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toward the incrimination of epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in massachusetts: abundance of mosquito populations at epidemic foci.putative epidemic/epizootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) vector populations were compared at 15 recent (1982-90) human and horse case sites in bristol and plymouth counties in southeastern massachusetts. carbon dioxide-baited american biophysics corporation light traps were used for trapping adult mosquitoes to estimate biting risk in these foci of known transmission. population data suggest that coquillettidia perturbans, aedes canadensis, and culex salinarius are more likely ve ...199910612612
isolation of eee virus from ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and culiseta melanura in coastal south carolina.a 1-year arbovirus study was conducted at the wedge plantation located in coastal south carolina to determine the occurrence and level of arbovirus activity in mosquito species inhabiting the site. mosquito species composition and temporal abundance were also determined. a total of 45,051 mosquitoes representing 27 species in 9 genera was collected and identified during 130 trap-nights between august, 1997, and july, 1998. the most abundant species was culex salinarius (n = 20,954) followed by o ...200312674532
mosquito and arbovirus activity during 1997-2002 in a wetland in northeastern mississippi.the species composition and population dynamics of adult mosquitoes in a wetland near iuka, ms, were analyzed over a 6-yr period (1997-2002) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (pcr) detection rates of arboviruses determined during five of those years. blood meals of three likely vector species were identified using a pcr-based method that allows identification of the host to species. culex erraticus (dyar & knab) composed 51.9% of the population during the 6-yr period with 295 f ...200415185956
vector competence of mosquitoes (diptera:culicidae) from massachusetts for a sympatric isolate of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus.we tested susceptibility to per os infection and potential salivary transmission for eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus in aedes canadensis (theobald), aedes vexans (meigen), anopheles quadrimaculatus (say), anopheles punctipennis (say), coquillettidia perturbans (walker), and culex salinarius (coquillett). culiseta melanura (coquillett), the documented enzootic vector of eee virus, was our control. based on these estimates of laboratory vector competence and other behavioral and ecolo ...19979151501
vector potential of selected north american mosquito species for rift valley fever virus.selected north american mosquito species were evaluated as potential vectors of rift valley fever virus. field populations of aedes canadensis, ae. cantator, ae. excrucians, ae. sollicitans, ae. taeniorhynchus, ae. triseriatus, anopheles bradleyi-crucians, culex salinarius, cx. tarsalis, and cx. territans perorally exposed to 10(6.2)-10(7.2) plaque forming units of rift valley fever virus readily became infected. infection rates ranged from 51% (65/127) for cx. salinarius to 96% (64/67) for ae. ...19882895591
variation of mosquito (diptera: culicidae) relative abundance and dirofilaria immitis (nematoda: filarioidea) vector potential in coastal north carolina.at an enzootic focus of dirofilaria immitis in coastal north carolina, mosquito populations were sampled june-september 1985 and on several occasions during august-october 1986 and june-august 1987, to identify local vectors and to determine relative abundance and d. immitis infection rates. predominant species collected were anopheles bradleyi king (66.6%), culex salinarius coquillett (15.9%), aedes taeniorhynchus (wiedemann) (8.2%), and aedes sollicitans (walker) (4.9%). population abundance v ...19938096249
a preliminary study of the seasonal geographic distribution and overwintering of culex restuans theobald and culex salinarius coquillet (diptera: culicidae). 19725057496
dimorphic development of amblyospora sp. (microspora: amblyosporidae) in culex salinarius gynandromorphs. 19902319162
identification of culex species by electrophoresis.this paper extends the usefulness of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to studies of mosquito taxonomy and mosquito vector ecology. using a newly developed double staining technique, it is possible to unambiguously separate several species of culex mosquitoes found in northern indiana. these include culex restuans, culex pipiens pipiens, and culex territans. preliminary work indicates that culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and culex salinarius can also be identified by this method. this technique ...1977907038
development, ultrastructure, and mode of transmission of amblyospora sp. (microspora) in the mosquito.amblyospora sp. in culex salinarius (coquillett) is transovarially transmitted and has 2 developmental sequences, one in each host sex. in females, the entire life cycle is restricted to oenocytes which become greatly hypertrophied due to the multiplication of diplokaryotic cells during merogony and come to lie next to ovaries. sporulation occurs only after a blood meal is taken and is shortly followed by infection of the oocytes and subsequent transmission to the next host generation. in the ma ...1979536933
mosquitoes captured in a horse-baited stable trap in southeast louisiana.a mosquito study based on collections from horse-baited stable traps was conducted in 1993 and 1994 at 3 sites in geographically and ecologically distinct areas of st. tammany parish (southeastern louisiana) to determine the major horse-feeding mosquito species that could be possible bridging and epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. a total of 4,535 mosquitoes in 1993 and 23,906 in 1994 involving 26 species were collected, of which, depending on the site, culex salinarius, ...200312825665
effects of ivermectin in canine blood on anopheles quadrimaculatus, aedes albopictus and culex salinarius.blood from ivermectin-treated dogs was tested against adult mosquitoes. mosquitoes were allowed to bloodfeed on mixed breed dogs 4 h after dogs were given oral dosages of ivermectin. in test 1, anopheles quadrimaculatus and aedes albopictus fed on dogs that had been given ivermectin dosages of 0, 6, 12, and 24 micrograms/kg. in test 2, culex salinarius and ae. albopictus fed on dogs that had been given dosages of 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 micrograms/kg. in both tests, mosquitoes were observed for m ...19938126472
eastern equine encephalitis virus in ohio during 1991.during august and september of 1991, an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus in horses occurred in wayne and holmes countries, oh. this was the first recorded epizootic of eee virus in the state. twelve horses were confirmed positive for eee virus through virus isolation or seroconversion, and seven additional horses with compatible symptoms were in close spatial and temporal proximity to the confirmed cases and were presumed to have died from eee virus. the outbreak was centered ...19938094461
dose-mortality responses of crawfish and mosquitoes to selected pesticides.a study was conducted to determine the toxicities (lc50s) of several pesticides on the commercially important red swamp crawfish, procambarus clarkii, and 3 mosquito species common in louisiana ricelands--anopheles quadrimaculatus, culex salinarius and psorophora columbiae. pesticides tested in laboratory bioassays included bacillus sphaericus, b. thuringiensis var. israelensis, bendiocarb, glyphosate, isostearyl alcohol, malathion, propoxur, resmethrin synergized with piperonyl butoxide (pbo) a ...19872904959
evaluation of butanone, carbon dioxide, and 1-octen-3-ol as attractants for mosquitoes associated with north central florida bay and cypress swamps.field studies were conducted to determine the responses of mosquitoes found in north central florida bay and cypress swamps to carbon dioxide (co2), light, butanone, and 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), alone and co2 in combination with each of the others. the response of these mosquito species to 5 co2 release rates (2, 20, 100, 200, and 2,000 ml/min) of co2 was also determined. the use of co2 resulted in a response in all the species studied; the pattern of response to increasing co2 levels varied from ...19989813827
nocturnal distribution of louisiana riceland mosquito adults.nocturnal riceland mosquito populations in southern louisiana were monitored using nonbaited cdc miniature light traps. a mixed population of anopheles quadrimaculatus, an. crucians, psorophora columbiae and culex salinarius adults was collected in a livestock occupied barn. highly variable numbers of all 4 species were trapped in areas away from the barns. species density at any given trap location was not related to trap location, type of habitat surrounding the trap or brush density near the ...19911686276
effect of topically treating cattle with permethrin on blood feeding of psorophora columbiae (diptera: culicidae) in a southwestern louisiana rice-pasture ecosystem.the percentage of resting mosquitoes that had fed on blood or were gravid-parous was determined in two pastures associated with the riceland agroecosystem in southwestern louisiana. in one pasture, all of the cattle were treated with permethrin every 14 d over a 22-wk period, whereas cattle in the other pasture were untreated. the percentage of blood-engorged psorophora columbiae (dyar & knab) was significantly lower in the vicinity of the treated herd. the effectiveness of the permethrin treatm ...19902280387
application of geographic information technology in determining risk of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission.geographic information system (gis) technology and remote sensing were used to identify landscape features determining risk of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eee) transmission as defined by the abundance of culiseta melanura (the enzootic vector) and 6 putative epidemic-epizootic vectors in massachusetts. landsat thematic mapper data combined with aerial videography data were used to generate a map of landscape elements at epidemic-epizootic foci in southeastern massachusetts. geographi ...200010757488
a phylogenetic approach to following west nile virus in connecticut.the 1999 outbreak of west nile (wn) virus in the northeastern united states was the first known natural occurrence of this flavivirus in the western hemisphere. in 1999 and 2000, 82 independent connecticut wn virus isolates were cultured from nine species of birds, five species of mosquitoes, and one striped skunk. nucleotide sequences obtained from these isolates identified 30 genetic changes, compared with wn-ny99, in a 921-nt region of the viral genome beginning at nucleotide position 205 and ...200111606791
evaluation of 1-octen-3-ol, carbon dioxide, and light as attractants for mosquitoes associated with two distinct habitats in north carolina.field studies were conducted in north carolina to determine the responses of mosquitoes found in salt marsh and inland creek flood plain areas to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), carbon dioxide (co2), and light in various combinations with centers for disease control (cdc) light traps. over 56,000 adult mosquito specimens of 12 species in 4 genera were collected in the salt marsh. they exhibited a general response pattern of octenol + co2 + light > co2 + light = octenol + co2 > octenol + light > octenol ...200111345421
vector ability of mosquitoes for isolates of plasmodium elongatum from raptors in florida.three isolates of plasmodium elongatum were obtained from 3 species of raptors (red-tailed hawk [buteo jamaicensis], bald eagle [haliaeetus leucocephalus], and eastern screech owl [otus asio]) from florida using isodiagnostic techniques in pekin ducks (anas platyrhynchos). six to 10 species of mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to these 3 isolates. complete development of the sporogonic cycle of the 3 isolates of p. elongatum occurred in 3 species of mosquitoes, culex nigripalpus, culex r ...19989645854
efficacy of four trap types for detecting and monitoring culex spp. in north central florida.the effectiveness of four types of mosquito traps at sampling culex mosquitoes was compared at two north central florida study sites (a commercial dairy and a swine research unit) with highly eutrophic lagoons that have a history of producing large populations of culex mosquitoes. traps evaluated included a john hock (jh) model 1012 cdc style light trap, jh model 1712 cdc gravid trap (gt), and american biophysics corporation's mosquito magnet-experimental (mm-x) and commercial model mm-professio ...200617162943
factors affecting mosquito production from stormwater drains and catch basins in two florida cities.mosquito production from drains and catch basins in the cities of vero beach and key west, fl were monitored from may 2004 through august 2005. a total of 48,787 mosquitoes were captured during the study. of these, over 99% belonged to two species, culex nigripalpus theobald (2,630) and culex quinquefasciatus say (45,946). other species collected included culex restuans theobald, culex salinarius coquillett, aedes aegypti (l.), aedes albopictus (skuse), and uranotaenia lowii theobald. significan ...200617249351
arbovirus surveillance in south carolina, 1996-98.arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in south carolina (usa) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eee), st. louis encephalitis virus (sle), flanders virus, tensaw virus (ten), and a variant of jamestown canyon virus (jc). mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 south carolina counties beginning in june 1996, and ending in october 1998, and tested for arboviruses. of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mo ...200111345423
amblyospora salinaria n. sp. (microsporidia: amblyosporidae), parasite of culex salinarius (diptera: culicidae): its life cycle stages in an intermediate host.horizontal transmission testing with an amblyospora species from the mosquito culex salinarius has documented the involvement of a copepod intermediate host. meiospores (one type of uninucleate spore) of the amblyospora sp. were infectious per os to female macrocyclops albidus adults. all developmental stages in the copepod had unpaired nuclei (were haplophasic), starting with the sporoplasms from the meiospore, continuing as a succession of schizonts undergoing binary division and ending with s ...19989538031
urban habitat evaluation for west nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in albuquerque, new mexico.as part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan albuquerque area (bernalillo county, new mexico) were trapped from may through september 2004. each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard co2-baited centers for disease control and prevention light trap and a gravid trap. captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for west nile virus (wnv) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain react ...200717847847
selected mosquito vectors of west nile virus: comparison of their ecological dynamics in four woodland and marsh habitats in delaware.we compared human landing, co2-baited light trap, co2-baited omni-fay trap, and gravid trap collections of mosquitoes at 4 woodland and marsh sites with varied vegetative habitats in delaware during summer 2001. landing collections provided more consistent, but sometimes smaller, collection numbers than light traps. proportions of parous mosquitoes were also higher in landing than in light trap or omni-fay collections about 65% of the time. circadian feeding rhythms were observed for 3 suspected ...200415264622
the isolation of microsporidia and other pathogens from concentrated ditch water.water from a mosquito larval habitat in florida was collected periodically for one year. after removing debris and macroscopic organisms, the small particles were concentrated by continuous flow centrifugation and examined microscopically. anopheles quadrimaculatus, culex salinarius and heliothis zea larvae were exposed to the concentrates. the microsporidia isolated were nosema, pleistophora, telomyxa, vavraia and vairimorpha. in addition to these microsporidia, a helicosporidium (protozoa), a ...19873144577
seasonal abundance of culex nigripalpus theobald and culex salinarius coquillett in north florida, usa.north florida is a transition zone between widespread culex nigripalpus populations to the south and focal culex salinarius populations to the north. culex nigripalpus is a vector of st. louis encephalitis (sle) and eastern equine encephalitis (eee) viruses in south florida, while cx. salinarius is a suspected new world vector of west nile (wn) virus. abundant vector populations are often a prerequisite for epidemic and epizootic transmission of arboviruses. extensive sle transmission has never ...200212125867
phylogeny of amblyospora (microsporida: amblyosporidae) and related genera based on small subunit ribosomal dna data: a possible example of host parasite cospeciation.small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene sequences were analyzed for six species and four genera of microsporidia from mosquito hosts; amblyospora stimuli (aedes stimulans), amblyospora californica (culex tarsalis), amblyospora sp. (culex salinarius), edhazardia aedis (aedes aegypti), culicosporella lunata (culex pilosus), and parathelohania anophelis (anopheles quadrimaculatus). comparison of these sequences to those of other microsporidia show that these sequences are longer with the ssu rr ...19989538024
sampling with light traps and human bait in epidemic foci for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in southeastern massachusetts.to estimate human exposure to potential vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared collections of putative eee virus vectors from human biting collections with collections from cdc, ab (american biophysics), and new jersey light traps and resting boxes in enzootic/epidemic foci of eee virus in southeastern massachusetts. human biting collections caught significantly more host-seeking females than resting boxes or unbaited light traps (p < 0.05). regression analysis of h ...19979474561
sampling methods for potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in massachusetts.to determine which of 11 trapping methods best sampled populations of 6 potential epidemic vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (eee) virus, we compared new jersey (nj) light trap, cdc light trap, cdc with octenol, cdc with co2, cdc with co2 plus octenol, american biophysics light trap with flickering light (ab flicker), ab steady light, ab flicker with octenol, ab flicker with co2, ab flicker with co2 plus octenol, and 3 resting boxes. there was no significant difference between cdc and ...19979474560
host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of west nile virus in the eastern united states.an important variable in determining the vectorial capacity of mosquito species for arthropod-borne infections is the degree of contact of the vector and the vertebrate reservoir. this parameter can be estimated by examining the host-feeding habits of vectors. serological and polymerase chain reaction based methods have been used to study the host-feedings patterns of 21 mosquito species from new york, new jersey, and tennessee, 19 of which previously have been found infected with west nile viru ...200415018775
seasonal dynamics of four potential west nile vector species in north-central texas.a population survey was conducted from april through september 2002 on mosquito species occurring on the ray roberts greenbelt, a riparian corridor used for public recreation on the elm fork of the trinity river, in denton county, tx. geographic information system software was used to set up a stratified random sampling design based on habitat parameters. mosquitoes were collected using light traps, gravid traps, and resting boxes. a total of 29 species was collected during this study belonging ...200516599151
arbovirus transmission by culex nigripalpus in florida, 2005.understanding the transmission patterns of west nile and st. louis encephalitis viruses (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv and slev) could result in an increased ability to predict transmission risk to humans. to examine transmission patterns between vector and host, we trapped mosquitoes in three florida counties from june to november 2005 by using chicken-baited lard can mosquito traps. these traps were used to monitor for presence of wnv and slev in mosquitoes and subsequent transmis ...200818533444
host feeding patterns of culex mosquitoes and west nile virus transmission, northeastern united states.to evaluate the role of culex mosquitoes as enzootic and epidemic vectors for wnv, we identified the source of vertebrate blood by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna. all cx. restuans and 93% of cx. pipiens acquired blood from avian hosts; cx. salinarius fed frequently on both mammals (53%) and birds (36%). mixed-blood meals were detected in 11% and 4% of cx. salinarius and cx. pipiens, respectively. american robin was th ...200616704786
the effect of oral anthelmintics on the survivorship and re-feeding frequency of anthropophilic mosquito disease vectors.in the tropics, there is substantial temporal and spatial overlap of diseases propagated by anthropophilic mosquito vectors (such as malaria and dengue) and human helminth diseases (such as onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis) that are treated though mass drug administrations (mda). this overlap will result in mosquito vectors imbibing significant quantities of these drugs when they blood feed on humans. since many anthelmintic drugs have broad anti-invertebrate effects, the possibility of c ...201020540931
entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: a review.fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including dipterans. fungal pathogens such as lagenidium, coelomomyces and culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. there are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. the discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pa ...200415861235
host-feeding habits of culex and other mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the borough of queens in new york city, with characters and techniques for identification of culex mosquitoes.the host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (n = 247) collected in the borough of queens in new york city in july and august 2000 were investigated using an indirect elisa and a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-heteroduplex assay. culex pipiens l. and cx. restuans theobald fed primarily on birds, and their feeding habits support their implication as enzootic vectors of west nile virus. culex salinarius coquillett and coquillettidia perturbans (walker) fed mainly on mammals, with fewer blood meals tak ...200212349862
seasonal abundance of culex restuans and culex pipiens in southwestern virginia through ovitrapping.ovitrap collections were done to determine the seasonal distribution and ovipositional activity of culex restuans and culex pipiens in southwestern virginia during summers 2002 and 2003. in both years, cx. restuans was the first species collected and was the dominant species throughout the collecting period. more than 90% of the collections were comprised of cx. restuans. two oviposition peaks occurred in both years for cx. restuans, the first in june and second in the middle of july. culex pipi ...200617019765
evidence of co-infection of chikungunya and densonucleosis viruses in c6/36 cell lines and laboratory infected aedes aegypti (l.) mosquitoes.abstract:201020939884
comparison of mosquito trapping method efficacy for west nile virus surveillance in new mexico.as part of the west nile virus surveillance program for the state of new mexico, 13 sites along the rio grande river were sampled for mosquitoes during spring and summer 2003. we evaluated 3 different trapping procedures for their effectiveness at capturing selected species of mosquitoes. the 3 methods used were a dry ice-baited centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) light trap set 1.5 m above the ground (standard method), a cdc light trap suspended within the forest canopy, and a grav ...200617019770
stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for west nile virus vectors in delaware during 2004.we performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in delaware from june to september 2004. we analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. the 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. in terms of west nile virus (wnv) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce a ...200617019774
significance of transovarial infections of amblyospora sp. (microspora:thelohaniidae) in relation to parasite maintenance in the mosquito culex salinarius. 1979536610
west nile virus infection in mosquitoes in the mid-south usa, 2002-2005.west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) was first detected in the tennessee valley and in alabama in august 2001. in summer 2002, intensive viral activity was seen, but in subsequent years, viral activity settled into an enzootic pattern. here, we report an analysis of viral activity in the mosquito fauna in the mid-south from 2002 (the first year viral activity was detected in mosquitoes) through 2005. eight mosquito species were infected with wnv during 2002. however, vira ...200717294929
a two-year evaluation of elevated canopy trapping for culex mosquitoes and west nile virus in an operational surveillance program in the northeastern united states.the effectiveness of co2-baited centers for disease control and prevention miniature light traps elevated in the tree canopy (approximately 7.6 m) was compared with light traps placed at ground level (approximately1.5 m) and grass-sod infused gravid traps for collecting culex pipiens, culex restuans, and culex salinarius and detecting west nile virus (wnv) activity in an operational surveillance program that encompassed 12 ecologically diverse sites in connecticut in 2004 and 2005. more than twi ...200717847845
west nile virus from female and male mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in subterranean, ground, and canopy habitats in connecticut.in total, 93,532 female mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were captured in traps placed in subterranean (catch basin), ground (approximately 1.5 m above ground), and canopy (approximately 7.0 m above ground) habitats in stamford and stratford, ct, during 2003-2005. culex pipiens l. was the most abundant (64.8%) of the 31 species identified. significantly greater numbers of cx. pipiens were captured in canopy-placed mosquito magnet experimental traps, and significantly greater numbers were collecte ...200617017241
nocturnal activity of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in a west nile virus focus in connecticut.six species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected in sufficient numbers for analysis in segregating traps set at 2-h intervals by using co2 and light as attractants in a west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) focus in stratford, ct. the kolmogorov-smirnov one-sided test for two samples was used to analyze the data. mosquito activity began shortly before sunset and continued until shortly after sunrise the next morning. all species had geometric means that were s ...200718047212
targeted trapping of mosquito vectors in the chesapeake bay area of maryland.most adult mosquito surveillance in maryland is performed using dry ice-baited or unbaited centers for disease control (cdc) miniature light traps suspended approximately 1.5 m above the ground. however, standardized trapping methods may miss mosquito species involved in disease transmission cycles. during a 2-yr study, the effectiveness of the olfactory attractant 1-octen-3-ol alone and in combination with carbon dioxide was evaluated for collecting mosquito vector species. in addition, trap he ...200616619593
avian diversity and west nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk.the emergence of several high profile infectious diseases in recent years has focused attention on our need to understand the ecological factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases. west nile virus (wnv) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first detected in the united states in 1999. the factors accounting for variation in the prevalence of wnv are poorly understood, but recentideas suggesting links between high biodiversity and reduced vector-borne disease risk may help ...200616519242
phylogenetic position of amblyospora hazard & oldacre (microspora:amblyosporidae) based on small subunit rrna data and its implication for the evolution of the microsporidia.sequences of the small subunit rrna genes of amblvospora california and an amblyospora sp. from culex salinarius were determined. these sequences were compared phylogenetically with 16 other microsporidia. the results suggest amblyospora forms a sister taxon to the rest of the microsporidia examined. the basal position of amblyospora is discussed with respect to the evolution of microsporidian life cycles. these sequences represent the longest microsporidian small subunit rrna genes sequenced to ...19979183710
eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) develop west nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.the potential of the eastern cottontail rabbit (ctr; sylvilagus floridanus) to contribute to an enzootic west nile virus (wnv) cycle was demonstrated by characterizing the wnv viremia profile of 15 ctrs and demonstrating that mosquitoes could become infected by feeding on these ctrs. eight ctrs were infected with a titer of 10(5.0) cell-infectious dose 50% endpoints (cid50s) of wnv (ny99-crow) by needle and seven ctrs by bite of one or more wnv-infected mosquitoes. there were no marked differenc ...200516417430
plasmodium hermani: experimental transmission by culex salinarius and comparison with other susceptible florida mosquitoes. 19817227490
emergence of west nile virus in mosquito (diptera: culicidae) communities of the new mexico rio grande valley.the first appearances of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) in new mexico were reported in late summer to early fall 2002. several dead birds tested positive for wnv, and 78 equine cases were confirmed. all mosquito pools tested (n = 268) were negative. a statewide surveillance program was launched in may 2003 to study the emergence and spread of this new arbovirus in mosquitoes from the rio grande valley. mosquitoes were trapped at 32 sites along a 750-km stretch of th ...200616739421
host-feeding patterns of suspected west nile virus mosquito vectors in delaware, 2001-2002.paucity of data on host-feeding patterns and behavior of 43 mosquito species that are reported as suspected west nile virus (wn) vectors has limited full evaluation of their vectorial capacity. recent studies addressing this issue need additional confirmation and should also be expanded to include collections of species or subpopulations attracted to humans. we used 4 types of collection methods to collect mosquitoes, including omnidirectional fay-prince traps, centers for disease control-type l ...200516033122
what is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in united states national parks?united states national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. we assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal national park service documents and organismal ...201323540107
the role of viral persistence in flavivirus biology.in nature, vector-borne flaviviruses are persistently cycled between either the tick or mosquito vector and small mammals such as rodents, skunks, and swine. these viruses account for considerable human morbidity and mortality worldwide. increasing and substantial evidence of viral persistence in humans, which includes the isolation of rna by rt-pcr and infectious virus by culture, continues to be reported. viral persistence can also be established in vitro in various human, animal, arachnid, an ...201424737600
genetic variation in west nile virus from naturally infected mosquitoes and birds suggests quasispecies structure and strong purifying selection.intrahost genetic diversity was analysed in naturally infected mosquitoes and birds to determine whether west nile virus (wnv) exists in nature as a quasispecies and to quantify selective pressures within and between hosts. wnv was sampled from ten infected birds and ten infected mosquito pools collected on long island, ny, usa, during the peak of the 2003 wnv transmission season. a 1938 nt fragment comprising the 3' 1159 nt of the wnv envelope (e) coding region and the 5' 779 nt of the non-stru ...200516033965
commercial mosquito trap and gravid trap oviposition media evaluation, atlanta, georgia.field trials evaluating the effectiveness of selected gravid trap oviposition media and commercially available mosquito traps were conducted in southern fulton county (atlanta), ga, from june 9 to june 18 and june 24 to july 4, 2002, respectively. total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the tests were compared using a latin square design. for the gravid trap infusion media, significant differences were found for total number of mosquitoes collected where sod > or = ...200415532919
comparison of light traps, gravid traps, and resting boxes for west nile virus surveillance.west nile virus surveillance was conducted at five sites in new castle county, de, and one site in salem county, nj, from june through september, 2004, using dry ice-baited centers for disease control miniature light traps, infusion-baited gravid traps, and resting boxes. all trap types were simultaneously placed at each site every two weeks and run overnight. collected mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled, and analyzed for virus using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain ...200718260519
the risk of west nile virus infection is associated with combined sewer overflow streams in urban atlanta, georgia, usa.at present, the factors favoring transmission and amplification of west nile virus (wnv) within urban environments are poorly understood. in urban atlanta, georgia, the highly polluted waters of streams affected by combined sewer overflow (cso) represent significant habitats for the wnv mosquito vector culex quinquefasciatus. however, their contribution to the risk of wnv infection in humans and birds remains unclear.201020529765
epidemiology of west nile virus in connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003.two hundred and ten isolations of west nile virus (wnv) were obtained from 17 mosquito species in six genera in statewide surveillance conducted in connecticut from june through october, 1999-2003. culex pipiens (86), culex salinarius (32), culex restuans (26), culiseta melanura (32), and aedes vexans (12) were implicated as the most likely vectors of wnv in the region based on virus isolation data. culex pipiens was abundant from july through september and is likely involved in early season enz ...200415682518
emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration.abstract: arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. they belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like west nile virus (wnv) in the americas, usutu virus (usuv) in central europe, or rift valley fever virus (rvfv) in the arabian ...201020377873
functional characterisation of the anopheles leucokinins and their cognate g-protein coupled receptor.identification of the anopheles gambiae leucokinin gene from the completed a. gambiae genome revealed that this insect species contains three leucokinin peptides, named anopheles leucokinin i-iii. these peptides are similar to those identified in two other mosquito species, aedes aegypti and culex salinarius. additionally, anopheles leucokinin i displays sequence similarity to drosophila melanogaster leucokinin. using a combination of computational and molecular approaches, a full-length cdna fo ...200415579553
incrimination of the mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, as the primary vector of heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, in coastal yucatan, mexico.mosquito collections were carried out on microfilaraemic dogs, positive for dirofilaria sp., for 18 consecutive nights in the coastal town of celestún, yucatan, southeast mexico, during the rainy season (august) of 2007. a total of 292 female mosquitoes representing 12 species of dipteran culicidae were collected: anopheles albimanus (wiedemann); anopheles crucians (wiedemann); anopheles pseudopunctipennis (theobald); culex coronator (dyar & knab); culex interrogator (dyar & knab); culex nigripa ...201020572932
mosquito surveillance for west nile virus in southeastern wisconsin--2002.in 2001, west nile virus (wnv) was identified among dead american crows and bluejays in five counties in southeastern wisconsin. in response to the introduction of wnv, a pilot mosquito surveillance program was initiated in these five southeastern wisconsin counties during the summer of 2002. forty sites were selected for surveillance one night each week during a 17-week period. mosquitoes were collected in carbon dioxide-baited light traps and gravid traps. during the study period 31,419 mosqui ...200315931283
eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. to evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit eeev, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in connecticut, usa, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quant ...201021122215
aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species attracted to centers for disease control and prevention miniature light traps baited with carbon dioxide and the traptech mosquito lure.twelve reported mosquito attractants, alone or in combination, and 3 different types of traps were evaluated under field conditions for their attractiveness to host-seeking and oviposition-seeking female aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species in windsor, ct, in 2010 and 2011. this study highlights the effectiveness of combining co2 with the traptech mosquito lure in a centers for disease control and prevention (cdc) miniature light trap for collection of ae. j. japonicus and a ...201223833898
blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?abstract:201020205866
horizontal and vertical transmission of west nile virus genotype ny99 by culex salinarius and genotypes ny99 and wn02 by culex tarsalis.culex tarsalis is a superior horizontal and vertical vector of west nile virus (wnv) compared with culex salinarius. culex salinarius transmitted wnv genotype ny99 (ct 2741-99 strain) horizontally to suckling mice at significantly lower rates than cx. tarsalis on days 8, 9, 10, and 12 post-infection, and cx. salinarius transmitted wnv genotype ny99 to offspring at a lower vertical transmission infection rate than cx. tarsalis. culex tarsalis transmitted wnv genotypes ny99 and wn02 (ct s0084-08 s ...022232464
host associations of mosquitoes at eastern equine encephalitis virus foci in connecticut, usa.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus, with active transmission foci in freshwater hardwood swamps in eastern north america, where enzootic transmission is maintained between the ornithophilic mosquito, culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds. the role of other locally abundant mosquito species in virus transmission and their associations with vertebrate hosts as sources of blood meals within these foci are largely unknown but are of importa ...201627577939
vector-host interactions of culiseta melanura in a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus activity in southeastern virginia.eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) causes a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne zoonosis that is responsible for sporadic outbreaks of severe illness in humans and equines in the eastern usa. culiseta (cs.) melanura is the primary vector of eeev in most geographic regions but its feeding patterns on specific avian and mammalian hosts are largely unknown in the mid-atlantic region. the objectives of our study were to: 1) identify avian hosts of cs. melanura and evaluate their potential role in ...201526327226
emergency mosquito control on a selected area in eastern north carolina after hurricane irene.natural disasters such as hurricanes may contribute to mosquito abundance and, consequently, arbovirus transmission risk. in 2011, flooding from hurricane irene in eastern north carolina (nc) resulted in increased mosquito populations that hindered recovery efforts. budget shortfalls in nc have reduced the functionality of long-term mosquito surveillance and control programs; hence, many counties rely on the federal emergency management agency for post-disaster mosquito control. this pilot study ...201425574141
mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the delmarva peninsula.a study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from july to september) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the e.a. vaughn wetland management area on the maryland delmarva peninsula, usa. study marshes are characteristic of atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. in the autumn of 2008 (october and november) ditches were plugged near their ...201121909293
environmental and genetic factors determine whether the mosquito aedes aegypti lays eggs without a blood meal.some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. this may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. we found that 3.2% of females in a population of ae. aegypti from kenya were autogenous. autogeny was strongly influenced by temp ...201525646251
microsporidia evolved from ancestral sexual fungi.microsporidia are obligate, intracellular eukaryotic pathogens that infect animal cells, including humans [1]. previous studies suggested microsporidia share a common ancestor with fungi [2-7]. however, the exact nature of this phylogenetic relationship is unclear because of unusual features of microsporidial genomes, which are compact with fewer and highly divergent genes [8]. as a consequence, it is unclear whether microsporidia evolved from a specific fungal lineage, or whether microsporidia ...200818976912
risk factors for human infection with west nile virus in connecticut: a multi-year analysis.the optimal method for early prediction of human west nile virus (wnv) infection risk remains controversial. we analyzed the predictive utility of risk factor data for human wnv over a six-year period in connecticut.200919943935
geostatistical evaluation of integrated marsh management impact on mosquito vectors using before-after-control-impact (baci) design.in many parts of the world, salt marshes play a key ecological role as the interface between the marine and the terrestrial environments. salt marshes are also exceedingly important for public health as larval habitat for mosquitoes that are vectors of disease and significant biting pests. although grid ditching and pesticides have been effective in salt marsh mosquito control, marsh degradation and other environmental considerations compel a different approach. targeted habitat modification and ...200919549297
urban mosquito fauna in mérida city, méxico: immatures collected from containers and storm-water drains/catch basins.we examined the species composition and temporal occurrence of immature mosquitoes in containers and storm-water drains/catch basins from november 2011 to june 2013 in mérida city, méxico. a wide range of urban settings were examined, including residential premises, vacant lots, parking lots, and streets or sidewalks with storm-water drains/catch basins. in total, 111,776 specimens of 15 species were recorded. the most commonly collected species were aedes (stegomyia) aegypti (l.) (n = 60,961) a ...025429168
phylogenetic analysis of eastern equine encephalitis virus isolates from florida.abstract. florida has the highest degree of endemicity for eastern equine encephalitis virus (eeev) of any state in the united states and is the only state with year-round transmission of eeev. to further understand the viral population dynamics in florida, the genome sequence of six eeev isolates from central florida were determined. these data were used to identify the most polymorphic regions of the eeev genome from viruses isolated in florida. the sequence of these polymorphic regions was th ...201121540379
salt marsh as culex salinarius larval habitat in coastal new york.culex salinarius is considered one of the most likely bridge vectors involved in the human transmission cycle of west nile virus (wnv) and eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (eeev) in the northeastern usa. the larval habitats of this species in the coastal region of new york state are currently poorly known. between 2005 and 2007, a larval survey was carried out to identify and characterize possible larval habitats in suffolk county, encompassing natural and man-made freshwater wetlands, art ...200818939687
climate change impacts on west nile virus transmission in a global context.west nile virus (wnv), the most widely distributed virus of the encephalitic flaviviruses, is a vector-borne pathogen of global importance. the transmission cycle exists in rural and urban areas where the virus infects birds, humans, horses and other mammals. multiple factors impact the transmission and distribution of wnv, related to the dynamics and interactions between pathogen, vector, vertebrate hosts and environment. hence, among other drivers, weather conditions have direct and indirect i ...025688020
the roles of mosquito and bird communities on the prevalence of west nile virus in urban wetland and residential habitats.this study investigated the impacts of urban wetlands and their adjacent residential environments on the transmission dynamics of west nile virus (wnv) within the state of new jersey (usa). a working hypothesis was that urban wetlands decrease the local prevalence of wnv through the dilution effect from increased bird diversity, and through relative reductions in the numbers of competent avian host and mosquito species commonly associated with wnv. surveys of mosquito and bird communities were u ...025484570
rapid assessment of mosquitoes and arbovirus activity after floods in southeastern kansas, 2007.a rapid assessment was conducted in july-august 2007 to determine the impact of heavy rains and early summer floods on the mosquitoes and arbovirus activity in 4 southeastern kansas counties. during 10 days and nights of collections using different types and styles of mosquito traps, a total of 10,512 adult female mosquitoes representing 29 species were collected, including a new species record for kansas (psorophora mathesoni). high numbers of aedes albopictus were collected. over 4,000 specime ...200919852215
nest mosquito trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes.accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. we designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the nest mosquito trap (nmt), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. in the laboratory, the nmt collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. we then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-coll ...022548555
vector contact rates on eastern bluebird nestlings do not indicate west nile virus transmission in henrico county, virginia, usa.sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as west nile virus (wnv). monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local wnv amplification. to test this hypothesis we monitored wnv infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily eastern blu ...201324287858
north american wetlands and mosquito control.wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. there is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by ...201223222252
habitat segregation of mosquito arbovirus vectors in south florida.oviposition traps set in rural to urban environments in three south florida counties were colonized predominantly by culex quinquefasciatus say (35.1%), aedes albopictus (skuse) (34.5%), aedes aegypti (l.) (23.8%), and culex nigripalpus theobald (6.6%) during 1 yr of monthly sampling. significant differences were detected among counties for abundances of cx. quinquefasciatus and for percentage composition of that species and ae. albopictus. aerial images of habitats around each collection site w ...017162945
effects of putative diuretic factors on intracellular second messenger levels in the malpighian tubules of aedes aegypti.intracellular levels of the second messengers, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (ip(3)) were measured in the malpighian tubules of aedes aegypti following the in vitro application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht) and the putative mosquito diuretic peptides, culex salinarius diuresin and mosquito leucokinins (culekinin depolarizing peptides (cdps) i, ii, iii, a. aegypti leucokinin peptides (alps) i, ii, iii). the c. salinarius diuresin significantly (p<0.0 ...199912770358
evaluation of seasonal feeding patterns of west nile virus vectors in bernalillo county, new mexico, united states: implications for disease transmission.many mosquito species take bloodmeals predominantly from either birds or mammals. other mosquito species are less host-specific and feed readily on both. furthermore, some species tend to alter their feeding patterns over the course of the year; early in the mosquito season such species may feed primarily on a particular host type, and subsequently take an increasingly larger proportion of their bloodmeals from an alternative host type as the season progresses. we have examined the feeding patte ...024605477
sex-biased avian host use by arbovirus vectors.prevalence of arthropod-borne parasites often differs drastically between host sexes. this sex-related disparity may be related to physiological (primarily hormonal) differences that facilitate or suppress replication of the pathogen in host tissues. alternately, differences in pathogen prevalence between host sexes may be owing to differential exposure to infected vectors. here, we report on the use of pcr-based assays recognizing bird sex chromosomes to investigate sex-related patterns of avia ...201426064562
modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for west nile virus.the primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the united states are the culex pipiens complex species. this group represents important vectors of west nile virus (wnv) throughout regions of the continental u.s. in this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the cx. pipiens complex collected in beaufort county, south carolina. based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the eff ...201425268229
nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. we investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described nest mosquito trap (nmt). the number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from < 1 mosquito per trap night to 36.2 in the final 2 wk of the nesting season. our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funn ...023540137
west nile virus isolated from a virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) in northwestern missouri, usa, 2012.we describe the isolation of west nile virus (wnv; flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a virginia opossum (didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern missouri, usa in august 2012. sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a wnv02 strains. we discuss the role of wildlife in wnv disease epidemiology.201425098303
seasonal and diel patterns of biting midges (ceratopogonidae) and mosquitoes (culicidae) on the parris island marine corps recruit depot.the marine corps recruit depot on parris island, sc, is surrounded by tidal salt marshes, which are breeding habitats for many pestiferous biting flies. knowledge of biting fly behavior patterns is needed to develop effective pest management strategies in urban areas adjacent to salt marshes. we measured biting midge (ceratopogonidae) and mosquito (culicidae) seasonal abundance and diel activity patterns on parris island using co(2)-baited suction traps from november 2001 - november 2004. of the ...200920836813
dispersal of culex mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from a wastewater treatment facility.a mark-recapture project examined dispersal and flight distances of culex mosquitoes from a wastewater treatment plant in albany, ny, during 2007 and 2008. a self-marking device was constructed to mark egressing mosquitoes with fluorescent marking powder. mosquitoes were recaptured using 30 cdc miniature light traps located within a 2.0 km radius of the marking site. a total of 13 and 10 marked culex mosquitoes were recaptured in 2007 and 2008, respectively. culex mosquitoes traveled a minimum o ...022308769
bluetongue disease risk assessment based on observed and projected culicoides obsoletus spp. vector densities.bluetongue is an arboviral disease of ruminants causing significant economic losses. our risk assessment is based on the epidemiological key parameter, the basic reproduction number. it is defined as the number of secondary cases caused by one primary case in a fully susceptible host population, in which values greater than one indicate the possibility, i.e., the risk, for a major disease outbreak. in the course of the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (btv-8) outbreak in europe in 2006 we developed s ...201323560090
spatial-temporal analysis of cache valley virus (bunyaviridae: orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in the northeastern united states, 1997-2012.cache valley virus (cvv) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family bunyaviridae, genus orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of north and central america. white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. cvv has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. a 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates o ...025325321
diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the pacific coast of mexico.the abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the pacific coast of mexico. diversity was estimated using the shannon index (h'), similarity measures and cluster analysis.201424450800
contributions of temporal segregation, oviposition choice, and non-additive effects of competitors to invasion success of aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in north america.the mosquito aedes japonicus (diptera: culicidae) has spread rapidly through north america since its introduction in the 1990s. the mechanisms underlying its establishment in container communities occupied by competitors aedes triseriatus and aedes albopictus are unclear. possibilities include (a) temporal separation of a. japonicus from other aedes, (b) oviposition avoidance by a. japonicus of sites containing heterospecific aedes larvae, and (c) non-additive competitive effects in assemblages ...026101466
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