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serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
antibody prevalence of toxoplasmosis in arabian gazelles and oryx in saudi arabia.we determined the antibody prevalence of toxoplasmosis (toxoplasma gondii infections) in antelopes in saudi arabia. serum samples from 324 gazella subgutturosa marica, 202 gazella gazella, 70 gazella dorcas, and 12 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were tested by the indirect hemagglutination test. antibodies to t. gondii were detected in 13(4.0%) g. subgutturosa marica, 12(5.9%) g. gazella, 3(4.3%) g. dorcas, and in none of the arabian oryx sampled. more adult gazelles were seropositive than juvenil ...19947760490
an outbreak of tuberculosis in a captive herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): management.an outbreak of tuberculosis due to mycobacterium bovis in a herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) was managed by sanitary and medical measures. the sanitary measures included the isolation of infected animals, the monitoring of animals with a range of diagnostic tests and the hand-rearing of the progeny of the infected herd. all the infected oryx were treated with a mixture of isoniazid at 10 mg/kg bodyweight, ethambutol hydrochloride at 15 mg/kg bodyweight and rifampicin at 10 mg/kg bodyweight a ...19948160330
subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy, polyneuritis and ganglionitis in aged wild and exotic mammalians.subclinical lumbar polyradiculopathy was present in the intradural dorsal and ventral nerve rootlets of 19 aged individuals of the following wild and exotic mammalian species: woodrat, raccoon, mink, lynx, reindeer, red deer, musk ox, scimitar-horned oryx, arabian oryx, hybrid waterbuck, persian onager, przewalski's wild horse, malayan sun bear, asian elephant, east african river hippopotamus, vervet monkey and rhesus monkey. it was characterized by mild to severe multifocal ballooning of myelin ...19938408784
serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia and the united arab emirates.a total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) distributed in saudi arabia (sa) and the united arab emirates (uae) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), rinderpest virus (rpv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine adenovirus 3 (bav-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disea ...200515827212
field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.the efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (gazella leptoceros), eight soay sheep (ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (capra ibex ibex), six red deer (cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 nelson's elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. the efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count r ...200516272545
xy male pseudohermaphroditism in a captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).a 2-yr-old arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) was presented for evaluation of abnormal genitalia and infantile behavior. the oryx had a penis and a scrotum, but testes were not palpable within the scrotum or inguinal canal. the total serum testosterone for the individual was lower than in age-matched males of the same species. surgical exploration showed markedly hypoplastic intra-abdominal gonads, which demonstrated both testicular and uterine tissue on histologic examination. after karyotype analysi ...200517312771
temporal assessment of seroconversion in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).ten male arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were vaccinated with a commercially available standard aqueous foot-and-mouth-disease vaccine containing aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, and their antibody titres against serotypes o and a were measured using solid-phase blocking elisa and the virus neutralisation test. mean elisa antibody titres greater than 1.45 log(10) were recorded for serotype a, but low elisa titres were recorded for serotype 0; low titres were recorded by vnt for both serotypes.200819074789
corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and corynebacterium renale isolated from two arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). 200818587065
evaluation of three strategic parasite control programs in captive wild ruminants.parasite control in wild ruminants is based mainly on anthelmintics. the objective of the present study was to evaluate three parasite control programs in seven herds of captive wild ruminants in 3 consecutive years. in the first year, a biannual spring-summer treatment regime with fenbendazole at 7.5 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 3 days was applied. the next year, an early-season treatment program with three administrations of fenbendazole at the same dosage at 3-wk intervals was used. in the thir ...200617312807
a 12-month survey of the gastro-intestinal helminths of antelopes, gazelles and giraffids kept at two zoos in belgium.faecal egg count patterns and clinical signs associated with gastro-intestinal (gi) nematodes of 107 zoo ruminants were monitored at fortnightly intervals for 1 year. the ruminants in this study were kept under different husbandry conditions at two sites of the royal zoological society of antwerp, the antwerp zoo and the animal park planckendael. artiodactylids involved were arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), bongos (tragelaphus euryceros isaaci), sitatungas (trage ...200415710531
heterothermy and the water economy of free-living arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).to test the idea that large, free-living, desert ungulates use heterothermy to reduce water loss, we measured core body temperature (t(b)) of six free-ranging, adult arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) during 2 years in the arid desert of west-central saudi arabia. we report the first case of heterothermy in a free-living ruminant in a desert environment: t(b) varied by 4.1+/-1.7 degrees c day(-1) during summer (june to september) and by 1.5+/-0.6 degrees c day (-1) during winter (november to march). o ...200312654886
seasonal variation in energy expenditure, water flux and food consumption of arabian oryx oryx leucoryx.we report on the energy expenditure and water flux, measured in the laboratory and in the field, of the arabian oryx oryx leucoryx, the largest desert ruminant for which measurements of the field metabolic rate of free-living individuals have been made using doubly labeled water. prior to extirpation of this species in the wild in 1972, conservationists sequestered a number of individuals for captive breeding; in 1989, oryx were reintroduced in saudi arabia into mahazat as-sayd (2244 km(2)). apa ...200111507113
tonometry in three herbivorous wildlife species.tonometry was performed to estimate intraocular pressure (iop) in 12 nubian ibexes (capra ibex nubiana), 10 grant zebras (equus burchelli ) and five arabian oryxes (oryx leucoryx), using both applanation (tono-pen) and/or indentation (schiotz) tonometers. animals were anesthetized with a mixture of etorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate. mean (+/- sd) iop in the ibex was 17.95 +/- 4.78 mmhg (24 eyes, indentation tonometry). in the zebra, indentation tonometry (20 eyes) yielded a mean i ...199811397205
tear production in three captive wild herbivores in israel.the schirmer tear test (stt) i was performed to evaluate tear production in 12 captive nubian ibex (capra ibex nubiana), 10 captive burchell's zebras (equus burchelli) and five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) at the tel-aviv ramat-gan zoological center (israel). mean (+/- standard deviation) stt values were 13.2 +/- 5.1 mm/min in the ibex, 23.4 +/- 3.4 mm/min in the zebra and 12.7 +/- 4.8 mm/min in the oryx. there were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, or side of the eye. there were no ...199910073364
sarcoptic mange in wild ruminants in zoological gardens in israel.sarcoptic mange (sarcoptes scabiei) occurred among wild ruminant species in five zoological gardens in israel, from 1984 to 1994. infestation of five ruminants by s. scabiei is reported for the first time: mountain gazelles (gazella gazella), nubian ibexes (capra ibex nubiana), a barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia), elands (taurotragus oryx), and an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). all animals in the herds were administered ivermectin orally at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight daily for 3 cons ...19968627937
sequence analysis of the prp protein from two species of antelope susceptible to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.the sequence of the coding regions of the prp genes of the arabian oryx and greater kudu have been determined and compared with the related sheep and bovine prp gene sequences. the oryx gene sequence was found to be very closely related to that of the sheep, encoding just one amino acid difference. the greater kudu gene sequence was found to be more closely related to the bovine, encoding four amino acid differences. the possible influence that the gene sequences have on the transmission of spon ...19938328913
an outbreak of tuberculosis in a captive herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): diagnosis and monitoring.an outbreak of tuberculosis induced a mortality of 25 per cent in a captive herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). the diagnostic screening tests used on live animals included the comparative skin test, indirect and comparative elisa tests and lymphocyte transformation tests. difficulties in the interpretation of these tests stemmed principally from the facts that false negatives and false positives were encountered and that the threshold of positivity was difficult to establish with the elisa te ...19948171771
epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the british isles.since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19 captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections in the british isles. the affected animals have comprised members of the family bovidae: one nyala (tragelaphus angasi), four eland (taurotragus oryx), and six greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (oryx gazella), one arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), and members of the family felidae: four ...19947817514
eimeria saudiensis n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) from the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in saudi arabia.oocysts of eimeria saudiensis n. sp. (apicomplexa: eimeriidae) are described from the feces of the arabian oryx, oryx leucoryx, from the riyadh zoo, saudi arabia. the oocysts were ellipsoidal or slightly ovoid, 31.2 x 24.5 (24.3-36.5 x 20.0-27.6) micron with a bilayered wall about 1.7 micron thick. the micropyle was covered by a dome-shaped cap. the oocyst residuum was absent, but tiny polar granules were present. the sporocysts were elongate ovoid, 14.3 x 7.2 (11.5-18.5 x 6.0-9.0) micron, had a ...19883199335
the g- and c-banding karyotype of the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).the chromosomes of the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were investigated using gtg and cbg banding technique. their banding patterns were compared to those of goat and cattle.19892610485
spongiform encephalopathy in an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) and a greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros)clinical, pathological and epidemiological details of scrapie-like encephalopathies are described in an arabian oryx and a greater kudu. clinical signs included ataxia and loss of condition with a short, progressive clinical course (22 and three days, respectively). histopathological examination of the brains revealed spongiform encephalopathy characteristic of that observed in scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse). it seems probable that these cases have a common aetiology with bse ...19902264242
hematological and serum chemistry values for arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).blood samples obtained from 73 captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) were analyzed for hematology and serum chemistry values. compared with other data from this animal rbc, wbc, bilirubin and asat values are lower, but glucose, urea and uric acid values are higher.19911920676
capripoxvirus disease in an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from saudi arabia.lumpy skin disease caused by a capripoxvirus was observed in a captive-bred female arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) at the national wildlife research center, taif, saudi arabia. clinical signs included severe general depression with fever, anorexia, greater than 1,000 nodular cutaneous lesions and gradual recovery over 2 mo. the virus was found by electron microscopy and paired sera showed an increasing virus neutralization antibody titer against capripoxvirus. a serologic survey of the herd of 90 o ...19921602585
melengestrol acetate implant contraception in addax (addax nasomaculatus) and arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).melengestrol acetate (mga) implants were used for contraception in three addax and three arabian oryx females housed at the saint louis zoo. serum estradiol and progesterone or fecal estrogen and progestin analysis and ultrasonography of reproductive tracts were used for monitoring changes before, during, and after mga treatment. follicular development and irregular uterine fluid accumulation were detected in all females during mga treatment. although housed with an intact male for all or most o ...200719360582
bayesian, maximum parsimony and upgma models for inferring the phylogenies of antelopes using mitochondrial markers.this investigation was aimed to compare the inference of antelope phylogenies resulting from the 16s rrna, cytochrome-b (cyt-b) and d-loop segments of mitochondrial dna using three different computational models including bayesian (ba), maximum parsimony (mp) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (upgma). the respective nucleotide sequences of three oryx species (oryx leucoryx, oryx dammah and oryx gazella) and an out-group (addax nasomaculatus) were aligned and subjected to ba, ...200819204824
assessment of seroconversion to a peste des petits ruminants virus live vaccine in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). 201324277919
bluetongue virus in oryx antelope (oryx leucoryx) during the quarantine period in 2010 in croatia.bluetongue (bt) is a viral infectious non‑contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants. insect species of the genus culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors that transmit bluetongue virus (btv) to susceptible hosts. the infection is present in the mediterranean region. recently, it has also been reported in central, western, and northern europe where btv‑8 was recognised as the causative serotype. in the meantime, btv‑14 has appeared in the north‑eastern part of eur ...201526129665
measuring the genetic diversity of arabian oryx using microsatellite markers: implication for captive breeding.arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) is an endangered antelope that is being protected by captive breeding programs. however, the long term success of these programs mainly depends on the prudent use of molecular information for conservation management. we have used an array of seven microsatellite loci to examine the molecular diversity in a representative population of 24 captive-bred and reintroduced arabian oryx. the locus-wise mean observed heterozygosity (0.601) was found to be comparatively highe ...201020558900
comparisons among selected neonatal biomedical parameters of four species of semi-free ranging hippotragini: addax (addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (hippotragus niger).basic biomedical data from 164 neonates of four species of the tribe hippotragini, addax (addax nasomaculatus), scimitar-horned oryx (oryx dammah), arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), and sable antelope (hippotragus niger), were compared at one zoological institution over a 9-year period. measured biomedical parameters included body weight, temperature, pulse and respiratory rates, packed cell volume (pcv), total plasma protein, glucose, igg assessment via zinc sulfate turbidity, and white blood cell ...200111319780
isolation of brucella melitensis from an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). 200211888113
temporal niche switching in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): seasonal plasticity of 24h activity patterns in a large desert mammal.the arabian oryx, a moderately large mammal that inhabits a harsh desert environment, has been shown to exhibit seasonal variations in activity and inactivity patterns. here we analyzed the continuous year-round activity patterns of twelve free-roaming arabian oryx under natural conditions from two varying desert environments in saudi arabia using abdominally implanted activity meters. we simultaneously recorded weather parameters at both sites to determine whether environmental factors are resp ...201728431978
characterization of male reproductive anatomy of the endangered arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).reproductive tracts of four male arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from shaumari nature reserve in jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. the external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other dome ...201222444562
fatal transmission of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia to an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp) is an infectious respiratory disease mainly affecting domestic goats. as ccpp has never been documented in grazing antelopes (subfamily hippotraginae), they were not considered susceptible. mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (mccp) was isolated from pleural liquid collected during the necropsy of a severely emaciated arabian oryx with mild nasal discharge. the mccp isolate was then genotyped using a multilocus sequence scheme; the sequence ...201425069622
estimating inbreeding rates in natural populations: addressing the problem of incomplete pedigrees.understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. however, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. we present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. the approach exploits knowledge of pedigree configurations that lead to inbreeding coefficients of f = 0.25 and f = 0.125, allowing for quantification of pr(i ...201728398480
estimating the prevalence of inbreeding from incomplete pedigrees.a previous review of inbreeding in natural populations suggested that close inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25) is generally rare in wild birds and mammals. however, the review did not assess rates of moderate inbreeding (f = 0.125), which may make a rather larger contribution to overall inbreeding in a population. furthermore, previous studies may have underestimated the prevalence of inbreeding in wild populations with incomplete pedigrees. by categorizing inbreeding events by the rel ...200212184822
suspected moxidectin toxicosis in a roan antelope (hippotragus equinus), a sable antelope (hippotragus niger), and an arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) at a semi-free range zoological park.moxidectin is a commonly used lipophilic anthelmintic with activity against a wide range of nematodes. it is labeled for use in cattle by oral, topical, and subcutaneous routes. in semi-free ranging conditions, many anthelmintics are remotely administered intramuscularly due to an inability to administer by other routes without restraint. during 2015-2016, three animals including a roan (hippotragus equinus), sable (hippotragus niger), and arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) treated with moxidectin dev ...202032549573
ultrastructural morphology of lymphocytes of the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).an ultrastructural study on the lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples from 20 healthy adult arabian oryx (oryx leucocoryx) was undertaken. small lymphocytes ranged in size from 2-3.5 µm and exhibited the typical repertoire of organelles found in small lymphocytes of other animals but showed no evidence of azurophilic granules. medium-sized lymphocytes were 5-6.5 µm in diameter and occasionally demonstrated azurophilic granules. microvilli were a common finding of lymphocytes. of particular i ...202032053854
protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement as a threat to iconic protected areas.protected areas (pas) are expected to conserve nature and provide ecosystem services in perpetuity, yet widespread protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (paddd) may compromise these objectives. even iconic protected areas are vulnerable to paddd, although these paddd events are often unrecognized. we identified 23 enacted and proposed paddd events within world natural heritage sites and examined the history, context, and consequences of paddd events in 4 iconic pas (yosemite ...201931192510
cidr estrous synchronization in the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).in jordan, the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) is considered among the most important wild ungulates. the arabian oryx is listed as vulnerable species according to the international union for conservation of nature (iucn). based on author's knowledge, estrus synchronization in the arabian oryx has never been investigated. therefore, the current study aimed to validate a controlled internal drug release (cidr) estrus synchronization technique for the first time in 7 arabian oryx females. prior to ci ...201931009915
seasonal variations in sleep of free-ranging arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) under natural hyperarid conditions.the arabian oryx lives under hyperarid conditions in the arabian desert and exhibits temporal niche switching of activity patterns at a seasonal level. the objective of the current study was to provide a polysomnographic-based study of sleep in free-roaming arabian oryx in their natural habitat to determine whether extreme seasonal climate variations resulted in changes in sleep patterns and physiology associated with the seasonal switching of temporal niches.201829474674
living on the edge: daily, seasonal and annual body temperature patterns of arabian oryx in saudi arabia.heterothermy, the ability to allow body temperature (tb) to fluctuate, has been proposed as an adaptive mechanism that enables large ungulates to cope with the high environmental temperatures and lack of free water experienced in arid environments. by storing heat during the daytime and dissipating it during the night, arid-adapted ungulates may reduce evaporative water loss and conserve water. adaptive heterothermy in large ungulates should be particularly pronounced in hot environments with se ...201728854247
the hairy lizard: heterothermia affects anaesthetic requirements in the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).to study the effect of heterothermia on anaesthetic drug requirements in semi-free ranging arabian oryx and to assess the temperature quotient (q10) of oxygen consumption.201728760591
application of mitochondrial genes sequences for measuring the genetic diversity of arabian oryx.arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) had faced extinction in the wild more than three decades ago and was saved by the prudent efforts of captive breeding programs. a clear understanding of the molecular diversity of contemporary arabian oryx population is important for the long term success of captive breeding and reintroduction of this potentially endangered species. we have sequenced the segments of mitochondrial dna including12s rrna, 16s rrna, cytochrome b (cyt-b) and control region (cr) genes of 2 ...201121498924
[an unusual example of primary weight bearing stability of a limb fracture of the oryx antelope after external fixation with the original ilisarov fixator].this paper reports the stabilization of an open comminuted fracture of the metatarsus of a rare white arabian oryx using an original ilisarov-fixator. the antelope (weighing 75 kg!) walked with its full weight on the stabilized leg immediately after operative treatment, thus demonstrating the high degree of stability of such a system. in our opinion, the ilisarow technique is, in selected cases, an adequate method for stabilizing highly unstable open fractures in veterinary practice.19921480978
robertsonian chromosome polymorphism in the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).a robertsonian translocation was found in a herd of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx). the translocated chromosome, when analyzed by g-banding, seemed to involve the fusion of chromosomes 17 and 19. the results of c-banding suggested that the fused chromosome is dicentric. the translocation was traced back through two generations and occurred in a total of 8 of 62 animals in the herd.19902265561
neurochemical organization and morphology of the sleep related nuclei in the brain of the arabian oryx, oryx leucoryx.the arabian oryx, oryx leucoryx, is a member of the superorder cetartiodactyla and is native to the arabian desert. the desert environment can be considered extreme in which to sleep, as the ranges of temperatures experienced are beyond what most mammals encounter. the current study describes the nuclear organization and neuronal morphology of the systems that have been implicated in sleep control in other mammals for the arabian oryx. the nuclei delineated include those revealed immunohistochem ...201728163217
arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) respond to increased ambient temperatures with a seasonal shift in the timing of their daily inactivity patterns.the arabian oryx inhabits an environment where summer ambient temperatures can exceed 40 °c for extended periods of time. while the oryx uses a suite of adaptations that aid survival, the effects of this extreme environment on inactivity are unknown. to determine how the oryx manages inactivity seasonally, we measured the daily rhythm of body temperature and used fine-grain actigraphy, in 10 animals, to reveal when the animals were inactive in relation to ambient temperature and photoperiod. we ...201627154303
modeling animal landscapes.there is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. the symposium "molecules to migration: pressures of life" at the fourth international conference in africa for comparative physiology and biochemistry, maasai mara national reserve, kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. these principles provide s ...201020670170
kinship-based management strategies for captive breeding programs when pedigrees are unknown or uncertain.zoo-based captive breeding programs typically rely on accurate pedigrees to maintain long-term population genetic diversity and prevent close inbreeding. for many mixed-sex captive populations, it is difficult to assign parentage of offspring with certainty without conducting dna-based parentage analyses. using the demographic parameters of a north american captive population of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), 2 kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies were modeled for their performance in ...201424143031
female reproductive tract anatomy of the endangered arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in jordan.female reproductive anatomy of the arabian oryx is unknown. in this study, reproductive tracts of seven female arabian oryx (aged 2 to 7 years) were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. observations and measurements were obtained in situ from dead animals during necropsy. animals were allocated into two groups: cycling (n = 3; follicles or corpora lutea present) and not-cycling (n = 4; follicles or corpora lutea absent). different reproductive tract segments for each animal in bo ...201223420946
activity re-assignment and microclimate selection of free-living arabian oryx: responses that could minimise the effects of climate change on homeostasis?predicting whether behaviour could buffer the effects of climate change on long-lived mammals requires a better understanding of the long-term behavioural responses of mammals to environmental stress. using biologging, we measured locomotor activity and microclimate selection, over eight months, in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) living free in a saudi arabian desert. the oryx displayed seasonal flexibility in activity patterns, shifting from a continuous 24-h activity pattern with crepuscular ...201223036437
dna barcoding of oryx leucoryx using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene.the massive destruction and deterioration of the habitat of oryx leucoryx and illegal hunting have decimated oryx populations significantly, and now these animals are almost extinct in the wild. molecular analyses can significantly contribute to captive breeding and reintroduction strategies for the conservation of this endangered animal. a representative 32 identical sequences used for species identification through bold and genbank/ncbi showed maximum homology 96.06% with o. dammah, whic ...201222535389
variation in the daily rhythm of body temperature of free-living arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): does water limitation drive heterothermy?heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the limits of homeothermy, has been advanced as a key adaptation of arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) to their arid-zone life. we measured body temperature using implanted data loggers, for a 1-year period, in five oryx free-living in the deserts of saudi arabia. as predicted for adaptive heterothermy, during hot months compared to cooler months, not only were maximum daily body temperatures higher (41.1 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.1°c, p = 0.0002) but mi ...201020502901
interpretation of electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the arabian oryx.microsatellite markers are commonly used for examining population structure, especially inbreeding, outbreeding and gene flow. an array of microsatellite loci, preferably with multiallelic presentation, is preferable for ensuring accurate results. however, artifact peaks or stutters in the electrophoretograms significantly hamper the reliable interpretation of genotypes. we interpreted electrophoretograms of seven microsatellite loci to determine the genetic diversity of the arabian oryx. all th ...201020198581
climate change and animals in saudi arabia.global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (t a) will continue to increase during this century. increases in t a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because t as are already high, ...201223961171
ultrastructural observations on the platelets of the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).an ultrastructural study on the platelets from peripheral blood samples from 20 healthy adult arabian oryx (oryx leucocoryx) was performed. characteristic was the extreme polymorphism of both the platelets, as well as their alpha granules. they vary in size from 100 to 800 nm in diameter and their numbers typically are less than those reported for humans and other animal species. also, the alpha granules in contrast to those of humans and animals, such as the arabian tahr, do not have nucleoids. ...201930734337
infection of african buffalo (syncerus caffer) by oryx bacillus, a rare member of the antelope clade of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species cause tuberculosis disease in animals and humans. although they share 99.9% similarity at the nucleotide level, several host-adapted ecotypes of the tubercule bacilli have been identified. in the wildlife setting, probably the most well-known member of this complex is mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. the recently described oryx bacillus is an extremely rare slow-growing member of the antelope clade of the m. tuberculosis ...201223060486
application of 16s rrna, cytochrome b and control region sequences for understanding the phylogenetic relationships in oryx species.the present study reports the application of mitochondrial markers for the molecular phylogeny of oryx species, including the arabian oryx (ao), scimitar-horned oryx (sho) and plains oryx (po), using the addax as an outgroup. sequences of three molecular markers, 16s rrna, cytochrome b and a control region, for the above four taxa were aligned and the topologies of respective phylogenetic trees were compared. all these markers clearly differentiated the genus addax from oryx. however, for specie ...200819224456
blood-gas and acid-base parameters in nontranquilized arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in the united arab emirates.arterial and venous blood-gas and acid-base values were established from a herd (n = 19; 14 male, 5 female) of semi-free-ranging arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in the united arab emirates. the animals were restrained with the use of a modified raceway incorporating a commercially available handling crate. statistically significant differences were found between arterial and venous values for po2 (p < 0.001), pco2 (p = 0.0141), so2 (p < 0.001), ph (p = 0.0494), and glucose (p < 0.0001). the results ...200818432091
physiological acclimation of a desert antelope, arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), to long-term food and water restriction.desert mammals often experience scarcity of drinking water and food for prolonged periods. in this study, the first long-term acclimation experiment in a non-domesticated desert-adapted ungulate, we investigated the mechanisms used by the arabian oryx oryx leucoryx, to adjust its physiology to progressive food and water restriction over 5 months, an experimental regimen and time course chosen to mimic what it typically experiences between spring and late summer in the desert. at the end of the a ...200616283332
major histocompatibility complex variation in the arabian oryx.in the 1960s, the arabian oryx was one of the most endangered species in the world, extinct in the wild and surviving in only a few captive herds. the present day population of over 2000 descends from a small number of founders and may have restricted genetic variation for important adaptive genes. we have examined the amount of genetic variation for a class ii gene in the major histocompatibility complex thought to be the most important genetic basis for pathogen resistance in vertebrates. we f ...200011209789
temporal variations of lh and testosterone in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from birth to adulthood.to determine the onset of puberty in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), a longitudinal study was conducted in 5 captive males at the national wildlife research centre, taif (saudi arabia). from birth to 20 months of age, twice weekly, animals were weighed and blood was assayed for lh and testosterone. four periods were defined by analysis of the hormonal profile. during the first 5 months (corresponding to prepuberty), mean lh concentrations increased significantly while testosterone remained basal. ...19989707474
length of estrous cycle and gestation in the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) and the importance of the male presence for induction of postpartum estrus.the reproduction of the arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) has been studied in a breeding center in taif (saudi arabia). in the first experiment, three groups of females were assigned to groups immediately after calving. in group 1, from the day of calving the females had visual and olfactory but not physical contact with a male. the calves were removed on the day of birth and each female was placed with a male on day 45. in group 2, females and their calves were placed individually with a male the da ...19968729933
susceptibility of a fetal tongue cell line derived from bighorn sheep to five serotypes of bluetongue virus and its potential for the isolation of viruses.a cell line (bhfte) was derived from a tongue explant of a bighorn sheep fetus (ovis canadensis nelsoni). the cells have been maintained through 23 serial passages, and the modal number of chromosomes was calculated to be 55. monolayer cultures were shown to be susceptible to various viruses, including bluetongue virus (btv). of 5 btv serotypes (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) tested, each produced a cytopathic effect (cpe) on initial passage at 33 c. a field isolate (serotype 10) of btv from a black-tai ...19892562198
use of atipamezole to reverse xylazine tranquilization in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).twenty-seven hand-reared male arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx), with a mean (+/- sd) weight of 86.9 (+/- 16.9) kg, were darted in the muscle with xylazine at a mean (+/- sd) dosage rate of 0.5 (+/- 0.07) mg kg. this dosage was sufficient to induce recumbency in 24 animals in a mean (+/- sd) time of 9.4 (+/- 5.6) min. three animals never became recumbent at this dosage but were mildly sedated and still could be handled. atipamezole was used as antagonist agent in a mean (+/- sd) time of 32.1 (+/- 9.6 ...19947760498
biochemical parameters following capture myopathy in one arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx).twenty-three biochemistry parameters and hematocrit were followed during 10 days in a 13 months old arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) during capture myopathy. an increase was found in bilirubin, creatine-kinase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels, but not in potassium level. most of the parameters analyzed were the first given for this species.19921477180
exposure to neospora spp. and besnoitia spp. in wildlife from israel.neosporosis and besnoitiosis, caused by cyst-forming protozoa neospora caninum and besnoitia besnoiti, respectively, are parasitic infestations of livestock in israel. these parasites cause significant economic losses in cattle due to reproductive and productive disorders. both parasites have been detected in several wild ruminant species throughout other regions of the world, while the existence of a sylvatic life cycle in israel remains uncertain. thus, a wide panel of 871 sera from two wild c ...201830175044
do all mammals dream?the presence of dreams in human sleep, especially in rem sleep, and the detection of physiologically similar states in mammals has led many to ponder whether animals experience similar sleep mentation. recent advances in our understanding of the anatomical and physiological correlates of sleep stages, and thus dreaming, allow a better understanding of the possibility of dream mentation in nonhuman mammals. here, we explore the potential for dream mentation, in both non-rem and rem sleep across m ...202031960424
does size matter? comparison of body temperature and activity of free-living arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) and the smaller arabian sand gazelle (gazella subgutturosa marica) in the saudi desert.heterothermy, a variability in body temperature beyond the normal limits of homeothermy, is widely viewed as a key adaptation of arid-adapted ungulates. however, desert ungulates with a small body mass, i.e. a relatively large surface area-to-volume ratio and a small thermal inertia, are theoretically less likely to employ adaptive heterothermy than are larger ungulates. we measured body temperature and activity patterns, using implanted data loggers, in free-ranging arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx, ...201222001971
phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rrna genes.we conducted a comparative evaluation of 12s rrna and 16s rrna genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (oryx leucoryx, oryx dammah and oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. our findings showed the failure of 12s rrna gene to differentiate between the genus oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16s rrna accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16s rrna segment for mole ...200819048493
digesta passage in nondomestic ruminants: separation mechanisms in 'moose-type' and 'cattle-type' species, and seemingly atypical browsers.ruminants have been classified as having a 'moose-type' or 'cattle-type' digestive physiology. 'cattle-type' ruminants have a clear difference in the mean retention time (mrt) of fluid vs. small particles in the reticulorumen (rr), with a high 'selectivity factor' (sf = mrtparticle/ mrtfluid, >1.80), and are typically grazers and intermediate feeders. 'moose-type' ruminants have lower sf (<1.80), possibly because of defensive salivary proteins that constrain amounts of (high-viscosity) saliva, a ...201931220621
selective brain cooling in arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx): a physiological mechanism for coping with aridity?selective brain cooling is a thermoregulatory effector proposed to conserve body water and, as such, may help artiodactyls cope with aridity. we measured brain and carotid blood temperature, using implanted data loggers, in five arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) in the desert of saudi arabia. on average, brain temperature was 0.24±0.05°c lower than carotid blood temperature for four oryx in april. selective brain cooling was enhanced in our arabian oryx compared with another species from the same gen ...201222899527
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