effect of volatile substances from origanum majorana and ocimum basilicum on spore respiration and germination of some soil fungi.oxygen uptake by the spores of fusarium moniliforme, f. oxysporum, f. semitectum, f. solani, mucor racemosus and trichoderma viride was increased in the presence of volatile substances extracted from origanum majorana and ocimum basilicum. this increase was greater in the presence of volatile substances from o. basilicum than o. majorana, except in the case of f. semitectum where the reverse was true. a drop in the rq of all the germinating spores was observed in the presence of these substances ...1978570540
[effect of essential oils on the course of experimental atherosclerosis].the effect of volatile oils of lavender, monarda, and basil on the course of experimental atherosclerosis was studied in rabbit experiments. inhalation of the volatile fractions of essential++ oils of lavender and monarda in a concentration of 0.1-0.2 mg/m3 of air has no effect on the content of cholesterol in the blood, but reduces its content in the aorta and reduces affection of the aorta by the atherosclerotic plaques, i.e. these oils produce an angioprotective effect.19902293166
[pharmaceutical preparations from plant products employed in stomatologic diseases].two preparations for stomatological use have been introduced, obtained from vegetal extracts of ocimum basilicum l., tilia sp., and symphytum officinalis l. their stability in time was evaluated, and the microbiological activity was assessed in vitro on microbial strains involved in stomatological affections. in clinical experiments good results were obtained in parodonthopathies, in the therapy of lesions developing under prostheses, and in other affections.19882978706
folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in india (review, experimental and clinical approach).though a number of plants and their parts are used for dental ailments among population in rural and urban areas of developing countries, in india however, the most common house-hold, road-side plants are mango (mangifera indica), neem (azadirachta indica; melia azadirachta), ocimum (ocimum basilicum), tea-dust (camellia sinensis) and uncommonly murayya, i.e., currey leaf (murayya koenigi) [chopra et al. 1958, kirtikar and basu 1935, nadakarni 1954, satyavati 1984]. the leaves of these plants ar ...19883042642
effect of certain volatile oils on ejaculated human spermatozoa.the effect of 7 volatile oils -- oils of clove, peppermint, ajowan, dill, basil, cinnamon, and eugenol -- and 4 fixed oils -- groundnut, coconut, vegetable, and pure clarified butter -- on human spermatozoa in vitro were studied. fresh ejaculates were obtained from male partners of infertile couples. semen samples from 6 different donors were used for each dilution. percent change in motility over control was calculated. all the volatile oils studied revealed a potent spermicidal action. th ...19883169889
investigations on the essential oil of ocimum basilicum. 19734776286
[phytochemical investigation of basil thyme]. 19655868054
st basil. 19827045421
the genotoxic potential in vitro and in vivo of the allyl benzene etheric oils estragole, basil oil and trans-anethole.estragole, trans-anethole and basil oil were tested for their ability to induce dna repair in rat hepatocytes in vitro and in rat liver in an ex vivo test. there was a marked induction of uds by estragole and basil oil in vitro (loec about 10(-5) mol/l). the basil oil we used contained about 88.2% estragole. it is evident from our results that the induction of uds with basil oil could be directly related to its main constituent estragole. trans-anethole was only slightly effective in the in vitr ...19947527904
combinatorial libraries: new insights into human organ-specific autoantibodies.the recent application of immunoglobulin (ig) gene combinatorial library technology has led to a logarithmic increase in information concerning human, disease-associated, organ-specific autoantibodies of the igg class. as reviewed here by basil rapoport, stefano portolano and sandra mclachlan, the molecular cloning, analysis and expression of the genes for increasing numbers of these human, monoclonal autoantibodies is providing new insight into the genetic background and epitopic repertoires of ...19957533499
labiatae allergy: systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme.there are no cases described in the medical literature of systemic allergic reactions due to oregano (origanum vulgare) or thyme (thymus vulgaris). these herbs belong to the lamiaceae (labiatae) family which comprises other plants such as hyssop (hyssopus officinalis), basil (ocimum basilicum), marjoram (origanum majorana), mint (mentha piperita), sage (salvia officinalis) and lavender (lavandula officinalis).19968630713
the 24-kda protein from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. erythroxyli: occurrence in related fungi and the effect of growth medium on its production.a 24-kda protein that elicits ethylene production and necrosis in leaves of dicotyledonous plants was previously purified from culture filtrates of fusarium oxysporum schlechtend:fr. f.sp. erythroxyli. antisera to the denatured 24-kda protein detected 2.5 ng of the 24-kda protein on western blots at 100000-fold dilutions. the antisera cross-reacted with a 24-kda protein on western blots of culture filtrates from three other f. oxysporum formae speciales. of seven fusarium species, only f. oxyspo ...19979057295
the synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (ocimum basilicum l.) against acid-tolerant food microflora.essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from five different varieties of ocimum basilicum l. plants (anise, bush, cinnamon, dark opal and a commercial sample of dried basil) were examined for antimicrobial activity against a wide range of foodborne gram-positive and -negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds by an agar well diffusion method. all five essential oils of basil showed antimicrobial activity against most of the organisms tested with the exception of flavimonas oryzihabitans and pseu ...19989569711
the effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of aeromonas hydrophila and pseudomonas fluorescens.basil essential oils, including basil sweet linalool (bsl) and basil methyl chavicol (bmc), were screened for antimicrobial activity against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds using an agar well diffusion method. both essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against most of the micro-organisms examined except clostridium sporogenes, flavimonas oryzihabitans, and three species of pseudomonas. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of bmc against aeromon ...19989633630
antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potentials of some thai vegetables.fifteen kinds of commonly consumed thai vegetables were sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform and methanol, and then tested for antimutagenic activities against direct-acting (af-2 and nan3) and indirect-acting (afb1 and b(a)p) mutagens using ames' salmonella mutagenicity test with salmonella typhimurium ta100 as tester strain. it was found that only the methanol extract of neem leaves contain weak antimutagen inhibiting the mutagenicities of both direct-acting mutagens. interestingly, ...19989675301
inhibition of aspergillus niger and aspergillus flavus by some herbs and spices.the inhibitory effect of water-soluble extracts of garlic bulbs, green garlic, green onions, hot peppers, ginger, chinese parsley, and basil on the growth of aspergillus niger and aspergillus flavus was examined. garlic bulbs, green garlic, and green onions showed an inhibitory effect against these two fungi. the influence of heat, acid, and salt upon the inhibitory effect of these three herbs was further studied. increasing the temperature from 60 to 100 degrees c resulted in a significant (p < ...19989708267
control of aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.the effects of 11 plant essential oils for maize kernel protection against aspergillus flavus were studied. tests were conducted to determine optimal levels of dosages for maize protection, effects of combinations of essential oils, and residual effects and toxicity of essential oils to maize plants. principal constituents of eight essential oils were tested for ability to protect maize kernels. essential oils of cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), mentha piperita (peppermint), ocimum basilicum (b ...19989709236
anti-hiv-1 activity of herbs in labiatae.the anti-hiv-1 activity of aromatic herbs in labiatae was evaluated in vitro. forty five extract from among 51 samples obtained from 46 herb species showed significant inhibitory effects against hiv-1 induced cytopathogenicity in mt-4 cells. in particular, the aqueous extracts of melissa officinalis, a family of mentha x piperita "grapefruit mint," mentha x piperita var. crispa, ocimum basilicum cv "cinnamon," perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis, prunella vulgaris subsp. asiatica and satur ...19989743251
in vitro susceptibility of opportunistic fusarium spp. to essential oils.the inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from 10 indian plants were evaluated against five fungi. the plants used for extraction of essential oils were six species of the genus eucalyptus and ocimum basilicum, prosopis cineraria and derris indica. the fungi used in the experiments were fusarium solani, f. oxysporum, f. pallidoroseum, f. acuminatum and f. chlamydosporum. the susceptibility of the fusarium species was tested by the paper disc method and the serial dilution technique. the ...199910394856
isolation of additional bacteriophages with genomes of segmented double-stranded rna.eight different bacteriophages were isolated from leaves of pisum sativum, phaseolus vulgaris, lycopersicon esculentum, daucus carota sativum, raphanus sativum, and ocimum basilicum. all contain three segments of double-stranded rna and have genomic-segment sizes that are similar but not identical to those of previously described bacteriophage phi6. all appear to have lipid-containing membranes. the base sequences of some of the viruses are very similar but not identical to those of phi6. three ...199910419946
alteration of perceived fragrance of essential oils in relation to type of work: a simple screening test for efficacy of aroma.the perceptional change of fragrance of essential oils is described in relation to type of work, i.e. mental work, physical work and hearing environmental (natural) sounds. the essential oils examined in this study were ylang ylang, orange, geranium, cypress, bergamot, spearmint and juniper. in evaluating change in perception of a given aroma, a sensory test was employed in which the perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives. scores were recorded after inhaling a ...199910480677
inhibitory effects of some spice essential oils on aspergillus ochraceus nrrl 3174 growth and ochratoxin a production.inhibitory effects of essential oils of oregano (origanum vulgare), mint (menta arvensis), basil (ocimum basilicum), sage (salvia officinalis) and coriander (coriandrum sativum), on the mycelial growth and ochratoxin a production by aspergillus ochraceus nrrl 3174 were studied. cultures were incubated on yeast extract-sucrose (yes) broth, at concentrations of 0, 500, 750 and 1000 p.p.m. of essential oils during 7, 14 and 21 d at 25 degrees c. at 1000 p.p.m., oregano and mint completely inhibited ...199910583751
comparison of digestion methods for determination of trace and minor metals in plant this paper, three dissolution methods using pressure digestion vessels (low-, medium-, and high-pressure vessels) for the determination of metals in plant samples are described. the plackett-burman saturated factorial design was used to identify the significant factors influencing wet ashing and to select optimized dissolution conditions. the three methods were statistically compared (on-way anova) on the same sample; no significant differences were obtained. in all cases the relative standar ...199910606575
evaluation of the gastric antiulcerogenic effects of solanum nigrum, brassica oleracea and ocimum basilicum in rats.antiulcerogenic activities of three plant drugs were studied against aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. in addition, their effects on output of gastric acid and pepsin and hexosamine concentrations in gastric fluid were recorded in ulcerated and non-ulcerated rats. solanum nigrum (aerial parts) powder and its methanolic extract decreased the ulcer index significantly. the activity may be due to inhibition of acid and pepsin secretions and/or their in vitro ability to bind these. brassica ol ...19892515396
insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in evaluate the possible effects on insulin function, 49 herb, spice, and medicinal plant extracts were tested in the insulin-dependent utilization of glucose using a rat epididymal adipocyte assay. cinnamon was the most bioactive product followed by witch hazel, green and black teas, allspice, bay leaves, nutmeg, cloves, mushrooms, and brewer's yeast. the glucose oxidation enhancing bioactivity was lost from cinnamon, tea, witch hazel, cloves, bay leaf and allspice by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (pv ...200010725162
ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the caribs of ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the carib population of guatemala in 1988-1989. in general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. one hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information ...19911795521
internation committee on thrombosis and haemostasis basil, 8.-11. september 1974 subcommittee on clinical investigations: registry of prospective clinical trials. 1975125464
plant products as protective agents against cancer.out of various spices and leafy vegetables screened for their influence on the carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme, glutathione-s-transferase (gst) in swiss mice, cumin seeds, poppy seeds, asafoetida, turmeric, kandathipili, neem flowers, manathakkali leaves, drumstick leaves, basil leaves and ponnakanni leaves increased gst activity by more than 78% in the stomach, liver and oesophagus, - high enough to be considered as protective agents against carcinogenesis. glutathione levels were also significan ...19902283166
evaluation of a microbiological method for detection of irradiation of spices.the suitability of a microbiological method, a combination of the direct epifluorescent filter technique (deft) and the total aerobic plate count (apc), for the detection of irradiation of spices was evaluated. the evaluation was carried out using different kinds of spices including peppers, paprika, cardamom, cinnamon, ginger; herbs such as thyme, marjoram, basil, and oregano; and garlic powder. ground spices were tested as well as cut and whole spice samples. samples were analysed before and a ...19912038893
effectiveness of immersion treatments with acids, trisodium phosphate, and herb decoctions in reducing populations of yarrowia lipolytica and naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on raw chicken.yarrowia lipolytica, one of the predominant yeasts in raw poultry, is believed to play a role in spoilage. this study was undertaken to investigate treatments to control the growth of y. lipolytica on raw chicken stored at refrigeration temperature. raw chicken wings inoculated with a mixture of five strains of y. lipolytica isolated from raw poultry were dipped in solutions containing 2, 5, or 8% lactic acid, 2% lactic acid containing 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8% potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate, and ...200111252495
outbreak of cyclosporiasis associated with basil in missouri in 1999.during the summer of 1999, an outbreak of cyclosporiasis occurred among attendees of 2 events held on 24 july in different counties in missouri. we conducted retrospective cohort studies of the 2 clusters of cases, which comprised 62 case patients. the chicken pasta salad served at one event (relative risk [rr], 4.25; 95% confidence interval [ci], 1.80-10.01) and the tomato basil salad served at the other event (rr, 2.95; 95% ci, 1.72-5.07) were most strongly associated with illness. the most li ...200111264028
bactericidal activities of essential oils of basil and sage against a range of bacteria and the effect of these essential oils on vibrio parahaemolyticus.basil and sage essential oils were examined for bactericidal activity against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by viable count determinations. generally, gram-positive bacteria showed higher resistance to basil and sage essential oils than gram-negative bacteria. vibrio species showed a high sensitivity to both essential oils. stationary growth phase cells of selected bacteria showed higher resistance to these essential oils than exponential growth phase cells. basil-resistant ...199910652788
antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.the beneficial health effects of extracts from many types of plants that are used as seasoning agents in foods and beverages have been claimed for centuries. the purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected herb and spice essential oils for control of growth and survival of microorganisms. inhibition of growth was tested by the paper disc agar diffusion method. antibiotic susceptibility discs were used as control. minimum lethal concentration (mlc) was determined by the tub ...200111456186
repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors.volatile oils extracted by steam distillation from four plant species (turmeric (curcuma longa), kaffir lime (citrus hystrix), citronella grass (cymbopogon winterianus) and hairy basil (ocimum americanum)), were evaluated in mosquito cages and in a large room for their repellency effects against three mosquito vectors, aedes aegypti, anopheles dirus and culex quinquefasciatus. the oils from turmeric, citronella grass and hairy basil, especially with the addition of 5% vanillin, repelled the thre ...200111469188
modulation of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes by ocimum sanctum and its role in protection against radiation injury.aqueous extract (oe) of the leaves of ocimum sanctum, the indian holy basil, has been found to protect mouse against radiation lethality and chromosome damage and to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro. therefore a study was conducted to see if oe protects against radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liver and to determine the role, if any, of the inherent antioxidant system in radioprotection by oe. adult swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg of oe for ...199910641157
comparative study of the assay of artemia salina l. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (ld50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.artemia salina l. (artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. in this study the medium lethal concentrations (lc50 value) of 20 plant extracts, aloe vera (l.) burm. f. (aloeaceae), artemisia absinthium l. (asteraceae); citrus aurantium l. (rutaceae); cymbopogon citratus (dc. ex nees) stapf (poaceae); datura stramonium l. (solanaceae); justicia pectoralis jacq. (acanthaceae); musa x paradisiaca l. (m ...200111695884
development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of egg residues in processed foodst.chicken eggs are used extensively as an excellent source of dietary proteins. these proteins have many functional properties, making them valuable food ingredients. however, eggs are a frequent cause of food hypersensitivity, especially in children. of major concern to food processors is the inadvertent cross-contact of food products with allergenic residues, which could result in potentially life-threatening reactions in those with a food allergy. the aim of the present study was to develop an ...200111726164
gastroenterologic endoscopy in children: past, present, and future.perhaps it was the innate human fear of the dark, or the recognition that health was linked in some way to diet. maybe it was the hippocratic description of dyspepsia. whatever the reason, the human desire to peer inside the body was a driving force in the development of endoscopy. the field of gastroenterology began with the phillip bozzini's crude, candle-powered lichtleiter in 1805 and blossomed with the introduction of flexible gastrointestinal endoscopy by basil hirschowitz in the late 1950 ...200111801888
evaluation of gastric anti-ulcer activity of fixed oil of ocimum basilicum linn. and its possible mechanism of action.fixed oil of o. basilicum was found to possess significant antiulcer activity against aspirin, indomethacin, alcohol, histamine, reserpine, serotonin and stress-induced ulceration in experimental animal models. significant inhibition was also observed in aspirin-induced gastric ulceration and secretion in pylorus ligated rats. the lipoxygenase inhibiting, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory effects of the oil could probably contribute towards antiulcer activity. o. basilicum fixed oil may b ...199910641155
antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish evaluate the antimicrobial effect of nine essential oils (eo) on p. phosphoreum and determine the effect of oregano oil on the shelf-life of modified atmosphere-packed (map) cod fillets.200211849488
characterization of phenylpropene o-methyltransferases from sweet basil: facile change of substrate specificity and convergent evolution within a plant o-methyltransferase family.some basil varieties are able to convert the phenylpropenes chavicol and eugenol to methylchavicol and methyleugenol, respectively. chavicol o-methyltransferase (cvomt) and eugenol o-methyltransferase (eomt) cdnas were isolated from the sweet basil variety emx-1 using a biochemical genomics approach. these cdnas encode proteins that are 90% identical to each other and very similar to several isoflavone o-methyltransferases such as iomt, which catalyzes the 4'-o-methylation of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyis ...200211884690
mechanism of action of antiinflammatory effect of fixed oil of ocimum basilicum linn.fixed oil of o. basilicum was found to possess significant antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan and different other mediator-induced paw edema in rats. significant inhibitory effect was also observed in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats. it also inhibited arachidonic acid- and leukotriene-induced paw edema. the results of antiinflammatory activity of o. basilicum support the dual inhibition of arachidonate metabolism as indicated by its activity in inflammation models that are insens ...199910641154
[raoul against basil]. 200212108197
evaluation of the gastric antiulcer activity of fixed oil of ocimum sanctum (holy basil).the fixed oil of ocimum sanctum l. (labiatae) was found to possess significant antiulcer activity against aspirin-, indomethacin-, alcohol-, histamine-, reserpine-, serotonin- and stress-induced ulceration in experimental animal models. significant inhibition was also observed in gastric secretion and aspirin-induced gastric ulceration in pylorus ligated rats. the lipoxygenase inhibitory, histamine antagonistic and antisecretory effects of the oil could probably have contributed towards antiulce ...199910350365
effects of neem flowers, thai and chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves on hepatic monooxygenases and glutathione s-transferase activities, and in vitro metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens in rats.the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of thai and the chinese bitter gourd (momordica charantia linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (ocimum basilicum linn) on the levels of phase i enzymes, which include cytochrome p450 (p450), aniline hydroxylase (anh) and aminopyrine-n-demethylase (amd) as well as the capacity to activate the mutagenicities ...19989674955
effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi.essential oils of 12 medicinal plants were tested for inhibitory activity against aspergillus flavus, a. parasiticus, a. ochraceus and fusarium moniliforme. the oils of thyme and cinnamon (< or = 500 ppm), marigold (< or = 2000 ppm), spearmint, basil, quyssum (3000 ppm) completely inhibit all the test fungi. caraway was inhibitory at 2000 ppm against a. flavus, a. parasiticus and 3000 ppm against a. ochraceaus and f. moniliforme. a. flavus, a. ochraceus, a. parasiticus and f. moniliforme were co ...200212176092
inhibition of listeria monocytogenes and salmonella enteriditis by combinations of plant oils and derivatives of benzoic acid: the development of synergistic antimicrobial combinations.this study describes inhibitory properties of combinations of oil of fennel, oil of anise or oil of basil with either benzoic acid or methyl-paraben against listeria monocytogenes and salmonella enteriditis. micro-organisms were cultured at 37 degrees c in broth and viable counts measured over a 48-h period. s. enteriditis was particularly sensitive to inhibition by a combination of oil of anise, fennel or basil with methyl-paraben where there was < 10 cfu/ml after 1 h. l. monocytogenes was less ...19979552716
randomized placebo-controlled, single blind trial of holy basil leaves in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.experimental studies on albino rats reported that leaf extract of ocimum sanctum and ocimum album (holy basil) had hypoglycemic effect. to explore further evidence we studied the effects of treatment with holy basil leaves on fasting and postprandial blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels in humans through randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover single blind trial. results indicated a significant decrease in fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels during treatment with holy basil lea ...19968880292
patients sue "aids-cure" kenyan scientist.professor arthur obel, a kenyan scientist who claims to have found the cure for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids), through treatment with either of two drugs (kemron and pearl omega) is being sued by patients upon whom kemron was tested, and pearl omega has been banned by the kenyan ministry of health. the backlog of cases in the kenyan judicial system will allow obel to avoid answering questions about kemron, which was launched as an aids cure in 1993, while the case is coming to court ...19968642971
spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests.allergic contact dermatitis caused by spices is well documented; however, commercial patch tests are unavailable. between october, 1991, and august, 1992, a series of fifty-five patients with suspected contact dermatitis were tested at ochsner clinic for sensitivity to a group of spices at concentrations of 10 percent and 25 percent in petrolatum. concordant patch test results (positive at concentrations of 10 percent and 25 percent) were most common with ginger (seven), nutmeg(five), and oregan ...19938299390
insect-plant interactions: endocrine is the inevitable consequence of evolution that competitive species living together in a restricted space must try to exclude each other. plants and insects are prime examples of this eternal competition, and although neither of these is in danger of extinction, their mutual defensive strategies are of compelling interest to the human race. plant defences based on the insecticidal activity of certain of their secondary chemicals are readily apparent. only through research into the fundamental ...19846559111
cow's urine concoction: its chemical composition, pharmacological actions and mode of lethality.a review of current information on the composition, pharmacological actions and mode of death from cow's urine concoction (cuc) toxicity is presented. the concoction is prepared from leaves of tobacco, garlic and basil; lemon juice, rock salt and bulbs of onion. the latter items are soaked in the urine from cows which acts as the vehicle in which the active principles in these constituents dissolve. over fifty chemical compounds have been identified in cuc. the major compounds it contains are be ...19836314793
relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig.the effects of volatile oils of 22 plants from 11 different families and of some of their constituents on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles were investigated. the results were compared with the relaxant effects of catecholamines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. all of the oils had relaxant effects on the tracheal smooth muscle, the most potent were angelica root, clove, elecampane root, basil and balm leaves oil. 16 oils inhibited the phasic contractions of the ileal myenteric plexus-longitudin ...19854039178
antimicrobial effect of spices and herbs on shigella sonnei and shigella flexneri.of 17 spices and herbs tested at 1% (wt/vol) in mueller-hinton (mh) agar, only cloves, thyme, oregano, allspice, basil, rosemary, and marjoram showed antimicrobial effects on shigella. the mics of thyme, oregano, basil, and rosemary (as determined by the agar dilution method) ranged from 0.5 to 1% (wt/vol) depending on the shigella strain used. with the use of various combinations of temperatures (12, 22, and 37 degrees c), phs (5.0, 5.5, and 6.0), and nacl concentrations (1, 2, 3, and 4%, wt/vo ...200312696694
comparative studies on the activity of basil--an essential oil from ocimum basilicum l.--against multidrug resistant clinical isolates of the genera staphylococcus, enterococcus and pseudomonas by using different test methods.the essential oil basil is obtained from the aerial parts of ocimum basilicum l. after gas chromatographic separation, the following components were identified: linalol (54.95%), methylchavikol (11.98%), methylcinnamat (7.24%) and linolen (0.14%). the activity of basil against multidrug resistant clinical isolates from the genera staphylococcus, enterococcus and pseudomonas has been studied. for this purpose, standard and modified broth macrodilution methods were used and time kill kinetic of ba ...200312732427
natural inhibitors of complement. iii. inactivation of the complement cascade in vitro by vegetal spices (ocimum basilicum, artemisia dracunculus and thymus vulgaris). 19873503653
foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have arisen in north america. is the united kingdom at risk?cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasitic protozoon that causes prolonged watery diarrhoea. it is endemic in some developing countries, and recent foreign travel is often used as a selection criterion for screening in the united kingdom (uk). epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of cyclosporiasis among people in the united states and canada who had not travelled abroad showed the infection to be foodborne and often associated with foods eaten raw. these included raspberries imported from gua ...200010743320
antimicrobial properties of basil and its possible application in food packaging.basil (ocimum basilicum l.) is a popular culinary herb, and its essential oils have been used extensively for many years in food products, perfumery, and dental and oral products. basil essential oils and their principal constituents were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast, and mold. the present paper reviews primarily the topic of basil essential oils with regards to their chemical composition, their effect on microorg ...200312744643
sensitivity of pcr detection of cyclospora cayetanensis in raspberries, basil, and mesclun lettuce.the sensitivity of a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method for detection of cyclospora cayetanensis in raspberries, basil, and mesclun lettuce was evaluated. the assay could detect 40 or fewer oocysts per 100 g of raspberries or basil, but had a detection limit of around 1000 per 100 g in mesclun lettuce.200312782383
the chemotaxonomic significance of two bioactive caffeic acid esters, nepetoidins a and b, in the lamiaceae.a survey of leaf surface constituents in the family lamiaceae using hplc with diode array detection revealed the presence of two characteristic phenolic compounds in many species. the distribution of these phenolics in the lamiaceae was found to be of taxonomic significance, as they were present in the great majority of species investigated for the subfamily nepetoideae, including representatives of the well-known genera of culinary herbs, mint, rosemary, sage, thyme and basil. in contrast, they ...200312943769
characterization of geraniol synthase from the peltate glands of sweet basil.the monoterpene fraction of the lemon-scented sweet basil (ocimum basilicum) cv sweet dani consists mostly of citral (a mixture of geranial and neral), with lower levels of geraniol and nerol. these compounds are stored in the peltate glands found on the leaf epidermis. younger leaves, which have a higher density of such glands, also have a higher content of monoterpenes than older leaves. geraniol synthase (ges) activity, generating geraniol from geranyl diphosphate, was shown to be localized e ...200414657409
methyleugenol in ocimum basilicum l. cv. genovese gigante.ocimum basilicum cv. genovese gigante is the basil cultivar used the most in the production of a typical italian sauce called pesto. the aromatic composition of plants at different growth stages was determined. plants from different areas of northwestern italy were analyzed at 4 and 6 weeks after sowing and showed methyleugenol and eugenol as the main components. the content of these compounds was correlated with plant height rather than plant age. particularly, methyleugenol was predominant in ...200111170620
pseudomonas aeruginosa-plant root interactions. pathogenicity, biofilm formation, and root exudation.pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of forming a biofilm under physiological conditions that contributes to its persistence despite long-term treatment with antibiotics. here, we report that pathogenic p. aeruginosa strains pao1 and pa14 are capable of infecting the roots of arabidopsis and sweet basil (ocimum basilicum), in vitro and in the soil, and are capable of causing plant mortality 7 d postinoculation. before plant mortality, pao1 and pa14 colonize the roots ...200414701912
using recall to reduce false recognition: diagnostic and disqualifying monitoring.whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false recognition. manipulation checks indicated that the latter instructions did elicit a recall-to-reject strategy. however, false recognition was selectively r ...200414736301
fungal pathogens associated with banana fruit in sri lanka, and their treatment with essential oils.the crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in sri lanka were lasiodiplodia theobromae, fusarium proliferatum and colletotrichum musae. fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. cymbopogon nardus and ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against c. musae and f. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a poisoned food bioass ...200415008351
omegacoeur, a mediterranean nutritional complement, stimulates na,k-atpase activity in human endothelial cells.fatty acids are known as modulators of the vasoactive properties of the vessel wall and can influence the physical and functional properties of cell membrane. the membrane-bound enzyme na,k-atpase plays a central role in endothelial function such as vasoconstriction. in a previous study, we have shown that omega3 fatty acids inhibited na,k-atpase activity in human endothelial cells. as mediterranean diet is known to protect from cardiovascular diseases, we have investigated the effects of omegac ...200111355006
collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked and ground improved method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from whole, cracked, or flaked spices (basil, bay leaves, clery leaves, chervil, chives, dill weed, mint flakes, parsley, rosemary, sage, tarragon, thyme, and vegetable flakes) and from ground spices (cloves, cumin, marjoram, mustard seed, oregano, sage, and thyme). the method involves a chloroform or isopropanol defatting, followed by a direct flotation from 40% isopropanol with tween 80-edta (1+1) and mineral oil-heptane ( ...19751170162
an investigation of the storage and biosynthesis of phenylpropenes in sweet basil.plants that contain high concentrations of the defense compounds of the phenylpropene class (eugenol, chavicol, and their derivatives) have been recognized since antiquity as important spices for human consumption (e.g. cloves) and have high economic value. our understanding of the biosynthetic pathway that produces these compounds in the plant, however, has remained incomplete. several lines of basil (ocimum basilicum) produce volatile oils that contain essentially only one or two specific phen ...200111161012
composition and functional properties of the essential oil of amazonian basil, ocimum micranthum willd., labiatae in comparison with commercial essential oils.wild amazonian basil ocimum micranthum willd. (o. campechianum mill.) labiatae essential oil was analyzed by gc and gc-ms: 31 compounds were identified. the main components were eugenol (46.55 +/- 5.11%), beta-caryophyllene (11.94 +/- 1.31%), and beta-elemene (9.06 +/- 0.99%), while a small amount of linalool (1.49 +/- 0.16%) was detected. the oil was tested for its in vitro food-related biological activities and compared with common basil ocimum basilicum and thymus vulgaris commercial essentia ...200415161220
[phytochemical evaluation of essential oils, medicinal plants and their preparations].a surway is presented on the authors' work in the field of volatile oil research. the gas chromatographic method previously used for analysis of essential oils was transformed to capillary gas chromatographic conditions. the method is also suitable for separation of compound-pairs frequently occurring in essential oils (peppermint, rosemary, lavender, sage, clary sage, thyme oils). beside the gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils, which was necessary for their standardization and qualif ...19989703700
effects of rosmarinic acid against aflatoxin b1 and ochratoxin-a-induced cell damage in a human hepatoma cell line (hep g2).recent findings have suggested that oxidative damage might contribute to the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)). the induction of oxidative stress also plays an important role in the toxicity of another mycotoxin: ochratoxin a (ota). in this study, the protective effect of rosmarinic acid (ros a) against afb(1) and ota-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in a human hepatoma-derived cell line (hep g2). rosmarinic acid, a natural phenolic compound contained in many lamia ...200415300717
chemical characterization of basil (ocimum basilicum l.) found in local accessions and used in traditional medicines in iran.ocimum species are used in traditional iranian medicine, as a culinary herb, and as a well-known source of flavoring principles. horticultural characteristics, including quantitative and qualitative traits along with the chemical variation of phenolic acids, of 23 accessions of basil (ocimum basilicum l.) from iran were studied. morphological studies of accessions showed a high level of variability in recorded traits. quantification of phenolic acids was determined using high-performance liquid ...200212358453
intracellular second messengers involved in melatonin signal transduction in chicken splenocytes in vitro.the pineal hormone melatonin exhibits immunomodulatory activity well documented in mammals and birds. the mechanism of melatonin action within the immune system is, however, poorly understood. in mammalian immune cells in vitro, melatonin acts mainly as an antiapoptotic, oncostatic and antiproliferative agent, and these effects are exerted via specific receptors or are related to its free radical scavenging activity. in previous studies we have found that in short-term chicken splenocyte culture ...200415357666
herbs as a food source in turkey.medical benefits of herbs have been known for centuries. many examples contain powerful active components that, if used correctly, can help in healing the living organism. these herbs can also be provided in the form of capsules and powders, as dietary supplements, and thus differ from conventional foods or food ingredients. the traditional turkish kitchen is rich of various herbs which have been employed as ingredients since ancient times. the present paper provides a brief overview of some imp ...200415373716
characterization of a sheep brain corticotropin releasing factor binding protein.we report here the identification, purification and cdna cloning of a corticotropin releasing factor (crf) binding protein(s) (crf-bp) from sheep brain. native sheep and rat brain crf-bp and recombinant rat crf-bp were shown to be n-glycosylated. two membrane associated forms of brain crf-bps of 33 and 35 kda were purified from sheep brain homogenates after solubilization in the presence of detergent. n-terminal sequence analysis revealed that the 35 kda protein is proteolytically cleaved near t ...19968833763
the biochemical and molecular basis for the divergent patterns in the biosynthesis of terpenes and phenylpropenes in the peltate glands of three cultivars of basil.surface glandular trichomes distributed throughout the aerial parts of sweet basil (ocimum basilicum) produce and store monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and phenylpropene volatiles. three distinct basil chemotypes were used to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying the divergence in their monoterpene and sesquiterpene content. the relative levels of specific terpenes in the glandular trichomes of each cultivar were correlated with the levels of transcripts for eight genes encoding distinct terpe ...200415516500
exercise-induced fall in insulin: mechanism of action at the liver and effects on muscle glucose determine the importance of the fall in insulin on whole body glucose fluxes and muscle glucose metabolism during exercise, dogs ran on a motorized treadmill for 90 min at a moderate work rate with somatostatin (srif) infused to suppress insulin and glucagon and basal (b-ins; n = 6 dogs) or exercise-stimulated (s-ins; n = 8 dogs) insulin replacement. the fall in insulin during exercise potently stimulates glucose production at least in part by potentiating the actions of glucagon. to assess t ...19947911275
effect of various essential oils on callosobruchus maculatus (f.) (coleoptera: bruchidae).essential oils were extracted from four west african plant species [tagetes minuta (family compositae), hyptis suaveolens (family labiatae), white basil ocimum canum (family labiatae), and sweet basil o. basilicum (family labiatae)] by steam distillation. the oil of the pepper piper guineense (family piperaceae), was extracted from the fruits by hydro distillation and ethanol extraction. mixed essential oil and total ethanol extract was used. kaolin powder (clay) was mixed (aromatized) with thes ...200010880813
outbreak of cyclosporiasis in british columbia associated with imported thai basil.sporadic outbreaks of cyclosporiasis, a common cause of protracted diarrhoea in underdeveloped countries, are often undetected and undiagnosed in industrial countries. in may 2001, an outbreak of cyclospora cayetanensis gastroenteritis was identified in british columbia, canada, with 17 reported cases. we conducted a case-control study involving 12 out of the 17 reported and confirmed case patients. eleven (92%) of the patients had consumed thai basil, an essential ingredient in vietnamese cuisi ...200515724706
antibacterial properties of essential oils from thai medicinal using disc diffusion assay, the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oil samples extracted from local plants or plants cultivated in thailand was evaluated against zoonotic enteropathogens including salmonella spp., escherichai coli o157, campylobacter jejunii and clostridium perferingens which are important for broiler export. out of the essential oil tested, only the essential oil of zingiber cassumuna, cinnamomum bejolghota, mentha arvensis var. piperacens, cymbopogon citratus and ocimum ...200515752638
differential regulation of thrombin activatable fibrinolytic inhibitor by low molecular weight heparins. pharmacologic implications.thrombin activatable fibrinolytic inhibitor (tafi) is activated via cleavage by thrombin thrombomodulin in complex, and can be regulated by anticoagulant drugs such as the heparins. low molecular weight heparins (lmwhs) have different antithrombin/anti-xa profiles and therefore vary in the degree to which they inhibit tafi. the purpose of this study was to determine the differential regulation of tafi by lmwhs.200415767980
effective treatment of experimental acute otitis media by application of volatile fluids into the ear canal.essential oils are volatile and can have good antimicrobial activity. we compared the effects of oil of basil (ocimum basilicum) and essential oil components (thymol, carvacrol, and salicylaldehyde) to those of a placebo when placed in the ear canal of rats with experimental acute otitis media caused by pneumococci or haemophilus influenzae. progress was monitored by otomicroscopic examination and middle ear cultures. the treatment with oil of basil or essential oil components cured or healed 56 ...200515871121
inhibitory effects of spices and herbs towards shigella sonnei and s. flexneri.the use of spices and herbs, their essential oils or their active compounds as means of control of pathogens constitutes an alternative to chemical additives in the present study the antibacterial activities of cloves, thyme, oregano, rosemary and basil on shigella have been established. although in a model system in agar media addition of 1% basil could contribute to the 'hurdle' principle and delay outgrowth of shigella sp. this was not confirmed in real food conditions: the presence of 1% bas ...200115954648
anticarcinogenic effects of some indian plant products.the anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. the effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(b[a]p) and on the induction of hepatomas in wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'medab) were investigated. among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (cuminum cyminum linn) and basil leaves (ocimum sanctum linn) signific ...19921473788
rosmarinic acid inhibits the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in raw264.7 macrophages.antioxidant action of rosmarinic acid (ros a), a natural phenolic ingredient in many lamiaceae herbs such as perilla frutescens, sage, basil and mint, was analyzed in relation to the ikappa-b activation in raw264.7 macrophages. ros a inhibited nitric oxide (no) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) protein synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (lps), and also effectively suppressed phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (pma)-induced superoxide production in raw264.7 macrophages in a ...200516087481
solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains.the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (eos) of cinnamon (cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (syzygium aromaticum), basil (ocimum basillicum), rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis), dill (anethum graveolens), and ginger (zingiber officinalis) was evaluated over a range of concentrations in two types of contact tests (solid and vapor diffusion). the eos were tested against an array of four gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, enterococcus faecalis, and listeria monocytogenes ...200516104824
immobilization of invertase through its carbohydrate moiety on ocimum basilicum seed.yeast invertase, a glycoprotein, was covalently coupled to ocimum basilicum seeds either through its protein or carbohydrate moiety. of the various methods investigated, binding of the enzyme through its carbohydrate moiety resulted in the retention of considerably higher amounts of enzyme activity. immobilized invertase showed a shift in the ph optimum toward the alkaline side without appreciable change in temperature optimum. however, the immobilized preparation was more thermostable than the ...19921329654
antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of ocimum basilicum.1. ocimum basilicum (ob), also known as sweet basil, is a well known medicinal herb in traditional chinese medicine preparations. in the present study, extracts and purified components of ob were used to identify possible antiviral activities against dna viruses (herpes viruses (hsv), adenoviruses (adv) and hepatitis b virus) and rna viruses (coxsackievirus b1 (cvb1) and enterovirus 71 (ev71)). 2. the results show that crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ob and selected purified components, ...200516173941
radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes in vitro by orientin and vicenin.orientin (ot) and vicenin (vc), two water-soluble flavonoids isolated from the leaves of indian holy basil ocimum sanctum have shown significant protection against radiation lethality and chromosomal aberrations in vivo. in the present study the protective effect of ot and vc against radiation induced chromosome damage in cultured human peripheral lymphocytes was determined by micronucleus test. in order to select the most effective drug concentration, fresh whole blood was exposed to 4gy of cob ...200111673069
[fusarium species of the quebrada de lozano, jujuy, argentina].a soil sampling was made in 50 cultivated places with horticultural and floral species where there were fusariosis records. for the isolation bengal rose agar, peptone dichloran chloramphenicol agar and cayote dichloran chloramphenicol agar were used, being this last one, the more convenient. the isolates were identified as f. acuminatum, f. avenaceum, f. graminearum, f. merismoides, f. oxysporum, f. poae, f. proliferatum, f. semitectum, f. solani, f. subglutinans and f. sporotrichioides. it was ...200516178470
in vitro antiphagocytic effect of basil oil on mouse macrophages.the effect of basil oil on the phagocytic capability and respiratory burst response of mouse peritoneal macrophages was studied. the oil inhibited the phagocytosis of opsonized sheep erythrocytes. this inhibition was both dose- and time-dependent and reverted 24 h after removing the extract from the culture medium. on the other hand, the oil showed no effect on concanavalin a and lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation.200212165330
comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.essential oils extracted from different plants (anthemis nobilis l., artemisia dracunculus l., cannabis sativa l., cupressus sempervirens l., cymbopogon citratus (dc.) stapf., curcuma longa l., foeniculum vulgare l., hypericum perforatum l., hyssopus officinalis l., mentha spicata l., monarda didyma l., ocimum basilicum l., ocotea quixos kosterm., origanum vulgare l., pinus nigra j.f. arnold, pinus silvestris l., piper crassinervium kunth., rosmarinus officinalis l., salvia officinalis l., salvi ...200616274702
determination of antioxidant potential of volatile extracts isolated from various herbs and spices.antioxidant activities of volatile extracts isolated from thyme, basil, rosemary, chamomile, lavender, and cinnamon were evaluated by two independent assays: the aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay and the conjugated diene assay. the volatile extracts were prepared from dried herbs and spices using liquid-liquid continuous extraction following steam distillation under reduced pressure (55 degrees c and 95 mmhg). the antioxidant activities of the extracts decreased in the following order in both of th ...200212166987
effects on humans elicited by inhaling the fragrance of essential oils: sensory test, multi-channel thermometric study and forehead surface potential wave measurement on basil and peppermint.the effects on humans inhaling the fragrance of essential oils were examined in terms of a sensory test, a multi-channel skin thermometer study and a portable forehead surface electroencephalographic (ibva-eeg) measurement. the essential oils examined in this study were those of basil and peppermint, because our previous sensory test had indicated an opposite effect of these essential oils when mental work was undertaken; the inhalation of basil produced a more favorable impression after work th ...200312558038
glucuronidation of 1'-hydroxyestragole (1'-he) by human udp-glucuronosyltransferases ugt2b7 and ugt1a9.estragole (4-allyl-1-methoxybenzene) is a naturally occurring food flavoring agent found in basil, fennel, bay leaves, and other spices. estragole and its metabolite, 1'-hydroxyestragole (1'-he), are hepatocarcinogens in rodent models. recent studies from our laboratory have shown that glucuronidation of 1'-he is a major detoxification pathway for estragole and 1'-he, accounting for as much as 30% of urinary metabolites of estragole in rodents. therefore, this study was designed to investigate t ...200312657745
methyleugenol and eugenol variation in ocimum basilicum cv. genovese gigante grown in greenhouse and in vitro.the variation of the two main aromatic compounds in ocimum basilicum cv genovese gigante grown in greenhouse and "in vitro" was analyzed. the content of methyleugenol and eugenol was correlated to the plants' height rather than to the plants' age and the growth site. particularly, methyleugenol was prevalent in plants up to 6.5 cm, as plants grew it was replaced by eugenol that was dominant in taller plants. analysis of basil 20 cm in height showed that methyleugenol is prevalently localized in ...200111822201
effects of food materials on removal of allium-specific volatile sulfur compounds.effects of food materials were investigated on removal of several kinds of thiols, sulfides, and disulfides, which arise from vegetables of allium species during food preparation and eating. methanethiol, propanethiol, and 2-propenethiol were captured by raw foods such as fruits, vegetables, and mushrooms or a mixture of their acetone powders and phenolic compounds. the odor of diallyl disulfide was remarkably reduced by kiwi fruit, spinach, cutting lettuce, parsley, basil, mushrooms, and, parti ...200212059171
characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils.the essential oils of ocimum basilicum l., origanum vulgare l., and thymus vulgaris l. were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. the antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (rsc), together with effects on lipid peroxidation (lp). rsc was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (dpph(*)) and oh(*) radicals. effects on lp we ...200616506839
solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation.solvent-free microwave extraction (sfme) is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. sfme has been compared with a conventional technique, hydro-distillation (hd), for the extraction of essential oil from three aromatic herbs: basil (ocimum basilicum l.), garden mint (mentha crispa l.), and thyme (thymus vulgaris l.). the essenti ...200415330107
[fennel tea: risk assessment of the phytogenic monosubstance estragole in comparison to the natural multicomponent mixture].for centuries, fennel fruits have been used as traditional herbal medicine in europe and china. for the treatment of infants and sucklings suffering from dyspeptic disorders, fennel tea is the drug of first choice. its administration as a carminativum is practiced in infant care in private homes and in maternity clinics as well where it is highly appreciated for its mild flavor and good tolerance. the long standing positive experience is astonishingly contrasted by a recent statement of the germ ...200415138375
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