[the significance of small mammals in the epizootiology of leptospirosis in livestock].1. favourite species of rodents in sheds and their surroundings are rats (rattus norvegicus, r. rattus) and house mouse (mus musculus). from the epizootiological point of view only r. norvegicus is important as the maintenance host of l. copenhageni. 2. in surrounding of sheds vole (microtus arvalis) and back-striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius) are sources of infection for livestock. 3. transmission of leptospira occurs via infected environment. the tenacity of leptospira mozdok and l. gripp ...19921622379
[analysis of leptospiral deoxyribonucleic acids by restriction endonucleases].for the application of restriction endonuclease analysis in typing and identifying leptospira, we selected some serovars and isolates, and analysed preliminarily their dna with four restriction enzymes, ecor i, bgl ii, hha i, and hind iii. the dna samples were isolated from the reference strains and isolates as follows: serovar lai 56601, 017 (the virulent strain for pdh model of guinea pig), serovar autumnalis 56606, serovar manhao ii 67020, and isolates 87112 and 87369. each 2 micrograms of dn ...19911660846
[cereal grain preference of rats].cereal grains are usually used as the main material for preparing rodenticide baits. however, the preferences for different grains varies according to species and habitats of rats, and locations. a formula accepted at one location may not be suitable in other places, where rats are accustomed to different types of food. it is therefore important to understand the feeding habits of local rat species before implementing a control program. seven kinds of grains, including hulled rice, corn, barley, ...19902402029
experimental infection with puumala virus, the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica, in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus).subclinical chronic infections characterized by transient viremia, prolonged virus shedding in oropharyngeal secretions and feces, and virus persistence in tissues (particularly lung) developed in laboratory-bred weanling bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus) inoculated intramuscularly with puumala virus (strain hällnäs), the etiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica. viral antigen, as evidence by granular fluorescence, was detected in the lungs, liver, spleen, pancreas, salivary glands, and smal ...19852861296
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in czechoslovakia: detection of antigen in small terrestrial mammals and specific serum antibodies in man.a direct elisa technique was used for demonstration of hfrs virus antigen in suspensions of the lungs obtained from 774 wild small mammals belonging to 13 zoological species trapped in 21 localities in czechoslovakia between 1983 and 1984. western serotype of hfrs virus was demonstrated in the lungs of 8 microtus arvalis voles caught in the areas of central bohemia, southern moravia and western slovakia, and in one clethrionomys glareolus vole from the area of eastern slovakia. the eastern serot ...19863084630
serological survey with the antigen of haemorrhagic fever virus with renal syndrome in small rodents in slovakia.results of serological survey in small rodents with the antigen of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus indicate the existence of a natural focus of this virus in slovakia. antibodies were found in the following free-living rodent species: clethrionomys glareolus, apodemus agrarius, apodemus sylvaticus, pitymys subterraneus, microtus arvalis and microtus economus. a total 10 out of 120 (8.2%) small rodents trapped in investigated localities of western and eastern slovakia had anti ...19862873734
[trombiculid mites (acarina: trombiculidae) from apodemus agrarius coreae caught at pochun-gun, gyeonggi province and chinhae-city, kyongnam province].during october-december 1987, chigger mites infested on the striped field mice (apodemus agrarius coreae) collected at pochun-gun, gyeonggi province and chinhae city, kyongnam province were identified. 1. of 171 back-striped mice collected, chigger mites were found from 58 mice, showing 33.9% of infestation rate. 2. total 865 chigger mites collected were classified into seven species; leptotrombidium pallidum (4.3%), l. palpale(23.0%), l. orientalis(20.2), l. zetum(19.0%). neotrombicula tamiyai( ...19892486831
[experimental studies on the transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus by gamasidea mites and fleas].hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus was isolated from 3 species of gamasidea mites (haemolaelaps glasgowi, laelaps jettmari, eulaelaps shanghaiensis), and 2 species of fleas (monopsyllus anisus, leptopsylla segnis) collected from nests of hfrs virus-infected apodemus agrarius, whereas hfrs virus was not recovered from gamasidea mites and fleas collected from nests of uninfected apodemus agrarius. it was thus confirmed that hfrs is a disease of animal origin with natural foci of in ...19911684135
susceptibility of laboratory and wild rodents to rattus or apodemus-type wistar rats (rattus norvegicus), apodemus agrarius, meriones unguiculatus, clethrionomys rufocanus, and apodemus argenteus were inoculated with rattus-type (sr-11, ki-262, and tb-314) or apodemus-type (hantaan 76-118) hantaviruses. production of serum antibody to the inoculated virus (iaha titres of 1:32 to 1:4 096) was obsersved in all rodent species 10 weeks after virus inoculation. rattus-type virus was detected in some organs of all the rodent species employed except of apodemus agrari ...19911683116
[the noncorrespondence of the geographic ranges of the host and the causative agent].for the first time the experimental and field studies of leptospira infections, carried out over the period of 6 years, have revealed that the habitat of striped field mice (apodemus agrarius pallas 1778) serving as a host for leptospira pomona, serovar mozdok, is much wider than the habitat of the infective agent proper. the presence of an animal species highly sensitive to a definite leptospiral serovar and serving as its reservoir at a given locality cannot be regarded as a proof of the prese ...19882977463
epidemiological studies on host animals of tsutsugamushi disease in korea.epidemiological studies on host rodents of tsutsugamushi disease were carried out during the period of july-september 1990 at nine localities of central korea. among total 111 wild rodents trapped by the modified sherman live traps, 103 were apodemus agrarius (92.8%), seven were crocidura lasiura (6.3%) and one was microtus fortis (0.9%), showing 24.0% of trapping rate in winter, 11.7% in spring, 11.2% in summer and 12.0% in autumn. out of 103 a. agrarius 84 were parasitized by chiggers, showing ...19911954201
loss of lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on european determine whether blackbirds (turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of central europe, may contribute to the transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. european blackbirds experience intense exposure to ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. in nature, subadult i. ricinus ticks found feeding on ...19921740177
indirect immunofluorescence tests in korean hemorrhagic fever and epidemic (endemic) nephropathia: treatment at low ph for removal of 'nonspecific' fluorescence in tissues from immunocompetent hosts.a 'nonspecific' fluorescence probably caused by immunocomplexes appears in the lung tissue of immunocompetent hosts infected with korean hemorrhagic fever (khf) or epidemic nephropathy (en) viruses. indirect immunofluorescence tests with such khf- or en-infected tissue as antigen are unsatisfactory for the detection of low-titer antibody or the reading of titer endpoints. treatment of acetone-fixed lung sections at ph 3.0 followed by washing with 0.01 m phosphate-buffered saline and distilled wa ...19826126464
hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in yugoslavia: epidemiologic and epizootiologic features of a nationwide outbreak in 1989.a nationwide epidemic of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) occurred in yugoslavia in 1989. sera from 609 hospitalized patients, from all six republics (bosnia and hercegovina, croatia, macedonia, montenegro serbia, slovenia) and two provinces (kosovo and vojvodina), who had signs and symptoms suggestive of hfrs, and sera and lung tissues from 544 small mammals belonging to 13 species were studied for evidence of hantavirus infection. of the 226 patients with serologically confirmed hf ...19921363468
study on vector mites of tsutsugamushi disease in cheju island, korea.because no reference on trombiculid mites (acarina: trombiculidae) in cheju island where tsutsugamushi disease is highly endemic had been available, studies on trombiculid mites in cheju island were implemented during the period of august 1991-april 1992, and the results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) the species and numbers of the field rodents collected were 143 apodemus agrarius chejuensis (92.3%), 11 crocidura lasiura (7.1%) and 1 micromys minutus (0.6%). from total 12,075 chiggers ...19921297424
[blood parasites of small wild mammals in czechoslovakia].the author investigated 4,853 specimens of wild living small mammals (43 species: insectivora, chiroptera, lagomorpha, rodentia, carnivora) from czechoslovakia for blood parasites. trypanosomes were found in talpa europaea, sorex alpinus, crocidura suaveolens, myotis myotis, apodemus sylvaticus, apodemus flavicollis, mus musculus, rattus norvegicus, clethrionomys glareolus and microtus agrestis. babesia was detected in myotis emarginatus, myotis myotis, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis ...19751158292
detection of the antigen and antibodies to the eastern subtype of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus in small rodents in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used for the demonstration of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus antigen in lung tissue of small rodents trapped in eastern and western slovakia. the eastern subtype of hfrs virus antigen was demonstrated in the lungs of apodemus agrarius and of the western subtype in the lungs of microtus arvalis. antibodies to hfrs virus antigen have been detected in apodemus species (a. agrarius and a. flavicollis) in higher titres to the e ...19882899965
[faunal-ecological relations forming the populations of ectoparasites of apodemus agrarius (pall.) and a. flavicollis (melch.) in the forest regions of gdansk]. 19883218248
pathogenesis of experimental hantaan virus infection in laboratory rats.weanling fischer rats inoculated intramuscularly with hantaan virus (strain 76-118) developed subclinical infections characterized by transient viremia and shedding of virus in saliva, persistence of virus in lung, pancreas, spleen and liver, and development of fluorescent and neutralizing antibodies in serum with immune complex deposition in lung. viremia and virus shedding in saliva occurred 10 to 13 days after inoculation. horizontal intracage transmission of infection occurred between 35 and ...19862869749
[preliminary study on the virulent difference between viral strains isolated from rattus norvegicus and apodemus agrarius in fujian province].virulence between virus strains of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) from r. norvegicus and a. agrarius were different, besides the diversity in their epidemiological feature, clinical symptoms and antigenicity. virulence of the virus strains from r. norvegicus, especially those from nonepidemic areas, were weak than those from a. agrarius. sucking mice might be used for determining virulence of the virus strains from various source. foci of hfrs had been in southern fujian, but human ...19892567628
[preliminary study on epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) in guizhou province].during 1962-1986, ehf cases have been reported in 50 out of 82 counties in guizhou province. it was high in northern guizhou province. however, serological survey of the population showed that endemic area extended to 51 counties. the inapparent infection rate ranged from 0 to 4.04%. in 76 out of 82 counties the rodents were found to carry hantavirus. apodemus agrarius of zunyi county of guizhou and rattus norvegicus of the eastern and south guizhou are important reservoirs of ehf. hantavirus ha ...19892567626
experimental infection with the virulent, central-european, murine leptospira pomona strain in the pig.the virulent, murine leptospira pomona strain isolated from apodemus agrarius was used in an experimental infection of six pigs aged 4--5 months. the clinical course of the infection was inapparent, both the blood picture and the uptake of food were normal. all infected pigs produced antibodies against l. pomona at titres from 1:3 200 to 1:50 000. the reisolation of leptospires from the blood of the infected pigs was successful in one case only, and that on day two p.i. throughout the course of ...19836629206
[area and natural reservoirs of hemorrhagic fever virus with kidney syndrome in the far east of the ussr].lungs of 9127 small mammals of 17 species trapped in khabarovsk region, magadan, amur, and sakhalin regions in 1982-1987 were examined, among them 11 species are reservoirs of hfrs virus. most frequently infected are striped field mice and japanese field mice, red voles and large-toothed red-backed voles which are the dominant species of the appropriate landscape formations. circulation of two hfrs virus serotypes among small mammals was demonstrated. the main epidemiological role belongs to the ...19892514490
determination of the vector species of tsutsugamushi disease in order to determine the vector species of tsutsugamushi disease in korea, chiggers were individually dissected, and internal contents were tested for rickettsia tsutsugamushi organisms by means of indirect fa test, and each exoskeleton was mounted on slide for identification. among 4,142 chiggers collected from 48 apodemus agrarius at nine different localities during the period of july-november, 1989, 990 chiggers of 10 species of trombiculidae were dissected and tested. rickettsiae were confi ...19911911628
recent studies on scrub typhus and rickettsia tsutsugamushi in shandong an outbreak of scrub typhus occurred 138 cases in 1986 in menying county of shandong province of china which were confirmed through clinical and epidemiological surveys and laboratory techniques. in the endemic areas, the predominant species of mite is leptotrombidium (l.) scutelarae and the predominant rodent is apodemus agrarius, which may be the main vector and reservoir. several strains of rickettsia tsutsugamushi (r.t.) were obtained from mites, wild mice and patients, of which 3 human s ...19911909245
a serotypic study of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in rural china.apodemus agrarius was trapped in the fields and rattus norvegicus was trapped within the houses in the villages of jiande county, a region in the zhejiang province of china endemic for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs). antibodies to hantaviruses were detected in three (16.7%) of 18 a. agrarius and 12 (13.5%) of 89 r. norvegicus, whereas hantavirus antigens were detected in the lung tissues of four (22.2%) of 18 and nine (10.1%) of 89 of these rodents, respectively. three hantaviruses ...19957694967
identification of borrelia burgdorferi isolated in korea using outer surface protein a (ospa) serotyping system.two characteristic strains (935t, 934u) of b. burgdorferi isolated from ixodes persulcatus and a wild rodent (apodemus agrarius) in korea were selected and analyzed by an immunoblot method using the monoclonal antibodies directed to different epitopes of outer surface protein a (ospa). the reactive pattern of strain 934u with these monoclonal antibodies was identical to that of strains belonging to b. afzelii and that of strain 935t was different from other isolates. monoclonal antibody (5tee3) ...19947723693
failure to prove arenavirus infection among the small mammals from an endemic area of korean hemorrhagic the light of recent knowledge on a complex of diseases caused by a new group of viruses, arenaviruses, virological studies largely directed toward small field mammals were undertaken during 1973-1974 aiming at etiological clarification of korean hemorrhagic nephrosonephritis (khnn). specimens were collected in an endemic area of khnn located north to northeast of seoul. virus isolation tests with 299 urine specimens and 131 mite pools recovered from small mammals and 14 acute stage sera from ...197612383
[differences in the susceptibility of field mice from the altai territory and moscow province to leptospira of serovar mozdok and serogroup pomona].adult striped field mice (apodemus agrarius) caught in the altai region proved to be insusceptible to experimental infection when inoculated with leptospira of serovar mozdok, serogroup pomona. in pregnant females, though infected with this organism, no leptospiruria was observed. at the same time nonpubescent animals became leptospira carriers, females becoming carriers 4.5 times more frequently than males. the formation of antibodies to leptospira in the test rodents was poorly pronounced and ...19853158138
propagation of korean hemorrhagic fever virus in laboratory rats.korean hemorrhagic fever virus (khfv) has been adapted to the wistar and fisher strains of rats. infection was detected by the appearance of specific antigen in the lung tissue of the infected rats at 14 to 64 days after inoculation and by the appearance of circulating antibodies in ther serum which reacted specifically with khfv antigen in the lungs of infected apodemus agrarius subsp. coreae 3 weeks after inoculation. distribution of antigen in rat tissues as determined by immunofluorescent st ...19816111538
epidemiological studies on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in china.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) has been reported from greater than 20 provinces in china. the number of reported cases has increased markedly in recent years and surpassed 80,000 human cases in 1983. all of the cases reported before 1981 were from rural areas and were attributed to apodemus rats. in 1981, outbreaks of cases associated with house rats were first reported. cases associated with apodemus agrarius were more severe than those associated with the house rat rattus norvegi ...19862874178
basic carriers of trichophyton mentagrophytes var. gypseum in the sverdlovsk region.tests for myococarriers were made on 4.297 wild small mammals. clinical examinations only were carried out on 1,204 animals, both clinical and laboratory examinations on 3,093 animals. the suppurative form of trichophytosis was diagnosed in only one specimen of microtus oeconomus out of 1,204 animals examined. t. ectothrix microides was found in the hair taken from the focus. t. mentagrophytes var. gypseum was obtained by culture on nutrient media. no clinical signs of mycosis were found in 3,09 ...19873680938
intraspecific transmission of hantaan virus, etiologic agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, in the rodent apodemus agrarius.experimental parameters of infection and intraspecific transmission of hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, in apodemus agrarius rodents were determined. mice inoculated by the intramuscular route experienced viremia for about 1 week beginning on day 7. after 3 weeks, immunofluorescent and neutralizing antibodies were present and no mouse ever developed signs of acute illness. virus was recovered from lung, kidney, salivary gland, and liver, and virus excretion in urin ...19816116436
[occurrence of leptospira serovars in old foci of leptospirosis].in two old natural foci of leptospiroses in an eastern slovakian area an epidemiological investigation was made to detect persisting carriership in basis reservoirs-small mammals and the contact with leptospirae in population groups with an occupational risk. using the microagglutination reaction (mar), the authors examined 1,106 small mammals and detected in 50 cases, i.e. 4.5%, the presence of specific antibodies against leptospirae, most frequently in species apodemus agrarius and ap. flavico ...19948019818
isolation of hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, from wild urban rats.urban rats captured in seoul and four nearby korean cities were found to have immunofluorescent antibodies reactive with hantaan virus, the etiologic agent of korean hemorrhagic fever (khf). serum antibodies were detected in 13% from 477 rattus norvegicus and 11% of 47 rattus rattus. hantaan viral antigen was found in pulmonary tissues of 42 animals, and hantaan virus was recovered from 23 rats, all but two of which were r. norvegicus. wistar rats were qualitatively much more sensitive than apod ...19826127366
definition of three serotypes of hantaviruses by a double sandwich elisa with biotin-avidin amplification system.a total of seven different isolates of hantaviruses from five mammalian species and six geographical areas were examined by a double sandwich elisa with biotin-avidin amplification system. three serotypes were recognized by comparing antigen titres to homologous and heterologous antibody and blocking antibody titres to homologous and heterologous antigens. serotype 1 included four strains: hantaan virus isolated from apodemus agrarius in south korea, hupei-i isolated from acute-phase serum from ...19853926952
[infection with leptospira interrogans, serovar mozdok, in cattle].in east germany the same serovar, leptospira mozdok, of the pomona serogroup is found in cattle as well as in swine populations (zieris 1989). nowadays cases of bovine leptospirosis caused by infection with l. pomona have no significance. there are marked epizoological differences between infection with l. mozdok and l. pomona. the main source of infection with l. mozdok for cattle is the black striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius). secondary homonomous transmission occurs among the cattle. th ...19921509476
dependence of pathogenic properties of leptospires on animal subspecies.1. leptospires of mozdok serotype of the pomona serogroup possessed specific pathogenic properties for a definite subspecies of apodemus agrarius. they caused carriership in rodents of a european population, but were unable to cause such a process in far east mice. however, leptospires of monjakov and pomona types were also unable to provoke leptospiruria in these small mammals. 2. the intensity of the formation of antibody to leptospires in different subspecies of apodemus agrarius was dependen ...19751154903
haemorrhagic fever virus with renal syndrome in small rodents in czechoslovakia.the antigen of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) was detected in the lungs of the following free-living small rodents trapped in different localities in eastern slovakia: clethrionomys glareolus (2 positive samples of 7), apodemus flavicollis (1 sample of 24) and apodemus agrarius (7 positive samples of 66). the virus was first identified by indirect fluorescent antibody (fa) staining using human convalescent serum from a case of epidemic nephropathy (ne) of scandinavia. the lung sus ...19846151356
detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus antibody in colonies of laboratory animals in japan.indirect fluorescent antibody method was applied for a detection of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (lcmv) antibody in colonies of laboratory animals in japan. the results showed that the antibody exist in spf mice (3/152, 2.2%) and conventional mice (30/539, 5.6%) with the titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:160. the antibody was also detected in 2.2% (2/89) of syrian hamsters, and 2.9% (2/68) of apodemus agrarius, 21.4% (3/14) of japanese harvest mice which have been maintained as laboratory colo ...19863525200
virion proteins of viruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; monoclonal antibody analysis.sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting analysis by using 9 clones of monoclonal antibodies specific for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) viruses were carried out on the virion proteins of 17 strains of hfrs viruses isolated from different areas in asia and different hosts such as apodemus agrarius, rattus norvegicus, domestic cat and hfrs patients. polypeptide with apparent molecular weight about 50 kitodalton (kd) could be detected in all 17 strains of hfrs viru ...19892474668
differential detachment from resting hosts of replete larval and nymphal ixodes determine whether replete subadult ixodes ticks detach more frequently from resting than from active hosts, diverse rodents and lizards were caged in an apparatus designed to record the ticks' sites of detachment relative to the resting site of the host. replete larval ixodes ricinus and ixodes dammini accumulated mainly beneath the resting places of the mice (apodemus agrarius and peromyscus leucopus) most frequently parasitized in nature. although nymphal i. ricinus similarly detached where ...19912040945
[the serogroup and serotype distribution of leptospira in sichuan province from 1958-1987].this paper summarized the serogroup and serotype distribution of 7,560 strains leptospira in sichuan province from 1958 to 1987. at present, leptospira 16 serogroup and 35 serotype have been found. the icterohaemorrhagiae group lai type is the major and stable serogroup and serotype in patients. we have proved that rodents insectivores and domestic animals are the main reservoir host. the former carries icterohaemorrhagiae group and the latter carries pomona group. the serotype carried on the re ...19911934046
isolation of toxoplasama from a taiwan field mouse. apodemus agrarius. 19744532149
[etiological studies of epidemic hemorrhagic fever. i. virus isolation in apodemus agrarius from non-endemic area and its antigenic characterization]. 19826128079
etiologic studies of epidemic hemorrhagic fever (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome).two strains of epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) virus were isolated from the lung tissues of apodemus agrarius mice that were captured in an area where ehf is endemic. the strains were isolated by passages in a. agrarius mice from a nonendemic area. identification of the isolates by usual procedures was confirmed by repeated blind tests with coded sera. contamination with certain known viruses such as reovirus, adenovirus (types 3 and 7), and other pathogens, such as murine typhus rickettsiae an ...19836132949
muroid virus nephropathies and muroid viruses of the hantaan virus group.hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) came dramatically to the attention of western medicine in 1951 with the "new" disease becoming a major source of morbidity and mortality in american troops in korea. known there as epidemic hemorrhagic fever (ehf) or korean hemorrhagic fever (khf), it became apparent that it was the same disease as the endemic (epidemic) hemorrhagic nephroso-nephritis of the soviet far east and songo fever of the japanese army in manchuria. the conjecture that the mil ...19826134336
role of small mammals in the epidemiology of toxocariasis.studies were conducted on the role of small mammals in maintaining toxocariasis foci in urban, rural and montane biotopes. the lowest relative density of small mammals was recorded in the urban locality and the highest in the rural and montane localities. anti-toxocara antibodies were most frequently detected in synanthropic and hemisynanthropic species mus musculus, apodemus agrarius and micromys minutus--32.0, 30.4 and 25.0%, respectively. the highest seropositivity was found in small mammals ...19957885737
studies on the environment structure of natural nidi and epidemic areas of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in china.the environment structure of natural nidi and epidemic areas of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) possesses characteristics of topography, hydrology, climate, soil, vegetation, and animals. the natural nidi and epidemic areas of hfrs are distributed mainly in plain and hilly regions under 500 meters above the sea level; in plentiful-water zones and transitional zones; in temperate zone and subtropical zone of the eastern monsoon region; in the abundant-aluminum soil region and the sia ...19947910790
molecular and serologic survey of orientia tsutsugamushi infection among field rodents in southern cholla province, korea.field rodents were collected from six areas in southern cholla province, korea from october to december 1993. twenty-eight (24%) of the 119 apodemus agrarius were seropositive (> 1:10) for orientia tsutsugamushi by the passive hemagglutination assay (pha). of the seropositive cases, 11 specimens had antibody titers greater than 1:80. no seropositive specimens were found among the eight crocidura lasiura collected. on the other hand, the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified about 520 basepai ...19989574801
[study of apodemus (agrarius) as a host of epidemic hemorrhagic fever virus and application of apodemus lung antigen for laboratory diagnosis]. 19826192929
antigenic differences between two viruses, isolated in japan and korea, that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.hantaan virus (hv) 76-118, isolated from apodemus agrarius coreae in korea, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) virus b-1, isolated from a rat in japan, were examined for polypeptide compositions and for differences in immune responses in rats. in immunoprecipitation experiments, a major polypeptide of ca. 50 kilodaltons (k) was detected with antisera against hv 76-118 in cell extracts from vero e6 cells infected with hfrs virus b-1, whereas three major polypeptides of 74 k (glycosy ...19846207309
[a description of the b chromosomes in the karyotype of the field mouse apodemus agrarius].for the first time b-chromosomes were detected in apodemus agrarius. in the mouse of the population from the khabarovsk territory. b-chromosome is a minichromosome and it is found in all metaphase plates (2 n = 48 + 1b). b-chromosome of the mouse from the maritime territory is a medium-sized heterochromatic acrocentric (2n = 48 + 0-1b) and it is found in 53% of metaphase plates analyzed.19947941023
disseminated intravascular coagulation in korean hemorrhagic investigate the nature and role of coagulation and complement alterations in the pathogenesis of korean hemorrhagic fever (khf), the profiles from the early stages in 27 male patients were serially evaluated. evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (dic) was observed in 14 of the 27 patients (51.8%) sometime during the course of the disease. the earlier the coagulation tests were performed, the more frequently the evidence of dic was found. the mean serum c3 concentration was signi ...19836141786
retrospective and prospective studies of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in rural china.residents of two villages in zhejiang province, china, were interviewed and serum samples were collected to assess prevalence of hantavirus infection. antibody prevalence was 12% (219/1811), with a ratio of illness to infection of 1.0:5.4. seroprevalence increased with age, but no association was found with sex. there was also no evidence of vertical transmission. one year later, 2.3% (30/1325) of seronegative subjects had seroconverted including 2 who had hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. ...19947915747
observations on natural and laboratory infection of rodents with the etiologic agent of korean hemorrhagic fever.studies were conducted to define the natural host range of the korean hemorrhagic fever (khf) agent in south korea, and to identify colonized rodents susceptible to this infection. eight species of field rodents were captured in areas of korea endemic for khf and their tissues were examined by immunofluorescence for the presence of khf antigen. one hundred and fourteen of 817 apodemus agrarius coreae captured between 1974 and 1978 had one or more positive organs. no positive organ was found in 2 ...19816786119
[studies on natural foci of tsutsugamushi disease of the autumn-winter type in jiangsu].before 1986, tsutsugamushi disease was known only prevalent in south to zhejiang province in our country, belonged to the summer type and leptotrombidium (l.) deliense was regarded as the main vector. in october 1986, the authors found this disease in nanjing and carried out a series of studies in 1986-1992. the results were as follows: tsutsugamushi disease was epidemic in nanjing and north of jiangsu (including: dongtai, haian, rudong, jinhu, hanjiang, jiangdu); belonged to the autumn-winter t ...19948082137
[a new natural focus of scrub typhus found in hunchun].from may to june 1992, apodemus agrarius and apodemus speciosus were captured in hunchun, jilin province. four strains of rickettsia tsutsugamushi were isolated from viscera of rats and trombiculid mites. at the same time, the antibody against rickettsia tsutsugamushi was assayed in the sera of the local people and the wild rats. the positive rates were 15.2% and 16.4%, respectively. the above results showed that a natural focus of scrub typhus exists in hunchun area.19948082138
genetic evidence of dobrava virus in apodemus agrarius in hungary.using nested polymerase chain reaction, we sequenced dobrava virus (dob) from the rodent apodemus agrarius in hungary. the samples we isolated group with dob samples previously isolated from a. flavicollis. this grouping may indicate host switching.199910341190
short report: simultaneous occurrence of dobrava, puumala, and tula hantaviruses in slovakia.the prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in slovakia (serum panel n = 2,133) was lower in the western part (0.54%) and higher in the eastern part (1.91%) of the country and was found to be significantly enhanced in a group of forest workers from eastern slovakia (5.88%). one-third of the igm-negative convalescent phase sera from patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome exhibited antibodies reacting predominantly with puumala virus antigen, while two-thirds had antibodies directed ma ...199910497981
identification and characterization of lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, isolated in korea.lyme disease spirochetes, borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, were identified and characterized for the first time in korea. four isolates, designated konkuk-1, konkuk-2, kangwon-3, and km-4, were made from midgut suspensions of three ixodes ticks and heart tissue from one mouse, apodemus agrarius, collected from chungbuk and kangwon provinces. the four korean isolates and b. burgdorferi sensu lato from other geographic areas and biological sources were compared by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly ...19938349761
microsatellite markers in wood mouse and striped field mouse (genus apodemus). 19989532763
detection of rickettsia sibirica in ticks and small mammals collected in three different regions of china.the primers rr 190.70p and rr 190.602n were used to detect spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in ticks and small mammals collected in three different regions of china. the obtained results indicated that specific dna fragments of sfg rickettsiae were amplified from dermacentor silvarum, d. sinicus, d. auratus, haemaphysalis concinna, h. wellingtoni, h. yeni, apodemus agrarius, microtus fortis. clethrionomys rufocanus, ondatra zibethica, rattus flavipectus an ...19989645245
infection rate of leptospira interrogans in the field rodent, apodemus agrarius, in korea.leptospirosis has significantly decreased in korea since 1988, following the leptospiral vaccination programme initiated in 1988. whether this wholly explains the decreased incidence is uncertain. as an initial step to answer this question, infection rates of leptospira interrogans in field rodents, apodemis agrarius, were examined and compared with previous data. two hundred and twenty-two a. agrarius were captured during october-december 1996. spirochaetes were isolated from 22 (9.9%) and lept ...199810030719
isolation and characterization of dobrava hantavirus carried by the striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius) in estonia.dobrava hantavirus (dob) was isolated from the striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius) trapped on saaremaa island, estonia, and its genetic and antigenic characteristics were subsequently analysed. phylogenetic analysis showed that the estonian dob strain, together with several wild strains carried by apodemus agrarius, forms a well-supported lineage within the dob clade. the topography of the trees calculated for the s, m and l nucleotide sequences of the estonian dob suggests a similar evoluti ...199910073697
ecology of ixodes ricinus immatures on apodemus agrarius (muridae) in the lowland ecosystems conditions.ecology of ixodes ricinus collected on black-striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius) was studied in the lowland ecosystems. during the study period (1986-1991), 1483 specimens of a. agrarius were examined in southern slovakia and 1319 larvae and nymphs were collected from hosts. the seasonal pattern--bimodal (peak in spring and autumn)--was distinct for larvae. both prevalence and abundance of tick infestation of a. agrarius by nymphs were low. prevailing material of nymphs was collected from ma ...19958553662
seasonal rainfall variability, the incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, and prediction of the disease in low-lying areas of investigate determinants of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in low-lying areas of china, the authors studied chuigang and wanggang communities in anhui province. these adjacent farming communities have a population of about 100,000. data were collected from the two communities in 1961-1977 and from yingshang county in 1983-1995; information covered the incidence of hfrs, amount of precipitation, differences in the water level of the huai river, density of apodemus agrarius, autum ...19989690365
dobrava hantavirus causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in central europe and is carried by two different apodemus mice central europe, hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (hfrs) in humans are caused by the hantavirus species puumala (transmitted by voles) and a second, hantaan-related species (transmitted by mice). the second virus could be identified as dobrava virus. to date, 19 clinical cases of dobrava infection have been found in germany and slovakia. all patients exhibited a mild/moderate clinical course and no case fatality occurred. screening for infected rodents revealed that the striped field mou ...200111170053
genetic diversities of hantaviruses among rodents in hokkaido, japan and far east russia.seroepizootiologic surveys among wild rodents were carried out in japan and far east russia in 1995 and 1996. seropositive animals were only identified in clethrionomys rufocanus (23/134) in hokkaido, japan. on the other hand, seropositives were identified in c. rufocanus (1/8), apodemus agrarius (2/66), apodemus spp. (2/26) and microtus fortis (3/22) in vladivostok, far east russia. total rna was isolated from lungs of seropositive animals and the s genome segments were amplified by pcr, cloned ...199910082393
small terrestrial mammals as reservoirs of leptospires in the sava valley (croatia).small mammals trapped in seven sites along the river sava in croatia were examined for leptospiral infection by renoculture and serological methods. of the 1749 animals caught 702 were examined by renoculture method and 626 were tested by microagglutination-lysis. the dominant animals species caught were microtus arvalis (672 animals) and apodemus agrarius (552 animals). of the 115 strains of leptospires isolated the dominant serotypes were l. grippotyphosa (40) and l. pomona (35). five strains ...19827049871
[influence of radioactive pollution on the character of the distribution of wild mouselike rodents according to the measure of lipid antioxidant activity in their organs].the estimation of the degree of the radioactive contamination effect on the antioxidative status in tissues of rodents from natural populations is done by means of biometric methods. it is shown, that the character of distribution and variability of the lipids antioxidant activity (aoa) differs significantly depending of species and age of animals, the degree of contamination on areas where wild rodents were caught and time during which the radioactive factor affected. the change in character of ...19989889789
[population density of chigger mites, the vector of tsutsugamushi disease in chollanam-do, korea].the geographical distribution and population density of rodents and chigger mites at six localities of chollanam-do were investigated from october to december in 1993. among total 142 field rodents collected by the modified chemla wooden traps, 131 rodents were apodemus agrarius (92.3%) and 11 were crocidura lasiura (7.7%). out of 142 field rodents, 92 were parasitized by chiggers, showing 69.0% of the infestation rate and 74.2 of the chigger index. infestation rate and chigger index of a. agrar ...19968820739
seroepidemiology of hantaan virus infection in order to investigate the infection rate of hantaan virus in taiwan, a total of 6,536 human serum samples were collected from residents, selected by stratified random sampling, from 19 townships covering four different ethnic groups: aborigines, fukien taiwanese, hakka taiwanese, and mainland chinese. serum samples were screened for hantaan virus antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. the prototype hantaan virus (76/118)-infected vero e6 cells were used as the viral antigen for the antibod ...19968950687
[dna restriction polymorphism in european and asiatic species of wood mice of the genus apodemus].comparative restriction analysis of genomic dna from six wood mice species of the genus apodemus as well as from the house mouse mus musculus and a norway rat rattus norvegicus was conducted by means of alui, tagi, csp6i, and bglii endonucleases. the data from rflp and upg analyses allowed division of all the forms studied into two groups, evolutionarily young and old, including european (sylvaticus, flavicollis, and microps) and asiatic (peninsulae, speciosis, and agrarius, together with the st ...19969091410
new species of neotrombicula (acari: trombiculidae) from the southern primorye territory, russian far east.neotrombicula kanekoi n. sp. is described from apodemus agrarius and crocidura lasiura collected in the primorye territory, russian far east. this species is close to n. subsignata but differs in having eight setae in the first posthumeral row, whereas n. subsignata has six. the new species is the sixth known member of the bisignata group in the far east.19957616531
[the first isolation of borrelia burgdorferi in apodemus flavicollis in yugoslavia].small rodent species, as well as their ectoparasitic fauna, and the presence of borrelia burgdorferi in their blood and internal organs (liver and spleen) was investigated, at two locations (kosutnjak, lipovicka suma) in belgrade. animals were caught between september 15-17, 1992. on location kosutnjak two apodemus flavicollis were trapped and borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from the spleen of one of them. on location lipovicka suma 13 rodents were trapped as follows: 10 apodemus flavicollis, ...19938262432
[further study of hantavirus circulation in the russian federation].lung specimens of 1514 small mammals of 35 species captured in 1991-1995 at 9 territories of russia were tested in elisa for virus antigens of hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome (hfrs). the antigens were detected in lung specimens of clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, microtus gregalis, microtus fortis, arvicola terrestris, apodemus agrarius, micromys minutus, and sorex sp., well known as hantavirus reservoirs, captured in the vologda, yaroslavl, saratov, astrakhan, and chita regi ...19979182404
community structure and prevalence of hantavirus infection in rodents: a geographic division of the enzootic area in far eastern russia.the results of an extensive rodent trapping effort throughout the southern part of far eastern russia and hantavirus antigen screening of tissues were used to develop a multifaceted approach for the geographic division of the enzootic territory of hantavirus. four species of rodents (apodemus agrarius, apodemus peninsulae, microtus fortis, and clethrionomys rufocanus) comprised 88.5 percent of 10,595 captured rodents and 94.1 percent of 996 antigen-positive animals. rodent fauna and the prevalen ...19979221739
spontaneous gastric carcinoid tumors in the striped field mouse (apodemus agrarius).gastric carcinoid tumors were found in seven of 135 striped field mice (apodemus agrarius) by routine histopathologic examination. all these carcinoids occurred in mature striped field mice aged 72-100 weeks. six animals were females and only one was male. only two of seven tumors were detectable by gross examination. grossly, tumors were located in the fundus of the glandular stomach. all seven tumors were microscopically single in the stomach and two mice exhibited extragastric metastasis. tum ...19979300368
vector and host relationships of california serogroup viruses in western siberia.during 1990 and 1991, adult mosquitoes were collected along the ob river and its tributaries in western siberia from approximately 51 degrees 18'n to 66 degrees 4'n. fifteen virus strains were isolated from 74,196 mosquitoes tested in 1,874 pools. these included tahyna virus from aedes cataphylla-punctor subgroup (one) and ae. excrucians (one), and inkoo (ink) virus from ae. communis (one), ae. communis subgroup (one), ae. hexodontus (two), ae. punctor subgroup (two), ae. punctor complex (one), ...19938352392
demodex agrarii sp. n. (acari: demodecidae) from cerumen and the sebaceous glands in the ears of the striped field mouse, apodemus agrarius (rodentia). 19947883260
[chromosomal variability of the field mouse apodemus agarius (rodentia, muridae)].chromosome sets of 114 apodemus agrarius mice from 29 localities in moldova, ukraine, siberia, and far east were studied by means of g-, c-, and nor-banding. in all populations studied, the y chromosome was shown to be a medium-size acrocentric chromosome consisting of heterochromatin. chromosome polymorphism observed in populations from primorskii krai concerned (1) the morphology of the first two autosome pairs (variants a/a, a/st, and st/st), (2) the number of metacentric chromosomes (from 6 ...200010752036
phylogenetic evidence for host switching in the evolution of hantaviruses carried by apodemus mice.phylogenetic analysis of three hantaviruses: hantaan (htnv), dobrava (dobv), and the newly designated serotype/genotype saaremaa (saav) and their respective hosts, rodents of genus apodemus, reveals a discrepancy in the virus-host relationships. while all apodemus agrarius sequences from europe and the far east are monophyletic, saav (carried by the western subspecies of a. agrarius) shared the most recent ancestor with a. flavicollis-associated dobv virus, but not with htnv (carried by the east ...200212457975
characterization of borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from korea by 16s rdna sequence analysis and pcr-rflp analysis of rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer amplicons.haenam strains of borrelia burgdorferi, which had been isolated from ixodes granulatus and apodemus agrarius in haenam, korea, were characterized by pcr-rflp analysis of rrf (5s)-rrl (23s) intergenic spacer amplicons and by sequence analysis of the 16s rrna gene (rdna). the msel and dral restriction patterns of the 5s-23s intergenic spacer amplicons of haenam strains differed from those of other b. burgdorferi sensu lato strains. furthermore, in the phylogenetic tree based on the 16s rdna sequen ...200010758897
genetic analysis of wild-type dobrava hantavirus in slovenia: co-existence of two distinct genetic lineages within the same natural focus.genetic analysis was performed of wild-type (wt) dobrava hantavirus (dob) strains from slovenia, the country where the virus was first discovered and where it was found to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), with a fatality rate of 12%. two hundred and sixty mice of the genus apodemus:, trapped in five natural foci of dob-associated hfrs during 1990-1996, were screened for the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies and 49 apodemus: flavicollis and four apodemus: agrarius were fo ...200010859380
genetic diversity of apodemus agrarius-borne hantaan virus in korea.hantaan (htn) virus, the etiologic agent of clinically severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs), was first isolated in 1976 from lung tissues of striped field mice (apodemus agrarius) captured in songnae-ri, kyungki-do, korea. to clarify the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among korean strains of htn virus, viral sequences of the partial s and m segments were amplified from lung tissues of 24 seropositive striped field mice captured between 1989 and 1998 at 11 sites in ...200011129640
[detection of north-asia tick-borne spotted fever in ticks and rodents along the heilongjiang river-side by restriction fragment length polymorphism of pcr products].in order to elucidate the natural foci of north-asia tick-borne spotted fever along the bank of heilongjiang river, we used pcr/rflp to detect spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks and rodents. the results showed that the wild samples of dermacentor silvarum, haemaphysalis concinna and apodemus agrarius, microtus fortis, clethrionomys rufocanus and ondatra zibethica were all positive with amplification, but typhus rickettsiae, tsutsugamushi fever rickettsiae and q fever rickettsiae were all n ...19979812471
short day length alone does not inhibit spermatogenesis in the seasonally breeding four-striped field mouse (rhabdomys pumilio).this study was an examination of the effect of photoperiod on spermatogenesis and the accessory glands of the four-striped field mouse (rhabdomys pumilio), a seasonally breeding rodent that occurs through southern africa. adult scrotal males were exposed to either short day length (10l:14d), long day length (14l:10d), or natural photoperiod in constant-environment rooms (25 degrees c, 41% humidity; food and water ad libitum) for 8 wk in late summer, when males in the wild were spermatogenically ...199910330087
[a field rodent, apodemus agrarius, as a carrier of l. bataviae]. 195613433488
comparative epidemiological studies on vector/reservoir animals of tsutsugamushi disease between high and low endemic areas in korea.comparative epidemiological studies on vector reservoir animals of tsutsugamushi disease were carried out in between south coast (the highest endemic) areas and east coast (low endemic) areas in october 1993. fauna of field rodents and their population densities were not different between two areas. antibody positive rate of apodemus agrarius sera was higher in east coast (43.2% in south coast and 63.6% in east coast). high correlation (r = 0.87) was shown between antibody positive rate of a. ag ...19957735783
[dna-protein cross-links in leukocytes of the field mouse (apodemus agrarius) and the bank vole (clethrionomys glareolus) dwelling in the territory of a radioactive waste storage station].dna-protein cross-links in white blood cells of apodemus agrarius and clethrionomys glareolus dwelling in the territory of the guarded zone of the radioactive waste storage in sergievo posad (area with gamma-background 50-400 micror/h) have been determined. as a control the animals from sanitary protected area of sergievo posadsky department (gamma-background on the soil surface is 8-10 micror/h) was used. it was found that the doses received by apodemus agrarius and clethrionomys glareolus, res ...199910542876
[surveillance of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and studies on its predictive indices in jiangsu province].to study its predictive significance of the direct use of surveillance data of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) collected in jiangsu province, and find an indicator of choice for qualitative prediction.199910682500
serological observation of toxoplasma gondii prevalence in apodemus agrarius, a dominant species of field rodents in korea.field rodents involved in ecological food chains and which are the prey of carnivores in the natural environment may serve as reservoir hosts for toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, however, no data has been published to date in korea. a total of 1,008 apodemus agrarius, a dominant species of field rodents in korea, were trapped at various locations around the country, and their serum antibody (igg) levels to t. gondii were examined by elisa. the mean absorbance was 0.11, and fifteen samples ...200010992811
characterization and identification of borrelia isolates as borrelia valaisiana in taiwan and kinmen islands.eleven pure cultures of borrelia from 3 species of wild rodents (apodemus agrarius, mus formosanus, rattus losea) captured in taichung, located in the center of taiwan island, and on kinmen island were characterized. five isolates showed restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) patterns of 5s-23s rrna gene intergenic spacer sequences identical to those of strains 5mt and 10mt, identified as borrelia valaisiana, which were isolated in the southern tip of south korea. although the remaining ...200011220673
molecular genetic analysis of reovirus isolated in korea.reovirus isolates from human, striped-field mouse (apodemus agrarius) and korean field mouse (a. peninsulae) in korea showed extensive variability in the patterns of electrophoretic migration of the double-stranded rna (dsrna) genome segments. hemagglutination inhibition (hi) test was performed for serotype determination of 12 reovirus isolates. to clarify genetic diversity and molecular phylogeny of korean reoviruses, l1, s3 and s4 genomic segments of reoviruses were amplified by rt-pcr and dir ...200111402625
epidemiological progresses of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in summarize the major achievements of chinese work on the epidemiology and prevention of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (hfrs) in recent years, and to give a general review on the present situation of hfrs in china.199911593522
determination and geographical distribution of orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes in korea by nested polymerase chain reaction.field rodents and chigger mites were collected at 30 locations in korea in october and november 1997-1999 to determine the serotypes of orientia tsutsugamushi and their geographical distribution. a nested polymerase chain reaction was performed with the spleen tissues from 546 field-striped mice (apodemus agrarius) and 104 pools of chigger mites. the positivity rate of o. tsutsugamushi was 45.6% in a. agrarius and 39.4% in the chigger mite pools. two serotypes, boryong and karp, were found in th ...200111716109
complex structure of b-chromosomes in two mammalian species: apodemus peninsulae (rodentia) and nyctereutes procyonoides (carnivora).b-chromosomes (bs) of two mammalian species, raccoon dog (nyctereutesprocyonoides, carnivora) and asian wood mouse (apodemus peninsulae, rodentia) were investigated using chromosome segment microdissection and double-colour fish. in the raccoon dog, all b-chromosomes showed homology with each other but not with the a-chromosomes. two segment-specific probes (from proximal and distal parts of b) have been localized in corresponding chromosome parts, with significant variation in their sizes. in a ...200211993931
hantaan virus infection causes an acute neurological disease that is fatal in adult laboratory mice.hantaan virus, the etiological agent of korean hemorrhagic fever, is transmitted to humans from persistently infected mice (apodemus agrarius), which serve as the primary reservoir. here we demonstrate that several strains of adult mus musculus domesticus (c57bl/6, balb/c, akr/j, and sjl/j) were susceptible to hantaan virus infection when infected intraperitoneally. first clinical signs were loss of weight, ruffled fur, and reduced activity, which were followed by neurological symptoms, such as ...200212163608
microsatellites indicate a high frequency of multiple paternity in apodemus (rodentia).microsatellites were employed to estimate frequency of multiple paternity litters of two species of mice (genus apodemus): striped field mouse (a. agrarius), and wood mouse (a. sylvaticus). ten pregnant females of a. agrarius and six of a. sylvaticus were collected from natural populations in the northern ukraine and analysed with 11 and nine microsatellite loci, respectively. multiple paternity was indicated in eight of 10 litters in a. agrarius and in three of six litters in a. sylvaticus. mul ...199912187947
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