identification and characterization of a papillomavirus from birds (fringillidae).from skin papillomas of the chaffinch (fringilla coelebs), a virus has been purified and studied by physicochemical techniques and electron microscopy. the virions measure 52 nm in diameter and are composed of 72 morphological units arranged in a skew t = 7d surface lattice. a sedimentation coefficient of about 300s and a buoyant density of 1.34 g/ml in cscl were determined for the particle. its protein composition resembles that of human papillomavirus, and the circular double-stranded genome m ...1977197046
comparative aspects of circadian rhythms in homeotherms, re-entrainment after phase shifts of the of circadian activity of 3 avian species (fringillidae: fringilla coelebs, carduelis chloris, pyrrhula pyrrhula) and 4 mammalian species (rodentia: eutamias sibiricus, funambulus pennanti, glis glis, mesocricetus auratus), subjected to 12:12 h light-dark (ld) cycles as zeitgeber, was studied after shifting the ld cycle by different amounts (hours) and in different directions (advances and delays). the properties of the zeitgeber were changed by varying light intensity during dark- ...1978700901
[effect of cold on catecholamine concentration in the great pectoral muscle of sparrows].birds (passer montanus, p. domesticus, fringilla coelebs) kept in open-air cages in leningrad during winter, do not differ in total catecholamine content from avian species (p. domesticus, serinus canaria) which were kept under laboratory conditions at 15--20 degrees. in the sparrow p. montanus, no significaut seasonal changes were observed in catecholamine content; however repetitive cooling up to--10 degrees only at night increased twice the content of catecholamines (especially, noradrenalin) ...1976983576
phylogenetic analysis of 48 papillomavirus types and 28 subtypes and variants: a showcase for the molecular evolution of dna viruses.papillomaviruses are attractive models for studying the molecular evolution of dna viruses because of the large number of isolates that exhibit genomic diversity and host species and tissue specificity. to examine their relationship, we selected two amino acid sequences, one of 52 residues within the early gene e1 and the other of 44 residues within the late gene l1, which allowed insertion- and deletion-free alignment of all accessible papillomavirus sequences. we constructed phylogenetic trees ...19921326639
a novel structure associated with a lampbrush chromosome in the chicken, gallus a site near the end of the short arms of lampbrush bivalent 2 in the chicken (gallus domesticus) there is always a marker structure that appears in the phase-contrast light microscope as a solid object with diffuse edges measuring about 4 microns across. when examined by transmission electron microscopy in thin section, this object appears as a loose bundle of fibres. in some preparations individual fibres appear 15-16 nm thick, smooth in outline and solid in cross-section. in other preparati ...19921527178
antigenic and immunogenic epitopes shared by human papillomavirus type 16 and bovine, canine, and avian papillomaviruses.all types of papillomaviruses (pv) share common, so-called group-specific epitopes. to identify the major group-specific epitopes, we immunized 26 guinea pigs or rabbits with purified bovine pv type 1 (bpv), canine pv, or avian pv from the common chaffinch. the resulting hyperimmune sera, as well as a commercially available rabbit antiserum to bpv and seven monoclonal antibodies to bpv, were tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a set of 66 overlapping 20-amino-acid peptides repres ...19911719234
genome of an avian papillomavirus.a papillomavirus which we designate fpv was isolated from chaffinches (fringilla coelebs). a physical map of the fpv genome was constructed, and selected regions of this genome were studied by nucleotide sequence analysis. the results make it possible to align the fpv genome with the genome of bovine papillomavirus type 1 and to show, moreover, that avian and mammalian papillomaviruses have a similar genome organization.19846088809
possible role of birds and ticks in the dissemination of bhanja virus.several wild birds (4 fringilla coelebs, 1 coccothraustes coccothraustes and 2 erithacus rubecula) were inoculated subcutaneously with bhanja virus (bhav). no clinical symptoms of infection were observed in any of the birds; a low viremia was demonstrated only in c. coccothraustes (2 and 4 days p.i.), seroconversion in all birds. bhav was not isolated from organs 32 days p.i. consequently, the tested birds do not seem to serve as "amplifying hosts" of bhav. the paper includes a survey of geograp ...19826800906
analysis of genomic sequences of 95 papillomavirus types: uniting typing, phylogeny, and taxonomy.our aim was to study the phylogenetic relationships of all known papillomaviruses (pvs) and the possibility of establishing a supratype taxonomic classification based on this information. of the many detectably homologous segments present in pv genomes, a 291-bp segment of the l1 gene is notable because it is flanked by the my09 and my11 consensus primers and contains highly conserved amino acid residues which simplify sequence alignment. we determined the my09-my11 sequences of human pv type 20 ...19957707535
avian sex chromosomes in the lampbrush form: the zw lampbrush bivalents from six species of bird.the zw bivalent has been identified and characterized in detail in its lampbrush form in oocytes of chicken, quail, turkey, pigeon, chaffinch and sparrow. the sex bivalent in all six species looks like a single highly asymmetrical chromosome. most of it has the typical lampbrush organization. the terminal one-fifth is relatively thick and condensed and bears only a few pairs of lateral loops: this condensed terminal region is the w chromosome; the part with normal lampbrush morphology is the z. ...19938156154
structural conservation and variation in the mitochondrial control region of fringilline finches (fringilla spp.) and the greenfinch (carduelis chloris).we sequenced the entire control region and portions of flanking genes (trna(phe), trna(glu), and nd6) in the common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs), blue chaffinch (f. teydea), brambling (f. montifringilla), and greenfinch (carduelis chloris). in these finches the control region is similar in length (1,223-1,237 bp) and has the same flanking gene order as in other birds, and contains a putative tas element and the highly conserved csb-1 and f, d, and c boxes recognizable in most vertebrates. clove ...19979029795
feather mites, pectoral muscle condition, wing length and plumage coloration of passerines.i compared the feather mite (acari, proctophyllodidae) loads of moulting birds with features of the new plumage that they were growing. i examined 21 samples, each sample containing individuals of the same species, sex and age class (juvenile, yearling or adult). i used nine species: wren, troglodytes troglodytes; dunnock, prunella modularis; robin, erithacus rubecula; blue tit, parus caeruleus; great tit, p. major; chaffinch, fringilla coelebs; greenfinch, carduelis chloris; linnet, c. cannabin ...199910479371
mitochondrial dna control region diversity in the endangered blue chaffinch, fringilla teydea.the blue chaffinch (fringilla teydea) is found only on the two central canary islands of gran canaria and tenerife, where it is restricted to pine forest habitat. it is reasonably abundant on the latter island but endangered on the former. here, sequence variation was studied in a fragment spanning domains i and ii of the mitochondrial dna (mtdna) control region. phylogenetic analysis of all haplotypes with a f. coelebs outgroup indicated the two island populations were reciprocally monophyletic ...200010972781
[seasonal dynamics of population of the feather mite monojoubertia microphylla (astigmata: analgoidea: proctophyllodidae) in the chaffinch fringilla coelebs].the seasonal dynamics of the monojoubertia microphylla micropopulations in different sex and age groups of the chaffinch fringilla coelebs (passeriformes: fringillidae) have been studied during the nest and migration periods in the north-west of russia. three bird groups were determined within the chaffinch population during the study: adult males, adult females, immature chaffinches. total number of bird specimens examined--353. in all chaffinch groups, the mean mite numbers and age structure o ...200011212613
[first record of the mite genus neharpyrhyncuhus (acari: harpirhynchidae) in the russian fauna].the mites of genus neharpyrhynchus fain, 1972 (acari: harpirhynchidae) are recorded from rissia for first time. two species, n. hippolae sp. n. from hippolais icterina (passeriformes: sylviidae) and n. plumaris (fritsch) from fringilla coelebs (passeroformes: fringillidae) from n. w. russia was found. n. hippolae sp. n., female holotype (all measurements in mkm, abbreviations--see fain e.a., 1999): l 517, w 382, ls 179, ws 325, pa 27, thicker than pi 49 and pe 24, pts smooth, vi, ve [symbol: see ...200011212620
[the first find of the feather mite from apionacaridae family (astigmata: analgoidea) on the passerines ( passeriformes)].a representative of the family apionacaridae is recorded from the passerine birds passeriformes for the first time. fringillosphaera bochkovi gen. n., sp. n. is described from the chaffinch fringilla coelebs (fringillidae). the new genus obtains main diagnostic characters as follows. vertical setae vi absent. prodorsal shield free from scapular sheilds and epimerites ia. humeral sheilds present. epimerites i convergent, connected by sclerotized plate. lateral setae f2 and pseudanal setae ps3 abs ...200111605453
complete development of three species of haemoproteus (haemosporida, haemoproteidae) in the biting midge culicoides impunctatus (diptera, ceratopogonidae).development of haemoproteus balmorali, h. dolniki, and h. tartakovskyi was followed in experimentally infected biting midges culicoides impunctatus on the curonian spit in the baltic sea. wild-caught flies were allowed to take blood meals on naturally infected spotted flycatchers muscicapa striata, chaffinches fringilla coelebs, or crossbills loxia curvirostra harboring mature gametocytes of these parasites. the engorged biting midges were collected, held at 14-18 c, and dissected daily. mature ...200212435121
[dynamics of infection of fringilla coelebs chaffinch nestlings with feather mites (acari: analgoidea)].a process of infecting the chaffinch nestlings fringilla coelebs with three analgoid feather mites, analges passerinus l., 1758, monojoubertia microphylla (robin, 1877), and pteronyssoides striatus (robin, 1977), commonly occurred on this bird species was investigated. 15 nests contained totally 65 nestlings, from 2 to 6 individuals in a brood, have been examined from the day of hatching till 11th day. observations were held in the neighbourhood of the bird banding station "rybachy" (russia, kal ...200212481604
cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds in the central european carpathians.the occurrence of cutaneous trematode collyriclum faba in wild birds was monitored in the central european carpathians from 1996 to 2001. a total of 5,414 birds, representing 86 species, was examined. collyriclum faba was found at 7 sites (5 in slovakia, 1 in poland, and 1 in the czech republic), and prevalences at the sites varied from 1 to 16%. ten species of passerine birds were infected: blackcap (sylvia atricapilla) (16 positive/622 tested, 2% prevalence), black redstart (phoenicurus ochrur ...200312760670
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in passerine birds from the mazurian lake region (northeastern poland).the aim of the present study was to evaluate a potential role of different passerine birds species in mazurian lake region (northeast poland) in the spread of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochaete that causes lyme disease. a total number of 1254 birds (representing 42 species) were captured during the 3-year study period. blood samples were collected from birds and analyzed with a nested polymerase chain reaction technique in order to detect fragments of the pathogen dna. positive res ...200414681070
high chromosome conservation detected by comparative chromosome painting in chicken, pigeon and passerine birds.chicken chromosome paints for macrochromosomes 1-10, z, and the nine largest microchromosomes (griffin et al. 1999) were used to analyze chromosome homologies between chicken (gallus gallus domesticus: galliformes), domestic pigeon (columba livia: columbiformes), chaffinch (fringilla coelebs passeriformes), and redwing (turdus iliacus: passeriformes). high conservation of syntenies was revealed. in general, both macro- and microchromosomes in these birds showed very low levels of interchromosoma ...200415505406
cohesion proteins are present in centromere protein bodies associated with avian lampbrush chromosomes.proteins of sister chromatid cohesion are important for maintenance of meiotic chromosome structure and retention of homologous chromosomes in bivalents during diplotene. localization of the cohesion proteins within nuclei of growing oocytes merits special attention, particularly in avian oocytes, in which diplotene chromosomes assume the form of lampbrush chromosomes (lbcs). we performed indirect immunostaining using antibodies against cohesins smc1alpha, smc1beta, smc3, rad21, and the sa/stag ...200516235117
no detection of avian influenza a viruses of the subtypes h5 and h7 and isolation of lentogenic avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 in passerine birds during stopover in the year 2001 on the island helgoland (north sea).a total of 543 migrating passerines were captured during their stopover on the island of helgoland (north sea) in spring and autumn 2001. they were sampled for the detection of avian influenza a viruses (aiv) subtypes h5 and h7, and for avian paramyxoviruses serotype 1 (apmv-1). the goal of the study was to examine the role of migrating birds as potential vectors for these zoonotic viral diseases. for virus detection samples were taken from a) short-distance migrants such as chaffinches (fringil ...200516425631
isolation of different serovars of salmonella enterica from wild birds in great britain between 1995 and 2003.postmortem examinations were carried out on the carcases of 779 wild birds. salmonellosis was a common cause of death in greenfinches (carduelis chloris), house sparrows (passer domesticus) and chaffinches (fringilla coelebs), and was also responsible for the deaths of other birds such as goldfinches (carduelis carduelis), feral pigeons and different species of gulls. most cases of salmonellosis in finches occurred between january and march, whereas salmonellosis in house sparrows tended to occu ...200616782854
parasites of chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) population. part i. coccidia (protozoa, apicomplexa).coccidia infection in chaffinch population in mazurian lakeland was studied. birds were caught in mist nets from june to september and droppings were collected after defecation. prevalence of infection was high -80% of chaffinches excreted oocysts of isospora sp. intensity of oocysts' production varied depending on the time of the day and therefore coccidia prevalence in chaffinch should be best detectable in birds caught after midday.199916888991
parasites of chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) population. part ii. blood parasites.blood parasites of chaffinches caught from june to october near luknajno lake (mazurian lakeland) were studied. only parasites belonging to the genera haemoproteus were found. a decrease in prevalence as the season progressed was observed. no differences in blood parasite infections in relation to the sex of the birds were found. also males body weight was not affected by the presence of parasites.200316889015
investigations on infection status with h5 and h7 avian influenza virus in short-distance and long-distance migrant birds in 2001.the role of migrating birds as potential vectors for avian influenza virus (aiv) was investigated. we captured 543 migrating passerines during their stopover on the island of helgoland (north sea) in spring and autumn 2001. these birds were sampled for avian influenza a viruses (aiv), specifically the subtypes h5 and h7. for virus detection, samples were taken from 1) short-distance migrants, such as chaffinches (fringilla coelebs; n = 131) and song thrushes (turdus philomelos; n = 169); and 2) ...200717494601
plasmodium relictum (lineage p-sgs1): effects on experimentally infected passerine birds.we evaluated the effects of plasmodium relictum (lineage p-sgs1), which is a host generalist, to five species of passerine birds. light infection of p. relictum was isolated from a naturally infected adult reed warbler acrocephalus scirpaceus. the parasites were inoculated to naive juveniles of the chaffinch fringilla coelebs, common crossbill loxia curvirostra, house sparrow passer domesticus, siskin spinus spinus and starling sturnus vulgaris. susceptibility of these birds to the infection of ...200818809402
the bird species of kumasir lake (kahramanmaras-turkey) and a view of environmental ethics on sustainable wetland management.kumasir lake is located next to towns of donuklu and fatih, nine km west of kahramanmaras city center the region of east mediterranean, turkey this lake is of crucial importance from the point of native and immigrant birds. we located 17 birdspecies in this area during our observations carried out in the spring and autumn of 2005-2006. these were ciconia ciconia l., anas platyrhynchos l., accipiter nisus l., accipiter brevipes l., fulica atra l., columba palumbus l., merops apiaster l., upupa ep ...200818972701
[new hosts of some nematodes--parasites of passeriformes].parasitic nematodes very rarely exist in birds that are completely or predominantly herbivorous. the investigation of the helminth fauna of passeriformes in the region of lower silesia revealed new hosts for some nematode species. we found in acrocephalus scirpaceus--acuaria subula and microtetrameres inermis; in fringilla coelebs and in luscinia megarhynchos--dispharynx nasuta; in passer montanus--capillaria angusta; in phylloscopus trochiloides--acuaria subula as well in phylloscopus collybita ...200819055064
[peculiarities of the internal anatomy in the mite family syringophilidae by the example of syringophilopsis fringilla--a parasite of chaffinch].internal anatomy of the female syringophilopsis fringilla (fritsch, 1958) was investigated by light microscope using electron microscope to control the results for some body regions. the digestive tract is open. the anterior midgut includes the stomach and two pairs of caeca. the posterior midgut is represented by a long tubular excretory organ being connected to the stomach via a small opening. the opening is provided by a muscular sphincter. the short hind gut ends in the anal opening at the t ...200819065838
phylogeography and genetic structure of the canarian common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) inferred with mtdna and microsatellite loci.the widespread common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) inhabits five of the seven canary islands. sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1002bp) revealed new insights into the systematics and phylogeography of this taxon. additionally, a set of microsatellite loci were analyzed to examine the structure of these populations. our results suggest that a new species of the genus fringilla is present in the canary islands, which comprises at least three subspecies, but with a different distri ...200919632343
are there species-universal categories in bird song phonology and syntax? a comparative study of chaffinches (fringilla coelebs), zebra finches (taenopygia guttata), and swamp sparrows (melospiza georgiana).previous studies of learned bird song have suggested the existence of species-universal patterns in song organization: clear clusters in produced songs that do not vary within a species. here the authors combine a computational method of comparing songs with statistical methods of assessing cluster structure to investigate this issue in a more quantitative manner. the authors first analyze song phonology and then examine song syntax at a population level in 3 species with very different song str ...201020175600
first report of epizootic trichomoniasis in wild finches (family fringillidae) in southern fennoscandia.forty-one outbreaks of mortality in wild finches were reported in southern norway, sweden, and finland in the second half of 2008 (n = 40) and in february 2009 (n = 1). greenfinches (carduelis chloris) and occasional chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) primarily were affected. forty-eight greenfinches, eight chaffinches, one hawfinch (coccothraustes coccothraustes), and one blue tit (parus caeruleus) from 22 incidents were examined postmortem. birds were in poor nutritional condition and had necroti ...201020408413
detection of babesia sp. eu1 and members of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from migratory birds at curonian spit, north-western reveal the prevalence of spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae and babesia sp. in ixodes ricinus (l.) ticks from migratory birds, 236 specimens represented 8 species of passeriformes and were collected at curonian spit in kaliningrad enclave of north-western russia. the ticks (total 126) being detached from four bird species, turdus philomelos, fringilla coelebs, parus major, and sturnus vulgaris, were investigated by pcr using the primers rp cs.877p/rp cs.1258n for the detection of rickettsi ...201120553110
emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common british birds.emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. they can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on british populations of greenfinch carduelis chloris and chaffinch fringilla coelebs, two of the m ...201020805869
disentangling ancient interactions: a new extinct passerine provides insights on character displacement among extinct and extant island finches.evolutionary studies of insular biotas are based mainly on extant taxa, although such biotas represent artificial subsets of original faunas because of human-caused extinctions of indigenous species augmented by introduced exotic taxa. this makes it difficult to obtain a full understanding of the history of ecological interactions between extant sympatric species. morphological bill variation of fringilla coelebs and f. teydea (common and blue chaffinches) has been previously studied in the nort ...201020886036
outcomes of brood parasite-host interactions mediated by egg matching: common cuckoos cuculus canorus versus fringilla finches.antagonistic species often interact via matching of phenotypes, and interactions between brood parasitic common cuckoos (cuculus canorus) and their hosts constitute classic examples. the outcome of a parasitic event is often determined by the match between host and cuckoo eggs, giving rise to potentially strong associations between fitness and egg phenotype. yet, empirical efforts aiming to document and understand the resulting evolutionary outcomes are in short supply.201121559400
microsatellite loci isolation in the canarian common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) and their utility in other canarian finches.the taxonomic classification of the common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) that inhabits the canary islands has been under debate for decades, mainly due to the absence of nuclear dna analyses. in this study we describe the isolation and characterization of ten microsatellite loci (aaag, aaat and gt) from a la palma specimen using an enrichment protocol. two loci were monomorphic in the populations analysed (la gomera and la palma), but the remaining ones presented 2 or more alleles, with an avera ...200921564863
opportunistic nectar-feeding birds are effective pollinators of bird-flowers from canary islands: experimental evidence from isoplexis canariensis (scrophulariaceae).insular floras, characterized by simple pollination networks, sometimes include novel mutualistic agents such as nonspecialist nectarivores. in this study we confirmed the effective pollination of isoplexis canariensis by opportunistic nectar-feeding birds in tenerife, canary islands, spain. this plant is among the ornithophilous species of the canarian flora that lack past and present specialist nectarivorous birds. experimental hand pollinations revealed self-compatibility, but cross-pollinate ...200821628148
a clonal strain of trichomonas gallinae is the aetiologic agent of an emerging avian epidemic disease.trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite that is well characterised as a cause of trichomonosis in columbid and raptor species world-wide. the parasite emerged as a novel infection of british passerines in 2005, leading to epidemic mortality associated with significant declines of breeding populations of greenfinches (carduelis chloris) and chaffinches (fringilla coelebs). we characterised the extent of t. gallinae genotypic heterogeneity within the affected wild british avifauna by analysin ...201121712099
evidence of spread of the emerging infectious disease, finch trichomonosis, by migrating birds.finch trichomonosis emerged in great britain in 2005 and led to epidemic mortality and a significant population decline of greenfinches, carduelis chloris and chaffinches, fringilla coelebs, in the central and western counties of england and wales in the autumn of 2006. in this article, we show continued epidemic spread of the disease with a pronounced shift in geographical distribution towards eastern england in 2007. this was followed by international spread to southern fennoscandia where case ...201121935745
[the relationship between the plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration and the degree of migrational fat deposition in the finch fringilla coelebs]. 20154450844
the emergence and spread of finch trichomonosis in the british isles.finch trichomonosis, caused by the protozoal parasite trichomonas gallinae, was first recognized as an emerging infectious disease of british passerines in 2005. the first year of seasonal epidemic mortality occurred in 2006 with significant declines of greenfinch carduelis chloris and chaffinch fringilla coelebs populations. here, we demonstrate that large-scale mortality, principally of greenfinch, continued in subsequent years, 2007-2009, with a shifting geographical distribution across the b ...022966140
the newly described meca homologue, mecalga251, is present in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species.a previously unidentified meca homologue, meca(lga251), has recently been described in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) from humans and dairy cattle. the origin and epidemiology of this novel homologue are unclear. the objective of this study was to provide basic descriptive information of mrsa isolates harbouring meca(lga251) from a range of host animal species.201222941897
tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from breeding and migratory birds in switzerland.from 2007 to 2010, 4558 migrating and breeding birds of 71 species were caught and examined for ticks in switzerland. a total of 1205 specimens were collected; all were ixodes ricinus ticks except one ixodes frontalis female, which was found on a common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) for the first time in switzerland. each tick was analysed individually for the presence of borrelia spp., rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev). altogether, 11.4% of bird ...201425113989
birds as reservoirs for borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in western europe: circulation of b. turdi and other genospecies in bird-tick cycles in portugal.birds are important in the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) because they are important hosts for vector tick immature stages and are known reservoirs for some borrelia genospecies. the aim of our study was to assess the role of common passerine bird species as reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l. in western europe. we surveyed birds in enzootic areas in portugal, where no information is available for birds as reservoirs for this aetiologic agent and where b. lusitaniae, for which ...201322882497
a novel papillomavirus in adélie penguin (pygoscelis adeliae) faeces sampled at the cape crozier colony, antarctica.papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic viruses that have circular dsdna genomes encapsidated in non-enveloped virions. they have been found to infect a variety of mammals, reptiles and birds, but so far they have not been found in amphibians. using a next-generation sequencing de novo assembly contig-informed recovery, we cloned and sanger sequenced the complete genome of a novel papillomavirus from the faecal matter of adélie penguins (pygoscelis adeliae) nesting on ross island, antarctica. the g ...201424686913
lack of canonical e6 and e7 open reading frames in bird papillomaviruses: fringilla coelebs papillomavirus and psittacus erithacus timneh papillomavirus.determination and analyses of the complete sequence of fringilla coelebs papillomavirus and psittacus erithacus timneh papillomavirus indicate that they represent a distinct and distant lineage of papillomaviruses. the lack of canonical e6-e7 open reading frames suggests that they serve adaptive functions during papillomavirus evolution.200212208979
avian papillomaviruses: the parrot psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (pepv) genome has a unique organization of the early protein region and is phylogenetically related to the chaffinch avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an african grey parrot (psittacus erithacus). the nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (pepv) were determined. this pepv sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined.200212110158
detection of the european epidemic strain of trichomonas gallinae in finches, but not other non-columbiformes, in the absence of macroscopic disease.finch trichomonosis is an emerging infectious disease affecting european passerines caused by a clonal strain of trichomonas gallinae. migrating chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) were proposed as the likely vector of parasite spread from great britain to fennoscandia. to test for such parasite carriage, we screened samples of oesophagus/crop from 275 apodiform, passeriform and piciform birds (40 species) which had no macroscopic evidence of trichomonosis (i.e. necrotic ingluvitis). these birds wer ...201627180976
multi-locus sequence typing confirms the clonality of trichomonas gallinae isolates circulating in european recent years, trichomonas gallinae emerged as the causative agent of an infectious disease of passerine birds in europe leading to epidemic mortality of especially greenfinches chloris chloris and chaffinches fringilla coelebs. after the appearance of finch trichomonosis in the uk and fennoscandia, the disease spread to central europe. finch trichomonosis first reached austria and slovenia in 2012. in the present study the genetic heterogeneity of t. gallinae isolates from incidents in austri ...201424476813
chewing lice of genus ricinus (phthiraptera, ricinidae) deposited at the zoological institute of the russian academy of sciences, saint petersburg, russia, with description of a new species.we revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the zoological institute of the russian academy of sciences, saint petersburg, russia. we studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus ricinus (de geer, 1778). the collection includes lectotype specimens of ricinus ivanovi blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of ricinus tugarinovi blagoveshtchensky, 1951. we registered ricinus elongatus olfers, 1816 ex turdus ruficollis, r. ivanovi ex leucosticte tephrocotis and ricinus serratus (dur ...201626902646
post-dispersal seed predation and the establishment of vertebrate dispersed plants in mediterranean scrublands.the post-dispersal fate of seeds and fruit (diaspores) of three vertebrate-dispersed trees, crataegus monogyna, prunus mahaleb and taxus baccata, was studied in the andalusian highlands, south-eastern spain. exclosures were used to quantify separately the impact of vertebrates and invertebrates on seed removal in relation to diaspore density and microhabitat. the three plant species showed marked differences in the percentage of diaspores removed, ranging from only 5% for c. monogyna to 87% for ...199728307510
[pcr identification of dna of hosts of the taiga tick nymphs (ixodes persulcatus: ixodinae) in st. petersburg and its suburbs].pcr identification of host dna in unfed females and males of taiga tick ixodes persulcatus was performed. amplification of each sample was done using primers species-specific by 12s rdna mitochondrial gene. four species of small mammals (apodemus uralensis, clethrionomys glareolus, microtus arvalis, and sorex araneus) and two passeriform bird species (fringilla coelebs and parus major) were analysed. for one third of tick samples, hosts of previous stages were established using this method. in f ...201222384683
feather mites (acari, astigmata) from azorean passerines (aves, passeriformes): lower species richness compared to european mainland.ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the azores (north atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. we recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily analgoidea (analgidae, proctophyllodidae, psoroptoididae and trouessartiidae). a high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. only three passerine species (sylvia atricapilla, regulus regulus and serinus ca ...201525665827
the seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the north island of new zealand.blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern north island of new zealand. sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (apv) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for plasmodium spp. by pcr. forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to apv. song thrushes (turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by eurasian blackbirds (turdus m ...201323678738
isospora lacazei (labbe, 1893) and i. chloridis sp. n. (protozoa: eimeriidae) from the english sparrow (passer domesticus), greenfinch (chloris chloris) and chaffinch (fringilla coelebs). 19665912390
three-dimensional organisation of rna-processing machinery in avian growing oocyte nucleus.chromosome architecture and assorted nuclear compartments play an essential role in rna transcription and processing. growing vertebrate oocytes represent an advantageous model to study the principles of nuclear structure and function. in this article, the data on three-dimensional (3d) organisation of intact and non-deformed oocyte nuclei (germinal vesicles) in four species of birds (domestic chicken, japanese quail, rock pigeon and chaffinch) obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy are ...201223318709
distribution of aromatase activity in the brain and peripheral tissues of passerine and nonpasserine avian species.many behavioral effects of testosterone on hypothalamic and limbic brain areas are mediated by the action, at the cellular level, of estrogens derived from local testosterone aromatization. aromatase activity and cells containing the aromatase protein and mrna have accordingly been identified in the brain areas involved in the control of behavior. the presence of an unusually high level of aromatase activity has been detected in the telencephalon of one songbird species, the zebra finch (taeniop ...200010620422
asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network.mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. five species (great tit parus major, blue tit cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit poecile palustris, nuthatch sitta europaea and chaffinch fringilla coelebs) respo ...201323325292
local extinctions and recolonisations of passerine bird populations in small woods.this paper considers, for eight species of woodland bird, the factors that influenced both local extinctions and recolonisations in 145 woods over 3 years. in all species, probability of local extinction was inversely related to population size; most local extinctions occurred in woods containing one to three breeding pairs. however, considerable variation in extinction probabilities occurred between species and between years. in addition, the suitability of habitat within a wood (more extinctio ...199628307734
nestling mouth colour: ecological correlates of a begging signal.the mouths of begging nestlings vary widely in colour, ranging from yellow in robins, erithacus rubecula, to red in reed buntings, emberiza schoeniclus. two functions have been suggested for bright nestling mouth colour: (1) it may improve the detectability of chicks, particularly in poorly lit nests and (2) within species, it may signal need. we tested these hypotheses in a comparative analysis, measuring the mouth colours of nestlings from 31 species under conditions of standardized light avai ...19989784220
nesting holes and food supply in relation to forest bird densities on islands and mainland.bird densities were estimated on 41 small islands and two mainland plots at a south swedish lake both in 1976 and 1983. in the latter year, three additional plots were also censused. the ratio between combined densities of hole-nesting birds on the mainland and on islands was 3:1 both in plots without and with nest boxes. in plots with boxes combined densities of hole-nesting birds doubled compared with control plots. this increase was caused by a tenfold increase of pied flycatcher ficedula hyp ...198528310792
identification of unusual e6 and e7 proteins within avian papillomaviruses: cellular localization, biophysical characterization, and phylogenetic analysis.papillomaviruses (pvs) are a large family of small dna viruses infecting mammals, reptiles, and birds. pv infection induces cell proliferation that may lead to the formation of orogenital or skin tumors. pv-induced cell proliferation has been related mainly to the expression of two small oncoproteins, e6 and e7. in mammalian pvs, e6 contains two 70-residue zinc-binding repeats, whereas e7 consists of a natively unfolded n-terminal region followed by a zinc-binding domain which folds as an obliga ...200919553340
identification and characterization of fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1 (fcpv1) in free-living and captive birds in italy.a papillomavirus (pv) was identified by negative-staining electron microscopy in skin lesions of two bird species (fringillidae) in italy. genetic analyses revealed an fcpv1 with a low genetic variability in the e6, e7, e1, e2, and l1 genes and the long control region when compared to the fcpv1 reference strain.201627323237
forests of opportunities and mischief: disentangling the interactions between forests, parasites and immune responses.habitat characteristics determine the presence of individuals through resource availability, but at the same time, such features also influence the occurrence of parasites. we analyzed how birds respond to changes in interior forest structures, to forest management regimes, and to the risk of haemosporidian infections. we captured and took blood samples from blackcaps (sylvia atricapilla) and chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) in three different forest types (beech, mixed deciduous, spruce). we mea ...201627247106
a review of the subfamily harpypalpinae fain, 1972 (acariformes: harpirhynchidae)--parasites of passerine birds.the subfamily harpypalpinae fain, 1972 (acariformes: cheyletoidea: harpirhynchidae) is revised. diagnoses of the subfamily and its two constituent genera, harpypalpus dubinin, 1957 and harpypalpoides lombert and moss, 1979, and keys to females of all known species are provided. data on harpypalpine hosts and distribution are summarized, and nine new species are described: harpypalpus lonchura sp. nov. from lonchura castaneothorax (gould) (estrildidae) in australia, harpypalpus pyrrhula sp. nov. ...201425283118
spreading information in a network of interacting neighbours.dispersed individuals can coordinate the onset of life history events, like reproduction or migration, on a large (population) spatial scale. however, the mechanism of this synchronisation has not yet been identified. in many species signals produced by one individual stimulate signalling activity of immediate neighbours. i propose that such local focuses of signalling could transform into waves propagating in space. this hypothesis predicts that signalling self-organizes into bursts, because ne ...201425036106
movement and ranging patterns of the common chaffinch in heterogeneous forest landscapes.the partitioning of production forests into discretely managed forest stands confronts animals with diversity in forest attributes at scales from point-level tree assemblages to distinct forest patches and range-level forest cover. we have investigated the movement and ranging patterns of male common chaffinches, fringilla coelebs, in heterogeneous forest production landscapes during spring and summer in south-western germany. we radio-tracked a total of 15 adult males, each for up to six days, ...201425024900
associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two european passerines, fringilla coelebs and sylvia atricapilla.human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. we captured individuals of two widespread european passerines (fringilla coelebs and sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. we compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to l ...201324339923
the progressive loss of syntactical structure in bird song along an island colonization chain.cultural transmission can increase the flexibility of behavior, such as bird song. nevertheless, this flexibility often appears to be constrained, sometimes by preferences for learning certain traits over others, a phenomenon known as "biased" learning or transmission. the sequential colonization of the atlantic islands by the chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) provides a unique model system in which to investigate how the variability of a cultural trait has evolved. we used novel computational metho ...201324076242
multidisciplinary analysis of knemidocoptes jamaicensis parasitising the common chaffinch, fringilla coelebs: proofs for a multispecies complex?the number of studies discussing the pathology and host specificity in knemidocoptinae is very limited. in knemidocoptes jamaicensis, the host specificity seems to be very broad, and there is a clear morphological variability in individuals originating from various bird species; hence, serious doubts appear about the species status of this mite. we report a multidisciplinary approach to the taxonomy, morphology, ecology, and pathology of k. jamaicensis. the source of the mites in our study was a ...201323563901
complete mitochondrial genomes from four subspecies of common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs): new inferences about mitochondrial rate heterogeneity, neutral theory, and phylogenetic relationships within the order passeriformes.we describe whole mitochondrial genome sequences from four subspecies of the common chaffinch (fringilla coelebs), and compare them to 31 publicly available mitochondrial genome sequences from other passeriformes. rates and patterns of mitochondrial gene evolution are analyzed at different taxonomic levels within this avian order, and evidence is adduced for and against the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution and the role of positive selection in shaping genetic variation of this small ...201323313296
a multiplex pcr for detection of poxvirus and papillomavirus in cutaneous warts from live birds and museum skins.viral cutaneous lesions are frequent in some bird populations, though we are generally ignorant of the causal agent. in some instances, they represent a threat to livestock and wildlife health. we present here a multiplex pcr which detects and distinguishes infection by two such agents, avipoxviruses and papillomaviruses, in avian hosts. we assayed biopsies and superficial skin swabs from field and preserved museum skin specimens. ninety-three percent of samples from symptomatic specimens tested ...201122312972
avian colour perception predicts behavioural responses to experimental brood parasitism in chaffinches.hosts of cuckoos have evolved defences allowing them to discriminate and reject parasite eggs. mechanisms of discrimination are mostly visually mediated, and have been studied using approaches that do not account for what the receiver (i.e. host) actually can discriminate. here, for the first time we apply a perceptual model of colour discrimination to study behavioural responses to natural variation in parasite egg appearance in chaffinches fringilla coelebs. discrimination of parasite eggs gra ...201020002251
lampbrush chromosomes of the chaffinch (fringilla coelebs l.).the seven macrochromosomes of the chaffinch (fringilla coelebs l.) are described in their lampbrush form. the relative lengths of bivalents, the positions and arrangements of chromosomal regions with lateral loops of similar length and appearance, as well as the positions of protein bodies and loops of peculiar morphology have been defined and mapped, so that each of the seven lampbrush macrobivalents may be identified in oocytes from every individual of the species. this morphological analysis ...200312733637
positive interactions between migrant and resident birds: testing the heterospecific attraction hypothesis.we experimentally tested the conditions where heterospecific attraction is more likely to occur. the heterospecific attraction hypothesis predicts that colonizing or migrant individuals use the presence of resident species as a cue for profitable breeding sites. in other words, increasing resident densities will result in increased migrant densities until the costs of interspecific competition override the benefits of heterospecific attraction. the experiment consisted of a reference and a manip ...200312647152
[monomers of a satellite sequence of chaffinch (fringilla coelebs l., aves: passeriformes) genome contains short clusters of the tttaggg repeat].a novel repeated sequence of chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) designated as gs was isolated from genomic dna after in vitro amplification of satellite dna sequences using gsp-pcr technique. the proportion of this repeat in the chaffinch genome constitutes about 2%. monomers are 176 to 199 bp in size and contain a short cluster of the ttaggg telomeric tandem repeat. the oligomer of the telomeric hexanucleotide is flanked by the sequences that are significantly different in different monomers. the gs ...200212575444
interspecific reciprocity explains mobbing behaviour of the breeding chaffinches, fringilla coelebs.when prey animals discover a predator close by, they mob it while uttering characteristic sounds that attract other prey individuals to the vicinity. mobbing causes a predator to vacate its immediate foraging area, which gives an opportunity for prey individuals to continue their interrupted daily activity. besides the increased benefits, mobbing behaviour also has its costs owing to injuries or death. the initiator of mobbing may be at increased risk of predation by attracting the predator's at ...200212495502
time to the most recent common ancestor and divergence times of populations of common chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) in europe and north africa: insights into pleistocene refugia and current levels of migration.we analyzed sequences from a 275-bp hypervariable region in the 5' end of the mitochondrial dna control region in 190 common chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) from 19 populations in europe and north africa, including new samples from greece and morocco. coalescent techniques were applied to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (tmrca) and divergence times of these populations. the first objective of this study was to infer the locations of refugia where chaffinches survived the las ...200211913660
[analysis of the structure-functional features of a highly-repeating centromere sequence from the fringilla coelebs l. (aves: passeriformes) genome].a highly repetitive centromeric fringilla coelebs psti (fcp) element was cloned and sequenced. the fcp tandem repeats with unit 505 or 506 nt accounted for about 0.9% of the entire genome and had 57% gc. direct genomic sequencing with fcp-specific primers and thermofidelase 2a revealed the consensus sequence and the five most common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) for the fcp unit. fcp may be transcribed and may play a role in spatial arrangement of the genome.200611443918
centromeric tandem repeat from the chaffinch genome: isolation and molecular characterization.a new family of avian centromeric satellites is described. the highly repeated sequence, designated fcp (fringilla coelebs psti element), was cloned from the 500-bp psti digest fraction of the chaffinch (fringilla coelebs l.) genomic dna, sequenced, and characterized. the fcp repeat was found to have 505-506 bp length of monomer, 57% content of gc, to compose about 0.9% of the chaffinch genome, and to be highly methylated. results of southern-blot hybridization of cloned fcp element onto genomic ...200111269362
a highly repeated fcp centromeric sequence from chaffinch (fringilla coelebs: aves) genome is revealed within interchromosomal connectives during mitosis.a highly repeated fcp (fringilla coelebs psti element) sequence was localized by fish in centromeric regions of all chromosomes of the chaffinch. besides, fish signal was found also in interchromosomal connectives linking centromeres of non-homologous chromosomes in mitotic cells. the presence of dna in the connectives was confirmed by immunostaining with anti-dsdna antibodies as well as in experiments on nick-translation and random primed labeling in situ. non-denaturing fish with fcp probe and ...200010953865
testing the flexibility of song type bout duration in the chaffinch, fringilla coelebs.many songbird species with small song type repertoires repeat each type a few times before switching to the next. thus, their singing style may constrain their ability to switch. however, the proximate causation of song type switching is poorly understood. we exposed male chaffinches to (nonoverlapping) playbacks of single renditions of their own songs rather than a series of songs, thus stimulating them with a single external auditory event. the most prominent effect of the playback was an incr ...200010877892
assessment of auditory distance in a territorial songbird: accurate feat or rule of thumb?territorial passerines presumably benefit from their ability to use auditory cues to judge the distance to singing conspecifics, by increasing the efficiency of their territorial defence. here, we report data on the approach of male territorial chaffinches, fringilla coelebs, to a loudspeaker broadcasting conspecific song simulating a rival at various distances by different amounts of song degradation. songs were degraded digitally in a computer-simulated forest emulating distances of 0, 20, 40, ...200010792927
testing female chaffinch song preferences by operant conditioning.hand-reared female chaffinches, fringilla coelebs, were tape-tutored just after fledging. in the subsequent spring (i.e. their first breeding season) they were successfully trained in an operant conditioning task where they could trigger song playback by perching on either of two short lever-type perches. in a given trial, one of the four songs that had been used for tutoring was paired with a song type unknown to the subject. the subjects showed no overall preference for either the familiar or ...19989933541
colonization history of atlantic island common chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) revealed by mitochondrial dna.common chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) are thought to have colonized the atlantic island archipelagoes (the azores, madeira, and the canaries) from neighboring continental populations (iberia and north africa) within the last million years. however, colonization may have occurred separately from north africa to the canaries and from iberia to the azores (as would be predicted geographically) or in one wave from iberia to the azores and then to madeira and the canaries. these alternatives have di ...199910191065
song type switching in the chaffinch, fringilla coelebs : timing or counting?the song of many bird species is relatively constant in form, yet each bird has more than one song type, making it an excellent model for studies of the mechanisms underlying switching between behaviour patterns. the chaffinch is a good example. males sing with eventual variety, repeating each song type in the repertoire a few times before switching to another type. the mechanism triggering these switches is not known. we investigated long continuous recordings of spontaneous singing by six wild ...199910196056
a population memetics approach to cultural evolution in chaffinch song: meme diversity within populations.we investigated cultural evolution in populations of common chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) in the atlantic islands (azores, madeira, canaries) and neighboring continental regions (morocco, iberia) by employing a population memetics approach. to quantify variability within populations, we used the concept of a song meme, defined as a single syllable or a series of linked syllables capable of being transmitted. the frequency distribution of memes within populations generally fit a neutral model i ...199319426000
long-term habituation to species-specific alarm calls in a songbird (fringilla coelebs l.). 19751140323
[annual cycles of migratory fat deposition, sexual activity and molt in the chaffinch (fringilla coelebs) during constant photoperiods]. 19744432628
androgen-concentrating cells in the midbrain of a songbird.androgen-concentrating cells were found in the midbrain of the chaffinch fringilla coelebs by autoradiography using tritiated testosterone. labeled cells were localized primarily in the nucleus intercollicularis, an area from which vocalizations can be electrically stimulated in birds. these autoradiographic results suggest that the nucleus intercollicularis is a site in the action of androgens on avian vocal behavior.19734687584
detection of virus in squamous papillomas of the wild bird species fringilla coelebs. 19734702127
[change in the composition of the fat body during migration-related fat deposition in fringilla coelebs]. 19725084903
[prolactin content of the hypophysis in finches (fringilla coelebs) in the autumn migration period]. 19725084900
[vocalization and behavior of the azores chaffinches (fringilla coelebs moreletti pucheran)]. 19685748576
circadian activity rhythms in chaffinches (fringilla coelebs) under constant conditions. 19665298193
circadian period and phase-angle difference in chaffinches (fringilla coelebs l.). 19665964735
neurophysiological analysis of the "mobbing response" in the chaffinch (fringilla coelebs). 196414176956
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