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the effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle.dietary intake of cholesterol has been linked to coronary heart disease. the effect of grapefruit pectin (citrus paradisi) on plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the low-density lipoprotein:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was studied. the study design was a 16-week double-blind, crossover (placebo or pectin) using 27 human volunteers screened to be at medium to high ...19883229016
pectin: its interaction with serum lipoproteins.in vitro studies of interaction between grapefruit (citrus paradisi) pectin and various human serum lipoproteins indicated that pectin interacts specifically with low-density lipoprotein. examination of observed interaction between the pectin and low-density lipoprotein under variable experimental conditions revealed the electrostatic nature of this interaction. the results obtained from these studies suggest a possible biochemical basis by which dietary pectin may cause lowering of serum and/or ...19817446458
the gene c-ino1 from citrus paradisi is highly homologous to tur1 and ino1 from yeast and spirodela encoding for myo-inositol phosphate synthase. 19947846170
the persistence of engineered agrobacterium tumefaciens in agroinfected plants.several plant species, including tomato (lycopersicon esculentum), gynura aurantiaca, avocado (persea americana), and grapefruit (citrus paradisi) grafted on troyer citrange (poncirus trifoliata x c. sinensis) were "agro-infected" with agrobacterium tumefaciens strain lba-4404, carrying a mini-ti plasmid with a dimeric cdna of citrus exocortis viroid (cevd). extracts prepared from tissues of the agroinfected plants 38-90 days after inoculation were plated on selective media and found to contain ...19938274776
aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.the antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs bacillus subtilis sbug 14, micrococcus flavus sbug 16, staphylococcus aureus sbug 11, serratia marcescens sbug 9, escherichia coli sbug 17, proteus mirabilis sbug 47, and candida maltosa sbug 700. in all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preser ...199910399191
identification of sources of plant resistance to diaprepes abbreviatus (coleoptera: curculionidae) by three bioassays.host plant resistance to the root weevil diaprepes abbreviatus (l.) was assessed for 3 citrus rootstock cultivars, 5 promising hybrid rootstocks, and 3 citroid fruit trees using 3 bioassay methods: a pot bioassay with 1-yr seedlings; a new, 21-cm plastic cell bioassay with 5-mo seedlings; and a diet incorporation bioassay. the plastic cell bioassay is a more rapid screening method and is capable of evaluating a larger number of entries in a shorter period compared with current methods. the 3 bio ...199910504899
inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from citrus paradisi.inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (ache) activity by essential oils of citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in usa) was studied. inhibition of ache was measured by the colorimetric method. nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from c. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of ache activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/ml.200111858553
identification of a grapefruit cdna belonging to a unique class of citrus dehydrins and characterization of its expression patterns under temperature stress conditions.citrus fruits are sensitive to low temperatures and this often results in the development of chilling injuries during postharvest storage. in order to gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the acquisition of fruit chilling tolerance, we initiated a grapefruit (citrus paradisi, cv. marsh seedless) flavedo cdna sequencing project and used it to identify a cdna similar to other poncirus trifoliata and citrus unshiu dehydrin genes reported to be responsive to low temperatures. ...200212121466
companion-cell specific localization of sucrose synthase in zones of phloem loading and unloading.an immunohistochemical approach was used in maize (zea mays) and citrus (citrus paradisi) to address the previously noted association between sucrose synthase and vascular bundles and to determine the localization of the low but detectable levels of sucrose synthase that remain in leaves after the import-export transition. sucrose synthase protein was immunolocalized at the light microscope level using paraffin sections reacted with rabbit sucrose synthase polyclonal antisera and gold-conjugated ...199312231741
tylenchida associated with different crops in sennar state (sudan).a study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (tylenchida) found in sennar state (sudan). sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (mangifera indica; citrus limon; citrus aurantifolia; citrus paradisi; citrus sinensis, phoenix dactylifera, musa sapentium; cassia italica, cap ...200112425088
characterization of grapefruit plants (citrus paradisi macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes.grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf. cv duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (ctv) that varied in terms of position in the ctv genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. the sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (rdrp), the minor capsid protein (p27), a highly transcribed gene of unknown function (p20) and the more ...200312789444
chiral separation of diastereomeric flavanone-7-o-glycosides in citrus by capillary electrophoresis.the 2s- and 2r-diastereomers of major flavanone-7-o-glycosides found in sweet orange (citrus sinensis), mandarine (citrus deliciosa), grapefruit (citrus paradisi), lemon (citrus limon), and sour or bitter orange juice (citrus aurantium) were separated for the first time by chiral capillary electrophoresis (ce) employing various buffers with combined chiral selectors. native cyclodextrins (cds), neutral and charged cd derivatives were examined as chiral additives to the background electrolyte (bg ...200312900888
native and introduced host plants of anastrepha fraterculus and ceratitis capitata (diptera: tephritidae) in northwestern argentina.wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the tucumán province (nw argentina) from january 1990 to december 1995 to determine their status as hosts of anastrepha fraterculus (wiedemann) and/or ceratitis capitata (wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in argentina. a total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. we determined the followin ...200314503581
induction of apoptosis by citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (hl-60) cells.limonene is a primary component of citrus essential oils (eos) and has been reported to induce apoptosis on tumor cells. little is known about induction of apoptosis by citrus eos. in this study, we examined induction of apoptosis by citrus aurantium var. dulcis (sweet orange) eo, citrus paradisi (grapefruit) eo and citrus limon (lemon) eo. these eos induced apoptosis in hl-60 cells and the apoptosis activities were related to the limonene content of the eos. moreover, sweet orange eo and grapef ...200314758720
potentiation of the antiinflammatory effect of anacardium occidentale (linn.) stem-bark aqueous extract by grapefruit juice.in an attempt to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of anacardium occidentale linn. (family: anacardiaceae), the present study was undertaken to examine the antiinflammatory effect of the plant's stem-bark aqueous extract in rats. young adult male wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used. the antiinflammatory effect of a. occidentale stem-bark aqueous extract alone and in combination with grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf.) juice was investigated on fresh egg albumin-induced ra ...200415148523
simultaneous determination of the inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on the activity of six major cytochrome p450 enzymes using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated online extraction.here we describe a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (lc/ms) method with automated online extraction (lc/lc/ms) to simultaneously determine the in vitro inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on six major human drug-metabolising cytochrome p450 enzymes. substrates were incubated with a commercially available mixture of cyp1a2/2c8/2c9/2c19/2d6 and 3a4 from baculovirus-infected insect cells and the resulting metabolites were quantified with lc/lc/ms using electrospray ionisation in the select ...200415384148
antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf., rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. the level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. the contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. the presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract ...200415610620
the effectiveness of grapefruit (citrus paradisi) seeds in treating urinary tract infections.three middle-aged males and one female were diagnosed as having urinary tract infections (utis) between 2001 and 2003 in the wesley guild hospital, ilesa, a unit of obafemi awolowo university teaching hospitals complex, ile ife, osun state, nigeria. of the 4 patients, only the female was asymptomatic. the 3 males had pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella species, and staphylococcus aureus, respectively, in their urine samples, while the female had escherichia coli. all 4 patients were treated with ...200515865506
[chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (citrus sinensis), tangerine (citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in venezuela].the purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in venezuela. chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (dpph) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (citrus sinensis), tangerine (citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (citru ...200516454058
host-specific effects of toxin from the rough lemon pathotype of alternaria alternata on mitochondria.host-specific toxin from the rough lemon (citrus jambhiri lush) pathotype of alternaria alternata (acr toxin) was tested for effects on mitochondria isolated from several citrus species. the toxin caused uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and changes in membrane potential in mitochondria from leaves of the susceptible host (rough lemon); the effects differed from those of carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, a typical protonophore. acr toxin also inhibited malate oxidation, apparently b ...198916666643
refinement of the citrus tristeza virus resistance gene (ctv) positional map in poncirus trifoliata and generation of transgenic grapefruit (citrus paradisi) plant lines with candidate resistance genes in this region.citrus tristeza virus (ctv) is a major pathogen of citrus. a single dominant gene ctv present in the trifoliate relative of citrus, poncirus trifoliata confers broad spectrum resistance against ctv. refinement of genetic maps has delimited this gene to a 121 kb region, comprising of ten candidate ctv resistance genes. the ten candidate genes were individually cloned in agrobacterium based binary vector and transformed into three ctv susceptible grapefruit varieties. two of the candidate r-genes, ...200616830176
ethnomedicines used in trinidad and tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.this paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in trinidad and tobago with thirty male and female respondents.200617040567
common subtropical and tropical nonpollen food sources of the boll weevil (coleoptera: curculionidae).it is known that substantial boll weevil, anthonomus grandis grandis boheman, individuals can survive mild subtropical winters in some habitats, such as citrus orchards. our study shows that endocarp of the fruit from prickly pear cactus, opuntia engelmannii salm-dyck ex. engel.; orange, citrus sinensis l. osbeck.; and grapefruit, citrus paradisi macfad., can sustain newly emerged adult boll weevils for >5 mo, which is the duration of the cotton-free season in the subtropical lower rio grande va ...200717349122
different roles of pummelo furanocoumarin and cytochrome p450 3a5*3 polymorphism in the fate and action of felodipine.herein we aim to test if pummelo furanocoumarins can inhibit cytochrome p450 (cyp) 3a both in vitro and in vivo, and to explore the influence of cyp3a5*3 (genbank ac005020: a22893-->g) polymorphism in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological response to felodipine.200717691921
transgenic resistance to citrus tristeza virus in grapefruit.grapefruit (citrus paradisi) transgenic plants transformed with a variety of constructs derived from the citrus tristeza virus (ctv) genome were tested for their resistance to the virus. most transgenic lines were susceptible (27 lines), a few were partially resistant (6 lines) and only one line, transformed with the 3' end of ctv was resistant. transgene expression levels and sirna accumulation were determined to identify whether the resistance observed was rna-mediated. the responses were vari ...200817882423
antioxidant enzymatic activity is linked to waterlogging stress tolerance in citrus.soil flooding constitutes a seasonal factor that negatively affects plant performance and crop yields. in this work, the relationship between oxidative damage and flooding sensitivity was addressed in three citrus genotypes with different abilities to tolerate waterlogging. we examined leaf visible damage, oxidative damage in terms of malondialdehyde (mda) concentration, leaf proline concentration, leaf and root ascorbate and glutathione contents and the antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide ...200818333999
[survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].grapefruit seed extract (gse), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (citrus paradisi mcaf.), is listed as a natural food additive in japan. products containing gse are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after japanese researchers found that gse prevents the growth of norovirus. on the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial gse products. to confirm th ...200818344660
comparative evaluation of 12 immature citrus fruit extracts for the inhibition of cytochrome p450 isoform activities.in a previous study we found that 50% ethanol extracts of immature fruits of citrus unshiu (satsuma mandarin) have anti-allergic effects against the type i, ii and iv allergic reactions. however, many adverse interactions between citrus fruit, especially grapefruit juice, and drugs have been reported due to the inhibition of cytochrome p450 (cyp) activities. the purpose of this study was to examine the competitive inhibitory effects of extracts from immature citrus fruit on cyp activity. extract ...200818451520
potential increase in fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) interceptions using ionizing irradiation phytosanitary treatments.irradiation postharvest phytosanitary treatments are used increasingly and show further promise because of advantages compared with other treatments. its chief disadvantage is that, unlike all other commercially used treatments, it does not provide acute mortality, although it prevents insects from completing development or reproducing. the objective of this research was to determine to what extent irradiated egg and early instars of tephritids would develop to later instars that could be found ...200818613570
dispersion patterns and sampling plans for diaphorina citri (hemiptera: psyllidae) in citrus.the abundance and spatial dispersion of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfad.) and six sweet orange [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] orchards from march to august 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern texas. although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of d. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. d. citri immatures also were fou ...200818767763
high-efficiency agrobacterium-mediated transformation of citrus via sonication and vacuum infiltration.an improved method for the agrobacterium infiltration of epicotyl segments of 'pineapple' sweet orange [citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck] and 'swingle' citrumelo [citrus paradisi macf. x poncirus trifoliata (l.) raf.] was developed in order to increase transformation frequency. sonication-assisted agrobacterium-mediated transformation (saat), vacuum infiltration, and a combination of the two procedures were compared with conventional agrobacterium-mediated inoculation method ('dipping' method). it wa ...200919048258
methanol seed extract of citrus paradisi macfad lowers blood glucose, lipids and cardiovascular disease risk indices in normal wistar rats.alcoholic decoction of citrus paradisi macfad (rutaceae) seed is traditionally used for the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity by the natives of south-west nigeria. despite its ancestral use, scientific validations of its therapeutic uses in the management of these conditions are lacking.200819062465
larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of a juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies.the juvenile hormone (jh) analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared anastrepha suspensa (caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other tropical anastrepha species (anastrepha ludens, anastrepha obliqua, anastrepha serpentina and anastrepha striata) reared on natural hosts and exhibiting contrasting life histories. in the case of a. ludens, we worked with two populations that ...200919101560
effect of citrus paradisi extract and juice on arterial pressure both in vitro and in vivo.citrus paradisi (grapefruit) consumption is considered as beneficial and it is popularly used for the treatment of a vast array of diseases, including hypertension. in the present study, the coronary vasodilator and hypotensive effects of citrus paradisi peel extract were assessed in the langendorff isolated and perfused heart model and in the heart and lung dog preparation. in both models, citrus paradisi peel extract decreased coronary vascular resistance and mean arterial pressure when compar ...200919153985
citrus tree decline caused by pratylenchus coffeae.the pathogenic effects of pratylenchus coffeae on growth and yield of tangelo (citrus paradisi x c. reticulata) scions grafted on rough lemon (c jambhiri), sour orange (c. aurantium) and 'cleopatra' mandarin (c. reticulata) rootstocks were evaluated under field conditions for 4 years. pratylenchus coffeae on inoculated trees increased to significantly damaging population densities on rough lemon rootstock the second year, on sour orange the third and on cleopatra mandarin the fourth year after p ...197319319354
hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanol seed extract of citrus paradisi macfad (rutaceae) in alloxan-induced diabetic wistar rats.alcohol decoction of citrus paradisi macfad (rutaceae) seed is reputed for the local management of array of human diseases including, anemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity by some yoruba herbalists (southwest, nigeria). despite its historic use, scientific evaluation of its folkloric use in the management of diabetes mellitus is scarce.200819391322
decreasing unpalatable flavonoid components in citrus: the effect of transformation construct.citrus species accumulate large quantities of flavanone glycosides in their leaves and fruit. the physiological role(s) of these compounds in citrus plants are unknown, but they have been documented to benefit human health upon consumption. flavanone rutinosides are tasteless, whereas flavanone neohesperidosides, such as naringin, give a bitter taste to fruit and fruit juice products, reducing their palatability. in an effort to alter the types and levels of flavanone neohesperidosides in citrus ...200919656329
targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.a comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (rutaceae), grapefruit (citrus paradisi), lemon (citrus limon), lime (citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (citrus sinensis) was performed. different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (dpph) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition o ...201019770018
roles of olfactory cues, visual cues, and mating status in orientation of diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) to four different host plants.diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae) is an important worldwide pest of citrus that vectors bacteria (candidatus liberibacter spp.) responsible for huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). we examined the behavioral responses of mated and unmated d. citri of both sexes to odors from host plants in a y-tube olfactometer, with and without visual cues. the host plants tested were 'duncan' grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfayden), sour orange (citrus aurantium l.), navel orange (c. sinensis ...200919791618
activities of ten essential oils towards propionibacterium acnes and pc-3, a-549 and mcf-7 cancer cells.ten essential oils, namely, mint (mentha spicata l., lamiaceae), ginger (zingiber officinale rosc., zingiberaceae), lemon (citrus limon burm.f., rutaceae), grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf., rutaceae), jasmine (jasminum grandiflora l., oleaceae), lavender (mill., lamiaceae), chamomile (matricaria chamomilla l., compositae), thyme (thymus vulgaris l., lamiaceae), rose (rosa damascena mill., rosaceae) and cinnamon (cinnamomum zeylanicum n. lauraceae) were tested for their antibacterial activities ...201020657472
efficacy and uptake of soil-applied imidacloprid in the control of asian citrus psyllid and a citrus leafminer, two foliar-feeding citrus pests.the systemic neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid, admire pro, was applied to 3- and 4-yr-old nonbearing 'rio red' grapefruit, citrus x paradisi macfad., trees in 2006 and 2007, respectively, to determine its effects in the control of two major citrus pests, the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: psyllidae), and a citrus leafminer phyllocnistis citrella stainton (lepidoptera: gracillariidae). young flush shoots were randomly collected weekly for 13 and 11 wk in 2006 an ...201021061971
mosquito larvicidal activity of citrus limonoids against aedes albopictus.citrus limonoids, nomilin and limonin, were used for larvicidal assay against aedes albopictus utilizing who methodology. lc(50s) were 305.83, 176.08, and 136.07 μm for nomilin and 850.09, 600.72, and 407.09 μm for limonin after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. lt(50) assays exhibited that savage citrange oil was the best at all concentrations (400, 500, 600, and 700 ppm) while fairchild and cassa grande were the weakest oils at 400 ppm, but at 500, 600, and 700 ppm, carrizo citrange remained at ...201121212981
agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in citrus leaves: a rapid tool for gene expression and functional gene assay.in this study, we present a method for transient expression of the type iii effector avrgf1 from xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain a(w) in grapefruit leaves (citrus paradisi) via agrobacterium tumefaciens. the coding sequence of avrgf1 was placed under the control of the constitutive camv 35s promoter in the binary vectors pgwb2 and pgwb5. infiltration of grapefruit leaves with a. tumefaciens carrying these constructs triggered a hypersensitive response (hr) in grapefruit 4 days after inocul ...201121424250
inhibition of tnf-α/ifn-γ induced rantes expression in hacat cell by naringin.context: naringin is a bioflavonoid derivative and is predominantly found in citrus paradisi macf., citrus sinensis (linn.) osbeck, citrus unshiu marc., citrus reticulata blanco cv. nobilis, citrus tachibana (makino) tanaka, citrus junos sieb. ex tanaka (rutaceae), and related citrus species. it has anti-inflammatory effects that have been well-documented, but the mechanism is poorly characterized. objective: the effect of naringin on production of rantes (regulated upon activation normal t-cell ...201121500970
host status of grapefruit and valencia oranges for anastrepha serpentina and anastrepha ludens (diptera: tephritidae).anastrepha serpentina (wiedemann) (diptera: tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the rio grande valley of texas. although its preferred hosts are in the sapotaceae family, several varieties of citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. although mexican fruit fly, anastrepha ludens (loew), is known to be a major pest of citrus, doubt exists as to the status of citrus as a breeding host for a. serpentina. to evaluate the host status of commercial citrus for a. serp ...201121510184
[drug interactions with grapefruit].introduction: the concentration of many orally given medications may be affected by grapefruit or grapefruit juice consumption. it may result in numerous harmful effects. interaction of grapefruit with drugs: taking only one cup of juice may induce interactions with different drugs even during the period of a few days. the effect is induced by suppression of cytochrome p450 isoenzyme cyp3a4 in the intestinal wall. the latin name of grapefruit, citrus paradisi, is quite opposite to the effects wh ...201021553459
secondary product glucosyltransferase and putative glucosyltransferase expression during citrus paradisi (c.v. duncan) growth and development.flavonoids are secondary metabolites that have significant roles in plant defense and human nutrition. glucosyltransferases (gts) catalyze the transfer of sugars from high energy sugar donors to other substrates. several different secondary product gts exist in the tissues of grapefruit making it a model plant for studying their structure and function. the goal of this investigation was to determine the expression patterns of seven putative secondary product gts during grapefruit growth and deve ...201121605881
Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis L ...201121882684
cold treatment of ceratitis capitata (diptera: tephritidae) in oranges using a larval endpoint.south africa currently exports fresh citrus (citrus spp.) fruit to japan using an in-transit cold treatment protocol of 14 d or 12 d at temperatures <0 degrees c for treatment of ceratitis capitata (wiedemann) (diptera: tephritidae) in 'clementine' mandarins (citrus reticulata blanco) and other citrus types, respectively. to reduce the risk of chilling injury with this treatment, research was conducted with temperatures >0 degrees c. earlier south african research had shown that young (6-d-old) ...201121882680
a survey of fls2 genes from multiple citrus species identifies candidates for enhancing disease resistance to xanthomonas citri ssp. citri.pathogen-associated molecular patterns (pamps)-triggered immunity (pti) is an important component of plant innate immunity. in a previous study, we showed that the pamp flg22 from xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (xflg22), the causal agent of citrus canker, induced pti in citrus, which correlated with the observed levels of canker resistance. here, we identified and sequenced two bacterial flagellin/flg22 receptors (fls2-1 and fls2-2) from 'duncan' grapefruit (citrus paradisi, cpfls2-1 and cpfls2-2) ...201627222722
do honeybees shape the bacterial community composition in floral nectar?floral nectar is considered the most important reward animal-pollinated plants offer to attract pollinators. here we explore whether honeybees, which act as pollinators, affect the composition of bacterial communities in the nectar. nectar and honeybees were sampled from two plant species: amygdalus communis and citrus paradisi. to prevent the contact of nectar with pollinators, c. paradisi flowers were covered with net bags before blooming (covered flowers). comparative analysis of bacterial co ...201323844027
the effect of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' infection on the proteomic profiles and nutritional status of pre-symptomatic and symptomatic grapefruit (citrus paradisi) plants.huanglongbing (hlb) is a highly destructive citrus disease which threatens citrus production worldwide and 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' (las), a non-culturable phloem-limited bacterium, is an associated causal agent of the disease. to better understand the physiological and molecular processes involved in host responses to las, 2-de and mass spectrometry analyses, as well as icp spectroscopy analysis were employed to elucidate the global protein expression profiles and nutrient concentrat ...201323578104
chemical compositions of the peel essential oil of citrus aurantium and its natural larvicidal activity against the malaria vector anopheles stephensi (diptera: culicidae) in comparison with citrus paradisi.recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bio-active agents against mosquito vectors.201628032110
involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in citrus fruits inoculated with alternaria alternata.fungi of the genus alternaria are responsible for substantial pre-harvest losses in citrus. in this study a degradative metabolism of flavonoids (flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones) was observed when 'fortune' mandarin, citrus limon and citrus paradisi, fruits were inoculated with alternaria alternata, a pre-harvest pathogenic fungus. associated to this flavonic metabolism the de novo synthesis of the phytoalexin scoparone was detected. this metabolism of flavonoids is caused by an ext ...201525686700
combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.a study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. a total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against b. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. the minimal inhibitory concentrations (mic) and minimal lethal concentrations (mlc) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (tsb) were determined. dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest mic (0.0156 mg/ml) ...201323290233
identification, recombinant expression, and biochemical analysis of putative secondary product glucosyltransferases from citrus paradisi.flavonoid and limonoid glycosides influence taste properties as well as marketability of citrus fruit and products, particularly grapefruit. in this work, nine grapefruit putative natural product glucosyltransferases (pgts) were resolved by either using degenerate primers against the semiconserved pspg box motif, smart-race rt-pcr, and primer walking to full-length coding regions; screening a directionally cloned young grapefruit leaf est library; designing primers against sequences from other c ...201626888166
the composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of cold-pressed and distilled essential oils of citrus paradisi and citrus grandis (l.) osbeck.the chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of citrus paradisi (c. paradisi) and citrus grandis (l.) osbeck (c. grandis) were investigated in present study. yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of c. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and c. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). in addition, c. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxyge ...201526681970
preliminary examination of herbal extracts on the inhibition of helicobacter pylori.this work aims at describing the traditional uses, to determine the antimicrobial potential of two different extracts hexane, acetone of the leaves of citrus unshiu, citrus sinensis, citrus limon, laurus nobilis, citrus paradisi on clinical strain of h. pylori in a bid to identify potential sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs. h. pylori strain was a culture collection of hacettepe university, turkey.201424653559
traditional mediterranean plants: characterization and use of an essential oils mixture to treat malassezia otitis externa in atopic dogs.several plants extracts from mediterranean countries are traditionally employed in skin troubles both in humans and in animals. malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophylic yeast responsible for otitis externa and dermatitis in dogs and for cutaneous and systemic disease in humans. five mixtures of essential oils obtained from mediterranean plants (citrus paradisi, salvia sclarea, ocimum basilicum, rosmarinus officinalis, citrus limon, anthemis nobilis, lavandula hybrida and thymus vulgaris) provide ...201627917678
the anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass (cymbopogon flexuosus) and grapefruit (citrus paradisi) essential oils against five strains of staphylococcus aureus.to determine the sensitivity of five strains of staphylococcus aureus to five essential oils (eos) and to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of lemongrass and grapefruit eos.201222862808
host status of citrus and citrus relatives to tylenchulus graminis.studies were conducted on the host suitability of four citrus rootstocks--rough lemon (citrus limon), sour orange (c. aurantium), trifoliate orange (poncirus trifoliata cv. argentina), and swingle citrumelo (c. paradisi x p. trifoliata)--to tylenchulus graminis which was previously considered a "grass" race of t. semipenetrans. in an uncultivated field, sour orange seedlings grown with t. graminis-infected broomsedge (andropogon virginicus) were not infected with this nematode after 18-month's e ...198919287668
distribution of tylenchulus semipenetrans in a texas grapefruit orchard.distribution of the citrus nematode (tylenchulus semipenetrans) was studied over 18 months in a 6-year-old orchard of grapefruit (citrus paradisi cv. ruby red) on sour orange (c. aurantium) rootstock. the 1.8-ha orchard was under chemical weed control, no tillage, and flood irrigation. highest numbers of nematodes were found in the top 15 cm of the soil profile. the nematode population peaked in april and declined to lowest levels in august and september. numbers of nematodes were negatively cor ...198419294028
control of tylenchulus semipenetrans on citrus with aldicarb, oxamyl, and dbcp.soil application of dbcp (l,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) and foliar applications of oxamyl (methyl n',n'-dimethyl-n-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-l-thiooxamimidate) were compared for control of tylenchulus semipenetrans in a grapefruit (citrus paradisi) orchard, dbcp reduced nematode populations and increased fruit growth rate, fruit size at harvest, and yield compared to the untreated controls in the 2 years following treatments. foliar applications of oxamyl reduced nematode populations and increased f ...197919300660
genome editing of the disease susceptibility gene cslob1 in citrus confers resistance to citrus canker.citrus is a highly valued tree crop worldwide, while, at the same time, citrus production faces many biotic challenges, including bacterial canker and huanglongbing (hlb). breeding for disease-resistant varieties is the most efficient and sustainable approach to control plant diseases. traditional breeding of citrus varieties is challenging due to multiple limitations, including polyploidy, polyembryony, extended juvenility and long crossing cycles. targeted genome editing technology has the pot ...201627936512
effects of grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf) (rutaceae) peel oil against developmental stages of aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from the grapefruit (citrus paradisi) peel by steam distillation was carried out against the developmental stages of the yellow fever vector aedes aegypti to evaluate its toxicity, and ovicidal and larvicidal potency. volatile oil components isolated and characterized by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry included varying levels of monoterpene aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. test results of the essential oil showed that egg hatching w ...201324450234
plants with potential use on obesity and its complications.obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disease and a growing public health problem worldwide. this disease is a causal component of the metabolic syndrome related with abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, among others. there are anti-obesity drugs, affecting the fundamental processes of the weight regulation; however they have shown serious side effects, which outweigh their beneficial effects. most recent studies on the treatment of obesity and it ...201526869866
grapefruit as a host for the west indian fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae).the most common hosts for the west indian fruit fly, anastrepha obliqua (macquart) (diptera: tephritidae) are fruit in the family anacardiaceae (mango [mangifera l.] and mombin [spondias l.] species). however, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including annonaceae (cherimoya, annona cherimola mill.), myrtaceae (guava, psidium l.), oxalidaceae (carambola, averrhoa carambola l.), passifloraceae (gran ...201121404839
epiphyll deterrence to the leafcutter ant atta cephalotes.epiphyll growth on leaves of the grapefruit citrus paradisi and the understory cyclanth cyclanthus bipartitus repelled the fungus-growing, leafcutter ant atta cephalotes from harvesting leaves of these tropical plants. experimental removal of epiphylls from leaves resulted in 2-3 times more herbivore damage by leafcutter ants as compared to matched leaves with epiphylls. because of the protection from herbivore damage, host plants may derive a partial fitness benefit from association with epiphy ...199128313155
comparison of the inhibition of monoamine oxidase and butyrylcholinesterase activities by infusions from green tea and some citrus peels.this study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (camellia sinensis) and some citrus peels [shaddock (citrus maxima), grapefruit (citrus paradisi), and orange (citrus sinensis)] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (mao) and butyrylcholinesterase (bche)]. the total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (abts) radicals scavenging abiliti ...201425243093
citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: fish storage in ice with citrus.the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of citrus (grapefruit (citrus paradisi) and bitter orange (citrus aurantium l.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (pagellus erythrinus). concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. the ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °c for 15 days. the ph value showed a regular increase in all samples. tvb-n levels of bitt ...201526604414
sexual competitiveness of anastrepha ludens (diptera: tephritidae) males exposed to citrus aurantium and citrus paradisi essential oils.males of the mediterranean fruit fly (ceratitis capitata (wiedemann)) display increased mating competitiveness following exposure to the odor of certain host and nonhost plants, and this phenomenon has been used in the sterile insect technique to boost the mating success of released, sterile males. here, we aimed to establish whether males of the mexican fruit fly (anastrepha ludens (loew)) gain a mating advantage when exposed to the aroma of two preferred hosts, grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf ...201526470173
absence of furanocoumarins in advantra z® (citrus aurantium, bitter orange) extracts.grapefruit (citrus paradisi) juice is known for its ability to alter drug metabolism through inhibition of the cytochrome p450-3a4 (cyp3a4) system, and result in drug-food interactions that may be life threatening. the primary active ingredients in grapefruit responsible for these effects are the furanocoumarins bergapten, bergamottin, and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (dhb). bergamottin and dhb appear to be the most important in terms of adverse drug interactions. furanocoumarins are present in th ...201425026202
a transcriptionally active copia-like retroelement in citrus limon.the plant nuclear genome is largely composed of mobile dna, which can rearrange genomes and other individual gene structure and also affect gene regulation through various promoted activities: transposition, insertion, excision, chromosome breakage, and ectopic recombination. ty1-copia-like retrotransposon is a widespread class of transposable elements in the plant kingdom, representing a large part of the total dna content. here, a novel retrotransposon-like sequence was isolated and identified ...200919115051
accumulation of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of citrus paradisi, citrus limonia and citrus aurantium.the production of the sesquiterpenes nootkatone and valencene by callus cultures of citrus species is described. the levels of these compounds were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their yields were compared with the amounts found in mature fruits. a simultaneous increase and decrease in the levels of nootkatone and valencene, respectively, were observed with the aging of callus cultures of citrus paradisi. these results suggest that valencene might be a possible precursor of ...199124221735
diversity in sensory quality and determining factors influencing mandarin flavor liking.we evaluated the sensory quality of 42 mandarin varieties that belong to 7 different natural subgroups: common mandarin (citrus reticulata blanco), clementine (citrus clementina hort. ex. tan), satsuma (citrus unshiu marcovitch), mediterranean mandarin (citrus deliciosa tenore), king mandarin (citrus nobilis loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (citrus reticulata × citrus sinensis) and tangelo (citrus reticulata × citrus paradisi). consumer flavor acceptance tests revealed wide divers ...201525559381
resistance of citrus and related genera to diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae).the present study was developed to evaluate the resistance of the following genotypes of citrus and related genera to this pest: 'pera,' 'natal', and 'washington navel' oranges (citrus sinensis), 'marsh seedless' grapefruit (citrus paradisi), hardy orange 'rubidoux' (poncirus trifoliata), kumquat (fortunella margarita swingle), citrumelo 'swingle' (c. paradisi x p. trifoliata), and citrange 'troyer' (p. trifoliata x c. sinensis). the experiments were performed in greenhouses with plants grafted ...201427193957
metabolomic analysis of primary metabolites in citrus leaf during defense responses.mechanical damage is one of the unavoidable environmental stresses to plant growth and development. plants induce a variety of reactions which defend against natural enemies and/or heal the wounded sites. jasmonic acid (ja) and salicylic acid (sa), defense-related plant hormones, are well known to be involved in induction of defense reactions and play important roles as signal molecules. however, defense related metabolites are so numerous and diverse that roles of individual compounds are still ...201727789172
phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.the search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. this study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. fruit juices of citrus tangerine (tangerine), citrus paradisi (grape), citrus limon (lemon), and citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fung ...201626788316
preference and performance of phyllocnistis citrella stainton (lepidoptera: gracillariidae) on three citrus hosts: laboratory and field assessment.the relationship between preference and performance is crucial to the ecology and evolution of plant-insect interactions. oviposition preference and offspring performance were evaluated for a citrus pest, the leafminer phyllocnistis citrella (lepidoptera: gracillariidae), on three of its host plants: lemon (citrus limon l. burm.), orange (citrus sinensis l. osbeck), and grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfadyen) in tucumán province (northwest argentina). choice and no-choice tests were performed in ...200818801269
patterns of effective permeability of leaf cuticles to acids.plants in the field are frequently exposed to anthropogenic acid precipitation with ph values of 4 and below. for the acid to directly affect leaf tissues, it must pass through the leaf cuticle, but little is known about the permeability of cuticles to protons, or about the effect of different anions on this permeability. we investigated the movement of protons through isolated astomatous leaf cuticles of grapefruit (citrus x paradisi macfady.), rough lemon (citrus limon [l.] burm. fils cv ponde ...199312231681
two previously unknown phytophthora species associated with brown rot of pomelo (citrus grandis) fruits in vietnam.two distinct phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral citrus species, in the vinh long province, mekong river delta area, southern vietnam. on the basis of morphological characters and using the its1-5.8s-its2 region of the rdna and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (coi) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from p. insolita ...201728208159
anti-inflammatory effects of citrus sinensis l., citrus paradisi l. and their combinations.citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus sinensis and citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of c. sinensis (orange juice) and c. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine ...201627166529
antihyperlipidemic effects of citrus sinensis, citrus paradisi, and their combinations.hyperlipidemia, extensively contributes in the progression of coronary heart diseases and atherosclerosis, but may be managed through alterations in the nutritional pattern. several studies show that diet rich in polyphenols and antioxidants have antiatherogenic effects. citrus sinensis and citrus paradisi are widely known for health benefits and have found to produce antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic effects, hence current research was planned to determine the hypolipidemic effe ...201727134462
identification of genes associated with low furanocoumarin content in grapefruit.some furanocoumarins in grapefruit (citrus paradisi) are associated with the so-called grapefruit juice effect. previous phytochemical quantification and genetic analysis suggested that the synthesis of these furanocoumarins may be controlled by a single gene in the pathway. in this study, cdna-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cdna-aflp) analysis of fruit tissues was performed to identify the candidate gene(s) likely associated with low furanocoumarin content in grapefruit. fifteen tentat ...201425756876
comparative de novo transcriptome analysis and metabolic pathway studies of citrus paradisi flavedo from naive stage to ripened stage.grapefruit (citrus pardisi) is a popular citrus fruit that is a cross between a sweet orange and pummelo. this research article focuses on an in silico approach for comparative analysis of c. paradisi green flavedo (gf) and ethylene treated flavedo (etf) transcriptome data. our pathway analysis provides comprehensive information of genes playing significant role in different stages of ripening in fruit. de novo assembly was carried out using six different assemblers namely gs assembler, seqman n ...201424477585
identification, recombinant expression, and biochemical characterization of a flavonol 3-o-glucosyltransferase clone from citrus paradisi.glucosylation is a predominant flavonoid modification reaction affecting the solubility, stability, and subsequent bioavailability of these metabolites. flavonoid glycosides affect taste characteristics in citrus making the associated glucosyltransferases particularly interesting targets for biotechnology applications in these species. in this work, a citrus paradisi glucosyltransferase gene was identified, cloned, and introduced into the pet recombinant protein expression system utilizing prime ...200919733370
evolving window zone selection method followed by independent component analysis as useful chemometric tools to discriminate between grapefruit juice, orange juice and blends.this study investigates the use of high resolution 1h nmr as a suitable alternative to the standard chromatographic method for the determination of adulteration of orange juice (citrus sinensis) with grapefruit juice (citrus paradisi) based on flavonoid glycoside content. fifty-nine orange juices (oj), 23 grapefruit juices (gj) and 10 blends (og), obtained from local retail outlets were used to assess the performance of the 1h nmr method. the work presented here introduces the evolving window zo ...200717683731
evidence for host plant preference by iphiseiodes quadripilis (acari: phytoseiidae) on citrus.in this study, we present field and laboratory evidence on the preference of iphiseiodes quadripilis (banks) for grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfadyen) leaves compared with sweet orange (citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck) leaves. this preference was confirmed in four orchards whether leaf samples were taken from either border trees of contiguous grapefruit or sweet orange or interior row trees with both citrus species in adjacent rows. iphiseiodes quadripilis was most abundant in grapefruit trees in s ...200616897564
moderate shade can increase net gas exchange and reduce photoinhibition in citrus leaves.daily variations in net gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence and water relations of mature, sun-acclimated grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfady.) and orange (citrus sinensis l. osbeck) leaves were determined in tree canopies either shaded with 50% shade screens or left unshaded (sunlit). mean daily maximum photosynthetic photon flux density (ppfd) under shade varied from 500 to 700 micromol m-2 s-1 and was sufficient to achieve maximum net co2 assimilation rates (a co2). responses of grapefru ...200312533306
resistance of citrus fruit to mass transport of water vapor and other gases.the resistance of oranges (citrus sinensis l. osbeck) and grapefruit (citrus paradisi macf.) to ethylene, o(2), co(2), and h(2)o mass transport was investigated anatomically with scanning electron microscope and physiologically by gas exchange measurements at steady state. the resistance of untreated fruit to water vapor is far less than to ethylene, co(2) and o(2). waxing partially or completely plugs stomatal pores and forms an intermittent cracked layer over the surface of fruit, restricting ...198516664527
accumulation of free proline in citrus leaves during cold hardening of young trees in controlled temperature regimes.free proline increased in leaves of orange (citrus sinensis [l.] osb. cv. valencia) and grapefruit (citrus paradisi macfad. cv. star ruby) trees on a wide range of citrus rootstocks during cold hardening. increases in sugars accompanied proline accumulation. during cold hardening, the rate of proline accumulation was greater in old than in young leaves. in leaves of grapefruit trees kept in the dark during cold hardening, neither proline nor sugars increased and the degree of cold hardiness was ...197916660980
desiccation sensitivity and cryopreservation of excised embryonic axes of citrus suhuiensis cv. limau madu, citrumelo [citrus paradisi macf. × poncirus trifoliata (l.) raf.] and fortunella polyandra.excised embryonic axes from seeds of three taxa, namely, citrus suhuiensis cv. limau madu, citrumelo (citrus paradisi x poncirus trifoliate) and fortunella polyandra, were desiccated in a laminar airflow, over silica gel, and ultra-rapidly. desiccation sensitivity (wc50) was estimated for each taxon using the quantal response model. high desiccation tolerance (wc50 = 0.11 g water per g dry mass. g/gdw) was observed for limau madu embryonic axes desiccated in a laminar airflow and ultra-rapidly ( ...201222825791
offsetting effects of reduced root hydraulic conductivity and osmotic adjustment following drought.root hydraulic conductivity (l(p)) and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(pi,o)) were measured in young, drought-stressed and nonstressed peach (prunus persica (l.) batsch), olive (olea europaea l.), citrumelo (poncirus trifoliata raf. x citrus paradisi macf.) and pistachio (pistachia integerrima l.). drought stress caused a 2.5- to 4.2-fold reduction in l(p), depending on species, but psi(pi,o) was reduced only in citrumelo and olive leaves by 0.34 and 1.4 mpa, respectively. no differen ...199514965946
a genetic map of citrus based on the segregation of isozymes and rflps in an intergeneric cross.isozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used as markers in the construction of a genetic map of the citrus nuclear genome. the map was based on the segregation of 8 isozyme, 1 protein, and 37 rflp loci in 60 progeny of a cross of two intergeneric hybrids, 'sacaton' citrumelo (citrus paradisi macf. x poncirus trifoliata (l.) raf.) and 'troyer' citrange (c. sinensis (l.) osbeck x p. trifoliata), often used as rootstocks. the map contains 38 of 46 studied loci distributed on ten ...199224203027
helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and sglt1-mediated glucose uptake. in this study, helichrysum ( helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. the helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (ic50 = 0.19 mg/ml) than α-amylase (ic50 = 0.83 mg/ml), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar α-amylase and α-gluco ...201324261475
understanding long-term fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. the population density of three pestiferous anastrepha species [anastrepha ludens (loew), anastrepha obliqua (macquart), and anastrepha serpentina (wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (citrus x paradisi macf ...201222812118
assessing the biosynthetic capabilities of secretory glands in citrus peel.epithelial cells (ecs) lining the secretory cavities of citrus peel have been hypothesized to be responsible for the synthesis of essential oil, but direct evidence for such a role is currently sparse. we used laser-capture microdissection and pressure catapulting to isolate ecs and parenchyma cells (as controls not synthesizing oil) from the peel of young grapefruit (citrus × paradisi 'duncan'), isolated rna, and evaluated transcript patterns based on oligonucleotide microarrays. a gene ontolog ...201222452856
evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against mexican fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) in citrus fruit.methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. mexican fruit fly, anastrepha ludens (loew) (diptera: tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (citrus spp.), exported from texas, mexico, and central america. recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. this research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved u.s. department of agriculture-animal and plant health inspection service treatment s ...201121404840
exogenous supply of pantoyl lactone to excised leaves increases their pantothenate levels.all plants synthesize pantothenate but its synthesis and regulation are not well understood. the aim of this work is to study the effect of exogenous supply of precursor compounds on pantothenate levels in leaves.200515767268
ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae): efficacy in naturally versus artificially infested fruit.some phytosanitary irradiation treatment research against tephritid fruit flies (diptera: tephritidae) has used artificially infested fruit with the unstated and untested assumption that the method adequately simulated a natural situation. we compare grapefruit, citrus paradisi macfayden, naturally infested by mexican fruit fly, anastrepha ludens (loew), via oviposition until larvae reached the late third instar versus insertion of diet-reared third instars into holes made in grapefruits 24 h be ...201020857719
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