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insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) in chinese alligator, alligator sinensis: molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mrna expression changes during the active and hibernating periods.the chinese alligator alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to china, up to date, little is known about the regulation of its growth and development. insulin-like growth factor i (igf-i) plays a vital role in regulating vertebrate growth and development. in this study, the full-length cdna of igf-i in chinese alligator (caigf-i) was obtained for the first time, it contains 890-bp nucleotides encoding a 153-amino acid precursor, the mature caigf-i consists of 70 amino acids by cleav ...201726582344
occurrence of decabromodiphenyl ethane in captive chinese alligators (alligator sinensis) from china.decabromodiphenyl ethane (dbdpe), a replacement for decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-bde), was investigated in captive chinese alligators from china. dbdpe was detected in adult tissues, neonates and eggs of chinese alligators with concentrations ranging from 4.74-192, 0.24-1.94, and 0.01-0.51 ng g(-1) lipid weight, respectively. compared to pbdes and pcbs, dbdpe contamination was limited in chinese alligators. additionally, dbdpe concentrations in adult muscles were one to three orders of magnitud ...201525159734
temporal profile of nerve growth factor expression in the partial central nervous system of the yangtze alligator alligator sinensis (reptilia,crocodylia) during early postnatal growth.expression of nerve growth factor (ngf) in structures of the partial central nervous system of the yangtze alligator, alligator sinensis (reptilia, crocodylia) was examined during early postnatal growth using immunohistochemistry and western blot assays. in animals 0-2 years of age ngf-positive cells in the cerebral cortex increased gradually in number and size, and were predominantly distributed in the molecular layer. ngf-positive cells in the midbrain showed similar increases but with predomi ...201323504856
full-length cdna cloning and structural characterization of preproinsulin in alligator sinensis.insulin is an important endocrine hormone that plays a critical physiological role in regulating metabolism and glucostasis in vertebrates. in this study, the complete cdna of alligator sinensis preproinsulin gene was cloned for the first time by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cdna ends methods; the amino acid sequence encoded and protein structure were analyzed. the full-length of preproinsulin cdna sequence consists of 528 base pairs (bp), comprising ...201425366775
why do chinese alligators (alligator sinensis) form bellowing choruses: a playback approach.crocodilians are quite vocal relative to other reptile groups, and the alligators are among the most vocal of the crocodilians. the chinese alligator, alligator sinensis, is usually solitary but engages in bellowing choruses in certain waters during the mating season. this paper reports the organization of chinese alligator's bellowing choruses based upon field observations and playback experiments. alligators of both genders engaged in the choruses, remaining immobile throughout and inclining t ...200919813817
isolation of polymorphic microsatellite loci from the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis).ten microsatellite loci were isolated from the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis), using a partial genomic dna library and an enrichment method. fifty microsatellite repeats were screened from the library of 888 positive clones, 10 of which were polymorphic. these microsatellite loci developed here are another set of novel molecular markers for a. sinensis, and they will be suitable for population genetic studies as well as for kinship analysis.200921564781
erratum to: dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (nematoda: ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile alligator sinensis fauvel (reptilia: crocodylia). 201525576190
preliminary report on the intestinal parasites and their diversity in captive chinese alligators.although intestinal parasites are commonly detected in either wild or farmed crocodiles in other parts of the world, yet few reports have ever been on the captive bred chinese alligators (alligator sinensis) since they are only distributed in the southern areas of the yangtze river. the current work was undertaken to investigate the intestinal parasites and their diversity in the chinese crocodilian species.201425617568
molecular characterization of the chinese alligator follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (fshβ) and its expression during the female reproductive cycle.the chinese alligator alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to china, it has a highly specialized reproductive pattern with low fecundity. up to date, little is known about the regulation of its female reproductive cycle. follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh), a glycoprotein hormone, plays a key role in stimulating and regulating ovarian follicular development and egg production. in this study, the complete fshβ cdna from the ovary of the chinese alligator was obtained for the first t ...201525626184
follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr) in chinese alligator, alligator sinensis: molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mrna expression changes during the female reproductive cycle.the follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) plays a central role in vertebrate reproduction, with the actions of fsh mediated by fsh receptors (fshrs) on the granulosa cells of the ovary. the present study reports the cloning and characterization of fshr in chinese alligator, alligator sinensis (cafshr), and its tissue distribution and mrna expression changes during the reproductive cycle. the mature protein of cafshr displays typical features of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family, but also con ...201525765682
morphological and molecular characterization of ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (nematoda: ascaridoidea) from the chinese alligator alligator sinensis.a new nematode species, ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the chinese alligator alligator sinensis fauvel, 1879 (crocodilian: alligatoridae) in the national nature reserve of chinese alligator (chinese crocodile lake) in anhui province, china. this is the first description of o. sinensis sp. nov. in both china and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in south asia as well as expanding the number of helmi ...201625882968
[vegetation diversity of wild chinese alligator (alligator sinensis) habitats].in june and july of 2003, a field survey on the vegetation of 22 chinese alligator habitats distributed in nanling county, jingxian county, guangde county, langxi county and xuancheng city of anhui province was conducted, and the plant species of the habitats were recorded and analyzed. the results showed that the vegetation of the whole habitats was secondary, and there were 294 species vascular plants, belonging to 92 families. pteioblastus amarus shrubbery could be found in all sites, and par ...200415506089
a chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian.crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as 'bellows' year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. in mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via ...201526246611
lipids from the paracloacal glands of the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis).lipids from the paracloacal glands of adult chinese alligators (alligator sinensis) were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. acetates, aliphatic alcohols, free fatty acids and waxes consisting primarily of hexadecanoates were indicated in the secretions of males and females. cholesterol, a diterpene hydrocarbon, and a diterpene ketone were detected in secretions of males but not in those of females. lipids identified in the paracloacal secretions ofa. sinensis are compared with tho ...199327519768
histopathology of gastric wall in chinese alligator alligator sinensis infected with ortleppascaris sinensis (nematoda: ascaridoidea).crocodiles are susceptible to infection with a wide array of external and internal gastrointestinal helminths, yet little is known on the histopathology following infection or the effects of these parasites. the present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of infection by ortleppascaris sinensis (nematoda: ascaridoidea) on the stomach of captive alligator sinensis. the histological examination of the stomach revealed presence of superficial ulcer in mucous layer and granulomatous inflammatio ...201526319836
cloning and sequence analysis of the coding sequence of β-actin cdna from the chinese alligator and suitable internal reference primers from the β-actin gene.β-actin is an essential component of the cytoskeleton and is stably expressed in various tissues of animals, thus, it is commonly used as an internal reference for gene expression studies. in this study, a 1731-bp fragment of β-actin cdna from alligator sinensis was obtained using the homology cloning technique. sequence analysis showed that this fragment contained the complete coding sequence of the β-actin gene (1128 bp), encoding 375 amino acids. the amino acid sequence of β-actin is highly c ...201526505364
molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mrna expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (esr1) in chinese alligator, alligator sinensis.chinese alligator, alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered reptile species unique to china. little is known about the mechanism of growth- and reproduction-related hormones gene expression in chinese alligator. estrogens play important roles in regulating multiple reproduction- and non-reproduction-related functions by binding to their corresponding receptors. here, the full-length cdna of estrogen receptor alpha (erα/esr1) was cloned and sequenced from chinese alligator for the first tim ...201627212643
immunohistochemical localization of somatostatin in the brain of chinese alligator alligator sinensis.in this study, the regional distribution and histological localization of somatostatin (ss) immunoreactive (ir) perikarya and fibers was investigated for the first time in the brain of adult chinese alligator by immunohistochemical method. the results showed ss-ir perikarya and fibers were widely distributed in various parts of the brain except for olfactory bulbs. in the telencephalon, ss-ir perikarya were predominantly located in the cellular layer and deep plexiform layer of dorsomedial and m ...201727615412
taxonomic revision of eoalligator (crocodylia, brevirostres) and the paleogeographic origins of the chinese alligatoroids.background. the primarily neotropical distribution of living alligatoroids raises questions as to when and how the ancestors of alligator sinensis migrated to china. as phylogeny provides a necessary framework for historical biogeographic issues, determining the phylogenetic positions of the chinese alligatoroids is a crucial step towards understanding global alligatoroid paleobiogeography. besides the unnamed alligatoroids from the eocene of guangdong province, three chinese fossil taxa have be ...201627635329
[comparative studies on renaturation kinetics of alligator sinensis and alligator mississippiensis and their organization of the genomes]. 19883273685
growth rates of chinese and american alligators.growth rates in two closely related species, alligator mississippiensis (american alligator) and alligator sinensis (chinese alligator), were compared under identical conditions for at least 1 year after hatching. when hatched, chinese alligators were approximately 2/3 the length and approximately 1/2 the weight of american alligator hatchlings. at the end of 1 year of growth in captivity in heated chambers, the chinese alligators were approximately 1/2 as long and weighed approximately 1/10 as ...200211897202
[extreme evolutionary conservation of casox4 gene in alligator alligator sinensis].the sox genes form a gene family related by homology to the high-mobility-group (hmg) box region of the testis-determining gene, sry. using degenerate primer pcr, we have cloned and sequenced the hmg-box motif of casox4 gene from genomic dna of the chinese alligator, alligator sinensis, a species closely related to american alligator, alligator mississippiensis. sequence comparison showed that casox4 gene shared 97% homology at the nucleotide level and complete identity at the amino acid level, ...200312942775
distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period.the digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. the aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht), gastrin (gas), somatostatin (ss) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (vip) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the digestive tract of alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (ihc) method. the re ...201425063208
age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive chinese alligators (alligator sinensis).fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (pfass) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the anhui research center for chinese alligator reproduction. six pfass, including pfos and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. the most dominant pfas was pfunda, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/ml. significant positive correlations were ...201323660395
a bacterial artificial chromosome library for the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis).chinese alligator (alligator sinensis) is a rare and endangered species endemic to china. to better understand genetic details of the chinese alligator genomic structure, a highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library was constructed. this library consists of 216,238 clones with an average insert size of about 90 kb, indicating that the library contains 6.8-fold genome equivalents. subsequently, we constructed a 516 kb contig map for the chinese alligator olfactory receptor (or ...201222759519
isolation and expression of a novel alligator gene belonging to the sox gene family.sox genes share a highly conserved dna-binding motif, the hmg (high mobility group)-box domain, and have diverse roles in vertebrate embryonic development. a novel sry-related cdna (temporarily called sox33) isolated from the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis) is 1,819 bp in length, with an open reading frame from 220 to 1113 bp, encoding a protein of 298 amino acids. two putative polyadenylation signal sequences (aataaa) are present upstream of the poly(a) tail in the 3' utr (at 1255-1260 a ...200919169861
polymorphism of exon 3 of mhc class ii b gene in chinese alligator (alligator sinensis).the polymorphism of mhc class ii b gene in 14 chinese alligators was analyzed, which came from three different areas: a wild population from xuancheng, anhui, a captive population from changxing, zhejiang, and a captive population from anhui research center for reproduction of chinese alligators. the gene fragment was amplified using a pair of specific primers designed from the mhc gene sequence of the spectacled caiman. a total of 34 sequence haplotypes of exon 3 were detected in the sampled ch ...200717945170
acoustic signals of chinese alligators (alligator sinensis): social communication.this paper reports the first systematic study of acoustic signals during social interactions of the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis). sound pressure level (spl) measurements revealed that chinese alligators have an elaborate acoustic communication system with both long-distance signal-bellowing-and short-distance signals that include tooting, bubble blowing, hissing, mooing, head slapping and whining. bellows have high spl and appear to play an important role in the alligator's long range ...200717550196
heavy metal distribution in tissues and eggs of chinese alligator (alligator sinensis).chinese alligator (alligator sinensis) is a critically endangered species endemic to china. concentrations of heavy metals (as, fe, mn, cu, pb, cd, cr, zn, and hg) were examined in the tissues of chinese alligators to elucidate the background distribution of these metals in the alligator body. generally, within the body compartments, metal concentrations were high in liver, kidney, and heart, and low in pancreas and gonad. study of heavy metal levels in the feces and eggs of chinese alligator su ...200616489418
[heavy metals content and ph value in water environment of wild chinese alligator (alligator sinensis) habitat: a preliminary study].in order to reveal the reasons of the dramatic decline of wild chinese alligator population, an investigation on its habitat status was made across the national natural conservation regions of chinese alligator in south anhui province from 2002 to 2003. water samples from 21 sites were collected, and their heavy metals (cu, zn, cd and pb) content and ph value were measured. the results showed that the ph value was 7.84 +/- 0.62, with no significant difference between the waters with and without ...200516471359
[d-loop sequence variation of mitochondrial dna in captive chinese alligator].chinese alligator, alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered endemic species under legislative protection in china. result of recent investigations revealed that number of the alligators was continuously declining in the past 50 years and less than 150 individuals were surviving in the wild until 2000 years. in order to prevent the extinguishing of this species, two breeding farms were set up in early 1980s at xuanzhou county, anhui province and changxing county, zhejiang province respectiv ...200312924156
thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in the embryos of reptiles and birds.recent studies have demonstrated that thermoregulatory behavior occurs not only in posthatching turtles but also in turtles prior to hatching. does thermoregulatory behavior also occur in the embryos of other reptile and bird species? our experiments show that such behavior is widespread but not universal in reptile and bird embryos. we recorded repositioning within the egg, in response to thermal gradients, in the embryos of three species of snakes (xenochrophis piscator, elaphe bimaculata, and ...201424561606
identification of scara3, scara5 and marco of class a scavenger receptor-like family in pseudosciaena crocea.the class a scavenger receptors are important pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system in living organisms. according to the whole-genome data of large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea), three kinds of scavenger receptors, scara3, scara5 and marco were cloned from the spleen, designated severally as tycsa3, tycsa5 and tycmac. the complete cdnas open reading frames (orf) of tycsa3, tycsa5 and tycmac were 1938 bp, 1677 bp and 1218 bp (genbank accession no. kj467772, kj467773 a ...201425218683
genome analysis and signature discovery for diving and sensory properties of the endangered chinese alligator.crocodilians are diving reptiles that can hold their breath under water for long periods of time and are crepuscular animals with excellent sensory abilities. they comprise a sister lineage of birds and have no sex chromosome. here we report the genome sequence of the endangered chinese alligator (alligator sinensis) and describe its unique features. the next-generation sequencing generated 314 gb of raw sequence, yielding a genome size of 2.3 gb. a total of 22 200 genes were predicted in alliga ...201323917531
a comprehensive analysis of the phylogeny, genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin light chain genes in alligator sinensis, an endangered reptile species.crocodilians are evolutionarily distinct reptiles that are distantly related to lizards and are thought to be the closest relatives of birds. compared with birds and mammals, few studies have investigated the ig light chain of crocodilians. here, employing an alligator sinensis genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) library and available genome data, we characterized the genomic organization of the alligator sinensis igl gene loci. the alligator sinensis has two igl isotypes, λ and κ, the ...201626901135
do crocodilians get the flu? looking for influenza a in captive crocodilians.it is well established that several wild aquatic bird species serve as reservoirs for the influenza a virus. it has also been shown that the influenza a virus can be transmitted to mammalian species such as tigers and domestic cats and dogs through ingestion of infected birds. another group of animals that should also be considered as potential hosts for the influenza a virus are the crocodilians. many crocodilian species share aquatic environments with wild birds that are known to harbor influe ...200818381628
isolation and sequence analysis of the sox-1, -2, -3 homologs in trionyx sinensis and alligator sinensis having temperature-dependent sex determination.members of the sox gene family are characterized by an hmg-box that shows sequence similarity with that of the mouse testis-determining gene sry. using degenerate primers pcr, seven and eight hmg-box motifs of sry-related genes were cloned and sequenced from genomic dna of trionyx sinensis (termed ts41-47) and alligator sinensis (as41-48) with tsd (temperature-dependent sex determination). among 15 sry-related genes, ts41, ts42, as41, and as42 shared 80, 72, 81, and 79% amino acid identity, resp ...200616691434
cembrene a and a congeneric ketone isolated from the paracloacal glands of the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis).a diterpene hydrocarbon and diterpene ketone isolated from the paracloacal gland secretions of the chinese alligator (alligator sinensis) were examined by gc-ms and 1h-nmr, 13c-nmr, and ir spectroscopy, and identified as 4,8,12-trimethyl-1-(1-methylethenyl)-3,7,11-cyclotetradecatrien e (cembrene a, 1) and its congeneric ketone, 4,8,12-trimethyl-1-(1-methylethenyl)-3,7-cyclotetradecadien- 10-one (2), respectively. this is the first report of cembrene a from a vertebrate; the ketone has not been d ...19979287418
persistent halogenated compounds in captive chinese alligators (alligator sinensis) from china.while a number of studies have reported residual levels of persistent halogenated compounds (phcs) in crocodilia, there is still a dearth of information on the chinese alligator, a critically endangered crocodilian species. in the present study, several phcs, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes), polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ddts), were detected in the adult tissues, neonates, and eggs of captive chinese alligators from ch ...201424880595
dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. (nematoda: ascaridida) from the critically endangered crocodile alligator sinensis fauvel (reptilia: crocodylia).the chinese alligator alligator sinensis fauvel (reptilia: crocodylia) is considered as one of the most critically endangered species of the 23 extant crocodiles. however, our knowledge of the helminth parasites of this rare animal is completely lacking. during a helminthological survey of reptiles in china, we found a new ascaridoid nematode, dujardinascaris gigantea sp. n. from a. sinensis. the morphology of d. gigantea sp. n. was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. the new s ...201524924435
molecular and functional characterization of baff from the yangtze alligator (alligator sinensis, alligatoridae).b-cell activating factor (baff) from the tnf family is critical for b-cell survival and maturation. in this study, we identified a yangtze alligator (alligator sinensis, alligatoridae) baff cdna, designated as asbaff, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the open reading frame of this cdna encodes a 287-amino acid protein containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a furin protease cleavage site, similar to mammalian and ...201526116474
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