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field evaluation of carbon dioxide baits for sampling ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae) in gopher tortoise burrows.field studies were conducted to assess the reliability of carbon dioxide baits in sampling ornithodoros turicata duges. tick response to about 50 g of dry ice placed at various distances away from tick-infested burrows was monitored over a 2-h period. in addition, tick attraction to different flow rates of carbon dioxide was monitored. tests were conducted over a 15-mo period, during which seasonal effects on o. turicata response to co2 were assessed. the efficacy of the baits was evaluated at n ...19911903452
population structure and seasonal intra-burrow movement of ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae) in gopher tortoise burrows.burrows of the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus daudin, were sampled for ornithodoros turicata (dugès) infestation using carbon dioxide baits and vacuum extraction. ticks were captured, marked, released, and recaptured, and population estimates were made using the lincoln index. estimated population ranged from 47 to 1,338 ticks per burrow. the tick population consisted predominantly of nymphs, with a significant increase in the larval population during the months of june and july. adult sex ...19892769706
bionomics of the gopher tortoise tick, amblyomma tuberculatum marx. 19725057497
reproductive bionomics of the soft tick, ornithodoros turicata (acari: argasidae).the effects of different temperatures and relative humidities (rhs) were tested on various reproductive parameters of ornithodoros turicata, an argasid tick that inhabits gopher tortoise burrows in florida, usa. the pre-oviposition, oviposition and incubation periods of the ticks decreased as temperature increased. these periods were also affected by the rh. the number of eggs oviposited was affected significantly by the combined effect of temperature and rh. fewer eggs were laid by ticks in the ...19968771770
upper respiratory tract disease in the gopher tortoise is caused by mycoplasma agassizii.upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) has been observed in a number of tortoise species, including the desert tortoise (gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus). clinical signs of urtd in gopher tortoises are similar to those in desert tortoises and include serous, mucoid, or purulent discharge from the nares, excessive tearing to purulent ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, and edema of the eyelids and ocular glands. the objectives of the present study were to determine ...199910364595
pathology of upper respiratory tract disease of gopher tortoises in florida.between august 1993 and september 1995, 24 gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) were received for pathological evaluations from various locations in florida (usa). all tortoises were examined for clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) including nasal and ocular discharge, palpebral edema, and conjunctivitis. of the 24 tortoises, 10 had current or previously observed clinical signs of urtd and 14 did not. a blood sample was drawn for detection of anti-mycoplasma antibodies by ...200010813609
diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in hermann's tortoise (testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (testudo graeca), and other tortoises in europe and the united states. herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the ...200011228895
mycoplasma agassizii sp. nov., isolated from the upper respiratory tract of the desert tortoise (gopherus agassizii) and the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus).biochemical, serological and molecular genetic studies were performed on seven mycoplasma isolates that were recovered from the upper respiratory tract of clinically ill desert tortoises. the isolates were serologically related to each other but serologically distinct from previously described species. unique mycoplasma species-specific 16s rrna nucleotide sequences were found in the proposed type strain. the name mycoplasma agassizii is proposed for these isolates. the type strain is ps6t (= at ...200111321087
a ten-year study of tick biting in mississippi: implications for human disease transmission.to determine exactly which tick species bit people in mississippi, information was gathered on ticks involved in human biting cases for the ten-year period, january 1, 1990-december 31, 1999. specimens were identified by the author and, in most cases, confirmed by personnel at the institute of arthropodology and parasitology, georgia southern university. a total of 119 ticks were recovered from 73 humans during the study period. seven tick species were represented; most common included the lone ...200212853269
improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to reveal mycoplasma agassizii exposure: a valuable tool in the management of environmentally sensitive tortoise populations.the precarious status of desert (gopherus agassizii) and gopher (gopherus polyphemus) tortoises has resulted in research and conservation efforts that include health assessments as a substantial component of management decision-making. therefore, it is critical that available diagnostic tests for diseases impacting these species undergo rigorous standardization and validation. since 1992, analysis of exposure of tortoises to mycoplasma agassizii, an etiological agent of upper respiratory tract d ...200717626160
development of a polymerase chain reaction test for entamoeba invadens.entamoeba invadens is a protozoal parasite of reptiles that causes colitis, abscesses of liver and other organs, and sometimes acute death. it is generally considered a commensal of chelonians but has also been implicated as a cause of colitis, diarrhea, and death in gopher (gopherus polyphemus) and leopard (geochelone pardalis) tortoises. diagnosis of e. invadens is currently by detection of trophozoites and/or cysts upon direct fecal examination. however, definitive diagnosis of e. invadens ha ...200818634210
ranavirus infection of free-ranging and captive box turtles and tortoises in the united states.iridoviruses of the genus ranavirus are well known for causing mass mortality events of fish and amphibians with sporadic reports of infection in reptiles. this article describes five instances of ranavirus infection in chelonians between 2003 and 2005 in georgia, florida, new york, and pennsylvania, usa. affected species included captive burmese star tortoises (geochelone platynota), a free-ranging gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus), free-ranging eastern box turtles (terrapene carolina carol ...200818957641
salmonella from gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) in south georgia.from 2002 to 2006, gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) were collected at moody air force base, lowndes/lanier counties, georgia, usa, and opportunistically surveyed for the presence of salmonella species. four of 155 (2.6%) cloacal swabs collected from 80 tortoises were positive for the presence of salmonella enterica, and the following serovars were identified: give, hartford, javiana, and luciana. female tortoises (5%) were infected at a rate similar to male tortoises (5%). all isolates wer ...200818957656
upper respiratory tract disease, force of infection, and effects on survival of gopher tortoises.upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) caused by mycoplasma agassizii has been hypothesized to contribute to the decline of some wild populations of gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus). however, the force of infection (foi) and the effect of urtd on survival in free-ranging tortoise populations remain unknown. using four years (2003-2006) of mark-recapture and epidemiological data collected from 10 populations of gopher tortoises in central florida, usa, we estimated the foi (probability per ...200919425439
fungal keratitis in a gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus).a free-ranging gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) presented for trauma and blindness. fibrinous exudate obscured visualization of the globes. this exudative crust extended from the conjunctival fornices through the palpebral fissure and was manually removed. ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral corneal ulcerations and scarring and phthisis bulbi of the left globe. histology of the crust revealed a necrotic conjunctivitis with intralesional fungal hyphae. culture of the corneal ulcer of t ...200919746878
development and use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of iridovirus exposure in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) and eastern box turtles (terrapene carolina carolina).iridoviruses, pathogens typically associated with fish and amphibians, have recently been shown to cause acute respiratory disease in chelonians including box turtles, red-eared sliders, gopher tortoises, and burmese star tortoises. case reports of natural infections in several chelonian species in the united states have been reported, however the prevalence remains unknown in susceptible populations of free-ranging chelonians. to determine the prevalence of iridovirus exposure in free-ranging g ...201019931321
social behavior drives the dynamics of respiratory disease in threatened tortoises.since the early 1990s, morbidity and mortality in tortoise populations have been associated with a transmissible, mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (urtd). although the etiology, transmission, and diagnosis of urtd have been extensively studied, little is known about the dynamics of disease transmission in free-ranging tortoise populations. to understand the transmission dynamics of mycoplasma agassizii, the primary etiological agent of urtd in wild tortoise populations, we studied 11 ...201020503858
effects of mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease on morbidity and mortality of gopher tortoises in northern and central florida.gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) populations on four tracts of public lands in northern and central florida were studied from 1998 to 2001 to assess the effects of mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (urtd). adult gopher tortoises (n=205) were marked for identification, serum and nasal flush samples were obtained for mycoplasmal diagnostic assays, and clinical signs of urtd (nasal discharge, ocular discharge, palpebral edema, and conjunctivitis) were evaluated. a subset of tortoises ...201020688675
distribution and habitat utilization of the gopher tortoise tick ( amblyomma tuberculatum ) in southern mississippi.abstract the distribution of the gopher tortoise tick ( amblyomma tuberculatum ) has been considered intrinsically linked to the distribution of its primary host, gopher tortoises ( gopherus polyphemus ). however, the presence of g. polyphemus does not always equate to the presence of a. tuberculatum . there is a paucity of data on the ecology, habitat preferences, and distribution of a. tuberculatum . the goals of this study were to assess the distribution of a. tuberculatum in southern mississ ...201121506776
insights into the introduction history and population genetic dynamics of the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) in florida.invasive species are widely recognized as important drivers of the ongoing biodiversity crisis. the us state of florida is especially susceptible to the proliferation of invasive reptiles, and nonnative lizards currently outnumber native lizard species. at present, there are 3 documented breeding populations of the nile monitor (varanus niloticus) in different regions of southern florida, and these populations are considered potential dangers to threatened, fossorial endemics, such as burrowing ...201626971010
a molecular phylogeny of the gopher tortoises, with comments on familial relationships within the testudinoidea.sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were obtained to examine molecular phylogenetic relationships among the north american gopher tortoises. data from 352 aligned positions generated a single most-parsimonious tree for each of three analytical approaches: (1) equal weighting, all substitutions; (2) equal weighting, third position changes limited to transversions; and (3) transversions weighted 10 times transitions. identical topologies for the resulting trees depict the gopher tor ...19947697187
surveillance for upper respiratory tract disease and mycoplasma in free-ranging gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) in georgia, usa.abstract upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) in the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) is highly contagious and has been implicated in the reduction of populations throughout the range. with the exception of a few limited studies, the prevalence of urtd in georgia, usa tortoise populations is poorly known. we found that exposure to mycoplasma agassizii and mycoplasma testudineum, associated with urtd, varied geographically among 11 georgia tortoise populations. the prevalence of antibodies ...201425098305
effects of mycoplasmal upper-respiratory-tract disease on movement and thermoregulatory behavior of gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) in georgia, usa.abstract from 2011-12, we studied a gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) population with a historically high prevalence of antibodies to mycoplasma agassizii to assess long-term effects of upper-respiratory-tract disease (urtd) on tortoise behavior. we radiotracked 30 adult tortoises (16 males, 14 females) from a long-term study site with the use of mark-recapture methods to determine site fidelity and to compare home-range size to that of a study in 1997. an additional 10 tortoises (six males, ...201425121399
slow potentials of the turtle olfactory bulb in response to odor stimulation of the nose.odor stimulation of the nose in the box turtle and the gopher tortoise produced a characteristic series of slow potentials in the olfactory bulb which were referred to as the odor evoked response. when recorded with direct coupling, the odor evoked response had 3 components: wave i, a short duration monophasic event; wave ii, a long duration variation in the dc potential; and wave iii, an oscillatory potential superimposed on wave ii. waves i and ii were negative at bulbar surfaces receiving olf ...20051175040
multiple paternity and breeding system in the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus.little is known about the reproductive behaviors and the actual outcomes of mating attempts in the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus). we examined the mating system and reproductive behaviors of a population of gopher tortoises in central florida. using microsatellite markers, we assigned fathers to the offspring of seven clutches and determined that multiple fathers were present in two of the seven clutches examined. we found that gopher tortoises exhibited a promiscuous mating system with l ...200616489146
the effects of ambient temperature on amikacin pharmacokinetics in gopher tortoises.the pharmacokinetics of amikacin were compared in two groups of tortoises, one held at 20 degrees c and the other at 30 degrees c. the mean (+/- sd) residence time for amikacin in the 30 degrees c tortoises was 22.67 +/- 0.50 h; significantly (p less than 0.05) less than those held at 20 degrees c (41.83 +/- 3.23 h). there was no significant difference (p greater than 0.05) in the steady-state volume of distribution (vd(ss] between the tortoises held at 30 degrees c (0.241 +/- 0.520 l/kg) and th ...19902231869
preliminary pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus). 19883210266
estimates of minimum patch size depend on the method of estimation and the condition of the habitat.minimum patch size for a viable population can be estimated in several ways. the density-area method estimates minimum patch size as the smallest area in which no new individuals are encountered as one extends the arbitrary boundaries of a study area outward. the density-area method eliminates the assumption of no variation in density with size of habitat area that accompanies other methods, but it is untested in situations in which habitat loss has confined populations to small areas. we used a ...200717601133
accidental submeningeal injection of propofol in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus). 201020871085
contributions of private landowners to the conservation of the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus).private landowners play a pivotal role in determining whether or not rare species persist in regions where privately owned land is extensive. the range of the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) is confined to the southeastern u.s., a region predominantly under private ownership, and thus the status of this species is largely dependent upon land management decisions made by private landowners. we sent an anonymous mail survey to 2,584 individuals to examine factors affecting gopher tortoise oc ...201222371129
aortic calcification, serum calcium, magnesium, sodium and cholesterol in gopherus polyphemus. 19744153796
response patterns of single neurons in the tortoise olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb.the responses to odor stimulation of 40 single units in the olfactory mucosa and of 18 units in the olfactory bulb of the tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) were recorded with indium-filled, pt-black-tipped microelectrodes. the test battery consisted of 27 odorants which were proved effective by recording from small bundles of olfactory nerve. two concentrations of each odorant were employed. these values were adjusted for response magnitudes equal to those for amyl acetate at -2.5 and -3.5 log conc ...19725049077
circadian activity rhythm of the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus). 19724664921
increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. in the united states and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. while the influence of p ...201323967582
resource selection probability functions for gopher tortoise: providing a management tool applicable across the species' range.the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) is protected by conservation policy throughout its range. efforts to protect the species from further decline demand detailed understanding of its habitat requirements, which have not yet been rigorously defined. current methods of identifying gopher tortoise habitat typically rely on coarse soil and vegetation classifications, and are prone to over-prediction of suitable habitat. we used a logistic resource selection probability function in an informati ...201424281920
the florida land tortoise-gopher, gopherus polyphemus. 189317757384
kinship, inbreeding and fine-scale spatial structure influence gut microbiota in a hindgut-fermenting tortoise.herbivorous vertebrates rely on complex communities of mutualistic gut bacteria to facilitate the digestion of celluloses and hemicelluloses. gut microbes are often convergent based on diet and gut morphology across a phylogenetically diverse group of mammals. however, little is known about microbial communities of herbivorous hindgut-fermenting reptiles. here, we investigate how factors at the individual level might constrain the composition of gut microbes in an obligate herbivorous reptile. u ...201525809385
amphibious auditory evoked potentials in four north american testudines genera spanning the aquatic-terrestrial spectrum.animals exhibit unique hearing adaptations in relation to the habitat media in which they reside. this study was a comparative analysis of auditory specialization in relation to habitat medium in testudines, a taxon that includes both highly aquatic and fully terrestrial members. evoked potential audiograms were collected in four species groups representing diversity along the aquatic-terrestrial spectrum: terrestrial and fossorial gopherus polyphemus, terrestrial terrapene carolina carolina, an ...201526194768
population genetic inferences using immune gene snps mirror patterns inferred by microsatellites.single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) are replacing microsatellites for population genetic analyses, but it is not apparent how many snps are needed or how well snps correlate with microsatellites. we used data from the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus-a species with small populations, to compare snps and microsatellites to estimate population genetic parameters. specifically, we compared one snp data set (16 tortoises from four populations sequenced at 17 901 snps) to two microsatellite da ...201727488693
cardiopulmonary effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination administered intravenously in gopher tortoises.to determine whether iv administration of a combination of medetomidine and ketamine depresses cardiopulmonary function in healthy adult gopher tortoises.200212018381
intestinal parasites of the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) from eight populations in georgia.the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus), one of five tortoise species endemic in the usa, was recently classified as a candidate for federal listing as a threatened species. fecal samples collected from 117 tortoises from eight sites in georgia were examined for endoparasites using a combination of sedimentation and flotation. samples from an island population were examined for parasitic oocysts and ova only by flotation, protozoan cysts by trichrome-stained direct smear, and cryptosporidium b ...201324072334
a snapshot of the microbiome of amblyomma tuberculatum ticks infesting the gopher tortoise, an endangered species.the gopher tortoise tick, amblyomma tuberculatum, has a unique relationship with the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus, found in sandy habitats across the southeastern united states. we aimed to understand the overall bacterial community associated with a. tuberculatum while also focusing on spotted fever group rickettsia. these tortoises in the southern mississippi region are a federally threatened species; therefore, we have carefully trapped the tortoises and removed the species-specific t ...201627460902
histology and functional morphology of the female reproductive tract of the tortoise gopherus polyphemus.the oviducts of 25 tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) were examined by using histology and scanning electron microscopy to determine oviductal functional morphology. oviductal formation of albumen and eggshell was of particular interest. the oviduct is composed of 5 morphologically distinct regions; infundibulum, uterine tube, isthmus, uterus, and vagina. the epithelium consists of ciliated cells and microvillous secretory cells throughout the oviduct, whereas bleb secretory cells are unique to the ...19883213826
hematology and serum chemistry of the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus. 19826125312
intra-abdominal removal of eggs from a gopher tortoise. 1978250996
olfactory epithelium: unitary responses in the tortoise.in the tortoise, gopherus polyphemus, single unit spikes in the olfactory epithelium in response to amyl acetate were positive relative to the slow potential. the number of spikes in a response train was 4 to 15, the duration 3 to 4 msec, the height 0.5 to 2 mv. the height of successive spikes in a train decreased. the decrement in height, the number, and the frequency of spikes changed with the strength of the odor.196313977260
a sesamoid bone in the jaw musculature of gopherus polyphemus (reptilia: testudiniae). 195914436615
seasonal acclimation of constitutive immunity in gopher tortoises gopherus polyphemus.studies have suggested a role for natural seasonal change to drive patterns of disease, especially within ectothermic vertebrates. in light of recent climate change, it is important to understand baseline disease resistance in a seasonal context to further understand the role that changes in seasonal weather patterns may have in increasing disease frequency. herein we found support for the seasonal acclimation hypothesis in gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise), which indicated that natural seas ...201727792530
lag of immunity across seasonal acclimation states in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus).disease outbreaks are of increasing importance to ectothermic vertebrates as one of numerous results of global change. anthropogenic climate change is predicted to increase climatic instability, thereby altering natural thermal environments. in this study, we evaluated the direct effects of rapid temperature change on immunity in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus). specifically, we tested the lag hypothesis, which predicts significant misalignment of optimal and realized immunity when temper ...201728382789
neutral genetic processes influence mhc evolution in threatened gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus).levels of adaptive genetic variation influence how species deal with environmental and ecological change, but these levels are frequently inferred using neutral genetic markers. major histocompatibility complex (mhc) genes play a key role in the adaptive branch of the immune system and have been used extensively to estimate levels of adaptive genetic variation. parts of the peptide binding region, sites where mhc molecules directly interact with pathogen and self-proteins, were sequenced from a ...201728387863
more than fever: thermoregulatory responses to immunological stimulation and consequences of thermoregulatory strategy on innate immunity in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus).organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (goph ...201728437174
whip-like heterophil projections in consecutive blood films from an injured gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) with systemic inflammation. 201728460581
effects of military activity and habitat quality on dna damage and oxidative stress in the largest population of the federally threatened gopher tortoise.department of defense lands are essential for providing important habitat for threatened, endangered, and at-risk species (ter-s). however, there is little information on the effects of military-related contaminants on ter-s on these lands in field situations. thus, this study examined genotoxicity and oxidative stress in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) on camp shelby, ms-the largest known population of this species, which is listed as an "endangered species" in mississippi and a "threate ...201728975528
phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial dna of the desert tortoise (xerobates agassizi), and evolutionary relationships among the north american gopher tortoises.restriction-fragment polymorphisms in mitochondrial dna (mtdna) were used to evaluate population-genetic structure in the desert tortoise xerobates agassizi and to clarify evolutionary affinities among species of the gopher tortoise complex. fourteen informative endonucleases were employed to assay mtdnas from 56 x. agassizi representing 22 locations throughout the species' range. the mtdna genotypes observed were readily partitioned into three major phylogenetic assemblages, each with striking ...198928568493
co-infection does not predict disease signs ingopherustortoises.in disease ecology, the host immune system interacts with environmental conditions and pathogen properties to affect the impact of disease on the host. within the host, pathogens may interact to facilitate or inhibit each other's growth, and pathogens interact with different hosts differently. we investigated co-infection of twomycoplasmaand the association of infection with clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease in four congeneric tortoise host species (gopherus) in the united states ...201729134096
a molecular phylogeny of four endangered madagascar tortoises based on mtdna sequences.four of the five tortoise species in madagascar, pyxis arachnoides, p. planicauda, geochelone radiata, and g. yniphora, are endemic and on the verge of extinction. their phylogenetic relationships remain controversial and unresolved. here we address the phylogeny of this group using dna sequences for the 12s and 16s rdna and cyt b genes in mitochondrial dna. as outgroups we used two species of geochelone, pardalis (mainland africa) and nigra (galápagos), as well as a more distant north american ...199910222157
identifying genome-wide immune gene variation underlying infectious disease in wildlife populations - a next generation sequencing approach in the gopher tortoise.infectious disease is the single greatest threat to taxa such as amphibians (chytrid fungus), bats (white nose syndrome), tasmanian devils (devil facial tumor disease), and black-footed ferrets (canine distemper virus, plague). although understanding the genetic basis to disease susceptibility is important for the long-term persistence of these groups, most research has been limited to major-histocompatibility and toll-like receptor genes. to better understand the genetic basis of infectious dis ...201829351737
seasonal changes in sex and adrenal steroid hormones of gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus).we sampled a population of gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) from may to october 1997 to determine seasonal cycles of steroid hormones (testosterone, t; 17beta-estradiol, e; and progesterone, p) and related them to observations of mating behavior. in males, plasma t levels peaked in july and august and remained elevated through october. this coincides with the reported time of peak mating and spermatogenesis, indicating that males display an associated pattern of reproduction. in females, e ...200010642451
respiratory and pharyngo-esophageal iridovirus infection in a gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus).a free-living adult male gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) was found on sanibel island, florida (usa), on 18 february 1992 with signs of upper respiratory disease. on necropsy after euthanasia on 27 february 1992, severe, extensive necrotizing ulcerative tracheitis, multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, and multifocal necrotizing ulcerative pharyngitis and esophagitis were observed. large ovoid to round intracytoplasmic basophilic inclusions, which appeared to displace the nucleus to the cell pe ...19969359071
intraspecific phylogeography of the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus: rflp analysis of amplified mtdna segments.the slow rate of mtdna evolution in turtles poses a limitation on the levels of intraspecific variation detectable by conventional restriction fragment surveys. we examined mtdna variation in the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) using an alternative restriction assay, one in which pcr-amplified segments of the mitochondrial genome were digested with tetranucleotide-site endonucleases. restriction fragment polymorphisms representing four amplified regions were analysed to evaluate population ...19958564009
copper impact on enzymatic cascade and extracellular sequestration via distinctive pathways of nitrogen removal in green sorption media at varying stormwater field conditions.nutrient removal efficiency in green sorption media such as biosorption activated media (bam) for treating stormwater runoff can be heavily influenced either on a short- or long-term basis by varying field conditions of linear ditches due to the presence of copper in stormwater runoff. it is also noticeable that the linear ditch undergoes physical or mechanical impacts from the traffic compaction, chemical impact of carbon sources from the nearby farmland, and biological impact from potential an ...202031995869
pathogen surveillance and detection of ranavirus (frog virus 3) in translocated gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus).emerging pathogens may pose additional threats to already vulnerable populations of chelonians, such as gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus). in response to a mortality event on a translocation site in northwest florida, us during 2013-15, 13 gopher tortoises were necropsied and their tissues were screened for 12 pathogens, including mycoplasma agassizii, mycoplasma testudineum, and frog virus 3-like ranavirus (fv3). the dna of fv3 was detected via quantitative pcr in the gastrointestinal trac ...202032053413
high quality draft genome sequences of mycoplasma agassizii strains ps6t and 723 isolated from gopherus tortoises with upper respiratory tract disease.mycoplasma agassizii is one of the known causative agents of upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) in mojave desert tortoises (gopherus agassizii) and in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus). we sequenced the genomes of m. agassizii strains ps6t (atcc 700616) and 723 (atcc 700617) isolated from the upper respiratory tract of a mojave desert tortoise and a gopher tortoise, respectively, both with signs of urtd. the ps6t genome assembly was organized in eight scaffolds, had a total length of 1, ...201829725499
the sialotranscriptome of the gopher-tortoise tick, amblyomma tuberculatum.the gopher tortoise tick, amblyomma tuberculatum, is known to parasitize keystone ectotherm reptile species. the biological success of ticks requires precise mechanisms to evade host hemostatic and immune responses. acquisition of a full blood meal requires attachment, establishment of the blood pool, and engorgement of the tick. tick saliva contains molecules which counter the host responses to allow uninterrupted feeding on the host. rnaseq of the salivary glands of amblyomma tuberculatum tick ...202033007669
endozoochory of chrysobalanus icaco (cocoplum) by gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise) facilitates rapid germination and colonization in a suburban nature preserve.some large-seeded plants lack effective seed dispersal agents when they are introduced as ornamental plants to new areas, but can rapidly colonize a landscape if seed dispersal functions are restored. we examined whether gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise) facilitated the spread of chrysobalanus icaco (cocoplum; chrysobalanaceae) over a 14-year period in a suburban nature preserve (in jupiter, fl, usa) by: (i) comparing germination patterns among gut-passed, hand-depulped and whole fruit treat ...202032695302
optimizing conservation planning for multiple cohabiting species.conservation planning often involves multiple species occupying large areas including habitat sites with varying characteristics. for a given amount of financial resources, designing a spatially coherent nature reserve system that provides the best possible protection to targeted species is an important ecological and economic problem. in this paper, we address this problem using optimization methods. incorporating spatial criteria in an optimization framework considering spatial habitat needs o ...202032569315
investigation of a large-scale gopher tortoise ( gopherus polyphemus) mortality event on a public conservation land in florida, usa.in august 2015, a gopher tortoise ( gopherus polyphemus) mortality event was documented on a 40-ha area of lake louisa state park, lake county, florida, us. to quantify the extent of the die-off and the seroprevalence of mycoplasma agassizii and mycoplasma testudineum, two causative agents of mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (urtd), we conducted a tortoise shell survey on 25 and 26 august 2015 and collected blood samples from live tortoises on 2-4 september 2015 and 1-13 august 2016 w ...201829792758
morphological changes in the oviductal endometrium during the reproductive cycle of the tortoise, gopherus polyphemus.the oviducts of 24 tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) were examined using histological techniques and scanning electron microscopy to determine endometrial morphology. measurements of endometrial characteristics (epithelial cell height, cilia length, thickness of endometrial glandular layer, and glandular diameter) in the uterus and tube (tuba uterina) were obtained to determine changes during the reproductive cycle. epithelial cell height increases in both the uterus and the tube during vitellogen ...199029865720
epidemiological investigation of a mortality event in a translocated gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) population in northwest florida.nokuse plantation, a 22,055 ha private conservation preserve in northwest florida, is a recipient site for gopher tortoises translocated from development sites in florida. since 2006, nokuse has received over 5,000 tortoises from multiple development sites. during 2013-2015, 52 tortoises were found sick (n = 14) or dead (n = 38) in multiple soft-release enclosures in which tortoises consistently exhibited clinical signs, with additional sick (n = 5) and dead (n = 5) tortoises presenting similarl ...202032211432
newly recognized anaplasma sp. in erythrocytes from gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus).in 2015, a previously unrecognized intracytoplasmic erythrocytic inclusion was discovered in anemic wild-caught adult gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus). subsequently, molecular diagnostics revealed this inclusion to be a novel anaplasma sp.202032060958
evaluating methods to detect and monitor populations of a large invasive lizard: the argentine giant tegu.the argentine giant tegu, a large lizard native to south america, was first discovered as established in the usa in scrub habitats of west-central florida in 2006. invasive populations potentially could occupy an extensive range of habitats and in much of the southern united states and mexico and threaten many native species. the argentine giant tegu was recently deemed as having a "highest impact concern" among the invasive reptile species most threatening to florida ecology. among the most rew ...201931485938
close-kin mating, but not inbred parents, reduces hatching rates and offspring quality in a threatened tortoise.inbreeding depression, the reduction in fitness due to mating of related individuals, is of particular conservation concern in species with small, isolated populations. although inbreeding depression is widespread in natural populations, long-lived species may be buffered from its effects during population declines due to long generation times and thus are less likely to have evolved mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance than species with shorter generation times. however, empirical evidence of the ...201931397924
year-round plasma steroid hormone profiles and the reproductive ecology of gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus) at the southernmost edge of their range.populations of wide ranging ectotherms often exhibit variation in traits that are influenced by local environmental conditions. although the gopher tortoise, gopherus polyphemus, is well studied in pine flatwoods habitats across their range, little attention has been given to coastal populations existing in the southern extreme portion of the range. we examined the reproductive physiology of a coastal dune population in southwest florida to determine if reproductive cycles vary across population ...201931260662
upper respiratory tract disease and associated diagnostic tests of mycoplasmosis in alabama populations of gopher tortoises, gopherus polyphemus.upper respiratory tract disease (urtd) in north american tortoises (gopherus) has been the focus of numerous laboratory and field investigations, yet the prevalence and importance of this disease remains unclear across many tortoise populations. furthermore, much research has been focused on understanding diagnostic biomarkers of two known agents of urtd, mycoplasma agassizii and mycoplasma testudineum, yet the reliability and importance of these diagnostic biomarkers across populations is uncle ...201930951541
a survey of gopherus polyphemus intestinal parasites in south florida.gopherus polyphemus populations are diminishing throughout their range due to urbanization, fragmentation, and poor habitat management. increased population densities, poor habitat quality, and lack of fire may influence disease transmission. parasite roles within wild tortoise populations are largely unknown; despite evidence these pathogens may pose significant health risks. this study provides a baseline of gopher tortoise intestinal parasites across south florida and reports on how varying e ...201830687545
prevalence and levels of parasitemia of hepatozoon sp. (apicomplexa: adeleorina) in four gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) populations of south florida, usa.hepatozoon prevalence (occurrence) and parasitemia (intensity) levels were documented in 67 individuals of the threatened gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) for the first time in four south florida, us, locations: jonathan dickinson state park (jdsp), pine jog preserve (pjp), florida atlantic university preserve (faup), and blazing star preserve (bsp). sex ratios (males:females) per site were 0.44 at jdsp, 0.72 at pjp, 1.42 at faup, and 0.40 at bsp, but no significant differences in the carap ...201930566381
insights into the introduction history and population genetic dynamics of the argentine black-and-white tegu (salvator merianae) in florida.invasive species are a major threat to global biodiversity. the us state of florida is especially susceptible to the spread of exotic reptiles due to its subtropical climate, disturbed habitats, and robust pet trade. the argentine black-and-white tegu (salvator merianae) is a large, omnivorous lizard currently established in two different regions of southern florida. these two populations pose potential threats to sensitive ground nesting species such as gopher tortoises, american crocodiles, an ...201830244302
diagnostic performance of inflammatory markers in gopher tortoises ( gopherus polyphemus).the lack of sensitive and specific markers of inflammation poses a diagnostic challenge in sick or injured reptile patients. the objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of blood analytes associated with inflammation in healthy ( n = 24) and sick ( n = 38) gopher tortoises ( gopherus polyphemus). receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the following as the best-performing diagnostic tests: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (area under the curve [auc] = 0.8 ...201830212346
reference intervals for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lactate, fibrinogen, hematology, and plasma protein electrophoresis in clinically healthy captive gopher tortoises ( gopherus polyphemus).currently available tests for the diagnosis of inflammatory disease in reptiles are limited and poorly sensitive. however, a number of hematological and plasma biochemical analytes are validated in the diagnosis of inflammation in mammals. the objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lactate, heat-precipitated fibrinogen, hematology, and plasma protein electrophoresis based on total protein by biuret method in 23 clinically healthy, captive ...201830212317
male body size predicts reproductive success but not within-clutch paternity patterns in gopher tortoises (gopherus polyphemus).in many vertebrates, body size is an important driver of variation in male reproductive success. larger, more fit individuals are more likely to dominate mating opportunities, skewing siring success and resulting in lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity. the mating system of the gopher tortoise (gopherus polyphemus) has been characterized as both female-defense and scramble-competition polygyny. mating systems are typically not fixed and can be influenced by factors such as popu ...201830032207
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