carcinogenic effects in the syrian golden hamster of n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine of the false morel mushroom gyromitra esculenta.n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine (mfh) was administered in drinking water as a 0.0078% solution to randomly bred syrian golden hamsters for life beginning at 6 weeks of age. the treatment gave rise to benign and malignant liver cell tumors, malignant histiocytomas and tumors of the gall bladder and bile ducts. the tumor incidence in these four treated tissues was 43, 34, 11,8%, while in untreated controls it was 0, 0, 0, 0%, respectively. histopathologically, tumors were classified as benign hepatomas ...1979220266
false morel mushroom gyromitra esculenta toxin: n-methyl-n-formylhdrazine carcinogenesis in mice.n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine was administered in drinking water as a 0.0039% solution to randomly bred swiss albino mice for life starting from 6 weeks of age. the compound induced tumors of lungs, livers, blood vessels, gall bladder and bile ducts. the tumor incidences in these five tissues were 77, 46, 21, 10 and 7% while in the untreated controls they were 18, 1, 6, 0 and 0% respectively. histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of lungs, benign hepatomas ...1979573857
cancer induction in mice with acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone of the false morel mushroom.acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone (amfh), which occurs up to 0.3% in one of the edible false morel mushrooms, gyromitra esculenta, was administered to noninbred swiss mice in propylene glycol in 52 weekly intragastric instillations as 100 micrograms/g body weight. the treatment induced tumors of the lungs, preputial glands, forestomach, and clitoral glands. the tumor incidences in these four tissues in treated females were 70, 0, 16, and 12%, respectively, whereas in the treated males they were ...19816944556
gold content of ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas.ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi growing in the wild were collected from non-auriferous and unpolluted areas and analyzed for gold. gold was determined using long-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (inaa). in total, 154 samples, including 67 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and 22 species of terrestrial saprobes, were examined. gold contents of the both groups were mostly less than 20 ng g(-1) of d.w. the highest concentrations (expressed in d.w.) were found in the ectomycorrhi ...200516175798
removal of furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice by edible fungi.furanocoumarins (fcs) in the human diet irreversibly inhibit human cytochrome p450 3a4 (cyp 3a4) and are responsible for the "grapefruit/drug""interaction phenomenon. previously, we reported that fcs in grapefruit juice (gfj) bind to autoclaved aspergillus niger, and this binding reduced the gfj inhibition of cyp 3a4. however, a. niger is not an edible fungus, and thus, potentially similar binding by edible fungi was also characterized. in this study, autoclaved morchella esculenta, an edible as ...200819012403
antioxidant activity via dpph, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.edible mushrooms (ems) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. in the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) and antimicrobial potential in ems (pleurotus ostreatus, morchella esculenta, p. ostreatus (black), p. ostreatus (yellow) and pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. the dpph radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in morchella esculenta at a maximum concentrat ...201423095488
patterns of major metabolites biosynthesis by different mushroom fungi grown on glucose-based submerged cultures.the biosynthetic potential of four basidiomycetes (agrocybe aegerita, flammulina velutipes, ganoderma applanatum and pleurotus pulmonarius) and one ascomycete (morchella esculenta) was examined in regard to biomass, intracellular (endopolysaccharides and lipids) and extracellular (exopolysaccharides) compounds' production in liquid media with glucose as substrate, in static and agitated cultures. exopolysaccharides' production presented significant negative correlation with biomass, endopolysacc ...201424366161
induction of a t-helper 1 (th1) immune response in mice by an extract from the pleurotus eryngii (eringi) assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of t-helper 1 (th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (ifn-γ) and interleukin (il)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. extracts from agaricus bisporus, flammulina velutipes, hypsizigus marmoreus, lentinula edodes, and lyophyllum decastes induced both ifn-γ and il-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from pleurotus ostreatus only induced il-4. in contrast, extra ...201223134464
utilization of chicken feather hydrolysate as a novel fermentation substrate for production of exopolysaccharide and mycelial biomass from edible mushroom morchella esculenta.this study was performed to investigate the usability of chicken feather hydrolysate (chicken feather peptone (cfp)) as substrate for mycelial biomass and extracellular polysaccharides (eps) production from edible mushroom morchella esculenta. the ability of cfp to support biomass and eps production in edible mushroom m. esculenta was compared to those of two commercial peptones (tryptone peptone (tp) and fish peptone (fp)). the maximum biomass (16.3 g/l) and eps (4.8 g/l) concentrations were ac ...201122136136
isolation of a wild morchella spp. strain and the effects of its extract on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats.a morchella spp. strain was isolated from a wild morel mushroom, and the effects of its mycelia extract on the ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions of rats were investigated in vivo. sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer suggested that this morchella spp. strain (strain no. m1) was clustered together with m. conica in the phylogenetic tree. the superoxide dismutase (sod) activity increased significantly compared to the control. however, the malondialdehyde (mda) level and myelopero ...201121476437
antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia of 10 wild mushroom species.antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of mycelia obtained from 10 wild edible mushrooms-armillaria mellea, meripilus giganteus, morchella costata, morchella elata, morchella esculenta var. vulgaris, morchella hortensis, morchella rotunda, paxillus involutus, pleurotus eryngii, and pleurotus ostreatus-were investigated. for determination of antimicrobial activities of these mushrooms, ethanol extracts were examined with 11 test microorganisms by the agar well diffusion method. p. ostreatus and ...201020192845
aqueous-ethanolic extract of morel mushroom mycelium morchella esculenta, protects cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in mice.morchella esculenta (l) pers. is an excellently edible and delicious morel mushroom found growing in the temperate forests. the mycelium of this mushroom is widely used as a flavouring agent. the current investigation was undertaken to explore the protective effect of the aqueous-ethanol extract of cultured mycelium of m. esculenta against cisplatin and gentamicin induced acute renal toxicity in swiss albino mice. cisplatin and gentamicin when administered induced a marked renal failure, charact ...200818692113
removed: antioxidant activity of two wild edible mushrooms morchella vulgaris and morchella esculenta from north turkey.this article has been removed, consistent with elsevier policy on article withdrawal. please see . the publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause.200616797875
[study on the extraction of mycelium polysaccharides from selenium-rich morchella esculenta with neutral proteinase method].to study the extraction conditions of mycelium polysaccharides from selenium-rich morchella esculenta with neutral proteinase for increasing of yield.201223451506
evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of morel mushroom, morchella esculenta mycelia: a potential source of therapeutically useful antioxidants.cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ros) has been implicated in several diseases and antioxidants are known to protect the body from this damage. antioxidants thus, have gained significant importance in human health. the search for effective, non-toxic natural compounds with antioxidant activity has intensified in recent years. mycelia of a number mushrooms have recently been successfully used for the development of novel pharmaceutical products. we examined the aqueous-ethanol ex ...201020645726
quantitative studies, taste reconstitution, and omission experiments on the key taste compounds in morel mushrooms (morchella deliciosa fr.).sensory-directed fractionation of an aqueous extract prepared from morel mushrooms led to the identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid as the chemical inducer of the mouth-drying and mouth-coating oral sensation imparted by morels. additionally, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, succinic acid, and the previously unknown (s)-malic acid 1-o-beta-d-glucopyranoside, coined (s)-morelid, were detected as additional important umami-like taste compounds. to further bridge the gap between pure structura ...200616569064
carcinogenesis by a single dose of n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine.single sc injections of n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine were given to randomly bred swiss mice. the females received 180 micrograms per gram of body weight, while two groups of males were treated with either 120 or 100 micrograms per gram of body weight. the treatment resulted in induction of tumors of lungs with an incidence of 40% in the females. in males treated with the higher and lower doses, the incidences of preputial gland tumors were 12 and 12%, respectively. histopathologically, the tumors ...19807420465
development of molecular markers and preliminary investigation of the population structure and mating system in one lineage of black morel (morchella elata) in the pacific northwestern usa.phylogenetic analysis of lsu/its sequence data revealed two distinct lineages among 44 morphologically similar fruiting bodies of natural black morels (morchella elata group) sampled at three non-burn locations in the st joe and kanisku national forests in northern idaho. most of the sampled isolates (n = 34) represented a dominant lsu/its haplotype present at all three sites and identical to the mel-12 phylogenetic lineage (gu551425) identified in a previous study. variation at 1-3 nucleotide s ...201121642339
evaluation of the antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibitory property from mycelium culture extracts.since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (eecim) of morchella esculenta var. esculenta (meve), auric ...201526345142
level of heavy metals in some edible and poisonous macrofungi from batman of south east anatolia, turkey.the macrofungi specimens were collected and identified from locations around batman province of turkey. a group of 21 macrofungi were collected from 29 different locations and analysed for the heavy metal contents. the highest pb and cu levels were found in russula rubroalba while the highest cd level was determined for the species agaricus xanthodermus. fe level was maximum for the species funalia trogii; mn for mycena personsii; zn level was for morchella esculenta and co level was for the spe ...200415847333
isolation of a galactomannan that enhances macrophage activation from the edible fungus morchella esculenta.the edible mushroom morchella esculenta is among the most highly prized and morphologically recognizable fungi in the world. we describe the isolation from a polar extract of m. esculenta carpophores of a high-molecular-weight galactomannan, about 1.0 million da, that exhibits immunostimulatory activity. at 3.0 microg/ml the galactomannan polysaccharide increased nf-kappa b directed luciferase expression in thp-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal activating concent ...200212236698
gyromitra esculenta mushroom: a comparative assessment of its carcinogenic potency.a comparative assessment is performed on one of the false morel mushrooms, gyromitra esculenta, including the amounts of some hydrazines present in this fungus, the cancer-inducing doses of these chemicals or the mushroom used in animal experiments, the total amounts of the hydrazines or mushroom needed to induce neoplasms in mice and the estimated total amounts of hydrazines or mushroom needed to induce cancer in humans. when one compares the estimated amounts of hydrazines required to induce c ...20047772753
polymorphism in morels: isozyme electrophoretic analysis.the aim of this study was to assess whether isozyme polymorphism in different members of the morchellaceae could be used to improve the systematics in this fungal group and to characterize intraspecific crossings between monosporal strains in morchella esculenta. for this purpose, isozyme electrophoretic analysis of the following enzymes was performed: glutamine synthetase, nad-glutamate dehydrogenase, nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, malate dehydrogenase, nad-glyceralde ...199622049996
antimicrobial activity of crude fractions and morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms of north western himalaya.the antimicrobial properties of morel compounds from wild edible mushrooms (morchella esculenta and verpa bohemica) from kashmir valley was investigated against different clinical pathogens. the butanol crude fraction of most popular or true morel m. esculenta showed highest 19 mm izd against e.coli while as same fraction of verpa bohemica exhibited 15 mm izd against same strain. the ethyl acetate and butanol crude fractions of both morels also exhibited good antifungal activity with highest izd ...201728286150
cancer induction in mice by feeding the raw false morel mushroom gyromitra of the false morel mushrooms, gyromitra esculenta, was administered p.o. to swiss mice that were 6 weeks old at the beginning of the experiment. the mushrooms were fed to the mice for 3 days and were followed by a semisynthetic diet for 4 days each week for life. the treatment induced tumors in the lungs, nasal cavity, blood vessels, forestomach, glandular stomach, cecum, and liver in the following incidences: 80, 10, 50, 16, 4, 28, and 6% in females, and 70, 12, 32, 18, 20, 22, and 12% in m ...19921559231
tumor induction with hexanal methylformylhydrazone of gyromitra esculenta.hexanal methylformylhydrazone (hmfh) was administered to swiss mice by intragastric instillations at weekly intervals of 52 times at 50 or 100 micrograms/g body weight. the treatment induced tumors of the lungs, liver and preputial glands. the tumor incidences in the group that received the lower dose were 74, 4 and 0% in females and 78, 8 and 6% in the males. in the group with the higher dose, the incidences were 90, 28 and 0% in females and 70, 6 and 86% in males. the corresponding tumor incid ...19911664492
Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published survey of 10 Turkish provinces and another of the world in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections, respectively, were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made during the spring of 2009 and ...201122123659
tumorigenic action of repeated subcutaneous administration of n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine in mice.n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine (mfh), an ingredient of the edible false morel mushroom, was administered to swiss mice as 40 weekly subcutaneous injections at 20 micrograms/g body weight for females and 10 micrograms/g body weight for males. the treatments gave rise to statistically significant incidences of lung tumors: 56% in females and 40% in males. the administration of the chemical resulted in no detectable carcinogenic effect in other organs. the findings are discussed in light of the results ...19836888608
tumorigenicity of minute dose levels of n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine of gyromitra esculenta.separate administrations of 0.0005 to 0.00025% n-methyl-n-formylhydrazine in drinking water to 6-week-old randomly bred swiss mice for the remainder of their lifetime induced lung neoplasms. at the high dose level, 64% of the females and 48% of the males developed lung tumors, while the corresponding tumor incidences at the lower dose level were 62% in the females and 54% in the males. in untreated controls, the lung tumor incidences were 29% in the females and 19% in the males. histopathologica ...19827201568
gyromitrin as a tumor inducer.acetaldehyde methylformylhydrazone (gyromitrin) was administered in propylene glycol as 12 weekly subcutaneous injections of 50 micrograms/g weight to randomly bred swiss mice. the treatment induced lung and preputial gland tumors in incidences of 51 and 0% in females and 46 and 28% in males, respectively. in the propylene glycol injected control groups, the corresponding tumor incidences were 28 and 0% in females and 32 and 0% in males. histopathologically, the tumors were classified as adenoma ...19817198186
radioactivity levels in some wild edible mushroom species in turkey.eleven different wild-growing edible mushroom species collected from various regions of turkey were analysed for their content of 137cs, 40k, 226ra and 232th using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. specific activities of 226ra and 232th were generally below detection limits. the specific activities of 137cs and 40k ranged from 2.4+/-0.3 to 109.0+/-7.3 bq kg-1 with a mean of 28.4+/-27.2 bq kg-1 (dry matter) and 715.5+/-50.1 to 1779.0+/-163.7 bq kg-1 with a mean of 1150.8+/-315.2 bq kg-1 ( ...200717786670
n-ethyl-n-formylhydrazine tumorigenesis in mice.n-ethyl-n-formylhydrazine (efh) was administered as a 0.02% solution in drinking water continuously for life to randomly bred swiss mice, from 6 weeks of age. the treatment induced tumors of the lungs, blood vessels, liver, gall bladder and preputial glands. the tumor incidences in treated females for these five tissues were 98, 94, 0, 2 and 0%, whereas in the treated males they were 78, 64, 26, 8 and 10%, respectively. histopathologically the lesions were adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lun ...198022282982
mercaptan-capturing properties of mushrooms.mercaptan-capturing properties of 33 kinds of mushrooms were measured. the mushrooms having a high capturing ability toward methyl mercaptan (mesh) were agaricus bisporus, a. campestris, boletus fraternus, b. subvelutipes, gyrodon lividus, leccinum scabrum, suillus grevillei, morchella esculenta, russula nigricans, hypholoma sublateritium, and lyophyllum sykosporum. these are liable to change their color when injured. the mixture of their acetone powders, which contain polyphenol oxidases, and p ...200111714352
a multigene molecular phylogenetic assessment of true morels (morchella) in turkey.a collection of 247 true morels (morchella spp.) primarily from the mediterranean and aegean regions of southern turkey, were analyzed for species diversity using partial rna polymerase i (rpb1) and nuclear ribosomal large subunit (lsu) rdna gene sequences. based on the result of this initial screen, 62 collections representing the full range of genetic diversity sampled were subjected to multigene phylogenetic species recognition based on genealogical concordance (gcpsr). the 62-taxon dataset c ...201020580850
mushroom cryopreservation and its effect on survival, yield and genetic stability.mycelial stock cultures of agaricus bisporus, a. bitorquis, pleurotus flabellatus, p. sajor-caju, p. ostreatus, p. sapidus, auricularia polytricha, lentinula edodes, morchella esculenta and volvariella volvacea were maintained by frequent subculturing at an interval of two months and separately as wheat grain spawn in liquid nitrogen with 15 percent glycerol. preservation of mushroom stock cultures as wheat grain spawn under liquid nitrogen proved to be the better method of maintenance. the perc ...200415031742
the morchella esculenta of the digestive tract. 201525395491
comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) and ergothioneine. the study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera agaricus, agrocybe, auricularia, boletus, ganoderma, hypsizygus, inonotus, lentinus, morchella, pleurotus, tremella, termitomyces, and volvariella. the results show that hypsizy ...201223510173
metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from the present study, the contents of zn, fe, cu, mn, co, ni, pb, cd, cr, al, ca, mg, and k in agaricus campestris, agrocybe cylindracea, collybia dryophila, helvella leucopus, russula delica, tricholoma auratum, amanita ovoidea, melanoleuca excissa, rhizopogon roseolus, russula chloroides, volvoriella gloiocephala, lyophyllum decastes, morcella angusticeps, morchella esculenta and morcella eximia collected from isparta, mugla, and osmaniye provinces (turkey) were determined by inductively coupl ...201222794131
a first assessment of genetic variation among morchella esculenta (morel) populations.habitat loss and fragmentation have serious consequences for species diversity as well as genetic diversity within a species. as the most sought-after culinary fungus in the midwest united states, morels (morchella esculenta and related species) demand the attention of conservationists interested in preserving biological and genetic diversity. little is known about the natural history of m. esculenta, which is critical information for understanding population dynamics as well as the impacts of h ...200815788743
[confusion about morel mushrooms!]. 201324079022
ethnomycological and nutritional analyses of some wild edible mushrooms from western himalayas, azad jammu and kashmir (pakistan).mushrooms have had a long association with humankind and have great biological and economic effects. this study aimed to record ethnomycological and nutritional analysis of some edible mushrooms from the western himalayas (neelum valley), azad jammu and kashmir, pakistan. mushrooms from different taxonomical and ecological groups were collected and properly identified with the help of the available literature: morchella esculenta, m. crassipes, m. elata, m. conica, pleurotus ostreatus, lycoperdo ...201729256848
counter-current chromatographic separation of glycoprotein components from morchella esculenta (l.) with a polymer phase system by a cross-axis coil planet centrifuge.using a cross-axis coil planet centrifuge, glycoproteins were separated from fermentation media of morchella esculenta (l.) by high-speed counter-current chromatography. the performance of the apparatus was optimized with four standard proteins including pepsin, lysozyme, ovalbumin and hemoglobin and a polymer phase system composed of 12.5% (w/w) polyethylene glycol 8000 and 25% (w/w) potassium phosphate in distilled water at various ph values. separations were performed by eluting the lower pho ...200111403487
partial purification and properties of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase from mycelia of morchella esculenta.three gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (enzymes i, ii and iii) were partially purified from the cell free extracts of the cultured mycelia of morchella esculenta fr. the molecular masses of enzymes were 155,000 (i), 219,000 (ii) and 102,000 (iii). all of them catalyzed both hydrolysis and transpeptidation of various gamma-glutamyl compounds. gamma-l-glutamyl-cis-3-amino-l-proline occurring in the cultured mycelia of this fungus was a good substrate for both reactions. km values for hydrolysis were i ...19862870692
purification, antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from soybean residue fermented with morchella esculenta.crude polysaccharides (mps) from soybean residue fermented with morchella esculenta were extracted and purified by deae sephadex a-50 chromatography and sephadex g-100 size-exclusion chromatography in sequence. three main fractions mp-1, mp-3 and mp-4 were obtained during the purification steps. the recovery rates based on mps used were 26.2%, 29.1% and 18.7% for mp-1, mp-3 and mp-4 respectively. the monosaccharide composition, ultraviolet spectrum, infrared spectrum and nmr of the three fractio ...201727939510
evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracellular polysaccharides from morchella esculenta.morchella esculenta, an edible medicinal mushroom native to china, is recognized as an unparalleled resource of healthy foods and drug discovery. this study firstly investigated the antioxidant activity of morchella esculenta extracellular polysaccharides (meep). an in vitro antioxidant assay showed that meep exhibited strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and moderate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reductive power. for antioxidant testing in vivo, meep were ...201323598461
induction of apoptosis in hepg2 cells by polysaccharide mep-ii from the fermentation broth of morchella esculenta.a novel polysaccharide, mep-ii, isolated from the fermentation broth of morchella esculenta inhibited the proliferation of human hepatoma cell line (hepg2) through an apoptotic pathway. after hepg2 cells were treated with 150-600 μg mep-ii/ml, typical apoptotic characteristics including externalization of phosphatidylserine residues on the cell surface, nuclear fragmentation, chromatin condensation and cytoplasm shrinkage were observed. furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ros) burst and the co ...201322798042
amino acid composition of the morel mushroom. 20001171130
multigene molecular phylogenetics reveals true morels (morchella) are especially species-rich in china.the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (morchella) in china was estimated by initially analyzing nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (its) rdna sequences from 361 specimens collected in 21 provinces during the 2003-2011 growing seasons, together with six collections obtained on loan from three chinese herbaria. based on the results of this preliminary screen, 40 esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 30 elata clade (black morels) were chosen to represent the full range of phylogenetic ...201222503770
establishment of cultivating strategy for highly aggregated mycelia of morchella esculenta in a stirred-tank bioreactor.mycelia of morchella esculenta were found to aggregate rapidly in a submerged culture, which caused the decrease in dispersed mycelia and the problem of diffusion limitation. the effect of different agitation schemes on the growth of mycelia was investigated in a stirred-tank bioreactor. at the constant speed of 100 or 300 rpm, rapid aggregation caused the biomass concentration to drop to zero in 30 h, which was even worse than achieved under static culture. intermittent agitation maintained a h ...201222588668
[optimization of culture conditions for production of extracellular polysaccharides by morchella esculenta].to optimize the conditions for exopolysaccharides (eps) production by morchella esculenta gim 5.69.201121954567
hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of morel mushroom, morchella esculenta.the hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of morel mushroom morchella esculenta against ccl(4) and ethanol induced chronic hepatotoxicity was investigated. hepatotoxicity was induced by challenging the animals with ccl(4) (1:5, v/v, 3.75 ml/kg body weight, i.p., 30 doses) and ethanol (36%, v/v, 6 ml/animal, p.o., 35 doses) and the extract was administered at two concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). hepatoprotection was evaluated by determining the activities of liver function ...201321752616
molecular identification and characterization of the edible and medicinal morchellaceae germplasm collection of "mulch morels".the accessions of the morel (morchellaceae, ascomycota) germplasm collection were genetically analyzed, in order to determine both their inter- and intraspecific relationships. this was done as a starting point for cultivation experiments, as well as to provide a genetic description of invasive morel populations linked to mulched garden patches, as compared with outdoor morels. the phylogenetic data, which was based on the internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences and supported by amplified fr ...201122164767
isolation, partial characterisation and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide from morchella esculenta.polysaccharides extracted from fungi or algae have shown a variety of medical activities, and the exploitation of polysaccharides for application in pharmacy has been very promising. in this study, the immunomodulatory properties of polysaccharides from morchella esculenta were investigated to identify immunostimulatory activity and potentially contribute to the therapeutic potential of morchella esculenta.201121567413
biotechnology of morel mushrooms: successful fruiting body formation and development in a soilless system.morchella spp. ascocarps (morels) are some of the world's most sought-after mushrooms. successful cultivation of morels is still a rare and difficult task despite over 100 years of effort. here we provide the first report of successful morchella rufobrunnea fruiting body initiation and development in laboratory-scale experiments. mushroom initials appeared 2 to 4 weeks after first watering of pre-grown sclerotia incubated at 16 to 22°c and 90% humidity. mature fruiting bodies reached 7 to 15 cm ...201020563623
antioxidant and nf-κb inhibitory constituents isolated from morchella esculenta.morchella esculenta pers. (morchellaceae) was investigated for its antioxidant activity by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species in ht-29 colon cancer cells. the methylene chloride extract, which showed the highest antioxidant activity, led to the isolation of four fungal sterols, 1-4, and trilinolein (5), in addition to methyl myristate (6), 1-linoleoylglycerol (7), and ceramide (8). the isolated compounds were identified through the analysis of various spectroscopic methods. in t ...201120234969
extraction optimization and in vivo antioxidant activities of exopolysaccharide by morchella esculenta so-01.response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction parameters for morchella esculenta so-01 exopolysaccharide (eps) produced during submerged culture. the optimum conditions for eps extraction were predicted to be, concentration at 84.07 degrees c, precipitation for 22.19 h and ph 8.44, and eps production was estimated at 5.45 g/l. the actual yield of eps under these conditions was 5.32 g/l. the antioxidant capacity of the eps was measured in vivo after filling the stomach with differe ...201020153962
phylogeny and historical biogeography of true morels (morchella) reveals an early cretaceous origin and high continental endemism and provincialism in the holarctic.true morels (morchella, ascomycota) are arguably the most highly-prized of the estimated 1.5 million fungi that inhabit our planet. field guides treat these epicurean macrofungi as belonging to a few species with cosmopolitan distributions, but this hypothesis has not been tested. prompted by the results of a growing number of molecular studies, which have shown many microbes exhibit strong biogeographic structure and cryptic speciation, we constructed a 4-gene dataset for 177 members of the mor ...201120888422
characteristics and antitumor activity of morchella esculenta polysaccharide extracted by pulsed electric field.polysaccharides from morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. the purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a morchella esculenta polysaccharide (mep) extracted by pulsed electric field (pef) in submerged fermentation. the endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. the mep with an average ...201627338370
true morels (morchella, pezizales) of europe and north america: evolutionary relationships inferred from multilocus data and a unified taxonomy.applying early names, with or without original material, to genealogical species is challenging. for morels this task is especially difficult because of high morphological stasis and high plasticity of apothecium color and shape. here we propose a nomenclatural revision of true morels (morchella, pezizales) from europe and north america, based on molecular phylogenetic analyses of portions of the genes for rna polymerase ii largest subunit (rpb1) and second largest subunit (rpb2), translation el ...201525550303
ethno-botanical studies from northern this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in northern pakistan. it includes thandiani, galiat, kaghan, swat, buner, dir, chitral and northern areas of pakistan. the area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions ...201020364741
dna polymorphism in morels: complete sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of genes coding for rrna in morchella esculenta (yellow morel) and morchella conica (black morel).the internal transcribed spacer (its) of the gene coding for rrna was sequenced in both directions with the gene walking technique in a black morel (morchella conica) and a yellow morel (m. esculenta) to elucidate the its length discrepancy between the two species groups (750-bp its in black morels and 1,150-bp its in yellow morels.19968795250
spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.the biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. we examined spatial and temporal patterns of morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in missouri, usa. fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. the two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). fruiting sea ...200717363234
activity-guided identification of (s)-malic acid 1-o-d-glucopyranoside (morelid) and gamma-aminobutyric acid as contributors to umami taste and mouth-drying oral sensation of morel mushrooms (morchella deliciosa fr.).although morel mushrooms are widely used as tasty ingredients in savory dishes, knowledge of the key compounds evoking their attractive taste is still very fragmentary. in the present study, taste activity-guided fractionation of an aqueous morel extract by means of the recently developed taste dilution analysis (tda) enabled the localization of several umami-like-tasting fractions as well as a fraction imparting an intense mouth-drying sensation to the oral cavity. hydrophilic interaction liqui ...200515884853
nutritional values and antioxidant potential of some edible mushrooms of kashmir valley.mushrooms are considered rich in proteins, carbohydrates and other nutrients. the present study was carried out to evaluate some edible mushrooms of kashmir valley for their protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents. the highest protein content was found in boletus edulis (2.20g) followed by agaricus bisporus (1.80g), pleurotus ostreatus (1.68g), morchella esculenta (1.62g) and pleurotus sajor caju (1.6g). carbohydrate content also showed variation in all the five tested edible mushroom species, ...201222713951
[separation of standard proteins and actual samples using cross-axis counter current chromatography].a system of m (12.5% peg8000): m (25% k2hpo4) = 1:1 was used to separate two kinds of standard proteins, glycoprotein in morchella esculenta (l.) and glycoprotein in lycium barbarum (l.), the upper phase was used as stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as mobile phase. the revolution speed was 500 r/min and the flow rate was 60 ml/h. in comparing with high performance liquid chromatography, cross-axis counter current chromatography can increase load capacity without loss of resolution. ...200112541673
[preparation of morchella liquid by submersed fermentation and and analysis of its nutrient contents].natural morchella esculenta fruits were collected and its spores were isolated to get pure mycelium. morchella liquid was prepared by submersed fermentation technology. the quantitative analysis showed that the liquid is relatively high in nutrient contents and several kinds of other essential components. the nutrient contents of the liquid are as follows (g/l): carbohydrates 63.1, reduced saccharide 25.6, protein 8.3, dry material 104.7, minerals 1.5. there are also several high active micromat ...199811939057
linear extrachromosomal dna in the morel morchella conica.altogether 18 different strains of the genus morchella were assayed for the presence of extrachromosomal genetic elements. it was shown that 8 out of 13 strains of the morchella conica group contain plasmids of comparable size (6 kb and 8 kb respectively). the 5 representatives of morchella esculenta were not found to contain extrachromosomal dna. the plasmid of one strain (nr. 3) was further analysed. by restriction analyses and electron microscopy it was confirmed that the plasmid is linear ha ...198424177523
isolation of cis-3-amino-l-proline from cultured mycelia of morchella esculenta fr.cis-3-amino-l-proline, identified once as a nonprotein amino acid from the fruiting bodies of morchella esculenta fr., was isolated also from the growth medium and cultured mycelia of the same fungus.197916345456
[poisoning caused by morchella esculenta (author's transl)]. 1979547129
influence of the carbon source on the growth and lignocellulolytic enzyme production by morchella esculenta strains.growth and lignocellulolytic enzymes production by two morchella esculenta strains (bafc 1728 and bel 124) growing in solid state fermentation using different lignocellulosic materials along 58 days was characterized. both strains were able to grow on the three substrates: wheat bran, wheat bran plus corn starch, and rolled oat. the growth was characterized by measuring chitin content, reducing sugars, ph, dry weight loss, and extractable proteins, such parameters varied substantially with subst ...200818791758
cerebellar effects after consumption of edible morels (morchella conica, morchella esculenta).morchella esculenta and morchella conica are well known edible morels, which seldom induce clinical symptoms. we report six persons who developed cerebellar effects 6-12 hours after consumption of these mushrooms. the symptoms were self-limited and disappeared after one day.200818344109
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