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a tissue culture assay for direct detection of sodium channel blocking toxins in bacterial culture supernates.a quantitative assay for sodium channel blocking toxins such as tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin has been developed for use with a microtitre plate reader. mouse neuroblastoma cells, which die rapidly in the presence of ouabain and veratridine, were protected by tetrodotoxin; surviving cells were detected by their uptake of the vital dye neutral red which was quantified with a microtitre plate reader at 540 nm. a sigmoidal dose response curve was obtained and tetrodotoxin concentrations were readily m ...19921320584
isolation and characterization of shewanella alga from human clinical specimens and emendation of the description of s. alga simidu et al., 1990, 335.genetic and phenotypic studies on the strains biochemically identified as shewanella putrefaciens, which had a g+c content ranging from 52 to 54 mol% were conducted. the moles percent g+c of the type strain of s. putrefaciens is 46. surprisingly, dna homology experiments revealed that all these strains are genetically related to shewanella alga (which was reported to produce tetrodotoxin), not to the type strain of s. putrefaciens. in this study, we reidentified clinical strains of s. putrefacie ...19921390113
taxonomy of four marine bacterial strains that produce tetrodotoxin.four strains of tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria isolated from a red alga and from pufferfish were characterized. two of these strains are members of the genus listonella macdonell and colwell. the phenotypic characteristics, guanine-plus-cytosine contents, and base sequences of the 16s rrnas of these organisms indicated that they are members of listonella pelagia (vibrio pelagius) biovar ii. the other two strains are members of the genus alteromonas baumann et al. and the genus shewanella macdon ...19902275851
shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with lower leg ulcers.the first danish cases of shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of infection. both patients survived; however, one of them had extensive myonecrosis, while the other patient had an uncomplicated course. the strains were initially believed to be shewanella putrefaciens on the ...19968783706
synergistic iron reduction and citrate dissimilation by shewanella alga and aeromonas veroniitwo bacterial isolates from great bay estuary, new hampshire, in co-culture carried out anaerobic dissimilation of citric acid with fe(iii) as the terminal electron acceptor. neither isolate oxidized citrate with fe(iii) anaerobically in axenic culture. the fe(iii) reducer, shewanella alga strain bry, did not grow anaerobically with citrate as an energy source. the citrate utilizer, aeromonas veronii, did not reduce iron axenically with a variety of electron donors including citrate. the onset o ...19968824150
morphological and metabolic responses to starvation by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry.the response of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry to carbon and nitrogen starvation was examined. starvation resulted in a gradual decrease in the mean cell volume from 0.48 to 0.2 micron 3 and a dramatic decrease in fe(iii) reductase activity. growth of starved cultures was initiated with o2, ferric oxyhydroxide, co(iii)-edta, or fe(iii)-bearing subsurface materials as the sole electron acceptor. microbially reduced subsurface materials reduced cro(4)2-. starvation ...19968953739
differentiation of shewanella putrefaciens and shewanella alga on the basis of whole-cell protein profiles, ribotyping, phenotypic characterization, and 16s rrna gene sequence analysis.seventy-six presumed shewanella putrefaciens isolates from fish, oil drillings, and clinical specimens, the type strain of shewanella putrefaciens (atcc 8071), the type strain of shewanella alga (iam 14159), and the type strain of shewanella hanedai (atcc 33224) were compared by several typing methods. numerical analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole-cell protein and ribotyping patterns showed that the strains were separated into two distinct clusters with ...19979172338
preparation of a naturally occurring d-erythro-(2s, 3r)-sphingosylphosphocholine using shewanella alga ns-589.sphingosylphosphocholine, an n-deacylated derivative of sphingomyelin, has been found to be involved in many cellular events. this paper describes a new method for preparation of a d-erythro-sphingosylphosphocholine, which is naturally occurring but difficult to prepare by chemical methods, using marine bacteria as a biocatalyst. when cultured with shewanella alga ns-589 in synthetic medium, sphingomyelin was found to be efficiently converted by sphingomyelin deacylase to sphingosylphosphocholin ...19979323602
shewanella gelidimarina sp. nov. and shewanella frigidimarina sp. nov., novel antarctic species with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and grow anaerobically by dissimilatory fe(iii) reduction.a polyphasic taxonomic study was performed to characterize dissimilatory iron-reducing strains mostly isolated from antarctic sea ice. the strains were isolated from samples of congelated (land-fast) sea ice, grease ice, and ice algal biomass collected from the coastal areas of the vestfold hills in eastern antarctica (68 degrees s 78 degrees e). the strains were facultatively anaerobic, motile, and rod shaped, were capable of anaerobic growth either by fermentation of carbohydrates or by anaero ...19979336903
biochemical and pathogenic properties of shewanella alga and shewanella putrefaciens.we characterized 49 strains of shewanella spp. from clinical (n = 31) and nonhuman (n = 18) sources. most shewanella alga organisms (gilardi biovar 2; centers for disease control and prevention [cdc] biotype 2) originated from clinical material (92%), failed to produce acid from carbohydrates other than d-ribose, and were biochemically and enzymatically fairly homogeneous. in contrast, shewanella putrefaciens organisms (gilardi biovars 1 and 3; cdc biotype 1) were more often associated with nonh ...19989508312
structure of the acidic polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide of shewanella alga 48055.a lipopolysaccharide (lps) with an acidic polysaccharide chain was isolated from the bacterium shewanella alga strain 48055 and cleaved selectively at the glycosidic linkage of n-acetylneuraminic acid to give a tetrasaccharide. studies of the tetrasaccharide and the o-deacylated lps by 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy, including 2d cosy, tocsy, noesy, rotating-frame noe spectroscopy (roesy), and h-detected 1h, 13c heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (hmqc) experiments, revealed the following str ...19989720241
primary shewanella alga septicemia in a patient on hemodialysis.we report the first japanese case of primary septicemia with shewanella alga and also describe the bacteriological characteristics of and results of antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolate. s. alga was repeatedly isolated, at times simultaneously with escherichia coli, from the blood of a 64-year-old female undergoing hemodialysis. the isolated organism was determined to be s. alga based on recently published identification criteria, such as hemolysis on sheep blood agar, no acid producti ...199910325394
occurrence of shewanella algae in danish coastal water and effects of water temperature and culture conditions on its survival.the marine bacterium shewanella algae, which was identified as the cause of human cases of bacteremia and ear infections in denmark in the summers of 1994 and 1995, was detected in seawater only during the months (july, august, september, and october) when the water temperature was above 13 degrees c. the bacterium is a typical mesophilic organism, and model experiments were conducted to elucidate the fate of the organism under cold and nutrient-limited conditions. the culturable count of s. alg ...199910473392
iron isotope biosignatures.the (56)fe/(54)fe of fe-bearing phases precipitated in sedimentary environments varies by 2.5 per mil (delta(56)fe values of +0.9 to -1. 6 per mil). in contrast, the (56)fe/(54)fe of fe-bearing phases in igneous rocks from earth and the moon does not vary measurably (delta(56)fe = 0.0 +/- 0.3 per mil). experiments with dissimilatory fe-reducing bacteria of the genus shewanella algae grown on a ferrihydrite substrate indicate that the delta(56)fe of ferrous fe in solution is isotopically lighter ...199910489362
protein-mediated adhesion of the dissimilatory fe(iii)-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry to hydrous ferric oxide.the rate and extent of bacterial fe(iii) mineral reduction are governed by molecular-scale interactions between the bacterial cell surface and the mineral surface. these interactions are poorly understood. this study examined the role of surface proteins in the adhesion of shewanella alga bry to hydrous ferric oxide (hfo). enzymatic degradation of cell surface polysaccharides had no effect on cell adhesion to hfo. the proteolytic enzymes streptomyces griseus protease and chymotrypsin inhibited t ...199910543817
homogeneity of danish environmental and clinical isolates of shewanella algae.danish isolates of shewanella algae constituted by whole-cell protein profiling a very homogeneous group, and no clear distinction was seen between strains from the marine environment and strains of clinical origin. although variation between all strains was observed by ribotyping and random amplified polymorphic dna analysis, no clonal relationship between infective strains was found. from several patients, clonally identical strains of s. algae were reisolated up to 8 months after the primary ...200010618264
bacterial reduction of copper-contaminated ferric oxide: copper toxicity and the interaction between fermentative and iron-reducing bacteria.fe(iii) oxide is an important heavy-metal sink, and bacteria are responsible for much of the fe(iii) reduced in nonsulfidogenic aquatic environments, yet factors governing the bacterial reduction of heavy metal-contaminated iron oxide are largely unknown. in this study with a stabilized bacterial consortium enriched from metal-contaminated sediments, we demonstrate that cu toxicity impedes anaerobic carbon oxidation and bacterial reduction of hydrous ferric oxide (hfo). in the enrichment culture ...200010629273
dissimilatory fe(iii) oxide reduction by shewanella alga bry requires adhesion.the derjaguin-landau-verwey-overbeek (dlvo) theory was used to examine the relationship between adhesion and dissimilatory fe(iii) oxide reduction. adhesion of shewanella alga bry to hydrous ferric oxide (hfo) was correlated with ionic strength and thus was accurately described by the dlvo theory. reduction of insoluble hfo was also correlated with kcl concentration. in contrast, there was no correlation between soluble fe(iii) reduction and ionic strength. a correlation between hfo reduction ra ...200010706667
an algorithm for automated bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.an algorithm for bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (maldi) mass spectrometry is being developed. this mass spectral fingerprint comparison algorithm is fully automated and statistically based, providing objective analysis of samples to be identified. based on extraction of reference fingerprint ions from test spectra, this approach should lend itself well to real-world applications where samples are likely to be impure. this algorithm is illustrated using ...200010740862
adhesion of the dissimilatory fe(iii)-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry to crystalline fe(iii) oxides.shewanella alga bry adhesion to hydrous ferric oxide, goethite, and hematite was examined. adhesion to each oxide followed the langmuir adsorption model. no correlation between adhesion and fe(iii) oxide surface area or crystallinity was observed. zeta potential measurements suggested that electrostatic interactions do not influence s. alga bry adhesion to these minerals. cell adhesion does not appear to explain the recalcitrance of crystalline fe(iii) oxides to bacterial reduction.200111270646
kinetics of chromium (vi) reduction by a type strain shewanella alga under different growth conditions.we conducted kinetic batch experiments to determine the reduction of chromium(vi) by a type strain of shewanella alga (bry-mt) atcc 55627. chromium(vi) was reduced to chromium(iii) by bry-mt grown in three different substrates: bhib (brain heart infusion broth), tsb (tryptic soy broth), and m9 (minimum broth). four different cr(vi) concentrations 4.836, 10.00, 37.125, and 260.00 mg l-1 were reduced at different rates by bry-mt in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. bry-mt grown in bhib reduce ...200111706794
rupture of a primary aortic aneurysm infected with shewanella alga.bacteria of the genus shewanella are rarely implicated in bacteremia. we report a case of rupture of a primary aneurysm infected with shewanella alga.200111728048
measurement of iron(iii) bioavailability in pure iron oxide minerals and soils using anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate oxidation.the quinol form (ahds) of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (aqds) was used as a titrant to determine bioavailability of fe(iii) in pure iron minerals and several soils. ahds oxidation to aqds was coupled to fe(iii) reduction to fe(ll) in biological media consisting of trace salts and vitamins, providing estimates of bioavailability consistentwith the biogeochemical mechanisms and conditions that control fe(iii) availability to iron-reducing bacteria. iron(iii) oxide sources were synthetic oxid ...200111775166
molecular cloning and characterization of sphingolipid ceramide n-deacylase from a marine bacterium, shewanella alga g8.recently, lyso-sphingolipids have been identified as ligands for several orphan g protein-coupled receptors, although the molecular mechanism for their generation has yet to be clarified. here, we report the molecular cloning of the enzyme, which catalyzes the generation of lyso-sphingolipids from various sphingolipids (sphingolipid ceramide n-deacylase). the 75-kda enzyme was purified from the marine bacterium, shewanella alga g8, and its gene was cloned from a g8 genomic library using sequence ...200211827965
shewanella alga bacteremia and associated cellulitis in a patient with multiple myeloma.shewanella alga is a gram-negative bacillus found in all types of water as well as in a variety of tainted food. it has rarely been associated with human disease, either in healthy or in immunocompromised patients. we report a 66-year-old man with a multiple myeloma who developed a cellulitis in both forearms in the course of a shewanella bacteremia. he had a renal insufficiency and was moderately neutropenic after chemotherapy (vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone). outcome was good after tre ...200212243559
microbiological reduction of chromium(vi) in presence of pyrolusite-coated sand by shewanella alga simidu atcc 55627 in laboratory column experiments.hexavalent chromium (cr(vi)) was reduced to non-toxic trivalent chromium (cr(iii)) by a dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, shewanella alga simidu (bry-mt) atcc 55627. a series of dynamic column experiments were conducted to provide an understanding of cr(vi) reduction by the facultative anaerobe bry-mt in the presence of pyrolusite (beta-mno(2)) coated sand and uncoated-quartz sand. all dynamic column experiments were conducted under growth conditions using cr(vi) as the terminal electron ac ...200312729700
genetic and biochemical characterization of a chromosome-encoded carbapenem-hydrolyzing ambler class d beta-lactamase from shewanella algae.a chromosome-encoded beta-lactamase gene from shewanella algae clinical isolate kb-1 was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. it encoded the ambler class d enzyme oxa-55, sharing less than 55% identity with any other oxacillinases. although conferring a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam resistance phenotype, oxa-55 had carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity that mirrored the reduced susceptibility to imipenem observed in s. algae kb-1. very similar oxacillinases were found in other s. algae isolates.200415105119
[infectious cellulitis and shewanella alga septicemia in an immunocompetent patient].shewanella alga is a gram-negative bacilla often found in water or soil. clinical infections in humans are rare, with serious infections described generally in immunocompromised hosts.200415692446
shewanella algae and shewanella putrefaciens: clinical and microbiological characteristics.the occurrence of the two shewanella species found in clinical specimens, shewanella algae and shewanella putrefaciens, correlates with the temperature and salinity of seawater. this means that shewanella infections occur in warm climates or during especially warm summers in temperate climates. the infections described most commonly involve ears, skin and soft tissue, with or without bacteraemia. primary bacteraemia with a fulminant course is also seen in immunocompromised patients. important di ...200515819859
[opportunistic infections caused by shewanella, new emergent bacteria].shewanella putrefaciens and shewanella algae are gram negative, nonfermentative and oxidative bacilli whose the main phenotypic feature is the production of hydrogen sulfide gas. widespread in the environment, both s. putrefaciens and s. algae species are rare human bacteria although they are reported with increasing frequency as a cause of opportunistic infection in humans, such as skin and soft tissue infections and bacteremia. chronic infections of the lower limbs and liver disease have been ...200515914286
origin of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnra.plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones is increasingly reported in studies of enterobacteriaceae. using a pcr-based strategy, a series of gram-negative species were screened for qnra-like genes. shewanella algae, an environmental species from marine and fresh water, was identified as its reservoir. this is a one of the very few examples of progenitor identification of an acquired antibiotic resistance gene.200516048974
biological control of hog waste odor through stimulated microbial fe(iii) reduction.odor control and disposal of swine waste have inhibited expansion of swine production facilities throughout the united states. swine waste odor is associated primarily with high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (vfas). here, we demonstrate that stimulated fe(iii) reduction in hog manure can rapidly remove the malodorous compounds and enhance methane production by 200%. as part of these studies, we enumerated the indigenous fe(iii)-reducing population in swine waste and identified members o ...200516085869
first case of osteomyelitis due to shewanella algae.shewanella spp. are infrequently recovered from clinical specimens. we report here on the first case of osteomyelitis due to shewanella algae. this bacterium, at first misidentified by phenotypic tests as shewanella putrefaciens, was subsequently identified correctly as s. algae by 16s rrna gene sequence analysis.200516208026
reduction of prussian blue by the two iron-reducing microorganisms geobacter metallireducens and shewanella alga.cyanide or cyanide-metal complexes are frequent contaminants of soil or aquifers at industrial sites, which can be released from such sites by outgassing or transport with the groundwater. they form very stable complexes with iron, which may occur in the subsurface as an insoluble blue mineral, the so-called prussian blue (fe(4)[fe(cn)(6)](3)). in this study, we show that the insoluble and colloidal fe(iii)-cyanide complex prussian blue can be reduced and utilized as electron acceptor by the dis ...200616423022
treatment failure due to emergence of resistance to carbapenem during therapy for shewanella algae bacteremia.we describe a case of bacteremia due to imipenem-susceptible shewanella algae. despite treatment with imipenem, the patient developed a spinal epidural abscess, from which imipenem-resistant s. algae was isolated. the development of resistance should be monitored when s. algae infection is treated with imipenem, even though the strain is initially susceptible to imipenem.200616517923
deflocculation of activated sludge by the dissimilatory fe(iii)-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry.the influence of microbial fe(iii) reduction on the deflocculation of autoclaved activated sludge was investigated. fe(iii) flocculated activated sludge better than fe(ii). decreasing concentrations of fe(iii) caused an increase in sludge bulk water turbidity, while bulk water turbidity remained relatively constant over a range of fe(ii) concentrations. cells of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium shewanella alga bry coupled the oxidation of h(inf2) to the reduction of fe(iii) bound in sl ...199616535299
isolation and identification of shewanella alga and its pathogenic effects on post-larvae of abalone haliotis diversicolor supertexta. 200616911538
acute exudative tonsillitis caused by shewanella algae in a healthy child.shewanella algae, mainly found in marine environments, is a rare pathogen in humans, especially in healthy children. here we report a previously healthy boy presenting with acute exudative tonsillitis after traveling to the coast, and s. algae was isolated from the throat swab culture.200617148087
bioreductive deposition of platinum nanoparticles on the bacterium shewanella algae.an environmentally friendly method using the metal ion-reducing bacterium shewanella algae was proposed to deposit platinum nanoparticles. resting cells of s. algae were able to reduce aqueous ptcl(6)(2-) ions into elemental platinum at room temperature and neutral ph within 60min when lactate was provided as the electron donor. biogenic platinum nanoparticles of about 5nm were located in the periplasm--a preferable, cell surface location for easy recovery of biogenic nanoparticles.200717182148
regeneration of iron for trichloroethylene reduction by shewanella alga bry.zero valent iron (zvi), the primary reactive material in several permeable reactive barriers, is often oxidized to ferrous or ferric iron, resulting in decreased reactivity with time. iron reducing bacteria can reconvert the ferric iron to its ferrous form, prolonging the reduction of chlorinated organic contaminants. in this study, the reduction of fe(ii,iii) oxide and fe(iii) oxide by a strain of iron reducing bacteria of the group shewanella alga bry(s. alga bry) was observed in both aqueous ...200717349671
vascular steal syndrome and shewanella alga infection requiring amputation in a hemodialysis patient.shewanella alga is a rare gram-negative marine bacterium. its role as a pathogenic organism is gradually evolving with sporadic cases being reported in humans. we report a case of vascular steal syndrome secondary to a polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe) graft in the upper extremity of an end-stage renal disease (esrd) patient on maintenance hemodialysis, which was complicated by infection with s. alga. this resulted in extensive myonecrosis requiring amputation of the limb. to our knowledge this is ...200317657124
shewanella and photobacterium spp. in oysters and seawater from the delaware bay.shewanella algae, s. putrefaciens, and photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae are indigenous marine bacteria and human pathogens causing cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, abscesses, septicemia, and death. infections are rare and are most often associated with the immunocompromised host. a study was performed on the microbiological flora of oysters and seawater from commercial oyster harvesting sites in the delaware bay, new jersey. from 276 water and shellfish samples tested, 1,421 bacterial i ...200818378645
pyomelanin is produced by shewanella algae bry and affected by exogenous iron.melanin production by shewanella algae bry occurred during late- and (or) post-exponential growth in lactate basal salts liquid medium supplemented with tyrosine or phenylalanine. the antioxidant ascorbate inhibited melanin production but not production of the melanin precursor homogentisic acid. in the absence of ascorbate, melanin production was inhibited by the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor sulcotrione and by concentrations of fe >or= 0.38 mmol l(-1). these data support the hy ...200818389008
a plasmid-borne shewanella algae gene, qnra3, and its possible transfer in vivo between kluyvera ascorbata and klebsiella pneumoniae.the plasmid-borne quinolone resistance gene qnra1 is prevalent in multidrug-resistant enterobacteriaceae. a chromosomally encoded homologue in shewanella algae, qnra3, has been described. we isolated two qnra3-positive strains, one of klebsiella pneumoniae (he96) and one of kluyvera ascorbata (kas96), from the feces of an immunocompromised outpatient. the qnra3 allele was identical to that of s. algae except for 5 nucleotides and differed from qnra1 by 29 nucleotides affecting three amino acids. ...200818515416
outbreak of shewanella algae and shewanella putrefaciens infections caused by a shared measuring cup in a general surgery unit in korea.to control an outbreak of shewanella algae and s. putrefaciens infections by identifying the risk factors for infection and transmission.200818631115
biogenic formation of as-s nanotubes by diverse shewanella strains.shewanella sp. strain hn-41 was previously shown to produce novel, photoactive, as-s nanotubes via the reduction of as(v) and s(2)o(3)(2-) under anaerobic conditions. to determine if this ability was unique to this bacterium, 10 different shewanella strains, including shewanella sp. strain hn-41, shewanella sp. strain pv-4, shewanella alga bry, shewanella amazonensis sb2b, shewanella denitrificans os217, shewanella oneidensis mr-1, shewanella putrefaciens cn-32, s. putrefaciens ir-1, s. putrefac ...200919717628
biochemical and pathogenic properties of the natural isolate of shewanella algae from peter the great bay, sea of japan.pathogenic properties of the natural isolate of shewanella algae from the coelomic fluid of the sea cucumber apostichopus japonicus (peter the great bay, sea of japan) were investigated. the isolate had oxydative metabolism, was positive for ornithine decarboxylase, cytochrome oxidase, catalase, dnase and gelatinase, hemolytically active, did not produce acid from carbohydrates, and did not hydrolyze urea and esculin. the strain was resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin, and ampicillin and suscep ...200919747921
[a case of bacteremia and suppurative vertebral osteomyelitis/discitis due to shewanella algae occurring after raw-fish consumption].shewanella algae is an aquatic gram-negative bacterium, rarely recovered from human clinical samples. case reports of human shewanella infection are, however, slowly increasing, and a shewanella infection outbreak was reported at a south korean hospital. we report the case of an 89-year-old man admitted for back pain and fever after eating raw marine fish. sulbactam/cefoperazone was started under a tentative diagnosis of gall bladder inflammation with gallstones based on ultrasonographic finding ...200919860259
primary shewanella algae bacteremia mimicking vibrio septicemia.shewanella algae infections are rare in humans. previously reported cases of s. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. we report a case of primary s. algae bacteremia occurring after the ingestion of raw seafood in a patient with liver cirrhosis that presented a fulminent course of necrotizing fasciitis.200919949681
late ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by shewanella algae.we present a case of ventriculitis and peritonitis in a child with ventriculoperitoneal shunt, which occurred 5 years after the surgery. the infection developed after contact with seawater and began as otitis. for the first time, shewanella algae, a marine microorganism, was identified as the cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.201019952978
first case of human spondylodiscitis due to shewanella algae.we present the first case of human spondylodiscitis due to shewanella algae. our patient did not have any predisposing factors. the portal of entry was probably a cutaneous lesion on the leg, exposed to seawater. bacteria were isolated in pure culture from a needle biopsy specimen of the vertebral disk. automated identification systems identified the organism as shewanella putrefaciens. however, molecular biology identified it as s. algae. treatment with ceftriaxone and amikacin, then ciprofloxa ...201020171131
[isolation and characterization of shewanella spp. from patients of food poisoning].to identify the isolates of shewanella spp. from specimens of food poisoning based on biological and biochemical analysis.200920193210
determination of ferrous and ferric iron in aqueous biological solutions.a solvent extraction method was employed to determine ferrous and ferric iron in aqueous samples. fe(3+) is selectively extracted into the organic phase (n-heptane) using hdehp (bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate) and is then stripped using a strong acid. after separation, both oxidation states and the total iron content were determined directly by icp-ms analysis. this extraction method was refined to allow determination of both iron oxidation states in the presence of strong complexing ligan ...201020206007
shewanella chilikensis sp. nov., a moderately alkaliphilic gammaproteobacterium isolated from a lagoon.a gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium was isolated from sediment of chilika lagoon, a brackish water lagoon in india. the strain, designated jc5(t), was able to grow in the presence of 0-8.0 % nacl and at ph 7.0-10.0. the isolate was positive for oxidase and catalase and exhibited alpha-haemolysis. the major fatty acids were iso-c(15 : 0) (18.3 %), c(16 : 0) (11.3 %), c(17 : 1)omega8c (13.1 %) and a summed feature, c(16 : 1)omega7c and/or c(16 : 1)omega6c (15.1 % ...200919643885
shewanella indica sp. nov., isolated from the sediment of arabian sea.a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod shaped, motile by single polar flagellum, catalase- and oxidase-positive bacterium, designated strain kjw27t, was isolated from the marine sediment of karwar jetty, west coast of india. the strain was β-hemolytic, grows at 0-10 % (w/v) nacl, 10-45 °c and ph 6.5-10 with optimum growth at 2 % (w/v) nacl, 37 °c and ph 7.5. the major fatty acids were iso-c15:0 (22.2 %), c17:1 ω8c (21 %), summed feature 3 (comprising c16:1ω7c and/or c16:1 ω6c; 10.2 %), c1 ...201020851908
cold shock induces qnra expression in shewanella algae.plasmid-carried quinolone resistance genes, like qnra, are widespread in enterobacteriaceae. to gain insight into its little-understood native functions, we studied the effect of environmental conditions on chromosomal qnra expression in shewanella algae. among conditions of dna damage, oxidative and osmotic stress, starvation, heat, and cold, only cold shock increased gene expression, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription-pcr (qrt-pcr). induction was graded and occurred during growt ...201021078945
degeneration of biogenic superparamagnetic magnetite.magnetite crystals precipitated as a consequence of fe(iii) reduction by shewanella algae bry after 265 h incubation and 5-year anaerobic storage were investigated with transmission electron microscopy, mössbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. the magnetite crystals were typically superparamagnetic with an approximate size of 13 nm. the lattice constants of the 265 h and 5-year crystals are 8.4164a and 8.3774a, respectively. the mössbauer spectra indicated that the 265 h magnetite had exces ...200919200144
purulent pericarditis with greenish pericardial effusion caused by shewanella algae.we report the first case of purulent pericarditis with greenish pericardial effusion caused by shewanella algae in a patient with gastric and gallbladder cancer. this case expands the reported spectrum of infection caused by s. algae and raises the possibility that s. algae is a causative pathogen for purulent pericarditis.200818579719
emerging infections: shewanella - a series of five cases.shewanella spp. are unusual cause of disease in humans; however, reports of shewanella infections have been increasing. shewanella is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from many foods, sewage, and both from fresh and salt water. earlier it was named as pseudomonas putrefaciens or shewanella putrefaciens. there are several reports describing this organism causing human infections such as cellulitis, abscesses, bacteremia, wound infection, etc. it is oxidase and catalase-positive non-fe ...201021346897
human soft tissue infection by the emerging pathogen shewanella algae.shewanella soft tissue infections usually occur in immunocompromised patients with a preexisting cutaneous ulcer, mostly after exposure to a marine environment or contaminated water. a 35-year-old male presented with a non-healing ulcer over the distal end of his right leg but had no predisposing factors.  cultures of exudates from the wound grew shewanella on repeated occasions. recovery was uneventful following surgical debridement and antimicrobial therapy. early suspicion, diagnosis, and tre ...201121537075
[shewanella algae bacteremia after contact with seawater in an immunocompromised patient.] 201121543067
shewanella upenei sp. nov., a lipolytic bacterium isolated from bensasi goatfish upeneus bensasi.a gram-staining-negative, motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterial strain, 20-23r(t), was isolated from intestine of bensasi goatfish, upeneus bensasi, and its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic study. phylogenetic analyses based on 16s rrna gene sequences revealed that strain 20-23r(t) belonged to the genus shewanella. strain 20-23r(t) exhibited 16s rrna gene sequence similarity values of 99.5, 99.2, and 97.5% to shewanella algae atcc 51192(t), shewanella haliot ...201121717322
isolation of shewanella algae from rectal swabs of patients with bloody diarrhoea.shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. it was infrequently recovered from clinical specimens probably because of inadequate processing of non-fermenting oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli. we report here isolation of s. algae in pure culture and mixed with e. coli from two cases of acute gastroenteritis with bloody mucous containing diarrhea occurring at the same time. as this organism is not a normal flora of the gut, the possible source of infection ...201122120808
A biogeochemical framework for bioremediation of plutonium(V) in the subsurface environment.Accidental release of plutonium (Pu) from storage facilities in the subsurface environment is a concern for the safety of human beings and the environment. Given the complexity of the subsurface environment and multivalent state of Pu, we developed a quantitative biogeochemical framework for bioremediation of Pu(V)O(2) (+) in the subsurface environment. We implemented the framework in the biogeochemical model CCBATCH by expanding its chemical equilibrium for aqueou ...201222209805
Shewanella dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from the Dong-do coast sea water at Dokdo island, Korea.The strain designated as UDC329(T) was obtained from a sea water sample collected off the coast at Dong-do, Dokdo Island, Korea. This strain is Gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic non-spore forming, rod-shaped isolate forming dark orange-yellow coloured colonies. This organism grew optimally at 25-30 °C in the presence of 1% NaCl, and at pH 7. The organism grew in the absence of NaCl but did not grow in the presence in NaCl of >7%. Strain UDC329(T) contained both menaquinones and ubiqui ...201121890724
coastal seawater bacteria harbor a large reservoir of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in jiaozhou bay, china.diversity and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants were investigated in environmental bacteria isolated from surface seawater of jiaozhou bay, china. five qnr gene alleles were identified in 34 isolates by pcr amplification, including qnra3 gene in a shewanella algae isolate, qnrb9 gene in a citrobacter freundii isolate, qnrd gene in 22 proteus vulgaris isolates, qnrs1 gene in 1 enterobacter sp. and 4 klebsiella spp. isolates, and qnrs2 gene in 1 pseudomonas sp. and 4 ...201222252223
shewanella algae bacteremia in a preterm newborn. 201222217974
shewanella haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut microflora of abalone, haliotis discus hannai.a motile, rod-shaped, pink-orange pigmented bacterium, designated strain dw01(t), was isolated from the gut microflora of abalone collected from the south sea (republic of korea). cells were gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive. the major fatty acids were iso-c(15 : 0) (17.7 %), c(16 : 0) (13.4 %), iso-c(15 : 0) 2-oh and/or c(16 : 1)omega7c (12.5 %) and c(17 : 1)omega8c (10.7 %). the dna g+c content was 53.7 mol%. a phylogenetic tree based on the 16s rrna gene s ...200718048751
shewanella algae: first case report of the fast emerging marine pathogen from squamous cell carcinoma patient in india. 201425136533
skin and soft tissue infections due to shewanella algae - an emerging pathogen.shewanella spp. are emerging human pathogens, the predominant species being shewanella algae. shewanella skin and soft tissue infections are more commonly seen in immunocompromised patients with a pre-existing cutaneous ulcer and most often associated with exposure to marine environments.201525859455
shewanella-related bacteremia and fournier's gangrene: a case report.shewanella algae and shewanella putrefaciens have been implicated for causing serious infections in humans, including disseminated infection. we report the possible first case of shewanella-related fournier's gangrene and bacteremia caused in a 65-year-old chinese male with nephrotic syndrome. he was successfully managed by surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy.201627704006
structure and evolution of chlorate reduction composite transposons.the genes for chlorate reduction in six bacterial strains were analyzed in order to gain insight into the metabolism. a newly isolated chlorate-reducing bacterium (shewanella algae acdc) and three previously isolated strains (ideonella dechloratans, pseudomonas sp. strain pk, and dechloromarinus chlorophilus nss) were genome sequenced and compared to published sequences (alicycliphilus denitrificans bc plasmid palide01 and pseudomonas chloritidismutans aw-1). de novo assembly of genomes failed t ...201323919996
on the influence of the culture conditions in bacterial antifouling bioassays and biofilm properties: shewanella algae, a case study.a variety of conditions (culture media, inocula, incubation temperatures) are employed in antifouling tests with marine bacteria. shewanella algae was selected as model organism to evaluate the effect of these parameters on: bacterial growth, biofilm formation, the activity of model antifoulants, and the development and nanomechanical properties of the biofilms.the main objectives were: 1) to highlight and quantify the effect of these conditions on relevant parameters for antifouling studies: bi ...201424755232
direct determination of oxidation state of gold deposits in metal-reducing bacterium shewanella algae using x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (xanes).x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (xanes) was successfully employed to determine the gold valence in the metal-reducing bacterium shewanella algae after exposure to a 1 mm aqueous haucl4 solution for 10-120 min. xanes spectra revealed the oxidation state of gold in the bacterial cells to be au(0) without any contribution from au(iii), demonstrating that s. algae cells can reduce aucl4- ions to elemental gold. transmission electron microscopy (tem) and energy dispersive x-ray (edx ...200717630130
diversity and phylogenetic analysis of endosymbiotic bacteria of the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae).the date palm root borer oryctes agamemnon (coleoptera: scarabaeidae) is one of the major pests of palms. in saudi arabia, both larvae and adults of oryctes are particularly troublesome, especially during the establishment of young date palm orchards. endosymbiotic bacteria are known to have a key role in food digestion and insecticide resistance mechanisms, and therefore are essential to their host insect. identification of these bacteria in their insect host can lead to development of new inse ...201525899000
shewanella spongiae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.a psychrophilic bacterium, designated strain hj039(t), was isolated from a marine sponge collected in the east sea of korea (also known as the sea of japan). cells were gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped (1.8-3.54 microm x 0.27-0.73 microm). growth was observed between 5 and 26 degrees c (optimum 15 degrees c), at ph 5.0-8.5 (optimum ph 6.0-6.5) and in the presence of 0-6.0 % nacl (optimum 2.0 %). the 16s rrna gene sequence of strain hj039(t) showed high levels of similarity (93.7-95.4 %) with ...200617158991
the shewanella algae strain ym8 produces volatiles with strong inhibition activity against aspergillus pathogens and aflatoxins.aflatoxigenic aspergillus fungi and associated aflatoxins are ubiquitous in the production and storage of food/feed commodities. controlling these microbes is a challenge. in this study, the shewanella algae strain ym8 was found to produce volatiles that have strong antifungal activity against aspergillus pathogens. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling revealed 15 volatile organic compounds (vocs) emitted from ym8, of which dimethyl trisulfide was the most abundant. we obtained authent ...201526500631
qnra6 genetic environment and quinolone resistance conferred on proteus mirabilis.to determine the genetic location and environment of the qnra6 gene in proteus mirabilis ps16 where it was first described and to characterize the quinolone resistance qnra6 confers.201626747095
shewanella irciniae sp. nov., a novel member of the family shewanellaceae, isolated from the marine sponge ircinia dendroides in the bay of villefranche, mediterranean sea.strain ust040317-058(t), comprising non-pigmented, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, gram-negative cells that are motile by means of single polar flagella, was isolated from the surface of a marine sponge (ircinia dendroides) collected from the mediterranean sea. comparative 16s rrna gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis placed the strain in a separate cluster with the recognized bacterium shewanella algae iam 14159(t), with which it showed a sequence similarity of 95.0 %. the sequence si ...200617158990
neonatal sepsis caused by shewanella algae: a case report.sepsis remains a leading cause of mortality among neonates, especially in developing countries. most cases of neonatal sepsis are attributed to escherichia coli and other members of the enterobacteriaceae family. shewanella algae (s. algae) is a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus, commonly associated with the marine environment, which has been isolated from humans. early onset neonatal sepsis caused by s. algae is uncommon. we report a case of s. algae blood stream infection in a newborn with ea ...201525810789
reduction of hexavalent uranium from organic complexes by sulfate- and iron-reducing bacteria.the influence of organic-hexavalent-uranium [u(vi)] complexation on u(vi) reduction by a sulfate-reducing bacterium (desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and an iron-reducing bacterium (shewanella alga) was evaluated. four aliphatic ligands (acetate, malonate, oxalate, and citrate) and an aromatic ligand (tiron [4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid]) were used to study complexed-uranium bioavailability. the trends in uranium reduction varied with the nature and the amount of u(vi)-organic complex f ...199716535729
role of hydrophobicity in adhesion of the dissimilatory fe(iii)-reducing bacterium shewanella alga to amorphous fe(iii) oxide.the mechanisms by which the dissimilatory fe(iii)-reducing bacterium shewanella alga adheres to amorphous fe(iii) oxide were examined through comparative analysis of s. alga bry and an adhesion-deficient strain of this species, s. alga rad20. approximately 100% of s. alga bry cells typically adhered to amorphous fe(iii) oxide, while less than 50% of s. alga rad20 cells adhered. bulk chemical analysis, isoelectric point analysis, and cell surface analysis by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spec ...199716535706
sustained and complete hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx) degradation in zero-valent iron simulated barriers under different microbial conditions.flow-through columns packed with "aged" zero-valent iron (zvi) between layers of soil and sand were constructed to mimic a one-dimensional permeable reactive iron barrier (prb). the columns were continuously fed rdx (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, ca. 18 mg l(-1)) for over one year. two columns were bioaugmented with dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (dirb) shewanella algae bry or geobacter metallireducens gs-15 to investigate their potential to enhance the reactivity of aged iron b ...200516342534
bacteremia and empyema caused by shewanella algae in a trauma patient.to describe the first reported case of bacteremia and empyema caused by shewanella algae and summarize the existing literature on shewanella human infection.201424396089
emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in enterobacteriaceae.although quinolone resistance results mostly from chromosomal mutations in enterobacteriaceae, it may also be mediated by plasmid-encoded qnr determinants. qnr proteins protect dna from quinolone binding and compromise the efficacy of quinolones such as nalidixic acid. qnr proteins (qnra-like, qnrb and qnrs) have been identified worldwide with a quite high prevalence among asian isolates with a frequent association with clavulanic acid inhibited expanded-spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-medi ...200516020539
the structure of the core region of the lipopolysaccharide from shewanella algae bry, containing 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid.the structure of the carbohydrate backbone of the lipid a-core region of the lps from shewanella algae strain bry was analysed. the lps was n,o-deacylated to give three products, which were isolated and studied by chemical methods, nmr and mass spectrometry: [carbohydrate structures: see text]. all monosaccharides except l-rhamnose had the d-configuration. this lps presents a second example (after s. oneidensis) of the structure with a novel linking unit between the core and lipid a moieties, 8- ...200415013415
electron transfer from shewanella algae bry to hydrous ferric oxide is mediated by cell-associated melanin.shewanella algae bry uses insoluble mineral oxides as terminal electron acceptors, but the mechanism of electron transfer from cell surface to mineral surface is not well understood. we tested the hypothesis that cell-associated melanin produced by s. algae bry serves as an electron conduit for bacterial-mineral reduction. results from fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cell surface hydrophobicity assays indicated that extracellular melanin was associated with the cell surface. with h(2 ...200312644234
the structure of the o-specific polysaccharide chain of the shewanella algae bry lipopolysaccharide.an acidic o-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of the shewanella algae strain bry lipopolysaccharide and was found to contain l-rhamnose, 2-acetamido-4-[d-3-hydroxybutyramido)]-2,4,6-trideoxy-d-glucose (d-bacnac4nhbu), and 2-amino-2,6-dideoxy-l-galactose, n-acylated by the 4-carboxyl group of l-malic acid (l-malyl-(4-->2)-alpha-l-fucn) in the ratio 2:1:1. 1h and 13c nmr spectroscopy was applied to the intact polysaccharide, and the following structure of the repeating ...200312559738
isolation and characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria from persian gulf (bushehr provenance).biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. these molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. in this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of bushehr provenance in the persian gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in bushnell-hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. five screening tests were ...201425037876
reduction kinetics of fe(iii), co(iii), u(vi), cr(vi), and tc(vii) in cultures of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria.the reduction kinetics of fe(iii)citrate, fe(iii)nta, co(iii)edta-, u(vi)o(2) (2+), cr(vi)o(4) (2-), and tc(vii)o(4) (-) were studied in cultures of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (dmrb): shewanella alga strain bry, shewanella putrefaciens strain cn32, shewanella oneidensis strain mr-1, and geobacter metallireducens strain gs-15. reduction rates were metal specific with the following rate trend: fe(iii)citrate > or = fe(iii)nta > co(iii)edta- >> uo(2)(2+) > cro(4)(2-) > tco(4)(-), except ...200212378605
shewanella algae bacteremia in an end-stage renal disease patient: a case report and review of the literature.a 71-year-old man was admitted because of nausea and abdominal pain. he was receiving an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent for anemia and dysregulated iron metabolism due to stage g5 chronic kidney disease. he had a history of raw fish intake and was diagnosed with infectious enterocolitis, which worsened and led to septic shock. shewanella putrefaciens grew in the blood culture, but shewanella algae was identified in a 16s rrna gene sequence analysis. we herein report a case of s. algae bacterem ...201728321079
physiological and transcriptional approaches reveal connection between nitrogen and manganese cycles in shewanella algae c6g3.to explain anaerobic nitrite/nitrate production at the expense of ammonium mediated by manganese oxide (mn(iv)) in sediment, nitrate and manganese respirations were investigated in a strain (shewanella algae c6g3) presenting these features. in contrast to s. oneidensis mr-1, a biotic transitory nitrite accumulation at the expense of ammonium was observed in s. algae during anaerobic growth with mn(iv) under condition of limiting electron acceptor, concomitantly, with a higher electron donor stoi ...201728317859
formation of novel hydrogel bio-anode by immobilization of biocatalyst in alginate/polyaniline/titanium-dioxide/graphite composites and its electrical performance.a new bio-anode containing gel-entrapped bacteria in alginate/polyaniline/tio2/graphite composites was constructed and electrically investigated. alginate as dopant and template as well as entrapped gel was used for immobilization of microorganism cells. increase of polyaniline concentration resulted an increase in the conductivity in gels. addition of 0.01 and 0.02 g/ml polyaniline caused 6-fold and 10-fold higher conductivity, respectively. furthermore, addition of 0.05 g/ml graphite powder ca ...201728157608
use of pcr-rflp for genotyping 16s rrna and characterizing bacteria cultured from halibut fry.small subunit ribosomal genes were explored using pcr-rflp to facilitate the characterization of bacteria cultured from reared fry of the atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus). concern has been expressed about pathogen invasion in larvae lacking a counteracting normal flora that may aid the immune system in producing robust noninfected individuals. in this study, pure cultured representatives of normal flora that were previously found to be antagonistic towards a pathogenic vibrio sp. wer ...200212109877
melanin production and use as a soluble electron shuttle for fe(iii) oxide reduction and as a terminal electron acceptor by shewanella algae bry.dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (dmrb) utilize numerous compounds as terminal electron acceptors, including insoluble iron oxides. the mechanism(s) of insoluble-mineral reduction by dmrb is not well understood. here we report that extracellular melanin is produced by shewanella algae bry. the extracted melanin served as the sole terminal electron acceptor. upon reduction the reduced, soluble melanin reduced insoluble hydrous ferric oxide in the absence of bacteria, thus demonstrating that ...200211976119
ear infections with shewanella alga: a bacteriologic, clinical and epidemiologic study of 67 cases.objective: to present bacteriologic and clinical data on 67 patients from the island of funen, denmark, with shewanella alga, a bacterium rarely seen in scandinavia, isolated from ear swabs. included in the study is an examination of the occurrence of s. alga in sea water around the island. methods: bacteriologic examination and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 67 clinical isolates, 11 sea-water isolates and two reference strains were conducted. clinical information was obtained from the ref ...199711864129
iron promoted reduction of chromate by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria.chromate is a priority pollutant within the u.s. and many other countries, the hazard of which can be mitigated by reduction to the trivalent form of chromium. here we elucidate the reduction of cr(vi) to cr(iii) via a closely coupled, biotic-abiotic reductive pathway under iron-reducing conditions. injection of chromate into stirred-flow reactors containing shewanella alga strain bry and iron (hydr)oxides of varying stabilities results in complete reduction to cr(iii). the maximum sustainable c ...200111351723
surface complexation of neptunium(v) onto whole cells and cell components of shewanella alga: modeling and experimental study.we systematically quantified surface complexation of np(v) onto whole cells, cell wall, and extracellular polymeric substances (eps) of shewanella alga strain bry. we first performed acid and base titrations and used the mathematical model fiteql to estimate the concentrations and deprotonation constants of specific surface functional groups. deprotonation constants most likely corresponded to a carboxyl group not associated with amino acids (pk(a) approximately 5), a phosphoryl site (pk(a) appr ...201020521812
broad dissemination of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in sediments of two urban coastal wetlands.contamination of soil and water with antibiotic-resistant bacteria may create reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes that have the potential to negatively impact future public health through horizontal gene transfer. the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnra, qnrb, qnrs, qepa, and aac(6')-ib-cr were detected by pcr amplification of metagenomic dna from surface sediments of the tijuana river estuary, a sewage-impacted coastal wetland along the u.s.-mexico border; sediments of famosa ...201021141884
shewanella marina sp. nov., isolated from seawater.a motile, rod-shaped, pale-brown-pigmented bacterium, designated strain c4t, was isolated from seawater collected from the south sea (republic of korea). cells were gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. the major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (c16:1omega7c and/or iso-c15:0 2-oh; 19.4%), c16:0 (16.3%), c17:1omega8c (9.5%) and iso-c15:0 (7.7%). the dna g+c content was 40.8 mol%. a phylogenetic tree based on 16s rrna gene sequences showed that strain c4t fo ...200919567571
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