in vitro susceptibility of erwinia amylovora (burrill) winslow et. al. to citrus maxima essential oil.regulatory constraints and environmental and human health concerns have promoted the search for alternative bio-control strategies of fire blight, a destructive disease of rosaceous plants which produces serious losses in apple and pear orchards all over the world. the aim of this study was to establish the antimicrobial activity of citrus maxima essential oil against erwinia amylovora. an agar diffusion method was used for the screening of the inhibitory effect of citrus maxima essential oil on ...200920583476
host plant affects morphometric variation of diaphorina citri (hemiptera: liviidae).the asian citrus psyllid (acp), diaphorina citri kuwayama, is one of the most serious citrus pests worldwide due to its role as vector of huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. while some optimal plant species for acp oviposition and development have been identified, little is known of the influence of host plants on acp size and shape. our goal was to determine how size and shape of acp wing and body size varies when development occurs on different host plants in a controlled rearing environ ...201627833820
sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins ar ...201424908277
selected activities of citrus maxima merr. fruits on human endothelial cells: enhancing cell migration and delaying cellular aging.endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ros) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (cvd). recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of cvd and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. this study investigated the effects of pummelo (citrus maxima merr. var. tubtim siam, cm) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (huvecs) migration and aging. the ...201424763109
features of citrus terpenoid production as revealed by carotenoid, limonoid and aroma profiles of two pummelos (citrus maxima) with different flesh color.terpenoids are major components of carotenoids, limonoids and aromas in citrus fruits, resulting in fruit coloration, bitterness and aroma. in this study the carotenoid, limonoid and volatile profiles of red-flesh chuhong pummelo (ch) and pale green-flesh feicui pummelo (fc) were investigated by hplc and gc/ms.201524723118
a phylogenetic re-evaluation of phyllosticta (botryosphaeriales).phyllosticta is a geographically widespread genus of plant pathogenic fungi with a diverse host range. this study redefines phyllosticta, and shows that it clusters sister to the botryosphaeriaceae (botryosphaeriales, dothideomycetes), for which the older family name phyllostictaceae is resurrected. in moving to a unit nomenclature for fungi, the generic name phyllosticta was chosen over guignardia in previous studies, an approach that we support here. we use a multigene dna dataset of the its, ...201324302788
characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels.this study sought to determine the distribution of free and bound phenolics in some nigerian citrus peels [orange (citrus sinensis), grapefruit (citrus paradisii) and shaddock (citrus maxima)] and characterize the antioxidant properties. the free phenolics were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. free phenolic extracts had significantly higher (p < 0.05) dpph* scavenging ability than the bound phen ...201224293692
anticholinesterase and antioxidative properties of water-extractable phytochemicals from some citrus peels.aqueous extracts from citrus peels are used in many rural communities in nigeria in treating various degenerative conditions, although the scientific basis for its use has not been well established. this study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from some citrus peels [orange (citrus sinensis), grapefruit (citrus paradisii), and shaddock (citrus maxima)].201423907423
specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of citrus maxima.juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [citrus maxima (burm.) merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by hsqc nmr. the results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs ...201425419620
investigation of sunlight-induced deterioration of aroma of pummelo (citrus maxima) essential oil.deterioration of aromas of pummelo essential oil (eo) induced by sunlight was compared to those induced by heat and oxygen exposure using the techniques of sensory evaluation and gc-ms analysis. the sunlight-exposed eo was found to possess an oily off-flavor odor, which was significantly different from its counterparts induced by oxygen and heat. the strong oily note of the sunlight-exposed eo was attributed to the existence of linalool oxides and limonene oxides, as well as the lack of neral an ...201425438994
next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2.the most economically important citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (citrus reticulata, citrus maxima, citrus medica, and citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity. modern breedi ...201425544367
genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of citrus (l) from north-east india as revealed by meiosis, and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of rdna.the north-eastern region of india is reported to be the center of origin and rich in diversity of citrus (l.) species, where some wild and endangered species namely citrus indica, citrus macroptera, citrus latipes, citrus ichagensis and citrus assamensis exist in their natural and undisturbed habitat. in order to have comprehensive information about the extent of genetic variability and the occurrence of cryptic genomic hybridity between and within various citrus species, a combined approach inv ...201425606407
inhibition of metalloproteinase and proteasome activities in colon cancer cells by citrus peel extracts.citrus peels are consumed in the form of infusions, candy or wine, based on their well-documented nutritional and medicinal properties. this study sought to investigate the effect of some citrus peels' [grapefruit (citrus paradisii), orange (citrus sinensis) and shaddock (citrus maxima)] extracts on matrix metalloproteinase (mmp) and proteasome activities in primary human colonic tumor (caco-2) and the metastatic cell lines (lovo and lovo/adr) in a bid to explain the possible mechanism by which ...201526030791
supplementation of citrus maxima peel powder prevented oxidative stress, fibrosis, and hepatic damage in carbon tetrachloride (ccl4) treated rats.citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. hplc-dad analysis on citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. to determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (ccl4) treated rat model. liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the ast, alt, and alp enzyme activities. in addition, lipid peroxid ...201526106435
impact behaviour of freeze-dried and fresh pomelo (citrus maxima) peel: influence of the hydration state.pomelos (citrus maxima) are known for their thick peel which-inter alia-serves as energy dissipator when fruits impact on the ground after being shed. it protects the fruit from splitting open and thus enables the contained seeds to stay germinable and to potentially be dispersed by animal vectors. the main part of the peel consists of a parenchymatous tissue that can be interpreted from a materials point of view as open pored foam whose struts are pressurized and filled with liquid. in order to ...201526543566
transient thermal dissipation method of xylem sap flow measurement: multi-species calibration and field evaluation.the transient thermal dissipation (ttd) method developed by do and rocheteau (2002b) is a close evolution of the original constant thermal dissipation (ctd) method of granier (1985). the ttd method has the advantage of limiting the influence of passive natural temperature gradients and of yielding more stable zero-flux references at night. by analogy with the ctd method, the transient method was first calibrated on synthetic porous material (sawdust) on the assumption that the relationship was i ...201019864260
[chemical constituents from young fruits of citrus maxima cv. shatian].to investigate the chemical constituents from the young fruits of citrus maxima cv. shatian.201526930983
biomimetic cellular metals-using hierarchical structuring for energy absorption.fruit walls as well as nut and seed shells typically perform a multitude of functions. one of the biologically most important functions consists in the direct or indirect protection of the seeds from mechanical damage or other negative environmental influences. this qualifies such biological structures as role models for the development of new materials and components that protect commodities and/or persons from damage caused for example by impacts due to rough handling or crashes. we were able ...201627433857
comparative impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles and ferric ions on the growth of citrus maxima.the impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-fe2o3 nps) and ferric ions (fe(3+)) on plant growth and molecular responses associated with the transformation and transport of fe(2+) were poorly understood. this study comprehensively compared and evaluated the physiological and molecular changes of citrus maxima plants as affected by different levels of γ-fe2o3 nps and fe(3+). we found that γ-fe2o3 nps could enter plant roots but no translocation from roots to shoots was observed. 20 mg/l γ-fe2o3 nps ...201727916492
changes in anthocyanin production during domestication of citrus.mandarin (citrus reticulata), citron (citrus medica), and pummelo (citrus maxima) are important species of the genus citrus and parents of the interspecific hybrids that constitute the most familiar commercial varieties of citrus: sweet orange, sour orange, clementine, lemon, lime, and grapefruit. citron produces anthocyanins in its young leaves and flowers, as do species in genera closely related to citrus, but mandarins do not, and pummelo varieties that produce anthocyanins have not been repo ...201728196843
partial purification of tumour reducing principle from helicanthis elasticus (fam. loranthaceae).extracts from plants of loranthaceae family collected from 15 host trees were screened for their cytocidal activity to tumour cells. biologically active extracts prepared from helicanthis elasticus grown on mangifera indica and citrus maxima (host trees) were partially purified by the gel filtration method. the purified material was found to be cytotoxic in vitro and reduced solid and ascites tumours in mice when given either simultaneously or prophylactically. the partially purified material wa ...19948019988
flavanone glycoside biosynthesis in citrus: chalcone synthase, udp-glucose:flavanone-7-o-glucosyl-transferase and -rhamnosyl-transferase activities in cell-free extracts.previous indirect evidence suggested that the biosynthesis of flavonoids in citrus may not proceed via the usual chalcone synthase reaction and that glycosylation occurs during chalcone formation and not afterward, as has been reported in other species. we detected chalcone-synthase and udp-glucose:flavanone-7-o-glucosyl-transferase activities in cell-free extracts of citrus. the glucosylated flavanone was further rhamnosylated when exogenous udp-glucose and nadph were added to the extract. chal ...198916667183
pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. huanglongbing (hlb) is a destructive disease of citrus. hlb-pathogen 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in hlb-affected plants. we investigated the effects of 'ca. l. asiaticus' infection on nitrog ...201526419510
comparison of the inhibition of monoamine oxidase and butyrylcholinesterase activities by infusions from green tea and some citrus peels.this study sought to investigate the effect of infusions from green tea (camellia sinensis) and some citrus peels [shaddock (citrus maxima), grapefruit (citrus paradisi), and orange (citrus sinensis)] on key enzymes relevant to the management of neurodegenerative conditions [monoamine oxidase (mao) and butyrylcholinesterase (bche)]. the total phenol contents and antioxidant activities as typified by their 2,2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (abts) radicals scavenging abiliti ...201425243093
effect of floral sources on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of honeys in taiwan.we evaluated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of honey made from different floral sources, including the medicinal herb bidens pilosa, fruit trees, dimocarpus longan, litchi chinensis, and citrus maxima, the taiwanese endemic plant aglaia formosana, and a multifloral forest. the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the honey made from b. pilosa were significantly higher than those of the other honeys. the honey from b. pilosa also had significantly greater sca ...201323561193
fungus-insect gall of phlebopus portentosus.phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical yunnan, china, and northern thailand. in its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. the galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of p. portentosus. therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". thus far six root mealy bug species in the f ...201525344264
functional food applications of dextran from weissella cibaria rba12 from pummelo (citrus maxima).weissella cibaria rba12 isolated from pummelo from northeast india produces a dextran composed of 97% α-(1→6) linkages in the main chain and 3% α-(1→3) branched linkages. the in vitro prebiotic activity of dextran-rba12 was explored. dextran-rba12 displayed enhanced growth of probiotic bifidobacterium and lactobacillus spp., and controlled growth of non-probiotic enteric bacteria. dextran-rba12 showed superior resistance to physiological barriers with a maximum hydrolysis of 0.51%, 0.31% and 0.2 ...201727992769
substrate preference of citrus naringenin rhamnosyltransferases and their application to flavonoid glycoside production in fission yeast.flavonoids, which comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolites, have received increased attention in recent years due to their wide range of features beneficial to human health. one of the most abundant flavonoid skeletons in citrus species is the flavanone naringenin, which is accumulated as glycosides containing terminal rhamnose (rha) after serial glycosylation steps. the linkage type of rha residues is a determining factor in the bitterness of the citrus fruit. such rha residues ar ...201626433966
biological control of phytophthora palmivora causing root rot of pomelo using chaetomium spp.phytophthora diseases have become a major impediment in the citrus production in thailand. in this study, an isolate of phytophthora denominated as phy02 was proven to be causal pathogen of root rot of pomelo (citrus maxima) in thailand. the isolate phy02 was morphologically characterized and identified as phytophthora palmivora based on molecular analysis of an internal transcribed spacer rdna sequence. this work also presents in vitro evaluations of the capacities of chaetomium spp. to control ...201525892917
efficacy of chaetomium species as biological control agents against phytophthora nicotianae root rot in citrus.thailand is one of the largest citrus producers in southeast asia. pathogenic infection by phytophthora, however, has become one of major impediments to production. this study identified a pathogenic oomycete isolated from rotted roots of pomelo (citrus maxima) in thailand as phytophthora nicotianae by the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal dna sequence analysis. then, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of chaetomium globosum, chaetomium lucknowense, chaetomium cupreum and their cru ...201526539045
evaluation of antidepressant-like effect of citrus maxima leaves in animal models of depression.this study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of citrus maxima merr. (rutaceae).201123492865
antitumor activity of citrus maxima (burm.) merr. leaves in ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell-treated mice.context. the plant citrus maxima merr. (rutaceae), commonly known as shaddock or pomelo is indigenous to tropical parts of asia. the objective of present study is to evaluate the methanol extract of citrus maxima leaves for its antitumor activity against ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell in swiss albino mice. experimental design. the antitumor activity of methanol extract of citrus maxima leaves (mecm) was evaluated against ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cell line in swiss albino mice. 2 × 10(6) ...201122084708
the inhibitory activity of pomelo essential oil on the bacterial biofilms development on soft contact lenses.the aim of present study was to investigate the microbial colonization of worn contact lenses (cls) and to evaluate the inhibitory effect of pomelo (citrus maxima) peels essential oil on the biofilm development on unworn cls. the essential oil was isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, twenty compounds being isolated. the antimicrobial activity of pomelo oil was tested against s. epidermidis and p. aeruginosa strains, known for their abi ...201021434591
chemical profile, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of citrus maxima burm. and citrus sinensis (l.) osbeck essential oils and their cyclic monoterpene, dl-limonene.the study deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of citrus maxima and citrus sinensis essential oils (eos) and their phytochemical composition. the eos were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical profile was determined through gc and gc-ms analysis. both the eos and their 1:1 combination showed broad fungitoxic spectrum against different food contaminating moulds. the eos and their combination completely inhibited aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)) production at 500 ppm ...201020385194
pharmacological properties of citrus and their ancient and medieval uses in the mediterranean region.this paper reviews the pharmacological properties of mediterranean-grown citrus species (citrus l., rutaceae), including citron (citrus medica l.), lime (citrus xauantiifolia [christm.] swingle), lemon (citrus xlimon [l.] osbeck), bitter orange (citrus xaurantium l.) and pomelo (citrus maxima [burm.] merr.), as referred to in ancient, medieval and 16th century sources. the virtues of the species reported in these texts were compared to those known to modern science. a much broader spectrum of ph ...200415652281
viability of 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus' prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium.huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium 'candidatus liberibacter asiaticus'. infection with 'ca. l. asiaticus' is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding 'ca. l. asiaticus' biology and pathogenesis is essential to develop a treatment. however, 'ca. l. asiaticus' cannot currently be successfully cultured, limiting its study. to gain insight into the conditions conducive for growth of 'ca. l. asiaticus' in vitro, 'ca. l. asiaticus' ...201423883155
structure-function relationship of the foam-like pomelo peel (citrus maxima)-an inspiration for the development of biomimetic damping materials with high energy dissipation.the mechanical properties of artificial foams are mainly determined by the choice of bulk materials and relative density. in natural foams, in contrast, variation to optimize properties is achieved by structural optimization rather than by conscious substitution of bulk materials. pomelos (citrus maxima) have a thick foam-like peel which is capable of dissipating considerable amounts of kinetic energy and thus this fruit represents an ideal role model for the development of biomimetic impact dam ...201323648799
linked 5s and 45s rdna sites are highly conserved through the subfamily aurantioideae (rutaceae).sites of 5s and 45s rdna are more commonly located on different chromosomes of most angiosperms. previous investigations have shown that in the subfamily aurantioideae these sites may appear closely linked (adjacent sites), as in poncirustrifoliata, or completely isolated, as in some species of citrus. in the present work, the distribution of rdna sites was investigated in representatives of 9 genera of aurantioideae by fish and cma banding, aiming to understand the evolution of adjacent sites i ...201323635472
pummelo protects doxorubicin-induced cardiac cell death by reducing oxidative stress, modifying glutathione transferase expression, and preventing cellular senescence.citrus flavonoids have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (cvd) risks prominently due to their antioxidant effects. here we investigated the protective effect of pummelo (citrus maxima, cm) fruit juice in rat cardiac h9c2 cells against doxorubicin (dox-) induced cytotoxicity. four antioxidant compositions (ascorbic acid, hesperidin, naringin, and gallic acid) were determined by hplc. cm significantly increased cardiac cell survival from dox toxicity as evaluated by mtt assay. reduction ...201323401708
shaddock peels (citrus maxima) phenolic extracts inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin i-converting enzyme activities: a nutraceutical approach to diabetes this study, the interactions of free and bound phenolic-rich extracts from shaddock peels (popular in folklore for the management of diabetes and hypertension) with α-amylase and α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes) and angiotensin i-converting enzyme (ace) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. the free phenolics of shaddock (citrus maxima) peels were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residu ...201422813568
inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro by some citrus fruit juices.this study sought to characterize the effects of some citrus fruit juices (shaddock [citrus maxima], grapefruit [citrus paradisii], lemon [citrus limoni], orange [citrus sinensis], and tangerine [citrus reticulata]) on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. the total phenolic content, radical scavenging abilities, and inhibition of fe(2+)-induced malondialdehyde (mda) production in rats brain homogenate in vitro were also assessed. orange had significantly (p<.05) higher phenolic content than t ...201222400910
temperature thresholds and degree-day model for marmara gulosa (lepidoptera: gracillariidae).the developmental thresholds for marmara gulosa guillén & davis (lepidoptera: gracillariidae) were investigated in the laboratory by using 17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 degrees c. the lowest mortality occurred in cohorts exposed to 25 and 29 degrees c. other temperatures caused >10% mortality primarily in egg and first and second instar sap-feeding larvae. linear regression analysis approximated the lower developmental threshold at 12.2 degrees c. high mortality and slow developmental rate at 33 degree ...201121882694
development of molecular markers linked to a gene controlling fruit acidity in citrus.fruit juice ph, titratable acidity, or citric acid content was measured in 6 populations derived from an acidless pummelo (pummelo 2240) (citrus maxima (burm.) merrill). the acidless trait in pummelo 2240 is controlled by a single recessive gene called acitric. using bulked segregant analysis, three rapd markers were identified as linked to acitric. rapd marker opz20410, which mapped 1.2 cm from acitric, was cloned and sequenced, and a sequence characterized amplified region (scar) marker (scz20 ...199718464869
hplc comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction of coumarins from the peel of citrus maxima fruit.the efficiency of carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extraction (sfe) of the biologically active compounds imperatorin, meranzin and meranzin hydrate from the fruit peel of citrus maxima merr. has been compared with that of solvent extraction with acetone. under the best sfe conditions tested for the three coumarins, which involved extraction at 50 degrees c and 27.6 mpa, the extractive efficiencies were 84, 76 and 18% for imperatorin, meranzin and meranzin hydrate, respectively. the presence of ...201416315491
zabon phytophotodermatitis: first case reports due to citrus maxima.zabon (citrus maxima) is a large citrus fruit belonging to the rutaceae family and containing a variety of psoralens including 5-methoxypsoralen. we describe the first case reports of a phytophotodermatitis caused by zabon.200212004296
molecular characterization of the mitochondrial citrate synthase gene of an acidless pummelo (citrus maxima).pummelo (citrus maxima [burm.] merrill) cdnas encoding mitochondrial citrate synthase (mcs) were cloned by reverse transcription of juice-sac poly(a)+ mrna, followed by taq polymerase-mediated amplification. the nucleotide sequence of the citrus gene (cit1) is 77% conserved relative to plant mrnas for mcs. the encoded polypeptide includes a mitochondrial targeting signal at its amino terminus; all 20 putative active-site residues of the citrus enzyme are conserved. southern hybridization showed ...19968704147
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