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degradation of alachlor by a soil fungus, chaetomium globosum. 19751133282
effect on microorganisms of volatile compounds released from germinating seeds.volatile compounds evolved from germinating seeds of slash pine, bean, cabbage, corn, cucumber, and pea were evaluated for their ability to support growth of microorganisms in liquid mineral salts media lacking a carbon source. growth of eight bacteria was measured turbidimetrically and of six fungi as dry weight of mycelium. volatiles caused increased growth of pseudomonas fluorescens, bacillus cereus, erwinia carotovora, agrobacterium tumefaciens, a. radiobacter, rhizobium japonicum, mucor muc ...19751201509
cytotoxicity of new cytochalasans from chaetomium globosum. 19751120509
microbiological aspects of wood chip storage in tropical environments.the microbiology of tropical wood chip storage has been examined in small experimental piles at two sites in new guinea. biodeterioration occurred in the forms of wood discoloration and loss of wood substance, including cellulosics; over a period of 2-4 months c. 20% per month of the chip pile by volume was seriously discoloured by microorganisms, and wood substance loss amounted to c. 1.5% per month (microscopic assessment). a range of microorganisms which produce discoloration were isolated. d ...1975810126
acute toxic effects of chaetoglobosin a, a new cytochalasan compound produced by chaetomium globosum, on mice and rats.a new cytochalasan compound, chaetoglobosin a produced by chaetomium globosum, was studied for its toxicity to animals. by subcutaneous injection, 2 mg/kg body weight of chaetoglobosin a killed young wistar rats acutely, and in the mouse of ddd strain, ld50 values of chaetoglobosin a were estimated 6.5 and 17.8 mg/kg for male and female, respectively. by oral administration, 400 mg/kg of chaetoglobosin a caused little adverse effect on mice and rats. pathological examination of the mice, injecte ...1978713122
degradation of lignocellulosic material and humus formation by fungi.cellulase activity and degradation of cellulose and lignin in wheat straw and formation of humus during degradation by aspergillus sp., chaetomium globosum, fusarium solani, paecilomyces varioti, penicillium chrysogenum and trichoderma viride qm9414 were studied. c. globosum, f. solani, p. varioti and p. chrysogenum produced little or no cellulase when grown on cellulose powder. however, all produced cellulase (filter paper degrading activity) when grown on wheat straw. all the cultures degraded ...1979507620
pathogenicity and antifungal susceptibility of chaetomium species.several reports have been published implicating chaetomium spp. as opportunistic pathogens. a critical review of these cases was made, and the majority of the responsible strains were studied. chaetomium globosum was the most common species, being isolated in at least nine clinical cases of infection. some of these clinical isolates and others from environmental sources were tested against six antifungal agents (5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, amphotericin b, itraconazole, ketoconazole and micona ...19957588850
toxicity to rats of corn invaded by chaetomium globosum.of 53 isolates of chaetomium globosum kunze isolated from corn, manufactured feed, and fiberboard, grown on autoclaved corn, and fed to rats, 25 were lethal within 4 to 6 days. thirty-six single ascospore cultures of one isolate were uniformly lethal when similarly grown and fed to rats. incubation of the fungus on corn for 6 to 8 weeks resulted in greater toxicity than shorter incubation times. premortem symptoms indicated damage to the central nervous system of the affected animals, and postmo ...19665970465
the effect of cochliodinol, a metabolite of chaetomium cochliodes, on the respiration of microsopores of fusarium oxysporum. 19715555523
sporidesmins. 8. ovine ill-thrift in nova scotia. 3. the characterisation of chetomin a toxic metabolite of chaetomium cochliodes and chaetomium globosum. 19725066072
endoglucanase production by paper-degrading mycoflora.fourteen fungal species, namely aspergillus flavus, a. fumigatus, a. niger, a. ustus, penicillium islandicum, p. wortmannii, memnoniella echinata, cladosporium herbarum, stachybotrys atra, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, torula herbarum, alternaria alternata and curvularia uncinata were isolated from different grades of paper. they differ in their distribution on various kinds of paper and also in relative occurrence. while seasonal influence on mycoflora was observed, most of the mould ...19979418063
differences in mode of action of cellulolytic enzymes from curvularia lunata & chaetomium globosum. 19734779294
lipid composition of chaetomium cochliodes: effect of media. 19734713379
a bacteriolytic enzyme from chaetomium globosum, a marine-isolate. 19734711457
cell-wall proteins of aspergillus niger and chaetomium globosum. 19695365360
cutaneous and ungual phaeohyphomycosis caused by species of chaetomium kunze (1817) ex fresenius, 1829.two cases of cutaneous and ungual phaeohyphomycosis caused by species of chaetomium are reported. the patients showed no clinical signs of immunodeficiency. in case 1 there was a small, ulcerated, crusted lesion on the right forearm. direct microscopical examination of material from this lesion showed light-brown hyphae with thick-walled cells. the fungus isolated was identified as chaetomium globosum. case 2 had lesions of the fingernails. direct microscopy showed dematiaceous septate hyphae in ...19883236145
a new sesquiterpene antibiotic, heptelidic acid producing organisms, fermentation, isolation and characterization.a new sesquiterpene antibiotic, heptelidic acid, was found in the culture filtrate of three different strains of fungi isolated from soil samples. these strains were identified as gliocladium virens, chaetomium globosum and trichoderma viride. heptelidic acid was produced by conventional submerged culture and purified by successive column chromatography on silica gel and sephadex lh-20 and finally by preparative tlc on silica gel. the molecular formula of heptelidic acid was determined as c15h20 ...19807191847
mycoflora of anise and fennel seeds in egypt.using four medium types (glucose-, cellulose-, 50% sucrose- and 10% nacl-czapek's agar), it was possible to isolate 15 fungal genera, 78 species and 6 varieties. the collective fungal spectrum varied from one medium to another where the highest number of species (57 species/1000 seeds) was obtained on glucose- and the lowest (31 species/1000 seeds) on 10% nacl-czapek's agar. aspergillus, penicillium, and sometimes rhizopus and chaetomium were the most common genera on the different medium types. ...19892600777
cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum in a renal transplant recipient.a 32-year-old male patient developed headaches, vomiting, blurring of vision, and focal seizures of the left side of the face 2 months after a renal transplant. he developed a brain abscess and died. direct koh examination of the brain tissue demonstrated hyaline as well as dematiaceous, septate hyphae. histologic examination of brain sections revealed polymorphous fungal elements consisting of septate, dark-pigmented hyphae, intercalary and terminal swollen fungal cells, and budding yeastlike c ...19892584374
[chemical and submicroscopic structure of the cell walls of the ascomycete chaetomium globosum]. 19725058879
release of mutagens after chemical or microbial degradation of beech wood lignin.the microbial or chemical degradation of lignin from untreated samples of beech wood dusts (fagus silvatica) resulted in the release of different mutagenic responses in the salmonella/mammalian plate incorporation assay. in the first experiment using chemical degradation of lignin, dust samples were pre-extracted using acetone-water; the lignin portions were degraded into simpler compounds which were further fractionated on a sephadex-lh20 column. the compounds isolated from the second phase of ...19902339441
onychomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum kunze.in this paper we report a case of onychomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum. the patient had lesions of the fingernails of the left hand. the direct microscopical examination of the nails showed light-brown hyphae with thick-walled cells. the histopathological examination revealed thick aggregated hyphal element in the nail plate. amongst the antimycotics tested oxiconazole with mic values of 0.3 microgram/ml-1 was found to be most effective in vitro against chaetomium globosum.19911826539
mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from riyadh, saudi arabia.using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. the most common fungi were chrysosporium tropicum, c. indicum, c. keratinophilum, aspergillus flavus followed by acremonium strictum and scopulariopsis brevicaulis. using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) czapek's agar at ...19883236219
mycoflora and mycotoxin-producing fungi of air-dust particles from egypt.using the dilution-plate method, 27 genera and 64 species were collected from 20 air-dust samples on glucose - (24 genera and 57 species) and cellulose - (21 genera and 45 species) czapek's agar at 28 degrees c. there are basic similarities between the mycoflora of air-dust on the two media and the most prevalent species were aspergillus niger, a. flavus, a. ochraceus, a. terreus, a. versicolor, penicillium chrysogenum, p. funiculosum, alternaria alternata, cladosporium herbarum, fusarium oxyspo ...19862938009
ultrastructural features of meiosis in chaetomium globosum. 19751143312
occurrence of zoosporic and terrestrial fungi in some ponds of kharga oases, egypt.thirty-nine species belonging to 13 genera of zoosporic fungi were collected from 33 water samples on sesame and hemp seeds as baits at 22 degrees c. five genera were isolated in high occurrence: allomyces (2 species), achlya (9 species), dictyuchus (4 species), pythium (5 species) and saprolegnia (5 species). aphanomyces (4 species) and isoachlya (2 species) were of moderate frequencies. the remaining six genera were less frequent: anisolpidium, brevilegnia, calyptralegnia, leptolegnia, pythiop ...19902384873
fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete chaetomium strumarium.three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the united states and australia are reported. infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. the fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as chaetomium strumarium. this is the first report of human infection by this species, and c. strumarium is the second species of chaetomium known to cause primary ...19958567907
chaetomium pneumonia in patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.a patient with relapsed refractory acute myeloid leukaemia developed typical fungal lung lesions despite intravenous amphotericin b prophylaxis. chaetomium globosum was cultured from the resected right lower lobe. histology showed branching hyphae negative for common aspergillus species by immunohistochemical staining. previous reports of invasive disease caused by chaetomium and some applications of immunohistochemical staining for aspergillus are discussed.19968655695
keratinophilic fungi and other moulds associated with air-dust particles from egypt.one-hundred and eleven species and three species varieties belonging to 39 genera were collected from 50 dust samples on the five media used at 28 degrees c. using the hair-baiting technique with horse hair, 10 species of chrysosporium were isolated: c. asperatum, c. state of arthroderma tuberculatum, c. indicum, c. inops, c. keratinophilum, c. merdarium, c. pannorum, c. queenslandicum, c. tropicum and c. xerophilum. true dermatophytes were isolated: trichophyton verrucosum and trichophyton sp. ...19901702081
onychomycosis of the toenails caused by chaetomium globosum. 19921533863
the production of beta-linked glucose saccharides from cellobiose by chaetomium globosum. 195613315328
the normal mycoflora of commodities from thailand. 1. nuts and oilseeds.a comprehensive study was carried out of the fungi occurring in commodities normally traded in thailand. samples of major commodities were obtained from farmers' stocks and middlemen in major producing areas throughout the country. retail samples were obtained from outlets in and around bankok. samples were divided into two portions, one being examined in bangkok, and the second in sydney. after surface disinfection, fungi were enumerated by direct plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenico ...19938110599
possible role of chaetomium globosum in infection after autologous bone marrow transplantation. 199910051093
[mass development of stachybotrys chartarum on compostable plant pots made from recycled paper].after handling plants grown in decomposable pots made of recycling paper, three women working in a big horticulture developed very painful inflammated efflorescences at the finger-tips, followed by scaling off the skin. the pots appeared to be very mouldy. black masses of conidia of stachybotrys chartarum and perithecia of chaetomium globosum were identified on almost every pot. apart from various other fungal genera, trichoderma und acremonium were frequently detected. considering the observed ...19979417508
case report. onychomycosis due to chaetomium globosum successfully treated with itraconazole.we have experienced a case of toenail infection caused by chaetomium globosum which we treated with itraconazole 100 mg day-1 for 6 months, after which time the nail lesions were almost cured. our case is the first reported case of onychomycosis caused by ch. globosum in japan, and the seventh in the world.200010838856
space flight micro-fungi after 27 years storage in water and in continuous culture.four species of micro-fungi were selected for study in the national aeronautics and space administration (nasa) apollo microbial ecology evaluation device (meed) mycology experiments. trichophyton terrestre, rhodotorula rubra, saccharomyces cerevisiae and chaetomium globosum were selected from a series of preflight test fungi for the meed mycology studies during the 2 years prior to the actual flight (volz, 1971a, 1972b). conidia of t. terrestre, ascospores of c. globosum and yeast cells of r. r ...199810093232
growth of chitinolytic dune soil beta-subclass proteobacteria in response to invading fungal hyphae.it has frequently been reported that chitinolytic soil bacteria, in particular biocontrol strains, can lyse living fungal hyphae, thereby releasing potential growth substrate. however, the conditions used in such assays (high bacterial density, rich media, fragmented hyphae) make it difficult to determine whether mycolytic activity is actually of importance for the growth and survival of chitinolytic bacteria in soils. an unidentified group of beta-subclass proteobacteria (cbetaps) was most domi ...200111472904
do stable isotopes reflect the food web development in regenerating ecosystems?we evaluated the use of delta15n- and delta13c-values to monitor the development of food web complexity and biodiversity in a regenerating ecosystem. therefore a model food chain was established feeding cultivated woodlice (porcellio dilatatus) on a cellulolytic fungus (chaetomium globosum) grown on cellulose paper. two diets of different quality (c:n ratios of 54 vs. 200) with different delta15n- (1.3% vs. 3.1%) but identical delta13c-values caused low and high dietary stress in animals of trea ...200011501706
[effect of chaetomium cochliodes palliser on micromycetes of the root zone of spring barley].the paper deals with the studies in species composition of micromycetes of the meadow-chernozem deleached soil in the root zone of spring barley and their interaction with the strain of fungus-antagonist chaetomium cochliodes 3250, which served a basis for creation of the preparation--chetomik to protect plants from the root diseases agents. differences were established between mycobiota of soil and root zone of plants; the most considerable ones are the differences between soil rhizoplane: the ...200111785418
comparative degradation of oomycete, ascomycete, and basidiomycete cell walls by mycoparasitic and biocontrol fungi.fourteen fungi (primarily representing mycoparasitic and biocontrol fungi) were tested for their ability to grow on and degrade cell walls (cws) of an oomycete (pythium ultimum), ascomycete (fusarium equisetii), and basidiomycete (rhizoctonia solani), and their hydrolytic enzymes were characterized. protein was detected in the cultural medium of eleven of the test isolates, and these fungi significantly degraded cws over the 14-day duration of the experiment. in general, a greater level of cw de ...200211888164
effect of vapor phase corrosion inhibitor on microbial corrosion of aluminum alloys.vapor phase corrosion inhibitors were used to investigate the antimicrobial activities and anticorrosion of aluminum alloy. aspergillus flavus, a. niger, a. versicolor, chaetomium globosum and penicillium funiculosum had moderate to abundant growth on the aluminum alloy aa 1100 at aw 0.901, while there was less growth at aw 0.842. high humidity stimulated microbial growth and induced microbial corrosion. dicyclohexylammonium carbonate had a high inhibitory effect on the growth of test fungi and ...199610592784
phytotoxic chaetoglobosins are produced by the plant pathogen calonectria morganii (anamorph cylindrocladium scoparium).by the application of a bioassay based on cresson seedlings, two phytotoxic compounds were isolated by thin-layer chromatography from the culture fluid of a calonectria morganii isolate. the structure of both compounds was elucidated by esi/ms and nmr spectroscopy. according to the chemical abstracts database, they were identified as chaetoglobosin a and 19-o-acetylchaetoglobosin a, mycotoxins originally described for chaetomium globosum.200112483566
use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction for the identification of mvocs from moldy building materials.gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction (gc-ms/spme) was applied to identify microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) in water-damaged, mold-infested building materials (gypsum board papers (n=2), mineral wool, and masonite) and in cultivated molds (aspergillus penicillioides, stachybotrys chartarum, and chaetomium globosum). three spme fibers (65-microm pdms-dvb, 75-microm carboxen-pdms, and 70-microm carbowax-stableflex) designed for automated injection were used o ...200312531501
survival of filamentous fungi in hypersaline dead sea water.a variety of filamentous fungi have recently been isolated from the dead sea (340 g/l total dissolved salts). to assess the extent to which such fungi can survive for prolonged periods in dead sea water, we examined the survival of both spores and mycelia in undiluted dead sea water and in dead sea water diluted to different degrees with distilled water. mycelia of aspergillus versicolor and chaetomium globosum strains isolated from the dead sea remained viable for up to 8 weeks in undiluted dea ...200312545316
microbial community composition affects soil fungistasis.most soils inhibit fungal germination and growth to a certain extent, a phenomenon known as soil fungistasis. previous observations have implicated microorganisms as the causal agents of fungistasis, with their action mediated either by available carbon limitation (nutrient deprivation hypothesis) or production of antifungal compounds (antibiosis hypothesis). to obtain evidence for either of these hypotheses, we measured soil respiration and microbial numbers (as indicators of nutrient stress) a ...200312571002
detection of viable fungal spores contaminant on documents and rapid control of the effectiveness of an ethylene oxide disinfection using atp assay.filamentous fungi are able to damage and even destroy archival and library materials. nowadays the conventional method for detecting such micro-organisms is to put them in cultures but such methods are laborious and time-consuming. atp methodology has been widely applied in other domains and its success on bacteria and yeast has been demonstrated. several commercial reagent kits are available but they did not give satisfactory results on spores mould. we have elaborated new extraction strategies ...200312687632
mycoflora and mycotoxins of brazilian cashew kernels.kernel samples of common and dwarf brazilian cashew nuts were highly contaminated with field and storage fungi in comparison to healthy ones. in general, dwarf cashews were more contaminated than common. a total of 37 fungal species were identified. aspergillus niger was the dominant species with more colonies being isolated from dwarf kernels. a. flavus was the next most frequently isolated species. penicillium brevicompactum, and p. glabrum were the most frequently isolated penicillia, with hi ...199910598070
antimycobacterial anthraquinone-chromanone compound and diketopiperazine alkaloid from the fungus chaetomium globosum kmitl-n0802.investigation of the fungus chaetomium globosum kmitl-n0802 led to the isolation of a novel anthraquinone-chromanone compound named chaetomanone along with seven known compounds, ergosterol, ergosteryl palmitate, chrysophanol, chaetoglobosin c, alternariol monomethyl ether, echinuline and isochaetoglobosin d. these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. chaetomanone and echinulin exhibited activity towards mycobacterium tuberculosis.200212357398
mycoflora and mycotoxins in brazilian black pepper, white pepper and brazil nuts.a wide range of field and storage fungi were isolated from black pepper, white pepper and brazil nut kernels from amazonia. a total of 42 species were isolated from both peppers. aspergillus flavus and a. niger were isolated more frequently from black than from white pepper. other potential mycotoxigenic species isolated included: a. ochraceus, a. tamarii, a. versicolor, emericella nidulans and chaetomium globosum, penicillium brevicompactum, p. citrinum, p. islandicum and p. glabrum. species is ...200011229375
the influence of hexose phosphates, calcium and jute extract on the formation of perithecia by chaetomium globosum. 195313044913
control of a seed-borne disease by chaetomium cochlioides pall., under natural conditions. 195313072567
the soil fungus chaetomium in the human paranasal sinuses.chaetomium is a soil fungus of which more than 180 species are now known. most species cause degradation of cellulose-rich substrates, such as components in soil, straw or wood. growth of chaetomium globosum is often stimulated in the presence of aspergillus fumigatus, which excretes such compounds as sugar phosphates and phospho-glyceric acid. a 73-year-old woman, with long-standing pain and secretion from her left maxillary sinus, was admitted to hospital where an infundibulectomy was performe ...19979298672
synthesis of beta-linked glucosaccharides by extracts of chaetomium globosum. 195413230102
the influence of certain micro-organisms on the formation of perithecia by chaetomium globosum. 195613346026
the effect of a physical barrier on sporulation of chaetomium globosum. 195613357727
[presence of orsellinic acid in chaetomium cochliodes]. 195913648641
in vitro activities of new antifungal agents against chaetomium spp. and inoculum standardization.chaetomium is an unusual etiological agent of human infections, but the mortality rate among immunocompromised patients is considerably greater than that among nonimmunocompromised individuals. we investigated the in vitro antifungal susceptibilities to novel antifungal agents of 19 strains belonging to three species of chaetomium which have been involved in human infections, i.e., chaetomium globosum, c. atrobrunneum, and c. nigricolor, and one strain of the closely related species achaetomium ...200314506025
infection of barley roots by chaetomium globosum: evidence for a protective role of the exodermis.plant pathogenesis by fungi is known to be dependent on the host genotype, the virulence of the pathogen and certain environmental conditions influencing fungal establishment. previously, it has been shown that chaetomium globosum, a fungus well-characterized for its biocontrol potential, causes necrosis on barley roots grown in murashige and skoog (ms)-agar. using ms-agar and aeroponic culture as axenic plant growth systems, c. globosum pathogenesis was analyzed with serological and histologica ...200314563137
mould specific igg antibodies connected with sinusitis in teachers of mould damaged school: a two-year follow-up study.the aim of this study was to describe the relationship between mould exposure induced by moisture damage and mould specific immunoglobulin g antibodies to 20 common mould species and their association with respiratory diseases.200314587535
phaeohyphomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum in an allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipient.bone marrow transplant recipients are highly susceptible to opportunistic fungal infections. this is the report, of the first case of a chaetomium systemic infection described in brazil. a 34 year-old patient with chronic myeloid leukemia underwent an allogeneic sibling matched bone marrow transplant. seven months later, he developed systemic infection with enlargement of the axillary and cervical lymph nodes. culture of the aspirates from both lymph nodes yielded chaetomium globosum. the infect ...200314682456
significance of calcium in the fruiting of chaetomium species, particularly chaetomium globosum. 195114832409
further observations on the sporulation of chaetomium globosum. 195114908014
a study of oxygen absorption and catalase production during growth of chaetomium globosum on cotton fiber and yarn. 194216560491
effects of fungal food quality and starvation on the fatty acid composition of protaphorura fimata (collembola).the lipid pattern of animals is influenced by species, life stage, environmental conditions and diet. we investigated the effects of food quality and starvation on the phospholipid (plfa) and neutral lipid (nlfa) fatty acid pattern of the collembolan protaphorura fimata. collembolans were fed with two common soil fungi, agrocybe gibberosa and chaetomium globosum, of which the cellular lipid composition was analysed. a. gibberosa was grown on agar with different nitrogen contents, resulting in al ...200415142535
culturability and toxicity of sick building syndrome-related fungi over time.two experiments were conducted regarding the culturability and toxicity of fungi located on building materials over time and the efficacy of seven laboratory techniques in recovering culturable fungi from sample swabs. in the first experiment, eight sections of drywall were inoculated with stachybotrys chartarum and stored at 25 +/- 5 degrees celsius and 20-60% relative humidity (rh) for up to two years. another eight sections of ceiling tile were stored at 100% rh for 1 year. six sections of ce ...200415238302
an investigation into techniques for cleaning mold-contaminated home contents.this study examined the efficacy of the following treatments to reduce selected fungal spore and mycotoxin levels on materials commonly found in home contents: (1) gamma irradiation at a 10-13 kilogray exposure, (2) a detergent/bleach wash, and (3) a steam cleaning technique. a minimum of six replicates were performed per treatment. paper, cloth, wood, and carpet were inoculated with either fungal spores (stachybotrys chartarum, aspergillus niger, penicillium chrysogenum, or chaetomium globosum) ...200415238314
role of antibiosis in the biological control of spot blotch (cochliobolus sativus) of wheat by chaetomium globosum.chaetomium globosum kunze, has been identified as a potential antagonist of cochliobolus sativus (s. ito & kurib.) deschler ex dastur. (syn = drechslera sorokiniana). production of antifungal compounds by chaetomium globosum (cg) and their role in suppression of spot blotch of wheat caused by this fungus under in vitro and in vivo has been evaluated. interaction between chaetomium globosum isolates and c. sativus showed mycoparasitism by isolates cg 1 and cg 6 whereas isolates cg 2, cg 3, cg 4 a ...200415281398
the sirodesmin biosynthetic gene cluster of the plant pathogenic fungus leptosphaeria maculans.sirodesmin pl is a phytotoxin produced by the fungus leptosphaeria maculans, which causes blackleg disease of canola (brassica napus). this phytotoxin belongs to the epipolythiodioxopiperazine (etp) class of toxins produced by fungi including mammalian and plant pathogens. we report the cloning of a cluster of genes with predicted roles in the biosynthesis of sirodesmin pl and show via gene disruption that one of these genes (encoding a two-module non-ribosomal peptide synthetase) is essential f ...200415387811
chaetoglobosins q, r, and t, three further new metabolites from chaetomium globosum.nine cytotoxic metabolites, including three novel compounds, chaetoglobosins q (1), r (2), and t (3), have been isolated from cultures of the fungus chaetomium globosum. the structures were elucidated primarily from nmr spectroscopic data.200415497948
interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.the efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, paecilomyces lilacinus, plectosphaerella cucumerina and pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (pcn) as part of an integrated pest management (ipm) regime were studied. the compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi rhizoctonia solani, chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, penicillium bilaii and trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. p ...200312735243
chaetocochins a-c, epipolythiodioxopiperazines from chaetomium cochliodes.three new epipolythiodioxopiperazines, chaetocochins a (1), b (2), and c (3), along with dethio-tetra (methylthio) chetomin (4) and chetomin (5), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the solid-state fermented rice culture of the fungus chaetomium cochliodes. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. compounds 1, 3, and 4 exhibited significant cytotoxicity in vitro against cancer cell lines bre-04, lu-04, and n-04.200616989540
purification and some properties of exo-1,4-beta-glucanase from chaetomium olivaceum.exo-1,4-beta-glucanase (e.c. 3.2.1.91) was successively purified by precipitation with acetone, followed by gel filtration on sephadex g-100 and chromatographed onto deae-cellulose. a typical procedure provided 47.14 fold purification with 72.8% yield. the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was found to be 88 kda by sds-page. the ph optimum of the enzyme was 5.2 and maximum activity was obtained at 45 degrees c. km value against alpha-cellulose was 0.65 mg ml(-1). alpha-cellulose and filter p ...200312916726
growing incidence of cutaneous and ungual infections by non-dermatophyte fungi at jabalpur (m.p.).a random survey of skin and nail infections was done at jabalpur (m.p.). out of the 80 suspected cases 60 were culture positive. out of these 25 were of dermatophyte infection followed by 21 cases of phaeohyphomycosis, 7 of aspergillosis, 4 of hyalohyphomycosis, 2 of mixed infection in which a non-dermatophyte was associated with a dermatophyte and 1 had yeast infection. trichophyton rubrum was the only dermatophyte isolated. among the non-dermatophyte infections cases of alternaria chlamydospor ...19938276472
globosumones a-c, cytotoxic orsellinic acid esters from the sonoran desert endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum.three new esters of orsellinic acid, globosumones a-c (1-3), and three known compounds, orsellinic acid (4), orcinol, and trichodion (5), were isolated from chaetomium globosum endophytic on ephedrafasciculata (mormon tea). the structures of the new compounds 1-3 were established spectroscopically, which included 2d nmr experiments and 1h nmr studies on mosher's ester derivatives. all compounds were evaluated for inhibition of cell proliferation in a panel of four cancer cell lines, nci-h460 (no ...200515921417
determination of microbial volatile organic compounds adsorbed on house dust particles and gypsum board using spme/gc-ms.adsorption of microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) on house dust was analyzed by performing solid phase microextraction (spme) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms). settled dust samples were exposed to five selected mvocs and to cultures of the molds stachybotrus chartarum, aspergillus versicolor, and chaetomium globosum. considerable desorption of the mvocs adsorbed on the dust occurred spontaneously within a few hours at room temperature and within several d ...200515954244
[endophytic fungi in rose (rosa hybrida) in bogota, colombia].we have investigated the presence of endophytic fungi associated with rose plants (rosa hybrida) in colombia. endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of ten ornamental roses plants from gardens cultured in malt extract, peptone, yeast extract agar plates (mpy). we sampled 560 leaves fragments, 56 per sample. endophytic fungi comprised 92 isolates (16.4%); of these isolates, 41 were classified as sterile mycelium (without reproductive structures that allowed their identification), 31 i ...200516107167
effect of chlorine dioxide gas on fungi and mycotoxins associated with sick building syndrome.the growth of indoor molds and their resulting products (e.g., spores and mycotoxins) can present health hazards for human beings. the efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a fumigation treatment for inactivating sick building syndrome-related fungi and their mycotoxins was evaluated. filter papers (15 per organism) featuring growth of stachybotrys chartarum, chaetomium globosum, penicillium chrysogenum, and cladosporium cladosporioides were placed in gas chambers containing chlorine dioxide gas a ...200516151130
in-vessel composting of household wastes.the process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. a lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (trichoderma viridae, trichoderma harzianum, trichorus spirallis, aspergillus sp., paecilomyces fusisporus, chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mix ...200616153815
mycoflora and natural occurrence of mycotoxins in tobacco from cigarettes in egypt.forty-two species and 4 varieties belonging to 21 genera were collected from 40 tobacco samples on glucose- and cellulose-czapek's agar at 28 degrees c and 45 degrees c. the most common mesophiles (at 28 degrees c) in tobacco on the two types of media were: aspergillus flavus, a. flavus var. columnaris, a. fumigatus, a. niger, penicillium chrysogenum and p. funiculosum. two samples were heavily contaminated with members of fusarium (f. moniliforme, f. oxysporum, f. solani). some fungi were encou ...19938368025
azaphilones inhibit tumor promotion by 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mice.monascorubrin (an azaphilone derivative) was isolated from monascus anka, 'monascus pigment', a natural pigment of food additivies, was extracted from monasucs spp., and chaetoviridin a, one of the azaphilones, was isolated from chaetomium globosum var. flavo-viridae. application of 1 microgram of 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (tpa), a tumor promoting agent, to the mouse ear resulted in induction of inflammation. among monascorubrin and related compounds assayed, monascorubrin, chaetoviri ...19948265094
antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi of chaetoviridins isolated from chaetomium globosum.the chaetomium globosum strain f0142, which was isolated from barnyard grass, showed potent disease control efficacy against rice blast (magnaporthe grisea) and wheat leaf rust (puccinia recondita). two antifungal substances were purified from broth from this organism and identified as chaetoviridins a and b. chaetoviridin a exhibited higher antifungal activity than chaetoviridin b against plant pathogenic fungi both in vitro and in vivo. treatment with chaetoviridin a at 62.5 microg/ml suppress ...200516209910
virulence of fungal spores determined by tracheal inoculation of goats following inhalation of aerosolized sterile feedyard dust.to compare the virulence of spores of 7 fungi by tracheal inoculation of goats following exposure of goats to an aerosol of sterilized feedyard dust. animals-54 weanling boer-spanish goats.200515900941
[cloning and characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from chaetomium globosum].the amino acid sequence of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) gene from neurospora crassa (xp-327967) and colletotrichum lindemuthianu (p35143) were subjected to local tblastn searching against the ests local datebase of chaetomium globosum. the full length cdna sequence of 1240bp encoding gapdh gene with an open reading frame of 1014bp and encoding 337 amino acids was obtained. the protein molecular weight was 36.1kd. the dna sequence of gapdh gene was obtained through pcr amplifi ...200516496697
chaetoglobosin u, a cytochalasan alkaloid from endophytic chaetomium globosum ifb-e019.a new cytotoxic cytochalasan-based alkaloid named chaetoglobosin u (1), along with four known analogues, chaetoglobosins c (2), f (3), and e (5) and penochalasin a (4), has been characterized from the etoac extract of a solid culture of chaetomium globosum ifb-e019, an endophytic fungus residing inside the stem of healthy imperata cylindrica. the structure of chaetoglobosin u was determined through correlative analyses of its uv, ir, cd, ms, and 1d ((1)h and(13)c nmr and dept) and 2d nmr (cosy, ...200616499339
chaetomin, a new antibiotic substance produced by chaetomium cochliodes: i. formation and properties. 194416560863
chaetomin, a new antibiotic substance produced by chaetomium cochliodes: ii. isolation and concentration. 194416560864
degradation of wood preservatives by fungi.wood-inhabiting fungi, not necessarily responsible for major decay, are shown to be capable of degrading a toxic compound into a less potent form, thus rendering it less effective in protecting wood from decay by less-tolerant basidiomycetous wood-destroyers. sweetgum or pine sapwood blocks treated with preservatives (ammoniacal copper arsenate, fluor-chrome-arsenate-dinitrophenol, a creosote or pentachlorophenol) were exposed progressively to two different wood-inhabiting fungi with sterilizati ...196416349644
biological control of olive green mold in agaricus bisporus cultivation.successful methods to control the damaging weed mold chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. an attempt was made to control c. olivaceum by biological means. a thermophilic bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against c. olivaceum on trypticase soy agar (bbl microbiology systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase i). when inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not o ...198316346199
analysis of an effective antibiotic (chaetomacin) isolated from a thermophilic bacillus sp. against olive green mold.successful methods to control the damaging weed mold chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not known. an effective antibiotic (named chaetomacin) against c. olivaceum was isolated from a thermophilic bacillus sp. this compound was shown to be an extremely potent and stable antibiotic, effective over a wide range of both ph (2 to 10) and temperature (-15 to 150 degrees c). chaetomacin is soluble in most polar solvents and insoluble in nonpolar solvents. it is produced only ...198416346515
chemokine receptor ccr-5 inhibitors produced by chaetomium globosum.two novel chemokine receptor ccr-5 inhibitors, sch 210971 (1) and sch 210972 (2), were isolated from the fungal fermentation broth of chaetomium globosum by normal- and reversed-phase hplc purifications. the structure determination of 1 and 2 was accomplished on the basis of uv, ms, and nmr spectral data analyses including cosy, noesy, hmqc, and hmbc experiments. the structure and relative configuration of 2 were determined unequivocally by x-ray crystallographic analysis. the major component 2 ...200616872138
a new dihydroxanthenone from a plant-associated strain of the fungus chaetomium globosum demonstrates anticancer activity.bioassay-guided fractionation of a cytotoxic etoac extract of the fungal strain, chaetomium globosum, inhabiting the rhizosphere of the christmas cactus, opuntia leptocaulis, of the sonoran desert afforded a new dihydroxanthenone, globosuxanthone a (1), a new tetrahydroxanthenone, globosuxanthone b (2), two new xanthones, globosuxanthone c (3) and d (4), 2-hydroxyvertixanthone (5), and two known anthraquinones (6 and 7). the structures of the new compounds 1-4 were elucidated by nmr and ms techn ...200616904330
bioconversion of (+)-valencene in submerged cultures of the ascomycete chaetomium globosum.submerged cultures of the ascomycete chaetomium globosum oxidised the exogenous sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to nootkatone via the stereoselective generation of alpha-nootkatol. inhibition experiments suggested that the first introduction of oxygen, the rate-limiting step of the bioconversion, may have been catalysed by a cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase. however, nootkatone was not the final metabolite: further flavour-active and inactive, non-volatile oxidation products were identified. (+)-valenc ...200415602686
mutants produced by x-irradiation of spores of chaetomium globosum and a comparison with those produced by ultraviolet irradiation.1. mutants produced by x-irradiation of fungal spores of chaetomium globosum have been compared with those produced by ultraviolet irradiation. 2. the most striking difference between the mutants produced by x-irradiation and ultraviolet irradiation is the absence in x-ray experiments of the k mutant which is produced in large numbers at short ultraviolet wave lengths. 3. a comparison is made of the relation between x-ray dose and numbers of lethal mutants, and the relation between the short ult ...194918131868
development of aflp-derived, functionally specific markers for environmental persistence studies of fungal strains.the ability to rapidly identify and quantify a microbial strain in a complex environmental sample has widespread applications in ecology, epidemiology, and industry. in this study, we describe a rapid method to obtain functionally specific genetic markers that can be used in conjunction with standard or real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to determine the abundance of target fungal strains in selected environmental samples. the method involves sequencing of randomly cloned aflp (amplified ...200616699570
chetomin an antibiotic substance from chaetomium cochliodes; composition and functional groups. 194918124507
study on the diversity of endophytic communities from rice (oryza sativa l.) and their antagonistic activities in vitro.endophytic populations were isolated from 2400 segments of oryza sativa collected from bhadra river project area, southern india during december 2005 (winter) and april 2006 (summer). overall colonization rates from surface sterilized tissues were 40.3% in roots and 25.83% in leaves during winter season, 20.15% in roots and 8.66% in leaves during summer season. nineteen different fungal taxa, a streptomyces sp. and bacterial species were isolated. streptomyces sp., chaetomium globosum, penicilli ...200917433644
first spanish case of onychomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum.members of the fungal genus chaetomium usually colonize cellulose-containing plant remains but on rare occasions may cause opportunistic mycoses and cutaneous infection in otherwise healthy individuals. to our knowledge, there have been only five credible descriptions of onychomycosis caused by members of this genus and only two of these contained information on therapy. we describe the first case of chaetomium globosum onychomycosis recorded in spain. the etiologic significance of the fungus wa ...200717464849
activation of prothrombin by two subtilisin-like serine proteases from acremonium sp.two novel subtilisin-like serine proteases (as-e1 and -e2) that activate prothrombin have been identified in a culture of the fungus acremonium sp. the enzymes were purified through repeated hydrophobic interaction chromatography. the n-terminal sequences of as-e1 (34.4 kda) and as-e2 (32 kda) showed high similarity to the internal sequences of two distinct subtilisin-like hypothetical proteins from chaetomium globosum. both enzymes proteolytically activated prothrombin to meizothrombin(desf1)-l ...200717482570
electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of epipolythiodioxopiperazines.low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry esi-cid-ms/ms (in the positive ion mode) was used for the structural characterization of a series of five representative epioplythiodioxopipreazines: dethiotetra(methylthio)chemotin, chaetocochins a, b and c, and chemotin isolated from the fungus chaetomium cochliodes. the fragmentation pathways were elucidated by esi-it-ms(n). the elemental compositions of most of the product ions were confirmed by low-energy esi-cid- ...200717492721
growth and mycotoxin production by chaetomium globosum.chaetomium globosum, the most common species within this genus, produces chaetoglobosins a and c when cultured on building material. relatively low levels of these compounds have been shown to be lethal to various tissue culture cell lines. this study had two major objectives: (1) to determine the frequency at which chaetomium species are isolated in water-damaged buildings and (2) to examine the production of chaetoglobosins a and c in isolates of c. globosum obtained from different buildings. ...200717551849
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