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serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
susceptibility of a fetal tongue cell line derived from bighorn sheep to five serotypes of bluetongue virus and its potential for the isolation of viruses.a cell line (bhfte) was derived from a tongue explant of a bighorn sheep fetus (ovis canadensis nelsoni). the cells have been maintained through 23 serial passages, and the modal number of chromosomes was calculated to be 55. monolayer cultures were shown to be susceptible to various viruses, including bluetongue virus (btv). of 5 btv serotypes (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) tested, each produced a cytopathic effect (cpe) on initial passage at 33 c. a field isolate (serotype 10) of btv from a black-tai ...19892562198
eimeria saudiensis n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in saudi arabia.oocysts of eimeria saudiensis n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) are described from the feces of the arabian oryx, oryx leucoryx, from the riyadh zoo, saudi arabia. the oocysts were ellipsoidal or slightly ovoid, 31.2 x 24.5 (24.3-36.5 x 20.0-27.6) micron with a bilayered wall about 1.7 micron thick. the micropyle was covered by a dome-shaped cap. the oocyst residuum was absent, but tiny polar granules were present. the sporocysts were elongate ovoid, 14.3 x 7.2 (11.5-18.5 x 6.0-9.0) micron, had a ...19883199335
antibody prevalence of toxoplasmosis in arabian gazelles and oryx in saudi arabia.we determined the antibody prevalence of toxoplasmosis (toxoplasma gondii infections) in antelopes in saudi arabia. serum samples from 324 gazella subgutturosa marica, 202 gazella gazella, 70 gazella dorcas, and 12 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in 13(4.0%) g. subgutturosa marica, 12(5.9%) g. gazella, 3(4.3%) g. dorcas, and in none of the arabian oryx sampled. more adult gazelles were seropositive than juvenil ...19947760490
an outbreak of tuberculosis in a captive herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): management.an outbreak of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis in a herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) was managed by sanitary and medical measures. the sanitary measures included the isolation of infected animals, the monitoring of animals with a range of diagnostic tests and the hand-rearing of the progeny of the infected herd. all the infected oryx were treated with a mixture of isoniazid at 10 mg/kg bodyweight, ethambutol hydrochloride at 15 mg/kg bodyweight and rifampicin at 10 mg/kg bodyweight a ...19948160330
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, persian onager, przewalski's wild horse, malayan sun bear, asian elephant, east african river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. it was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin ...19938408784
tear production in three captive wild herbivores in israel.the schirmer tear test (stt) i was performed to evaluate tear production in 12 captive nubian ibex (capra ibex nubiana), 10 captive burchell's zebras (equus burchelli) and five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) at the tel-aviv ramat-gan zoological center (israel). mean (+/- standard deviation) stt values were 13.2 +/- 5.1 mm/min in the ibex, 23.4 +/- 3.4 mm/min in the zebra and 12.7 +/- 4.8 mm/min in the oryx. there were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, or side of the eye. there were no ...199910073364
heterothermy and the water economy of free-living arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).to test the idea that large, free-living, desert ungulates use heterothermy to reduce water loss, we measured core body temperature (t(b)) of six free-ranging, adult arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) during 2 years in the arid desert of west-central saudi arabia. we report the first case of heterothermy in a free-living ruminant in a desert environment: t(b) varied by 4.1+/-1.7 degrees c day(-1) during summer (june to september) and by 1.5+/-0.6 degrees c day (-1) during winter (november to march). o ...200312654886
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants.parasite control in wild ruminants is based mainly on anthelmintics. the objective of the present study was to evaluate three parasite control programs in seven herds of captive wild ruminants in 3 consecutive years. in the first year, a biannual spring-summer treatment regime with fenbendazole at 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 3 days was applied. the next year, an early-season treatment program with three administrations of fenbendazole at the same dosage at 3-wk intervals was used. in the thir ...200617312807
corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and corynebacterium renale isolated from two arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). 200818587065
temporal assessment of seroconversion in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).ten male arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were vaccinated with a commercially available standard aqueous foot-and-mouth-disease vaccine containing aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and their antibody titres against serotypes o and a were measured using solid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test. mean elisa antibody titres greater than 1.45 log(10) were recorded for serotype a, but low elisa titres were recorded for serotype 0; low titres were recorded by vnt for both serotypes.200819074789
bluetongue virus in oryx antelope (oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in croatia.bluetongue (bt) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. insect species of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (btv) to susceptible hosts. the infection is present in the mediterranean region. recently, it has also been reported in central, western, and northern europe where btv‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. in the meantime, btv‑14 has appeared in the north‑eastern part of eur ...201526129665
infection of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) by oryx bacillus, a rare member of the antelope clade of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species cause tuberculosis disease in animals and humans. although they share 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level, several host-adapted ecotypes of the tubercule bacilli have been identified. in the wildlife setting, probably the most well-known member of this complex is mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. the recently described oryx bacillus is an extremely rare slow-growing member of the antelope clade of the m. tuberculosis ...201223060486
comparisons among selected neonatal biomedical parameters of four species of semi-free ranging hippotragini: addax (addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (hippotragus niger).basic biomedical data from 164 neonates of four species of the tribe hippotragini, addax (addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (hippotragus niger), were compared at one zoological institution over a 9-year period. measured biomedical parameters included body weight, temperature, pulse and respiratory rates, packed cell volume (pcv), total plasma protein, glucose, igg assessment via zinc sulfate turbidity, and white blood cell ...200111319780
selective brain cooling in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): a physiological mechanism for coping with aridity?selective brain cooling is a thermoregulatory effector proposed to conserve body water and, as such, may help artiodactyls cope with aridity. we measured brain and carotid blood temperature, using implanted data loggers, in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in the desert of saudi arabia. on average, brain temperature was 0.24±0.05°c lower than carotid blood temperature for four oryx in april. selective brain cooling was enhanced in our arabian oryx compared with another species from the same gen ...201222899527
estimating inbreeding rates in natural populations: addressing the problem of incomplete pedigrees.understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. however, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. we present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. the approach exploits knowledge of pedigree configurations that lead to inbreeding coefficients of f = 0.25 and f = 0.125, allowing for quantification of pr(i ...201728398480
melengestrol acetate implant contraception in addax (addax nasomaculatus) and arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).melengestrol acetate (mga) implants were used for contraception in three addax and three arabian oryx females housed at the saint louis zoo. serum estradiol and progesterone or fecal estrogen and progestin analysis and ultrasonography of reproductive tracts were used for monitoring changes before, during, and after mga treatment. follicular development and irregular uterine fluid accumulation were detected in all females during mga treatment. although housed with an intact male for all or most o ...200719360582
bayesian, maximum parsimony and upgma models for inferring the phylogenies of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.this investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16s rrna, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial dna using three different computational models including bayesian (ba), maximum parsimony (mp) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (upgma). the respective nucleotide sequences of three oryx species (oryx leucoryx, oryx dammah and oryx gazella) and an out-group (addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to ba, ...200819204824
assessment of seroconversion to a peste des petits ruminants virus live vaccine in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). 201324277919
fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. as ccpp has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. the mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence ...201425069622
xy male pseudohermaphroditism in a captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).a 2-yr-old arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) was presented for evaluation of abnormal genitalia and infantile behavior. the oryx had a penis and a scrotum, but testes were not palpable within the scrotum or inguinal canal. the total serum testosterone for the individual was lower than in age-matched males of the same species. surgical exploration showed markedly hypoplastic intra-abdominal gonads, which demonstrated both testicular and uterine tissue on histologic examination. after karyotype analysi ...200517312771
field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.the efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (gazella leptoceros), eight soay sheep (ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), six red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 nelson's elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. the efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count r ...200516272545
a 12-month survey of the gastro-intestinal helminths of antelopes, gazelles and giraffids kept at two zoos in belgium.faecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes of 107 zoo ruminants were monitored at fortnightly intervals for 1 year. the ruminants in this study were kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites of the royal zoological society of antwerp, the antwerp zoo and the animal park planckendael. artiodactylids involved were arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), bongos (tragelaphus euryceros isaaci), sitatungas (trage ...200415710531
estimating the prevalence of inbreeding from incomplete pedigrees.a previous review of inbreeding in natural populations suggested that close inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25) is generally rare in wild birds and mammals. however, the review did not assess rates of moderate inbreeding (f = 0.125), which may make a rather larger contribution to overall inbreeding in a population. furthermore, previous studies may have underestimated the prevalence of inbreeding in wild populations with incomplete pedigrees. by categorizing inbreeding events by the rel ...200212184822
isolation of brucella melitensis from an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). 200211888113
tonometry in three herbivorous wildlife species.tonometry was performed to estimate intraocular pressure (iop) in 12 nubian ibexes (capra ibex nubiana), 10 grant zebras (equus burchelli ) and five arabian oryxes (oryx leucoryx), using both applanation (tono-pen) and/or indentation (schiotz) tonometers. animals were anesthetized with a mixture of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate. mean (+/- sd) iop in the ibex was 17.95 +/- 4.78 mmhg (24 eyes, indentation tonometry). in the zebra, indentation tonometry (20 eyes) yielded a mean i ...199811397205
sarcoptic mange in wild ruminants in zoological gardens in israel.sarcoptic mange (sarcoptes scabiei) occurred among wild ruminant species in five zoological gardens in israel, from 1984 to 1994. infestation of five ruminants by s. scabiei is reported for the first time: mountain gazelles (gazella gazella), nubian ibexes (capra ibex nubiana), a barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), elands (taurotragus oryx), and an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). all animals in the herds were administered ivermectin orally at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight daily for 3 cons ...19968627937
sequence analysis of the prp protein from two species of antelope susceptible to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.the sequence of the coding regions of the prp genes of the arabian oryx and greater kudu have been determined and compared with the related sheep and bovine prp gene sequences. the oryx gene sequence was found to be very closely related to that of the sheep, encoding just one amino acid difference. the greater kudu gene sequence was found to be more closely related to the bovine, encoding four amino acid differences. the possible influence that the gene sequences have on the transmission of spon ...19938328913
an outbreak of tuberculosis in a captive herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): diagnosis and monitoring.an outbreak of tuberculosis induced a mortality of 25 per cent in a captive herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). the diagnostic screening tests used on live animals included the comparative skin test, indirect and comparative elisa tests and lymphocyte transformation tests. difficulties in the interpretation of these tests stemmed principally from the facts that false negatives and false positives were encountered and that the threshold of positivity was difficult to establish with the elisa te ...19948171771
epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the british isles.since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19 captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections in the british isles. the affected animals have comprised members of the family bovidae: one nyala (tragelaphus angasi), four eland (taurotragus oryx), and six greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (oryx gazella), one arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and members of the family felidae: four ...19947817514
the g- and c-banding karyotype of the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).the chromosomes of the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were investigated using gtg and cbg banding technique. their banding patterns were compared to those of goat and cattle.19892610485
spongiform encephalopathy in an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) and a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros)clinical, pathological and epidemiological details of scrapie-like encephalopathies are described in an arabian oryx and a greater kudu. clinical signs included ataxia and loss of condition with a short, progressive clinical course (22 and three days, respectively). histopathological examination of the brains revealed spongiform encephalopathy characteristic of that observed in scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse). it seems probable that these cases have a common aetiology with bse ...19902264242
hematological and serum chemistry values for arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).blood samples obtained from 73 captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were analyzed for hematology and serum chemistry values. compared with other data from this animal rbc, wbc, bilirubin and asat values are lower, but glucose, urea and uric acid values are higher.19911920676
capripoxvirus disease in an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia.lumpy skin disease caused by a capripoxvirus was observed in a captive-bred female arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) at the national wildlife research center, taif, saudi arabia. clinical signs included severe general depression with fever, anorexia, greater than 1,000 nodular cutaneous lesions and gradual recovery over 2 mo. the virus was found by electron microscopy and paired sera showed an increasing virus neutralization antibody titer against capripoxvirus. a serologic survey of the herd of 90 o ...19921602585
measuring the genetic diversity of arabian oryx using microsatellite markers: implication for captive breeding.arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) is an endangered antelope that is being protected by captive breeding programs. however, the long term success of these programs mainly depends on the prudent use of molecular information for conservation management. we have used an array of seven microsatellite loci to examine the molecular diversity in a representative population of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced arabian oryx. the locus-wise mean observed heterozygosity (0.601) was found to be comparatively highe ...201020558900
seasonal variation in energy expenditure, water flux and food consumption of arabian oryx oryx leucoryx.we report on the energy expenditure and water flux, measured in the laboratory and in the field, of the arabian oryx oryx leucoryx, the largest desert ruminant for which measurements of the field metabolic rate of free-living individuals have been made using doubly labeled water. prior to extirpation of this species in the wild in 1972, conservationists sequestered a number of individuals for captive breeding; in 1989, oryx were reintroduced in saudi arabia into mahazat as-sayd (2244 km(2)). apa ...200111507113
does size matter? comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) and the smaller arabian sand gazelle (gazella subgutturosa marica) in the saudi desert.heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the normal limits of homeothermy, is widely viewed as a key adaptation of arid-adapted ungulates. however, desert ungulates with a small body mass, i.e. a relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio and a small thermal inertia, are theoretically less likely to employ adaptive heterothermy than are larger ungulates. we measured body temperature and activity patterns, using implanted data loggers, in free-ranging arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx, ...201222001971
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