genetics of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway of the prokaryotic endosymbiont (buchnera) of the aphid schlechtendalia chinensis.two dna fragments (3941 and 7152 base pairs) from the procaryotic endosymbiont (buchnera) of the aphid schlechtendalia chinensis were cloned and sequenced. the smaller fragment contained trpeg and the larger fragment contained trpdc(f)ba, genes coding for enzymes of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway which convert chorismate to tryptophan. both of these gene clusters were present as one copy on the endosymbiont chromosome and probably constitute two transcription units. the deduced amino acid s ...19957742976
the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway of aphid endosymbionts (buchnera): genetics and evolution of plasmid-associated anthranilate synthase (trpeg) within the aphididae.the bacterial endosymbionts (buchnera) from the aphids rhopalosiphum padi, r. maidis, schizaphis graminum, and acyrthosiphon pisum contain the genes for anthranilate synthase (trpeg) on plasmids made up of one or more 3.6-kb units. anthranilate synthase is the first as well as the rate-limiting enzyme in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. the amplification of trpeg on plasmids may result in an increase of enzyme protein and overproduction of this essential amino acid, which is required by the ...19968642610
the inhibiting effect of aqueous azadirachta indica (neem) extract upon bacterial properties influencing in vitro plaque formation.the purpose of this investigation was to examine the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts derived from the bark-containing sticks (neem stick) of azadirachta indica upon bacterial aggregation, growth, adhesion to hydroxyapatite, and production of insoluble glucan, which may affect in vitro plaque formation. neem stick extracts were screened for minimal bacterial growth inhibition (mic) against a panel of streptococci by means of a broth dilution assay. initial bacterial attachment was quantifi ...19968655780
gallotannins inhibit growth, water-insoluble glucan synthesis, and aggregation of mutans streptococci.during screening for anti-plaque agents of plant origin, ethanolic extracts from melaphis chinensis (bell), the chinese nutgall, exhibited strong inhibition of glucosyltransferase (gtf), in vitro adherence and glucan-induced agglutination of streptococcus mutans 3209 and s. sobrinus b13. more than 91% inhibition of water-insoluble glucan synthesis from sucrose by gtf was noted at a concentration as low as 7.8 micrograms/ml. bactericidal effects on other mutans streptococci, s. salivarius, and ac ...198811039045
effect of enamel organic matrix on the potential of galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro.galla chinensis, a natural traditional chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the chinese sumac aphid baker (melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of rhus chinensis mill. galla chinensis has shown the potential to enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. this study was to investigate whether the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the potential of galla chinensis to pr ...200919498221
htp nutraceutical screening for histone deacetylase inhibitors and effects of hdacis on tumor-suppressing mirnas by trichostatin a and grapeseed (vitis vinifera) in hela cells.aggressive tumor malignancies are a consequence of delayed diagnosis, epigenetic/phenotype changes and chemo-radiation resistance. histone deacetylases (hdacs) are a major epigenetic regulator of transcriptional repression, which are highly overexpressed in advanced malignancy. while original chemotherapy drugs were modeled after phytochemicals elucidated by botanical screenings, hdac inhibitors (hdaci) such as apicidin, trichostatin a (tsa) and butyrate were discovered as products of fungus and ...201728031235
high-throughput screening to identify plant derived human ldh-a inhibitors.lactate dehydrogenase (ldh)-a is highly expressed in diverse human malignant tumors, parallel to aggressive metastatic disease, resistance to radiation/chemotherapy and clinically poor outcome. although this enzyme constitutes a plausible target in treatment of advanced cancer, there are few known ldh-a inhibitors.201324478981
genetic structure of the bacterial endosymbiont buchnera aphidicola from its host aphid schlechtendalia chinensis and evolutionary implications.buchnera aphidicola is a primary symbiotic bacterium which provides essential amino acids to aphids. in this study, we sequenced nuclear 16s rdna and atpagd genes for 156 individuals of b. aphidicola from eight geographically distant populations to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of b. aphidicola associated to the sumac gall aphid schlechtendalia chinensis in central and southern china. our analyses of the combined sequences showed that b. aphidicola from s. chinensis had high ha ...201729085996
a cripavirus in the brown planthopper, nilaparvata lugens.a cripavirus-like long unique sequence was identified during transcriptome sequencing of the brown planthopper (bph), nilaparvata lugens. this unique sequence demonstrated high similarity with the whole-genome sequence of cricket paralysis virus, including 5' and 3' untranslated regions; thus we considered it the whole genome of a new virus. we propose that the virus be named nilaparvata lugens c virus (nlcv). the plus-strand rna genome spanned 9144 nt, excluding a 3' poly(a) tail with two large ...201626746854
full-length cloning, sequence analysis and expression detection of the β-tubulin gene from the chinese gall aphid (schlechtendalia chinensis).some insect galls are formed on sumac plants by certain aphid species and have been used for medicinal and chemical purposes as they are rich in tannins. the most prominent species among gall aphids in china is schlechtendalia chinensis, which formed horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of rhus chinensis. s. chinensis has a complex life cycle, with a switch of hosts between r. chinensis and certain mosses, and a switch of sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). we have clon ...201728743930
rna-seq-based transcriptome and the reproduction-related genes for the aphid schlechtendalia chinensis (hemiptera, aphididae).chinese galls form on sumac plants (rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. the galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of r. chinensis. s. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both r. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). previous studies ...201728340266
antifungal activity of 40 tcms used individually and in combination for treatment of superficial fungal infections.a series of 40 important traditional chinese medicines (tcms), which were reported effective in treating superficial fungal infections of the skin in chinese clinical trial publications and chinese herbal classics, were chosen for the investigation of the individual and combination antifungal properties against 8 superficial fungal strains in vitro.201525625353
high throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in mda-mb-231 human breast carcinoma cells.some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust national cancer institute botanical screenings. in this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of mda-mb-231 cells. the data obtained showed that less than 1. ...201424105850
gall development and clone dynamics of the galling aphid schlechtendalia chinensis (hemiptera: pemphigidae).the aphid schlechtendalia chinensis (bell) induces galls on its primary host, rhus chinensis mill. we studied temporal changes in gall and aphid clonal population size throughout the period of gall development. gall-size changes occurred in four stages: a first slow growth period, a fast growth period, a second slow growth period, and a growth reduction period. gall volume and surface area increased abruptly toward the end of july, peaking during october, in parallel with an increase in aphid cl ...201324020275
protective effects of galla rhois, the excrescence produced by the sumac aphid, schlechtendalia chinensis, on transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.galla rhois is formed by aphids, primarily schlechtendalia chinensis bell (homoptera: pemphigidae), on the leaf of sumac, rhus javanica l. (sapindales: anacardiaceae). it is a tannin-rich herb that is widely used in traditional korean medicine. its various pharmacological effects, including its radical-scavenging effects, have been reported. the purpose of the current study was to determine if these radical-scavenging effects can be confirmed using in vitro assays and to investigate its neuropro ...201222954153
comparative population structure of chinese sumac aphid schlechtendalia chinensis and its primary host-plant rhus chinensis.most of our current understanding of comparative population structure has been come from studies of parasite-host systems, whereas the genetic comparison of gallnut-aphids and their host-plants remain poorly documented. here, we examined the population genetic structure of the chinese sumac aphid schlechtendalia chinensis and its unique primary host-plant rhus chinensis in a mountainous province in western china using inter-simple sequence repeat (issr) markers. despite being sampled from a moun ...200817503190
tyrosinase inhibitors from galls of rhus javanica leaves and their effects on a defense mechanism of the leaves of rhus javanica (anacardiaceae) against the aphid melaphis chinensis (aphididae) attack, tannic acid is rapidly accumulated and forms galls along the midrib of the leaves resulting in a unique natural medicine gallae rhois. tannic acid was found to inhibit the oxidation of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) catalyzed by tyrosinase (ec with an ic50 of 22 microm. the aphid would detoxify the ingested toxic tannic acid to relatively nontoxic galli ...201714577638
[photosynthetic characteristics of two plagiomnium mosses in summer and winter].a comparative study on the photosynthetic characteristics of plagiomnium acuium(lindb.) t. kop. and p. maximoviozii(lindb.) t. kp., two overwintering host mosses for chinese gall aphid(schlechtendalia chinensis), was conducted by using ci-301ps in summer and winter. the results showed that the photosynthetic capacity of these two mosses species was 125.67 and 94.63 mumol in summer, and 58.1 and 62.1 mumol in winter, respectively. the dark respiration rates of these ...200111813430
[a study on suitable storage conditions for melaphis chinensis (bell) baker].it is a key procedure for breeding chinese gallnuts to put the collected melaphis chinensis on winter host mnium cuspidatum. the result shows that the most suitable storage condition for the collected me. chinensis is to store it for four days in shade before putting to winter host.19921292488
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