study of the anti-inflammatory activity of populus tremula, solidago virgaurea and fraxinus excelsior.aqueous/alcoholic extracts of populus tremula, solidago virgaurea and fraxinus excelsior (components of phytodolor n) were tested individually and in 3 different combinations for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced edema and/or adjuvant induced arthritis of the rat paw. the tested combinations as well as the individual extracts significantly reduced the paw edema to varying degrees and also dose dependently inhibited the arthritic paw volume. the anti-inflammatory activity of th ...19921497695
[anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effect of various plant extracts and their combinations in an animal model].antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of various plant extracts and a combination thereof in animal models. the three main components comprising the efficacy of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs could be demonstrated for stw 1 in different animal models. the phytotherapeutic preparation, containing three individual plant extracts (populus tremula, solidago virgaurea, fraxinus excelsior) produced dose-dependent antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects which were simila ...19892476136
a combination of populus tremula, solidago virgaurea and fraxinus excelsior as an anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drug. a short review.anti-inflammatory properties of populus tremula are mainly deduced from its components, the well investigated salicylates. solidago extracts have spasmolytic, antihypertensive and diuretic effects. fraxinus excelsior itself has hardly been investigated, but its coumarin components proved to have a variety of pharmacological properties, i.e. inhibition of t-cell activation and of the arachidonic acid cascade. phytodolor n (abbreviated as pd) is a combination of the above mentioned plants. various ...19957710441
inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase activity by alcoholic extracts from fraxinus excelsior, populus tremula and solidago virgaurea.aqueous-ethanolic extracts of fraxinus excelsior, populus, tremula and solidago virgaurea in a combination of 1: 3: 1 (v/v/v) are the components of the plant drug phytodolor n (abbreviated as pd), which exhibits antipyretic, analgesic and antirheumatic activity. similar to a broad variety of synthetic non-steroidal anti-inflammatories the mentioned plant extracts inhibit dihydrofolate reductase. the following concentrations as percentage in the test volumes represent the individual i50-values: f ...19957710442
antioxidative properties of alcoholic extracts from fraxinus excelsior, populus tremula and solidago virgaurea.aqueous-ethanolic extracts from fraxinus excelsior, populus tremula and solidago virgaurea inhibit biochemical model reactions representing inflammatory situations to various extents. these model reactions include xanthine oxidase, diaphorase in the presence of the autoxidizable quinone juglone, lipoxygenase and photodynamic reactions driven by riboflavin or rose bengal. the tested extracts are the components of the phytomedicine phytodolor n (abbreviated as pd) which possesses antipyretic, anal ...19957710443
cross-reactivity of olea europaea with other oleaceae species in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma.cross-reactivity between pollen extracts of four species of oleaceae was studied: olive (olea europaea), ash (fraxinus excelsior), privet (ligustrum vulgare), and lilac (syringa vulgaris). thus, 51 patients and 13 atopic controls were studied, by means of intracutaneous skin tests, histamine-release tests against the four extracts, and specific ige to o. europaea. the proteic content of the four extracts was assessed by sds-page and immunoblotting, and similarity of all the extracts studied was ...19979284982
[pharmacological and clinical effectiveness of a fixed phytogenic combination trembling poplar (populus tremula), true goldenrod (solidago virgaurea) and ash (fraxinus excelsior) in mild to moderate rheumatic complaints].besides the well-known nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (nsaid) for the treatment of rheumatic pain herbal medicine can also be applied successfully. plants with antirheumatic efficacy include fraxini cortex, populi cortex/folia and solidaginis herba. this review focuses on pharmacological and clinical efficacy of a combination of fraxinus cortex, populus cortex/folia and solidago herba. antiinflammatory and analgetic properties were shown in pharmacological tests. clinical studies conducted ...199910483692
biochemical model reactions indicative of inflammatory processes. activities of extracts from fraxinus excelsior and populus tremula.all processes of oxygen activation include very reactive intermediates. therefore, aerobic cells must cope with--and to some extent also adapt to--oxidative stress provoked for example by infections or intoxications, where these reactive intermediates accumulate. all inflammatory processes include such oxygen activating processes where reactive oxygen species (ros) are produced. dependent on the strength of these impact(s), several symptoms indicate the deviation from normal, steady-state metabo ...200010800635
ozone exposure thresholds and foliar injury on forest plants in switzerland.canton ticino in southern switzerland is exposed to some of the highest concentrations of tropospheric ozone in europe. during recent field surveys in canton ticino, foliar symptoms identical to those caused by ozone have been documented on native tree and shrub species. in europe, the critical ozone level for forest trees has been defined at an aot40 of 10 ppm.h o3 (10 ppm.h accumulated exposure of ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb) during daylight hours over a six-month growing season. the obje ...200111202736
phenological modifications in plants by various edaphic factors.various mechanical, chemical and physical soil analyses were carried out, in addition to weather observations, for 3 years at several sites along an oceanic-continental gradient in a fjord district in western norway. all the environmental factors observed were correlated with the spring and a few late-season phenophases of many native and cultivated woody plants and some herbs by simple, linear correlations and by stepwise multiple and partial analyses. different techniques were used to try and ...200111769320
stoichiometry of foliar carbon constituents varies along light gradients in temperate woody canopies: implications for foliage morphological plasticity.foliar morphology and chemical composition were examined along a light gradient in the canopies of five deciduous temperate woody species, ranked according to shade-tolerance as populus tremula l. < fraxinus excelsior l. < tilia cordata mill. = corylus avellana l. < fagus sylvatica l. foliar carbon was divided between structural (cell-wall polysaccharides, lignin) and nonstructural (proteins, ethanol-soluble carbohydrates, starch) fractions. foliar morphology of all species was strongly affected ...199812651358
an analysis of light effects on foliar morphology, physiology, and light interception in temperate deciduous woody species of contrasting shade tolerance.maximum rubisco activities (v(cmax)), rates of photosynthetic electron transport (j(max)), and leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations were studied along a light gradient in the canopies of four temperate deciduous species differing in shade tolerance according to the ranking: populus tremula l. < fraxinus excelsior l. < tilia cordata mill. = corylus avellana l. long-term light environment at the canopy sampling locations was characterized by the fractional penetration of irradiance in the ...199812651418
biomass investment in leaf lamina versus lamina support in relation to growth irradiance and leaf size in temperate deciduous trees.foliar biomass investment in support and assimilative compartments was studied in four temperate deciduous tree species along a natural light gradient across the canopy. the species ranked according to shade tolerance as betula pendula roth. < populus tremula l. < fraxinus excelsior l. < tilia cordata mill. long-term light conditions at sampling locations were characterized as seasonal mean integrated quantum flux density (q(int), mol m(-2) day(-1)) estimated by a method combining hemispherical ...199912651556
[polyclonal antisera to birch pollen allergen for the air allergen screening].the cross reactivity of the pollen allergens of birch (betula pendula), hazel (corylus avelana), alder (alnus glutinosa), wormwood (artemisia absinthium), oak (quercus robur) and ashtree (fraxinus excelsior) was studied by the methods of the enzyme immunoassay and gel diffusion with the use of rabbit polyclonal antisera (pas) prepared against birch pollen allergen. pas was shown to be greatly related to all above-mentioned allergens with the exception of oak pollen allergen. pas was found capabl ...200415024987
phaeoacremonium rubrigenum--hyphomycete associated with bark beetles found in czechia.phaeoacremonium is a recently described genus (crous et al. 1996) associated with decline diseases of woody hosts and with human infections. during a study of surface mycobiota of the oak bark beetles, the hyphomycetous microfungus phaeoacremonium rubrigenum was isolated from larvae of scolytus intricatus (coleoptera: scolytidae) and their galleries on quercus robur and also from an adult of leperisinus fraxini found under the bark of fraxinus excelsior. the species determination was confirmed b ...200415227778
sensitization to common allergens, especially pollens, among children with respiratory allergy in the trakya region of turkey.asthma and allergic rhinitis are common problems in children and the causative pollen allergens vary according to the geographical area. the aim of this study was to investigate patterns of sensitization to common inhalant allergens, especially pollens, in turkish children living in the trakya region and to determine differences between rural and urban areas. allergen skin testing was prospectively performed on 539 children aged between 4 and 17 years with respiratory allergy. the reaction was c ...200415783130
meteorological factors and air pollution in lithuanian forests: possible effects on tree condition.this study investigates changes in tree condition and environmental factors in lithuania during the active growing season in 1991-2001. the average crown defoliation and the proportion of healthy trees of pinus sylvestris, picea abies, betula sp., fraxinus excelsior, alnus incana, alnus glutinosa, populus tremula, and quercus robur, meteorological (average temperature, amount of precipitation, hydrothermal coefficient) and air pollution data (acidity of precipitation, concentrations of so2, no2 ...200516005769
optical properties of bud scales and protochlorophyll(ide) forms in leaf primordia of closed and opened buds.the transmission spectra of bud scales of 14 woody species and the 77 k fluorescence emission spectra of the innermost leaf primordia of closed and opened buds of 37 woody species were studied. pigment concentrations were determined in some species. bud scales had low transmittance between 400 and 680 nm with a local minimum around 680 nm. transmittance increased steeply above 680 nm and was > 80% in the 700-800 nm spectral region. significant protochlorophyllide (pchlide) accumulation was obser ...200616651257
temporal cline in a hybrid zone population between fraxinus excelsior l. and fraxinus angustifolia vahl.the two closely related ash species fraxinus excelsior l. (common ash) and fraxinus angustifolia vahl (narrow-leaved ash) have a broad contact zone in france where they hybridize. however, little is known about the local structure of hybrid zone populations and the isolation mechanisms. we assessed the potential effect of floral phenology on the structure of a riparian ash hybrid zone population in central france. the distribution of flowering times was unimodal and lay between the flowering per ...200617032264
morphological and molecular characteristics of a new species of pasteuria parasitic on meloidogyne ardenensis.a species of the hyper-parasitic bacterium pasteuria was isolated from the root-knot nematode meloidogyne ardenensis infecting the roots of ash (fraxinus excelsior). it is morphologically different from some other pasteuria pathogens of nematodes in that the spores lack a basal ring on the ventral side of the spore and have a unique clumping nature. transmission electron microscopy (tem) showed that the clumps of spores are not random aggregates but result from the disintegration of the suicide ...200717399736
phytodolor--effects and efficacy of a herbal medicine.herbal antirheumatics are successfully used in painful inflammatory or degenerative rheumatic diseases. one of these herbal medicines is phytodolor (stw 1), a fixed combination of extracts from aspen leaves and bark (populus tremula), common ash bark (fraxinus excelsior), and golden rod herb (solidago virgaurea). its effects as well as those of its components have been verified in experimental and human pharmacological investigations. the mode of action of stw 1 includes antiinflammatory, antioe ...200717704984
phlorizin-like effect of fraxinus excelsior in normal and diabetic rats.the purpose of this study was to determine the underlying mechanism of the hypoglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract perfusion of fraxinus excelsior l. (fe) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. the aqueous extract was administered intravenously and the blood glucose changes were determined within four hours after starting the treatment. plasma insulin concentrations and glycosuria were determined. the aqueous extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg/h produced a significant decrease in b ...200415261976
responses of canopy duration to temperature changes in four temperate tree species: relative contributions of spring and autumn leaf phenology.while changes in spring phenological events due to global warming have been widely documented, changes in autumn phenology, and therefore in growing season length, are less studied and poorly understood. however, it may be helpful to assess the potential lengthening of the growing season under climate warming in order to determine its further impact on forest productivity and c balance. the present study aimed to: (1) characterise the sensitivity of leaf phenological events to temperature, and ( ...200919449036
photoinhibition in seedlings of fraxinus and fagus under natural light conditions: implications for forest regeneration?ash (fraxinus excelsior l.) and beech (fagus sylvatica l.) seedlings were grown in the field under three levels of natural light: (1) open, (2) gap and (3) shade. light acclimation of photosynthesis was characterized by means of modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence of intact leaves and growth parameters were measured at the end of the growing season. measurements of maximum photochemical efficiency (fv/fm) of dark-adapted leaves at intervals through the day showed that ash had a higher fv/fm tha ...200415150656
study of the hypoglycaemic activity of fraxinus excelsior and silybum marianum in an animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.the hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extracts of fraxinus excelsior (fe) seed and silybum marianum (sm) aerial part was investigated in normal and streptozotocin (stz) diabetic rats. after a single dose or 15 daily doses, oral administration of the aqueous extracts (20 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease of blood glucose levels in both normal and stz diabetic rats (p < 0.001). from the first week, the body weight was increased in normal rats (p < 0.05) and decreased in stz rats (p < 0.01) ...200415120454
ozone exposure-response relationships for biomass and root/shoot ratio of beech (fagus sylvatica), ash (fraxinus excelsior), norway spruce (picea abies) and scots pine (pinus sylvestris).current-year seedlings of beech, ash, norway spruce and scots pine were exposed during one growing season to different, but moderate, ozone (o(3)) scenarios representative for switzerland (50, 85, 100% ambient, 50% ambient+30 nl l(-1)) in open-top chambers (otcs) and to ambient o(3) concentrations in the field. biomass significantly decreased with increasing o(3) dose in all species except for spruce. losses of 25.5% (ash), 17.4% (beech), 9.9% (scots pine) were found per 10 microl l(-1) h accumu ...200015092880
ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of switzerland.the objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. the study was conducted from the beginning of may through the end of august during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the lattecaldo cantonal forest nursery in canton ticino, southern switzerland (600 m asl) ...200312804826
the allergen profile of ash (fraxinus excelsior) pollen: cross-reactivity with allergens from various plant species.ash, a wind-pollinated tree belonging to the family oleaceae, is distributed world-wide and has been suggested as a potent allergen source in spring time.200212047442
phenolics in selected european hardwood species by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.the phenols in beech (fagus sylvatica), birch (betula pendula) and ash (fraxinus excelsior) wood dusts were compared using a mass spectrometer fitted with an electrospray ionisation interface with liquid chromatographic separation. hardwood dust is a carcinogen, and an analysis of the polyphenol profile is a useful method for identifying the dust source in workplace air. the mass spectrometer was operated in both the negative and positive ion modes. phenolic compounds were identified by comparin ...200111592645
effects of extracts from populus tremula l., solidago virgaurea l. and fraxinus excelsior l. on various myeloperoxidase systems.extracts from populus tremula, solidago virgaurea and fraxinus excelsior are used as anti-inflammatory drugs. the effects of these extracts on myeloperoxidase (mpo), an enzyme liberated by activated granulocytes and known to produce the destructive agent hypochloric acid, were investigated. populus and fraxinus inhibited this enzyme, solidago was without effect. these results were obtained concordantly with four different mpo-assays (h2o2/mpo; x/xod/mpo; activated pmn; and elastase/alpha 1-pi-mp ...19969125284
occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by ash (fraxinus excelsior) wood 18-year-old man who worked in a furniture factory reported rhinitis and asthma when he was exposed to ash wood dust. monitoring of the patient's peak expiratory flow rate (pefr) when off work and at work showed increased variations of pefr at work. basal pc20 methacholine was 1.41 mg/ml. a bronchial provocation test (bpt) with a 1:1000 w/v ash wood dust extract induced a dual asthmatic response with a 7.5-fold increase of nonspecific bronchial responsiveness. intradermal testing with ash wood ...19979105524
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 august 2010-30 september 2010.this article documents the addition of 229 microsatellite marker loci to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: acacia auriculiformis × acacia mangium hybrid, alabama argillacea, anoplopoma fimbria, aplochiton zebra, brevicoryne brassicae, bruguiera gymnorhiza, bucorvus leadbeateri, delphacodes detecta, tumidagena minuta, dictyostelium giganteum, echinogammarus berilloni, epimedium sagittatum, fraxinus excelsior, labeo chrysophekadion, oncorhynch ...201121429127
immunogold probes for light and electron microscopic localization of ole e i in several oleaceae pollens.we investigated the immunolocalization of the olive major allergen ole e i and ole e i-like proteins in pollen from several oleaceae species [olive (olea europaea), ash (fraxinus excelsior), privet (ligustrum vulgaris), lilac (syringa vulgare), and forsythia (forsythia suspensa)]. crossreactions among different pollens were found in enzyme immunoassays. for immunolocalization with light microscopy we used the silver enhancement technique with three monoclonal antibodies (1d8, 10h1, and 16g2) tha ...19968609371
high biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (fraxinus excelsior l.) and horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum l.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (ailanthus altissima p. mill.) were analyzed with hplc. the native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 k fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastruc ...201122160501
the main allergen of olea europaea (ole e i) is also present in other species of the oleaceae family.three major pollen allergens from fraxinus excelsior, ligustrum vulgare and syringa vulgaris belonging to the oleaceae family were purified. monoclonal antibodies previously raised against the main allergen of olea europaea (ole e i) were used for their purification by affinity chromatography. the three new purified allergens were able to bind human ige from serum of olive-allergic patients in a way analogous to ole e i. crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis of the four allergens, using anti-olive ...19938319129
evaluation of serum specific ige and skin responsiveness to allergenic extracts of oleaceae pollens (olea europaea, fraxinus excelsior and ligustrum vulgare) "in patients with respiratory the last few years an increasing interest for olea europaea (o.e.) pollen has been developed in many countries. several authors have studied the aerobiological, allergenic, epidemiological and clinical features of this pollinosis. the aim of our study was to evaluate cutaenous and serological responses to other oleaceae pollens allergens (ligustrum vulgare (l.v.) and fraxinus excelsior (f.e.) in patients with skin positivity to olea europaea pollen extract. twenty-three atopic rhinitis and/or ...19957631595
physicochemical and pharmacological properties of spray-dried powders from fraxinus excelsior leaf extracts. 19892601362
validation of the stomatal flux approach for the assessment of ozone visible injury in young forest trees. results from the top (transboundary ozone pollution) experiment at curno, italy.this paper summarises some of the main results of a two-year experiment carried out in an open-top chambers facility in northern italy. seedlings of populus nigra, fagus sylvatica, quercus robur and fraxinus excelsior have been subjected to different ozone treatments (charcoal-filtered and non-filtered air) and soil moisture regimes (irrigated and non-irrigated plots). stomatal conductance models were applied and parameterised under south alpine environmental conditions and stomatal ozone fluxes ...200919019512
phytophthora gallica sp. nov., a new species from rhizosphere soil of declining oak and reed stands in france and germany.a non-papillate, slow-growing phytophthora species, which could not be assigned to any existing taxon, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of a declining oak in northeast france, and from the rhizosphere of phragmites australis at lake constance in south-west germany in 1998 and 2004, respectively. we describe this species, previously informally designated phytophthora taxon 'g', as phytophthora gallica sp. nov. morphology, growth rates, and pathogenicity against cuttings of riparian tree species ...200818693002
in vitro dermo-cosmetic evaluation of bark extracts from common temperate trees.wood residues produced from forestry activities represent an interesting source of biologically active, high value-added secondary metabolites. in this study, 30 extracts from 10 barks of deciduous and coniferous tree species were investigated for their potential dermo-cosmetic use. the extracts were obtained from fagus sylvatica, quercus robur, alnus glutinosa, prunus avium, acer pseudoplatanus, fraxinus excelsior, populus robusta, larix decidua, picea abies, and populus tremula after three suc ...201627352384
comparative measurements of transpiration and canopy conductance in two mixed deciduous woodlands differing in structure and species composition.transpiration of two heterogeneous broad-leaved woodlands in southern england was monitored by the sap flux technique throughout the 2006 growing season. grimsbury wood, which had a leaf area index (lai) of 3.9, was dominated by oak (quercus robur l.) and birch (betula pubescens l.) and had a continuous hazel (corylus avellana l.) understory. wytham woods, which had an lai of 3.6, was dominated by ash (fraxinus excelsior l.) and sycamore (acer pseudoplatanus l.) and had only a sparse understory. ...200818381276
visible foliar injury and physiological responses to ozone in italian provenances of fraxinus excelsior and f. ornus.we compared leaf visible injury and physiological responses (gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence) to high o3 exposure (150 nmol mol(-1) h, 8 h day(-1), 35-40 days) of two woody species of the same genus with different ecological features: the mesophilic green ash (fraxinus excelsior) and the xerotolerant manna ash (f. ornus). we also studied how provenances from northern (piedmont) and central (tuscany) italy, within the two species, responded to o3 exposure. onset and extent of visible ...200717450285
irradiance-induced plasticity in the hydraulic properties of saplings of different temperate broad-leaved forest tree species.we assessed the irradiance-related plasticity of hydraulic architecture in saplings of betula pendula roth., a pioneer species; acer pseudoplatanus l., fraxinus excelsior l. and quercus robur l., which are post-pioneer light-requiring species; and quercus petraea matt. liebl. and fagus sylvatica l. plants were grown in pots in 36%, 16% and 4% of full sunlight. hydraulic conductance was measured with a high-pressure flow-meter in entire, in situ root systems and in excised shoots. leaf-specific w ...200617169890
differential patterns of morphological and molecular hybridization between fraxinus excelsior l. and fraxinus angustifolia vahl (oleaceae) in eastern and western france.we examined large-scale patterns of morphology, genetic structure and ecological correlates of fraxinus excelsior and the closely related species fraxinus angustifolia in france, in order to determine the degree of hybridization between them. we sampled 24 populations in two putative hybrid zones (loire and saône), and five control populations of each species. we measured foliar characteristics of adult trees and used five nuclear microsatellites as molecular markers. canonical discriminant anal ...200616968268
chloroplast dna phylogeography of european ashes, fraxinus sp. (oleaceae): roles of hybridization and life history traits.we investigated range-wide phylogeographic variation in three european ash species (fraxinus sp., oleaceae). chloroplast dna (cpdna) microsatellites were typed in the thermophilous fraxinus angustifolia and fraxinus ornus and the observed haplotypes and the geographic distribution of diversity were compared to cpdna data previously obtained in the more cold-tolerant fraxinus excelsior. we found wide-ranging haplotype sharing between the phylogenetically close f. angustifolia and f. excelsior, su ...200616780430
isolation of the main allergen fra e 1 from ash (fraxinus excelsior) pollen: comparison of the natural and recombinant forms.fra e 1 is a major allergen for ash pollen-sensitized individuals in northern and central europe. it belongs to the ole e 1-like family and displays high cross-reactivity with taxonomically related members.200616680926
[sensitization to castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern extremadura (spain)].castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. in our geographical area (plasencia, cáceres, spain) castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen.200515946627
fraxinus excelsior l. evokes a hypotensive action in normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats.the hypotensive effect of an aqueous extract of fraxinus excelsior l. was investigated in both normotensive (wky) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (shr). daily oral administration of fraxinus excelsior (20 mg/kg) aqueous extract for 3 weeks produced a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (sbp) with variation coefficient (delta%) of 13.5% in shr (p<0.01) and 9% in wky rats (p<0.05). the aqueous extract of fraxinus excelsior significantly enhanced the urination in both shr (p<0.05 co ...200515848019
twenty years of biological monitoring of element concentrations in permanent forest and grassland plots in baden-württemberg (sw germany).environmental monitoring of pollutants in international or local programmes has enabled authorities to evaluate the success of political measures over time. strict environmental legislation and the introduction of cleaner technologies have already led to significant improvements of the air and water quality in many countries. still, the discharge and deposition of anthropogenic long-range transported pollutants often remain above the critical thresholds and long-term targets defined for terrestr ...201019455359
ambient ozone concentration and its impact on forest vegetation in lithuania.continuous ozone concentration measurements at rural sites in lithuania have been performed since 1982. long-term ozone data show an increasing trend 0.4 ppb y(-1) in annual mean concentrations during the period 1982-2008, although ozone peak values show an insignificant tendency to decrease. several studies were performed to evaluate the ozone effect on the main plant species of lithuanian forests. a strong positive correlation was found between values for the accumulated doses over a threshold ...200920175442
molecular biodiversity and population structure in common ash (fraxinus excelsior l.) in britain: implications for conservation.current forestry policy promotes the use of local seed for new plantings, on the assumption that local material may be better adapted to local conditions. however, landscape-scale genetic studies which are necessary to underpin conservation and breeding strategies are often lacking. we investigated molecular diversity in common ash (fraxinus excelsior l.) sampled from 42 british and six french sites with microsatellites. chloroplast haplotype h04 was the most common and widespread in britain, al ...201020465580
platanus pollen allergen, pla a 1: quantification in the atmosphere and influence on a sensitizing population.the allergic response in susceptible patients does not always coincide with the presence and magnitude of airborne pollen counts. the prevalence of allergy to platanus is currently moderate, although the percentage of monosensitized patients is low. this hinders accurate interpretation of the relationship between the amount of pollen inhaled and the patient's symptoms.201020813013
carolus linnaeus, the ash, worm-wood and other anti-malarial 1735 carolus linnaeus wrote that quinine was the preferred treatment for malaria but that the bark of the ash (fraxinus excelsior) and worm-wood (artemisia absinthium) also had effects on the disease. we here report that lipo- and hydrophilic extracts of the bark of the ash inhibit the in vitro growth of the asexual stages of p. falciparum. the data suggests that the knowledge of the treatment of malaria was already available in europe some 300 years ago.201020936911
fraxinus excelsior seed extract fraxipure™ limits weight gains and hyperglycemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.the aim of this study was to determine whether a fraxinus excelsior l. seed extract, fraxipure™ (0.5% in the diet), limits weight gain and hyperglycemia in mice. in a previous report, we identified several secoiridoids in fraxipure™, some of which activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (pparα) in vitro and inhibited the differentiation of 3t3-l1 preadipocyte cells. in a separate study, fraxipure™ reduced glycemia in healthy volunteers, following an oral glucose tolerance test ...201021036576
variation of gas exchange within native plant species of switzerland and relationships with ozone injury: an open-top experiment.gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury were intensively measured during a 6-day period in mid-august 1998 on leaves of acer pseudoplatanus, betula pendula, corylus avellana, fagus sylvatica, fraxinus excelsior, morus nigra, prunus avium, prunus serotina, rhamnus cathartica, and viburnum lantana at a forest nursery site in canton ticino, switzerland. plants were grown in four open plots (aa), four open-top chambers receiving carbon-filtered (cf) air, and four receiving non-filtered (nf) air ...200111383335
temperature response of leaf photosynthetic capacity in seedlings from seven temperate tree species.seedlings of seven temperate tree species (acer pseudoplatanus l., betula pendula roth, fagus sylvatica l., fraxinus excelsior l., juglans regia l., quercus petraea matt. liebl. and quercus robur l.) were grown in a nursery under neutral filters transmitting 45% of incident global irradiance. during the second or third year of growth, leaf photosynthetic capacity (i.e., maximal carboxylation rate, vcmax, maximal photosynthetic electron transport rate, jmax, and dark respiration, rd) was estimate ...200111276416
isolation and characterisation of bacterial colonies from seeds and in vitro cultures of fraxinus spp. from italian sites.culturable bacteria were isolated from seeds, embryos and contaminated in vitro cultures of ash (fraxinus excelsior l., f. ornus l. and f. angustifolia l.) and were identified using morphological and molecular analyses. fourteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered from seeds of fraxinus spp. 16s rdna sequencing categorised these isolates into ten separate genera. three strains isolated from contaminated in vitro cultures, pantoea agglomerans, staphylococcus succinus and aerococcus v ...201121143738
characterization, localization, and seasonal changes of the sucrose transporter fesut1 in the phloem of fraxinus excelsior.trees are generally assumed to be symplastic phloem loaders. a typical feature for most wooden species is an open minor vein structure with symplastic connections between mesophyll cells and phloem cells, which allow sucrose to move cell-to-cell through the plasmodesmata into the phloem. fraxinus excelsior (oleaceae) also translocates raffinose family oligosaccharides in addition to sucrose. sucrose concentration was recently shown to be higher in the phloem sap than in the mesophyll cells. this ...201526022258
leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five european species during drought.establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. here, five common european tree species were selected (acer campestre l., acer pseudoplatanus l., carpinus betulus l., corylus avellana l. and fraxinus excelsior l.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. stem vul ...201626614785
deposition of particulate matter of different size fractions on leaf surfaces and in waxes of urban forest species.particulate matter (pm) is an air contaminant in urban and industrial areas that often exceeds limit values, creating serious problems due to its harmful effects on health. planting trees and shrubs as air filters is a way to improve air quality in these areas. however,further knowledge on species effectiveness in air purification is essential this study compared four species of tree (acer campestre l, fraxinus excelsior l, platanus x hispanica mill. ex muenchh. 'acerifolia', tilia cordata mill. ...201121972570
introduction to distribution and ecology of sterile conks of inonotus obliquus.inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. this fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (betula spp). the dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. chaga are a folk remedy in russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of i. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (fagus spp.) in russ ...200823997626
potential tree species for use in urban areas in temperate and oceanic climates.this study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. one hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in greater manchester fo ...201627699277
evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (hypogymnia physodes (l.) nyl., parmelia sulcata taylor and xanthoria parietina (l.) th. fr.) were compared. an assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in słupsk (poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. lichen samples were taken in autumn 2013 from betula pendula, fraxinus excelsior, acer platanoides, a. pseudoplat ...201626745547
using sex pheromone and a multi-scale approach to predict the distribution of a rare saproxylic beetle.the european red click beetle, elater ferrugineus l., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. as a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. a new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of e. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. the latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in ...201323840415
leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (fagus sylvatica).we hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the european beech (fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated central european temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. we studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (acer spp., carpinus betulus, fagus sylv ...201020596729
can dual chlorophyll fluorescence excitation be used to assess the variation in the content of uv-absorbing phenolic compounds in leaves of temperate tree species along a light gradient?the present study assesses light-induced variations in phenolic compounds in leaves of saplings of two co-occurring temperate species (acer platanoides l., and fraxinus excelsior l.) along a light gradient using a new non-invasive optical method (dualex). the dualex-derived uv absorbance of leaf epidermis (the sum of the adaxial and abaxial faces, auv) increased significantly with increasing light in both species. auv values were correlated with absorbance of the leaf extract at 305 nm and 375 n ...200717404380
characteristics of tree bark as an indicator in high-immission the immission area of frankfurt a.m. measurements of ph value, sulfur content and concentrations of ca(++), k(+) and na(+) of tree bark have been made. in the case of the deciduous trees fraxinus excelsior, acer platanoides and tilia spp. all parameters can be used as an indicator for the degree of immissions. even in the "desert of lichens" a division into four different zones of load is possible. because in the rhein-main area winds from the southwest predominate, the size of zones of great ...197728309337
genome sequence and genetic diversity of european ash trees.ash trees (genus fraxinus, family oleaceae) are widespread throughout the northern hemisphere, but are being devastated in europe by the fungus hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing ash dieback, and in north america by the herbivorous beetle agrilus planipennis. here we sequence the genome of a low-heterozygosity fraxinus excelsior tree from gloucestershire, uk, annotating 38,852 protein-coding genes of which 25% appear ash specific when compared with the genomes of ten other plant species. analyses ...201728024298
ozone foliar symptoms in woody plant species assessed with ultrastructural and fluorescence analysis.this paper compares the responses to ozone in five woody species: fagus sylvatica (fs), acer pseudoplatanus (ap), fraxinus excelsior (fe), viburnum lantana (vl) and ailanthus altissima (aa). the hypothesis being tested was that the strategies that plants adopt to resist oxidative pressure are species-specific. the study was carried out on field grown plants in an area in northern italy characterized by elevated levels of ozone pollution. the observations were made both at ultrastructural (using ...200515869654
metal uptake by young trees from dredged brackish sediment: limitations and possibilities for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation.five tree species (acer pseudoplatanus l., alnus glutinosa l. gaertn., fraxinus excelsior l., populus alba l. and robinia pseudoacacia l.) were planted on a mound constructed of dredged sediment. the sediment originated from a brackish river mouth and was slightly polluted with heavy metals. this preliminary study evaluated the use of trees for site reclamation by means of phytoextraction of metals or phytostabilisation. although the brackish nature of the sediment caused slight salt damage, ove ...200415142776
maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in rhododendron and other species.the acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (acer pseudoplatanus l., alnus glutinosa l. gaertn., eucalyptus globulus labill., fraxinus excelsior l. and rhododendron ponticum l.) and three species of herbs (lycopersicum esculentum mill., plantago major l. and ricinus communis l.). the results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions ...198524249264
presence of natural genetic resistance in fraxinus excelsior (oleraceae) to chalara fraxinea (ascomycota): an emerging infectious disease.fraxinus excelsior, common ash native to europe, is threatened by a recently identified pathogenic fungus chalara fraxinea, which causes extensive damage on ash trees across europe. in denmark, most stands are severely affected leaving many trees with dead crowns. however, single trees show notably fewer symptoms. in this study, the impact of the emerging infectious disease on native danish ash trees is assessed by estimating presence of inherent resistance in natural populations. disease sympto ...201120823903
strong "bottom-up" influences on small mammal populations: state-space model analyses from long-term studies."bottom-up" influences, that is, masting, plus population density and climate, commonly influence woodland rodent demography. however, "top-down" influences (predation) also intervene. here, we assess the impacts of masting, climate, and density on rodent populations placed in the context of what is known about "top-down" influences. to explain between-year variations in bank vole myodes glareolus and wood mouse apodemus sylvaticus population demography, we applied a state-space model to 33 year ...201728331581
the shifting phenological landscape: within- and between-species variation in leaf emergence in a mixed-deciduous woodland.many organisms rely on synchronizing the timing of their life-history events with those of other trophic levels-known as phenological matching-for survival or successful reproduction. in temperate deciduous forests, the extent of matching with the budburst date of key tree species is of particular relevance for many herbivorous insects and, in turn, insectivorous birds. in order to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces operating in these systems, we require knowledge of the factors i ...201728303184
measuring feeding traits of a range of litter-consuming terrestrial snails: leaf litter consumption, faeces production and scaling with body size.plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to energy and nutrient cycling above- and belowground. terrestrial gastropods can affect this process in various ways: they consume and fragment leaf litter and create suitable habitats for microorganisms through the production of faeces and mucus. we assessed the contributions of ten litter-feeding terrestrial snail species to leaf litter mass loss and checked whether consumption rate and faeces production scale with ...201525698139
ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, tree diversity and root nutrient relations in a mixed central european forest.knowledge is limited about whether root nutrient concentrations are affected by mixtures of tree species and interspecific root competition. the goal of this field study was to investigate root nutrient element concentrations in relation to root and ectomycorrhizal (em) diversity in six different mixtures of beech (fagus sylvatica), ash (fraxinus excelsior) and lime (tilia sp.) in an old-growth, undisturbed forest ecosystem. root biomass and nutrient concentrations per tree taxon as well as the ...201121636693
host preferences and differential contributions of deciduous tree species shape mycorrhizal species richness in a mixed central european forest.mycorrhizal species richness and host ranges were investigated in mixed deciduous stands composed of fagus sylvatica, tilia spp., carpinus betulus, acer spp., and fraxinus excelsior. acer and fraxinus were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizas and contributed 5% to total stand mycorrhizal fungal species richness. tilia hosted similar and carpinus half the number of ectomycorrhizal (em) fungal taxa compared with fagus (75 putative taxa). the relative abundance of the host tree the em fungal richnes ...201020886243
pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi: some like it knot.pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi is the causal agent of olive (olea europaea) knot disease and an unorthodox member of the p. syringae complex, causing aerial tumours instead of the foliar necroses and cankers characteristic of most members of this complex. olive knot is present wherever olive is grown; although losses are difficult to assess, it is assumed that olive knot is one of the most important diseases of the olive crop. the last century witnessed a large number of scientific articl ...201222805238
characterization of profilin and polcalcin panallergens from ash pollen.ash (fraxinus excelsior) is an important source of allergenic pollen in temperate areas of europe. profilin and polcalcin are 2 important panallergens involved in cross-reactivity between different sources.201425219108
climate change and the ash dieback crisis.beyond the direct influence of climate change on species distribution and phenology, indirect effects may also arise from perturbations in species interactions. infectious diseases are strong biotic forces that can precipitate population declines and lead to biodiversity loss. it has been shown in forest ecosystems worldwide that at least 10% of trees are vulnerable to extinction and pathogens are increasingly implicated. in europe, the emerging ash dieback disease caused by the fungus hymenoscy ...201627739483
[pathogenic miko,- and microflora of fraxinus excelsior in podolya ukraine].the article summarizes our research results of pathogenic myco- and microflora, as well as harmful entomofauna on european ash. it is shown that the most common and harmful diseaseis tuberculosis (its causal agent--bacteria pseudomonas syringae pv.savastanoi (smith 1908), which affects trunks, branches, twigs and buds of european ash. it describes a number of pathogens and representatives mikofitozov malicious entomofauna that by virtue of its activities significantly weaken the growth, developm ...201526638486
a novel dendrochronological approach reveals drivers of carbon sequestration in tree species of riparian forests across spatiotemporal scales.aboveground carbon (c) sequestration in trees is important in global c dynamics, but reliable techniques for its modeling in highly productive and heterogeneous ecosystems are limited. we applied an extended dendrochronological approach to disentangle the functioning of drivers from the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation), the lithosphere (sedimentation rate), the hydrosphere (groundwater table, river water level fluctuation), the biosphere (tree characteristics), and the anthroposphere (dik ...201727653780
acclimation of leaf water status and stem hydraulics to drought and tree neighbourhood: alternative strategies among the saplings of five temperate deciduous tree species.adjustment in leaf water status parameters and modification in xylem structure and functioning can be important elements of a tree's response to continued water limitation. in a growth trial with saplings of five co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera fraxinus, acer, carpinus, tilia and fagus) conducted in moist or dry soil, we compared the drought acclimation in several leaf water status and stem hydraulic parameters. considering the extremes in the species responses, fraxinus ...201627881798
stem water storage in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved tree species: significance, temporal dynamics and dependence on tree functional traits.the functional role of internal water storage is increasingly well understood in tropical trees and conifers, while temperate broad-leaved trees have only rarely been studied. we examined the magnitude and dynamics of the use of stem water reserves for transpiration in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved trees with largely different morphology and physiology (genera fagus, fraxinus, tilia, carpinus and acer). we expected that differences in water storage patterns would mostly reflect species ...201323999137
optimisation of slow-pyrolysis process conditions to maximise char yield and heavy metal adsorption of biochar produced from different feedstocks.the objective of this work was to identify biomass feedstocks and optimum pyrolysis process conditions to produce a biochar capable of adsorbing metals from polluted groundwater. taguchi experimental design was used to determine the effects of slow-pyrolysis process conditions on char yield and zinc adsorption. treatments were repeated using six candidate feedstocks (lolium perenne, lolium perenne fibre, miscanthus x giganteus, salix viminalis, fraxinus excelsior and picea sitchensis) and the re ...201627179953
novel resistance measurement method: analysis of accuracy and thermal dependence with applications in fiber materials.material resistance is important since different physicochemical properties can be extracted from it. this work describes a novel resistance measurement method valid for a wide range of resistance values up to 100 gω at a low powered, small sized, digitally controlled and wireless communicated device. the analog and digital circuits of the design are described, analysing the main error sources affecting the accuracy. accuracy and extended uncertainty are obtained for a pattern decade box, showin ...201627983652
polyphenolic profile as a useful tool to identify the wood used in wine aging.although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. in this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (castanea sativa), cherry (prunus avium) and ash (fraxinus excelsior and f. americana) heartwoods, by using hplc-dad/esi-ms/ms (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting inte ...201222688032
cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts.bioinformatics and traditional medicine can be used in discovery and design of novel candidate drugs to efficient cancer chemotherapy. in this study, similarity search tools employed to screen and introduce novel herbs with antitumor property. several novel herbs have been selected by using logical computational algorithms and assayed on six cancerous cell lines. complementary assays involved hemolytic and antifungal mic tests have been performed to determine selectivity and their biocompatibili ...200919602433
herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.there is increasing interest in the health and wellness benefits of herbs and botanicals. this is with good reason as they might offer a natural safeguard against the development of certain conditions and be a putative treatment for some diseases. one such area may be the lowering of blood pressure in those where it is elevated (i.e., hypertension). one class of clinical medicines used to lower blood pressure are known as diuretics and work by increasing the excretion of urine from the body as w ...200717804183
temperate tree species show identical response in tree water deficit but different sensitivities in sap flow to summer soil drying.temperate forests are expected to be particularly vulnerable to drought and soil drying because they are not adapted to such conditions and perform best in mesic environments. here we ask (i) how sensitively four common temperate tree species (fagus sylvatica, picea abies, acer pseudoplatanus and fraxinus excelsior) respond in their water relations to summer soil drying and seek to determine (ii) if species-specific responses to summer soil drying are related to the onset of declining water stat ...201627609804
an epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in southern european forests.southern forests are at the highest ozone (o3) risk in europe where ground-level o3 is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. a biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. this innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to o3 was carried out in 54 plots in southeastern france and ...201626437347
glucevia fraxinus excelsior extract effectively controls blood glucose levels in randomized, controlled trial. 201426770106
urban tree effects on soil organic carbon.urban trees sequester carbon into biomass and provide many ecosystem service benefits aboveground leading to worldwide tree planting schemes. since soils hold ∼75% of ecosystem organic carbon, understanding the effect of urban trees on soil organic carbon (soc) and soil properties that underpin belowground ecosystem services is vital. we use an observational study to investigate effects of three important tree genera and mixed-species woodlands on soil properties (to 1 m depth) compared to adjac ...201425003872
a fraxinus excelsior l. seeds/fruits extract benefits glucose homeostasis and adiposity related markers in elderly overweight/obese subjects: a longitudinal, randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study.the aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of an extract obtained from seeds/fruits of an oleaceae (fraxinus excelsior l.) on glucose homeostasis and associated metabolic markers in non-diabetic overweight/obese subjects.201424877717
influence of litter diversity on dissolved organic matter release and soil carbon formation in a mixed beech forest.we investigated the effect of leaf litter on below ground carbon export and soil carbon formation in order to understand how litter diversity affects carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. 13c labeled and unlabeled leaf litter of beech (fagus sylvatica) and ash (fraxinus excelsior), characterized by low and high decomposability, were used in a litter exchange experiment in the hainich national park (thuringia, germany). litter was added in pure and mixed treatments with either beech or ash labeled ...201425486628
subcellular nutrient element localization and enrichment in ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizas of field-grown beech and ash trees indicate functional differences.mycorrhizas are the chief organ for plant mineral nutrient acquisition. in temperate, mixed forests, ash roots (fraxinus excelsior) are colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (am) and beech roots (fagus sylvatica) by ectomycorrhizal fungi (ecm). knowledge on the functions of different mycorrhizal species that coexist in the same environment is scarce. the concentrations of nutrient elements in plant and fungal cells can inform on nutrient accessibility and interspecific differences of mycorrh ...201425486253
the influence of climate and fructification on the inter-annual variability of stem growth and net primary productivity in an old-growth, mixed beech forest.the periodic production of large seed crops by trees (masting) and its interaction with stem growth has long been the objective of tree physiology research. however, very little is known about the effects of masting on stem growth and total net primary productivity (npp) at the stand scale. this study was conducted in an old-growth, mixed deciduous forest dominated by fagus sylvatica (l.) and covers the period from 2003 to 2007, which comprised wet, dry and regular years as well as two masts of ...201020453002
the effects of gap size on some microclimate variables during late summer and autumn in a temperate broadleaved deciduous forest.the creation of gaps can strongly influence forest regeneration and habitat diversity within forest ecosystems. however, the precise characteristics of such effects depend, to a large extent, upon the way in which gaps modify microclimate and soil water content. hence, the aim of this study was to understand the effects of gap creation and variations in gap size on forest microclimate and soil water content. the study site, in north west england, was a mixed temperate broadleaved deciduous fores ...201019763632
variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. we used granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relat ...200819193565
ozone sensitivity of fagus sylvatica and fraxinus excelsior young trees in relation to leaf structure and foliar ozone uptake.during the summer of 2001, 2-year-old fraxinus excelsior and fagus sylvatica plants were subjected to ozone-rich environmental conditions at the regional forest nursery at curno (northern italy). atmospheric ozone concentrations and stomatal conductance were measured, in order to calculate the foliar fluxes by means of a one-dimensional model. the foliar structure of both species was examined (thickness of the lamina and of the individual tissues, leaf mass per area, leaf density) and chlorophyl ...200312804831
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