analysis of a seal and a porpoise morbillivirus using monoclonal antibodies. 19911706119
isolation and characterisation of a porpoise morbillivirus.a morbillivirus was isolated from lung tissue of a porpoise which had lesions similar to those of phocine distemper. porpoise and seal isolates differed in their reactions to monoclonal antibodies to canine distemper virus.19912069505
nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the matrix (m) and fusion (f) protein genes of cetacean morbilliviruses isolated from a porpoise and a dolphin.morbilliviruses have been isolated from stranded dolphins and porpoises. the present paper describes the cloning and sequencing of the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) f gene and of the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) m and f genes and their flanking regions. the gene order of the dmv genome appeared to be identical to that of other morbilliviruses. a genomic untranslated region of 837 nucleotides was found between the translated dmv m and f gene regions. the predicted dmv m protein were highly conserve ...19947531923
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in europe and siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (pdv-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (pdv-2) respectively. pdv-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (cdv), whereas pdv-2 most probably is a strain of cdv. morbilliviruses were also isol ...19938343804
characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in europe.a previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) that had died in the dutch waddensea (north sea) in 1990. this porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. dmv and pmv proved to be similar ...19938468554
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
the evolution of morbilliviruses: a comparison of nucleocapsid gene sequences including a porpoise morbillivirus.sequence data for the nucleocapsid protein (n) gene of the porpoise morbillivirus including the very conserved middle section of the protein and the hypervariable c terminus are reported. analysis of dissimilarity indices based on an alignment of the n proteins of various morbilliviruses identifies a variable region of the n protein from amino acids residues 121 to 145 and a hypervariable part from amino acids 400 to 517. this type of analysis can be usefully applied when protein sequences of fi ...19958588306
morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus.several disease outbreaks, which have caused the deaths of many thousands of seals and dolphins during the last decade, have now been attributed to infections with newly identified morbilliviruses. outbreaks in the late eighties amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in northwestern europe and amongst baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were caused by the newly discovered phocine distemper virus and by a strain of canine distemper virus, respectively. alt ...19958588316
rinderpest and other animal morbillivirus infections: comparative aspects and recent developments.the genus morbillivirus presently comprises measles virus of man, rinderpest virus (rpv), peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv), and canine distemper virus (cdv). 'emerging' morbilliviruses, such as phocid distemper virus (pdv) of seals, dolphin (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) have probably been present for a long period of time and outbreaks are possibly related to introduction into a highly susceptible population and/or be the result of interspecies transmission. in this review some c ...19968885706
serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the southeast pacific.the presence of morbillivirus-specific serum antibodies was examined by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and virus neutralization tests in serum samples from 30 dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus), 8 long-snouted common dolphins (delphinus capensis), 2 inshore and 6 offshore bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and 20 burmeister's porpoises (phocoena spinipinnis) taken in fisheries off central peru in 1993-1995. the sera from six dusky dolphins, one common dolphin ...19989549850
immunohistological and serological investigation of morbillivirus infection in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the german baltic and north sea.the role of morbillivirus infection as a cause of disease or death in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) from the german north and baltic sea was investigated by serology, histology and immunohistochemistry. blood and tissue samples of lung, brain and lymph nodes from 74 stranded or by-caught harbour porpoises from german waters were collected between 1991 and 1997. according to dentinal growth layers and body length, animals were grouped into four age classes (neonates, 0-1, 1-4, 4-16 years ...200010865149
monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of morbillivirus antibody in marine mammal sera.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa), using two monoclonal antibodies (mabs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (vnt) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (cdv) and phocine distemper virus (pdv) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. the test depends on the blocking of mab binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. test conditions were optimized by using control vnt-negative and - ...200111326007
evidence of infectious diseases in harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) hunted in the waters of greenland and by-caught in the german north sea and baltic sea.the pathological, microbiological and serological findings in harbour porpoises hunted in greenlandic waters were compared with the findings in animals accidentally caught in fishing gear in the german north sea and baltic sea. the body condition of the greenlandic animals was good, whereas nine of 23 german harbour porpoises were moderately to markedly emaciated. both groups were infested with parasites. in the greenlandic animals parasitism of the aural peribullar cavity with stenurus minor, o ...200111430682
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses exhibit neurovirulence in mice.members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of cns infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, it is possible that all morbilliviruses infect the cns but in some hosts are rapidly cleared by the immune response. in this study, ...200211847591
emerging morbillivirus infections of marine mammals: development of two diagnostic the last 13 years, four viruses belonging in the morbillivirus genus of the paramyxoviridae family have emerged as significant causes of disease and mortality in marine mammals. the viruses involved are canine distemper virus (cdv) in seals and polar bears, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) in cetaceans, and phocine distemper virus (pdv) in pinnipeds. the two cetacean morbilliviruses (dmv and pmv) are now considered to be the same viral species, named cetacean morbi ...200212381563
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals: a brief overview.since 1987, at least eight morbillivirus infection (mi) epidemics have caused mass mortality of several free-living pinniped and cetacean populations around the world. the responsible agents, all belonging to the genus morbillivirus (family paramyxoviridae), have been characterized as either "canine distemper virus" strains, infecting pinnipeds, or as three new morbilliviruses, namely "phocid (phocine) distemper virus" , "porpoise morbillivirus" and "dolphin morbillivirus" . the last two agents ...200515737178
cetacean morbilliviruses are phylogenetically divergent.we performed a phylogenetic comparison of porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) isolates from porpoises and dolphins respectively according to criteria adopted by the world health organization for the phylogenetic comparison of measles viruses. pmv and dmv were more divergent than the most distantly related measles virus strains, thus challenging the classification of pmv and dmv as two strains of a single species, cetacean morbillivirus.200415747165
does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (lontra canadensis)?the investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. to identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-r ...200717347401
involvement of morbilliviruses in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease.two members of the morbillivirus genus of the family paramyxoviridae, canine distemper virus (cdv) and measles virus (mv), are well-known for their ability to cause a chronic demyelinating disease of the cns in their natural hosts, dogs and humans, respectively. both viruses have been studied for their potential involvement in the neuropathogenesis of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (ms). recently, three new members of the morbillivirus genus, phocine distemper virus (pdv), po ...200717410634
sequence of the nucleocapsid gene and genome and antigenome promoters for an isolate of porpoise morbillivirus.we have determined the first complete sequence of the nucleocapsid (n) gene of the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) as well as the genome leader and trailer sequences which encode the genome and antigenome promoters, respectively. the pmv n gene is 1686 nucleotides long with a single open reading frame (orf) encoding a protein of 523 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 57.39kda. the nucleotide sequence of the n gene shows the closest identity (89%) to that of another cetacean morbillivi ...200818166241
real-time rt-pcr assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses.real-time rt-pcr (rtrt-pcr) assays for identifying and differentiating infections caused by dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) were developed by targeting the hypervariable c-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid (n) gene. total dmv and pmv rna extracted from infected vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (slam) produced positive cycle threshold (c(t)) values after the 17th and 25th cycles, respectively. the assays were then validated u ...200919084557
phylogenetic analysis of a new cetacean morbillivirus from a short-finned pilot whale stranded in the canary islands.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is considered the most pathogenic virus in cetaceans. three strains have been already described: the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and the tentatively named pilot whale morbillivirus (pwmv). this study describes the molecular characterization of a strain of cemv detected in the brain of a short-finned pilot whale that had stranded in the eastern atlantic ocean around the canary islands and that showed lesions compatible with morbilliv ...201120576281
morbillivirus and toxoplasma exposure and association with hematological parameters for southern beaufort sea polar bears: potential response to infectious agents in a sentinel species.arctic temperatures are increasing in response to greenhouse gas forcing and polar bears have already responded to changing conditions. declines in body stature and vital rates have been linked to warming-induced loss of sea-ice. as food webs change and human activities respond to a milder arctic, exposure of polar bears and other arctic marine organisms to infectious agents may increase. because of the polar bear's status as arctic ecosystem sentinel, polar bear health could provide an index of ...201020607348
infectious disease and toxicological monitoring of stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in cook inlet as surrogates for monitoring endangered belugas (delphinapterus leucas).pacific harbor seals ( phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in cook inlet, alaska. although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. in recent years, harbor seal populations in alaska have declined for unknown reasons. as part of its strand ...201627691941
initial characterization of novel beaked whale morbillivirus in hawaiian cetaceans.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is a causative factor in epizootics that have resulted in thousands of deaths throughout the atlantic and mediterranean since 1987, but less is known of its presence and significance in the pacific. the first case of cemv reported in hawai'i was in a longman's beaked whale that stranded in 2010. the initial cemv sequence from this individual indicated the possibility of a novel strain. to address this, archived samples from cetaceans that stranded in hawai'i between ...201626758655
diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus: a sensitive one step real time rt fast-pcr method based on sybr(®) green.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) (family paramyxoviridae, genus morbillivirus) is considered the most pathogenic virus of cetaceans. it was first implicated in the bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) mass stranding episode along the northwestern atlantic coast in the late 1980s, and in several more recent worldwide epizootics in different odontoceti species. this study describes a new one step real-time reverse transcription fast polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-fast pcr) method based on ...201526454114
simultaneous diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the spanish mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel universal probe library (upl) rt-pcr assay.a highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) rt-pcr assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv). in this assay, two pcr primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available universal probe library (upl) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. rt-pcr is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (dm ...201323380457
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