastomycosis, a well-documented chronic fungal infection, represents a specific clinical entity with typical warty cutaneous nodules and a worldwide distribution. although more prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions, only a few reports are available from sri lanka or from asia. five etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis have been recognized worldwide. of these the majority of infections have been caused by fonsecaea pedrosoi. during the period from 1952 to 1962, only twelve cultu ...19979368408
[a case of chromomycosis caused by fonsecaea pedrosoi presenting as a small plaque on the left upper arm: a review of reported cases of dematiaceous fungal infection in japan].we report a case of a 67-year-old woman with chromomycosis on the left upper arm. the plaque was a very small, erythematous and scaly lesion with a diameter of 1.5 cm. fonsecaea pedrosoi was isolated as the causal fungus, and a number of phialophora type conidia, the formation of which is considered rare, were observed. treatment involved surgical excision of the lesion with a 5 mm margin. follow up three years later revealed no recurrence. in japan, 536 patients with chromomycosis were reported ...200717502843
invasive chromoblastomycosis and sinusitis due to phialophora verrucosa in a child from northern africa.we report on a severe, verrucous facial mycosis and sinusitis in a 12-year-old libyan girl. her disease started with verrucous, hyperkeratotic plaques and subcutaneous violet nodules of unknown origin on her face and upper extremities. despite topical antimycotic therapy she needed in-hospital treatment because of severely progressive tumorous cutaneous and nasal lesions. microscopic examination of scale samples taken from the upper extremities and the face revealed brown, thick-walled fungal el ...200516262887
feline cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa.a cutaneous granuloma which developed on the muzzle of a nine year old cat was shown by histopathology to have been caused by a dematiaceous fungus which was cultured and identified as phialophora verrucosa.198217422109
in vitro activities of nine antifungal drugs and their combinations against phialophora verrucosa.the in vitro activities of nine antifungal drugs and their combinations against 31 clinical and 15 environmental phialophora verrucosa strains were tested. the mic90/90% minimum effective concentration (mic/mec90) values (μg/ml) across all strains were as follows: for terbinafine, 0.25; for posaconazole, 0.5; for voriconazole, 1; for itraconazole, 2; for amphotericin b, 4; for caspofungin and micafungin, 16; and for fluconazole and flucytosine, 64. the highest synergy was shown by the combinatio ...201424982078
[generalized chromomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa].chromomycosis is a chronic fungal skin infection that generally presents in the form of verrucous or vegetative lesions on uncovered areas of skin. we report an unusual case of generalised chromomycosis due to phialophora verrucosa.201323466152
generalized subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa: report of a case and review of literature.we report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to phialophora verrucosa in a 64-year-old chinese farmer suffering from cd4+ lymphopenia. he presented with diffuse and infiltrated plaques involving the entire face including the eyes, neck, occiput, and extending to the dorsal regions of his torso. the patient is notable for the discrete multifocal nature of the illness in the absence of disseminated infection and rarity of p. verrucosa as a cause of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis.201323392822
phialophora verrucosa as a cause of deep infection following total knee arthroplasty.deep joint infection is one of the most feared complications following total joint replacement. prompt diagnosis and treatment with 2-staged revision is currently the gold standard for treatment. we report a case of a chronic infection following total knee replacement caused by phialophora verrucosa, a form of dematiaceous fungus. the patient was treated with an antibiotic spacer and a course of oral anti-fungal agents. to our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of p verrucosa as a caus ...201324340322
endophthalmitis caused by phialophora verrucosa: a case report and literature review of phialophora ocular infections. 201222296814
secretion of five extracellular enzymes by strains of chromoblastomycosis agents.the gelatinase, urease, lipase, phospholipase and dnase activities of 11 chromoblastomycosis agents constituted by strains of fonsecaea pedrosoi, f. compacta, phialophora verrucosa, cladosporium carrionii, cladophialophora bantiana and exophiala jeanselmei were analyzed and compared. all strains presented urease, gelatinase and lipase activity. phospholipase activity was detected only on five of six strains of f. pedrosoi. dnase activity was not detected on the strains studied. our results indic ...200818949343
in vitro interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole and amphotericin b against fungi causing chromoblastomycosis in china.the combined effects of terbinafine with itraconazole and amphotericin b against cladophialophora carrionii, phialophora verrucosa and fonsecaea pedrosoi were evaluated in vitro by the checker-board method and expressed as a fractional inhibitory concentration (fic) index. synergy was observed with the combination of terbinafine and itraconazole against one isolate of c. carrionii and no antagonism was observed. when amphotericin b was combined with terbinafine or itraconazole, no synergy or ant ...200818608889
1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione-based compounds are effective in disturbing crucial physiological events of phialophora verrucosa.phialophora verrucosa is a dematiaceous fungus able to cause chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma. all these fungal diseases are extremely difficult to treat and often refractory to the current therapeutic approaches. therefore, there is an urgent necessity to develop new antifungal agents to combat these mycoses. in this context, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione) and its metal-based derivatives [ag(phendione)2]c ...201728194139
impairment of immune response against dematiaceous fungi in card9 knockout mice.dematiaceous fungi are a large group of pathogens that can cause a wide range of diseases in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. based on our previous finding of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (card9) mutations in patients with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa (p. verrucosa), we further investigated the exact role of card9 in the pathogenesis of phaeohyphomycosis using card9 knockout (card9 ko) mice. we showed that card9 ko mice are pr ...201627421992
chromoblastomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa on the hand. 201526066414
attritional extensor tendon rupture in a patient with phialophora verrucosa tenosynovitis: case report.deep tissue fungal infections of the hand are exceedingly uncommon. we present a case of fungal tenosynovitis caused by phialophora verrucosa that led to extensor tendon rupture in a patient who was on chronic immunosuppressive therapy. indolent fungal cysts can elude clinical diagnosis until excision is performed with definitive pathologic examination. in immunocompromised patients, antifungal therapy may be warranted after cyst excision even in the absence of acute infection to prevent subsequ ...201526034457
card9 deficiencies linked to impaired neutrophil functions against phialophora verrucosa.caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (card9) is an adaptor molecule that is critical for nf-κb activation and forms a complex with b cell lymphoma 10 and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 that mediates c-type lectin receptors (clrs)-triggered intracellular signaling during antifungal immunity. however, the role of card9 in the host defense against phialophora verrucosa (p. verrucosa) infection remains to be elucidated. in the present study, we investigate ...201525790941
1,10-phenanthroline inhibits the metallopeptidase secreted by phialophora verrucosa and modulates its growth, morphology and differentiation.phialophora verrucosa is one of the etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis, a fungal infection that affects cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. this disease is chronic, recurrent and difficult to treat. several studies have shown that secreted peptidases by fungi are associated with important pathophysiological processes. herein, we have identified and partially characterized the peptidase activity secreted by p. verrucosa conidial cells. using human serum albumin as substrate, the best hydroly ...201525502596
comparative analysis of extracellular matrix and cellular carbohydrate expression in the sporotrichosis and chromoblastomycosis.this work was based on the analysis of digital images of histochemical profile from subcutaneous lesions in sporotrichosis (st) and chromoblastomycosis (cm) patients. an additional aim was the detection of carbohydrate expression using lectin histochemical analysis of the different carbohydrates in the fungal cell wall from four different species (sporothrix schenckii, fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, and cladophialophora carrionii) associated with diseases mentioned earlier. slides fr ...201121365320
endophthalmitis caused by phialophora verrucosa and streptococcus intermedius: a case report.the most common pathogenic germs of mycotic endophthalmitis are candida, fusarium and aspergillus fumigatus. as a dematiaceous fungus, phialophora verrucosa (medlar, 1915) has not been reported to cause endophthalmitis. herein, we report a case of endophthalmitis induced by p. verrucosa and streptococcus intermedius.201020807026
recalcitrant primary subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to phialophora verrucosa.phialophora verrucosa has rarely been reported for causing phaeohyphomycosis, which tends to occur in immunocompromised individuals. the case of primary subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to p. verrucosa in an otherwise healthy chinese female is presented. the girl presented with asymptomatic skin lesions when she was only 16 year old. histological examinations revealed multiple dematiceous hyphael elements in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. fungal cultures were identified as p. verrucosa r ...201223264134
chromoblastomycosis.chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. the infection usually results from a traumatic injury and inoculation of microorganism from a specific group of dematiaceous fungi (usually fonsecaea pedrosoi, phialophora verrucosa, cladophialophora carrionii). in the tissues fungi produce characteristic sclerotic cells or muriform cells. dermal lesions can range from small nodules to large papillary-like eruptions. the disease has been described worldwide bu ...201425395928
inherited card9 deficiency in 2 unrelated patients with invasive exophiala infection.exophiala species are mostly responsible for skin infections. invasive exophiala dermatitidis disease is a rare and frequently fatal infection, with 42 cases reported. about half of these cases had no known risk factors. similarly, invasive exophiala spinifera disease is extremely rare, with only 3 cases reported, all in patients with no known immunodeficiency. autosomal recessive card9 deficiency has recently been reported in otherwise healthy patients with severe fungal diseases caused by cand ...201525057046
in vitro susceptibility of chromoblastomycosis agents to five antifungal drugs and to the combination of terbinafine and amphotericin b.chromoblastomycosis is a chronic mycosis that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by several genera of dematiaceous fungi. there is not a treatment of choice. thus, tools that help guide clinical practice are fundamental. in this sense, antifungal activity tests in vitro could be useful. however, trials with chromoblastomycosis agents are scarce. the aim of this study was to evaluate both the in vitro susceptibility of 60 chromoblastomycosis agents to five antifungals and the combin ...201423895037
occurrence and characteristics of group 1 introns found at three different positions within the 28s ribosomal rna gene of the dematiaceous phialophora verrucosa: phylogenetic and secondary structural implications.abstract: background: group 1 introns (ribozymes) are among the most ancient and have the broadest phylogenetic distribution among the known self-splicing ribozymes. fungi are known to be rich in rdna group 1 introns. in the present study, five sequences of the 28s ribosomal rna gene (rdna) regions of pathogenic dematiaceous phialophora verrucosa were analyzed using pcr by site-specific primers and were found to have three insertions, termed intron-f, g and h, at three positions of the gene. we ...201121548984
chronic and invasive fungal infections in a family with card9 deficiency.chronic mucocutaneous or invasive fungal infections are generally the result of primary or secondary immune dysfunction. patients with autosomal recessive card9 mutations are also predisposed to recurrent mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections with candida spp., dermatophytes (e.g., trichophyton spp.) and phaeohyphomycetes (exophiala spp., phialophora verrucosa). we study a consanguineous family of turkish origin in which three members present with distinct clinical phenotypes of chronic m ...201626961233
biodiversity and human-pathogenicity of phialophora verrucosa and relatives in chaetothyriales.phialophora as defined by its type species p. verrucosa is a genus of chaetothyriales, and a member of the group known as 'black yeasts and relatives'. phialophora verrucosa has been reported from mutilating human infections such as chromoblastomycosis, disseminated phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma, while morphologically similar fungi are rather commonly isolated from the environment. phenotypes are insufficient for correct species identification, and molecular data have revealed significant genet ...201729151624
impaired specific anti-fungal immunity in card9-deficient patients with phaeohyphomycosis.phaeohyphomycosis is a group of severe infections caused by dematiaceous fungi. we previously identified card9 deficiencies in four chinese patients with phaeohyphomycosis caused by phialophora verrucosa. in this study, we sought to identify the genetic and immunological mechanisms underlying rare dematiaceous fungal infections in three otherwise healthy patients with phaeohyphomycosis caused by exophiala spinifera, ochroconis musae, and corynespora cassiicola. card9 sequencing in these patients ...201729080677
[clinical features and treatments of retrocorneal fungal infection].objective: to evaluate the clinical features of retrocorneal fungal infection and the therapeutic effects. methods: this was a retrospective, noncomparative study of nine patients with retrocorneal fungal infection and an intact corneal epithelium treated at qingdao eye hospital. the history, clinical features, diagnostic methods, pathogens and therapeutic effects were analyzed. results: five patients had a history of trauma by plant, two had a non-plant injury, and two had unidentified reasons. ...201729050189
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