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kaposi's sarcoma: a byproduct of tumour rejection.it is suggested that kaposi's sarcoma is the result of a chronic immunological reaction between antigenically altered or transformed lymphoid cells and normal lymphocytes. in the course of this local graft-versus-host type activity, an angiogenesis factor is liberated and intense proliferation of mesenchymal and endothelial cells ensues. during the g.v.h.-like activity, an oncogenic virus is either transferred to or induced in the cells responsive to the angiogenesis factor. thus, the stage is s ...197552056
de novo kaposi's sarcoma in renal transplantation. case report and brief review.this report describes a de novo development of kaposi's sarcoma in a puerto-rician man 9 months after a cadaveric renal transplant. progression of the disease was observed despite local irradiation, while the patient remained immunosuppressed with prednisone and azathioprine. this was accompanied by depressed immunologic tests. discontinuation of azathioprine and addition of chemotherapy (bleomycin and vincristine), while continuing prednisone to maintain functional survival of renal allograft, ...197659624
antibody patterns to herpesviruses in kaposi's sarcoma: serological association of european kaposi's sarcoma with cytomegalovirus.sera from patients with kaposi's sarcoma (ks) were examined for antibody titres to cytomegalovirus (cmv), epstein-barr virus (ebv) and herpes simplex virus (hsv) types 1 and 2 by four techniques: indirect haemagglutination (iha), complement fixation (cf), virus neutralization (nt) and indirect immunofluorescence (if). the patients were classified, according to the stage of disease, as progressive and regressive. control sera were obtained from healthy adults, matched for age, sex, race, socioeco ...1975166949
partial characterization of a herpes-type virus (k9v) derived from kaposi's sarcoma.a herpes-type virus that was originally isolated from a cell culture (designated k9v) derived from a tumor biopsy specimen from a patient with kaposi's sarcoma was partially characterized. the host range of k9v, as determined by the induction of virus-specific cytopathology, synthesis of antigens, and plaque formation, was limited to human cells and particularly to fibroblasts. immunofluorescence and complement fixation assays confirmed the specificity of the presence of cytomegalovirus (cmv)-ty ...1977195073
antibody patterns to herpesviruses in kaposi's sarcoma. ii. serological association of american kaposi's sarcoma with cytomegalovirus.the prominent finding of this extended serologic analysis on american and african kaposi's sarcoma (ks) patients and appropriately matched control groups is the detection of a specific serologic association of cytomegalovirus (cmv) with american ks patients. all american ks sera contained cmv antibodies and their geometric mean titers (gmt) were significantly higher than those in sera of melanoma patients (gmt ratio k = 5.3 to 7.7 by complement fixation [cf], k = 8.9 by indirect hemagglutination ...1978212367
[kaposi's sarcoma and aplastic pancytopenia: simultaneous occurrence in a patient].a 49 year old patient developed simultaneously a histologically verified kaposi's sarcoma and an idiopathic aplastic pancytopenia. an association of these perhaps virus-induced diseases has not been reported until now. consequences concerning the diagnostic approach of changes in peripheral blood cells in patients with kaposi's sarcoma are delineated. changes in peripheral blood and bone marrow in patients with kaposi's sarcoma are discussed.1979521277
[association of kaposi's sarcoma and hodgkin's disease].the authors report a new case of the association hodgkin's disease and kaposi's sarcoma. a woman of north african origin and suffering from mediastinal hodgkin's disease developed, after the commencement of polychemotherapy with radiotherapy, kaposi's cutaneous sarcoma, typical, clinically, histologically and by electron microscopy. in the light of this new case, the authors review 41 cases of the hodgkin-kaposi association found in the literature and discuss the inter-relations between kaposi's ...19761015798
management of oral health in persons with hiv infection.prevention and treatment of oral disease is required to maintain quality of life and to improve prognosis of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). management requires a team approach, and close collaboration with the appropriate responsible physicians and other health care workers is necessary. oral infection is frequent and usually opportunistic, and management is based on certain principles. infections may disseminate and can be persistent and severe; multiple concurre ...19921312692
cytomegalovirus, angiomatosis, and kaposi's sarcoma: new observations of a debated relationship.kaposi's sarcoma (ks) encompasses a broad spectrum of lesions ranging from foci of muco-cutaneous angiomatosis to tumor masses of internal organs. its strong association with immune deficiency and the marked differences in incidence between the various populations at risk are suggestive of an infectious etiology. the agent most often suspected of being implicated in the etiology of ks is cytomegalovirus (cmv); however, despite sustained research on this subject, its role remains controversial. t ...19921315438
oral signs and symptoms in 160 greek hiv-infected patients.one hundred and sixty hiv-infected greek patients were prospectively examined and the oral signs and symptoms were recorded. at the time of oral examination, 76 patients were asymptomatic seropositive, 47 were in arc stage and 37 had aids. one or more oral findings were recorded in 90.6% of the patients while a total of 33 different lesions were observed. the more common oral lesions (highly suspicious) were candidiasis (61%), hairy leukoplakia (24%), periodontitis (19%), necrotizing gingivitis ...19921316436
cytomegalovirus pseudotumor presenting as bowel obstruction in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.although cytomegalovirus (cmv) can be fatal to patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids), it usually causes few, if any, symptoms. the virus has an affinity for the alimentary tract, especially the ileum and right colon. cmv infections of the gut are often erosive, resulting in enterocolitis, hemorrhage, or intestinal perforation. inflammatory mass formation is rare. kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma are established causes of bowel obstruction in patients with aids. this report des ...19921317095
an exploratory analysis of survival with aids using a nonparametric tree-structured approach.we illustrate an analysis with classification and regression trees applied to survival data. through this application, we provide a description of the opportunistic diseases and sociodemographic factors that contribute to survival among people with human immunodeficiency virus disease. the analyses are based on 43,795 cases reported to the centers for disease control between january 1, 1984, and december 31, 1987. we used vital status as of december 31, 1989, to estimate mortality rates. we iden ...19921322191
chronic verrucous varicella-zoster virus infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids). histologic and molecular biologic findings.verrucous skin lesions have been attributed to various herpes viruses in immunosuppressed patients, including those with human immunodeficiency virus infection (hiv). we examined such lesions from six hiv-infected patients to determine the range of microscopic findings present and to establish which herpesviruses were present. verrucous epidermal hyperplasia, pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia, and massive hyperkeratosis correlate with the warty clinical appearance of the lesions. herpetic cytopath ...19921324620
discrete gastrointestinal mass lesions caused by cytomegalovirus in patients with aids: report of three cases and review.we report the detailed clinical features of discrete mass lesions of the gastrointestinal tract caused by cytomegalovirus in three patients who had the acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome. the disease occurred in the fundus of the stomach in one patient and in the cecum in the other two persons. the symptoms as well as radiographic and endoscopic findings in each case are described and are shown to be indistinguishable from those resulting from a neoplasm. the diagnosis was established by t ...19921330013
pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-related kaposi's sarcoma.infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 is associated with a marked increase in the incidence of kaposi's sarcoma. recent studies suggest that the risk of kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus infection is increased with oral-fecal contact and that a sexually transmitted agent possibly related to human papillomavirus-16 could be involved. exposure to this or another sexually transmitted agent apparently alters both the morphology and growth regulation of the kaposi's sarcoma ...19921333810
increased prostaglandin e2 and camp phosphodiesterase levels in kaposi's sarcoma--a virus against host defense mechanism.in kaposi's sarcoma tissue, prostaglandin e2 (pge2) levels and camp phosphodiesterase levels were found to be higher than in surrounding normal tissue. we have shown earlier that pge2 suppresses interferon (ifn) alpha production. high levels of camp phosphodiesterases result in low camp levels. thus, this phenomenon may be involved in altered immunologic resistance, growth and differentiation.19921335594
risk of kaposi's sarcoma and sexual practices associated with faecal contact in homosexual or bisexual men with aids.the causal agent of kaposi's sarcoma is unknown. that the disorder is ten times more common in homosexual or bisexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) than in other human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) transmission groups suggests that a certain aspect of their behaviour exposes them to the agent or facilitates its spread. we therefore assessed social and demographic characteristics, including sexual behaviour, of 65 homosexual or bisexual men with aids from london. sexual pr ...19921347337
human papillomavirus type 16 and kaposi's sarcoma. 19921348340
human papillomavirus type 16 and kaposi's sarcoma. 19921348342
high level of htlv-i specific protein expression in a patient with adult t-cell leukemia, chronic progressive myelopathy and kaposi's sarcoma.analysis was made of serum anti-htlv-i antibodies, virus-specific proteins in peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) and proviruses in lymphocyte dna of a patient with adult t-cell leukemia (atl), kaposi's sarcoma, and chronic myelopathy. using western blot and pcr (with hiv-1 specific primers), it was shown that kaposi's sarcoma was not linked to hiv infection. western blot analysis of serum revealed antibodies against p19, p24 and pr 53 of htlv-i. examination of proteins in fresh pbl by western bl ...19921352562
[kaposi's sarcoma in tainan: report of five cases].kaposi's sarcoma (ks) is an uncommon cutaneous neoplasm with an increased incidence among jews and italians of europe and north america and negroes of equatory africa. in recent years, several cases have been diagnosed in aids patients and in patients who have undergone organ transplantation or received immunosuppressant treatments. we have diagnosed five cases of ks over a 3-year period in our department. they include four men and one women, aged from 58 to 79 years, and who were born and had l ...19921358363
prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.following the initial observation by dr. margaret fischl that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole can prevent pneumocystis carinii infection in patients with kaposi's sarcoma, initiating prophylaxis for pneumocystic infection in all patients with less than 200 cd4+ cells/mm3 has become accepted practice. this prophylactic intervention has been found not only to reduce the development of pneumonia due to p. carinii but also to prolong life. drs. henry masur and joseph a. kovacs first reviewed prophylax ...19921350925
molluscum contagiosum in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. a review of twenty-seven patients.molluscum contagiosum (mc) is a common and at times severely disfiguring cutaneous viral infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection.19921357010
the clinical application of the interferons: a review. nsw therapeutic assessment group.to review the clinical information on the use of alpha, beta and gamma interferons and to classify the use of alpha interferons in australia according to approved indications, indications for which there is good supporting evidence and indications where therapy is under investigation; and to estimate the cost of therapy with alpha interferons in new south wales in 1991.19921376397
alterations in tumor angiogenesis associated with stable expression of the hiv tat gene.recent evidence suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv) trans-activator gene (tat) has transforming properties and may be a causative factor in the development of certain types of cancers, in particular kaposi's sarcoma (i.e., vogel j. et al. nature 335:606-611, 1988). to help elucidate the potential role or roles of the hiv tat gene in neoplastic transformation, cell lines were constructed that constitutively express a functional tat gene product. hela cells were coelectropo ...19921379815
human t-cell leukemia virus type i or a related retrovirus in patients with mycosis fungoides/sézary syndrome and kaposi's sarcoma.antibodies reactive with human t-cell leukemia virus type i (htlv-i) proteins p19, p24, gp46, p56, and gp68 were detected in four of 27 patients with mycosis fungoides/sézary syndrome (mf/ss) and one patient with kaposi's sarcoma using radioimmunoprecipitation and western blot analysis. seroreactivity patterns to htlv-i proteins of mf/ss sera were indeterminate or limited in comparison with sera of patients with adult t-cell leukemia/lymphoma. htlv-i gag- and tax/rex-specific dna was demonstrate ...19921353704
neoplastic disease in the head and neck of patients with aids.immunosuppression increases the risk of developing malignancies. in immunosuppression due to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) disease the common head and neck tumors are kaposi's sarcoma and non-hodgkin's lymphoma. squamous cell carcinoma has also been reported. kaposi's sarcoma is the commonest neoplastic disease in aids. the incidence of lymphoma is rapidly increasing. this article reviews the incidence, clinical presentation and management of these diseases in the head and neck in aids pati ...19921402051
indications for open cervical node biopsy in hiv-positive patients.open node biopsy was the method of choice for diagnosing human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection before serologic testing became available. currently, the otolaryngologist is often called on to assist in the management of hiv-positive patients with troublesome cervical adenopathy. today's questions are: what is the place of fine-needle aspiration (fna), and when is open cervical node biopsy indicated. a retrospective review was undertaken of 93 consecutive cervical node biopsies performed b ...19921408219
[the cervicofacial manifestations of kaposi's sarcoma and of non-hodgkin's lymphomas in hiv-infected patients].infection from human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is well known for the particular host susceptibility to a variety of opportunistic infections and unusual malignant neoplasms. although no tumor develops exclusively in concomitance with hiv infection, malignancies in these patients have different clinical behaviour, response to treatment and prognosis than the pattern observed in hiv negative hosts. kaposi's sarcoma (eks) and non-hodgkin's lymphoma (nhl) are tumors per se diagnostic of aids in p ...19921414319
iontophoresis of vinblastine into normal skin and for treatment of kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. the military medical consortium for applied retroviral research.patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) and who have disfiguring and/or painful cutaneous lesions of kaposi's sarcoma (ks) may not be candidates for systemic chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. intralesional vinblastine sulfate, as a single-agent chemotherapeutic drug, has been used with some success to treat ks in patients who are hiv-1 positive. however, some patients may not tolerate the pain associated with injection of vinblastine. transcutaneous iontophore ...19921417025
the role of drugs in the origin of aids.it is proposed that the new american and european aids epidemics are caused by recreational and anti-hiv drugs rather than by human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). chronologically, the aids epidemic in the 1980s followed a massive escalation in the consumption of recreational drugs that started in the 1960s and 70s. epidemiologically, both epidemics derive about 80% of their victims from the same groups of 20-44 year-olds, of which 90% are males. in america 32% of these are intravenous drug users ...19921421032
inhibition of development of kaposi's sarcoma-related lesions by a bacterial cell wall complex.in vitro and in vivo model systems for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-associated kaposi's sarcoma (ks) were used to evaluate compounds for their potential as therapeutic agents. a sulfated polysaccharide-peptidoglycan compound (sp-pg) produced by bacteria controlled the in vitro growth of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids)-associated, ks-derived spindle-shaped cells (aids-ks cells) at noncytotoxic concentrations. angiogenesis induced by aids-ks cells in the chicken chorio ...19921371891
immunologic markers of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are time-dependent and illness-specific.since prevalent cohorts may be biased by the duration of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection (onset bias), it is useful to assess the potential predictive value of markers in incident cohorts of hiv-positive subjects for whom the date of seroconversion is known or can reliably be estimated. of 131 homosexual men with hiv-1 seroconversion from new york city and washington, dc, who were evaluated annually beginning in 1982, 60 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) by the end ...19921384311
head and neck malignancies associated with hiv infection.immunosuppressed persons are at greater risk of developing malignancies. in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) immunosuppression the most common oral cancers are kaposi's sarcoma and non-hodgkin's lymphoma. squamous cell carcinoma has also been reported to be associated with hiv disease. kaposi's sarcoma is the most frequent neoplastic disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and is by far the most common in the head and neck area. this article reviews the prevalence, clinical features, and ...19921372399
effects of cytokines from activated immune cells on vascular cell growth and hiv-1 gene expression. implications for aids-kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis.kaposi's sarcoma (ks) arises more frequently in homosexual and bisexual men than in other groups of hiv-1 infected individuals. clinico-epidemiologic data indicate that homosexuals often are infected with multiple microbial agents and/or subjected to other antigenic stimuli, preceding or accompanying hiv-1 infection. signs of immune activation, in fact, frequently have been detected in these individuals, and the onset of ks can precede any sign of immunodeficiency. these data have suggested that ...19921431144
ocular tissue involvement in hiv infection: immunological and pathological aspects.the cns afflictions in aids are myriad and suggest a tropism of hiv to neural tissue. ocular involvement is a frequent manifestation of the hiv infection, resulting in a high incidence of blindness within this patient population. ocular lesions include cotton wool spots, presumably from hiv-induced microvasculopathy, retinal hemorrhage in cytomegalovirus retinitis and conjunctival kaposi's sarcoma. these manifestations have been noted in up to 71% of aids patients. in fact, ocular disease is oft ...19921431423
clinical aspects of kaposi's sarcoma.kaposi's sarcoma is the most common tumor found in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. this opportunistic neoplasm has characteristics of a sexually transmitted disease. growth factors, cytokines, immune suppression, and interaction with infectious organisms all appear to play a role in the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disorder. the manifestations of kaposi's sarcoma are protean, and lesions may appear at any time in the course of human immunodeficiency virus disease, remain ...19921457502
human immunodeficiency virus as a risk factor in miscellaneous cancers.the association of malignancies, such as non-hodgkin's lymphoma and kaposi's sarcoma, with human immunodeficiency virus infection has been recognized since the beginning of the epidemic. however, an increasing number of tumors not diagnostic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has been described in this setting. taking into consideration that survival of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection is increasing because of improvement of supportive care and better control of human immu ...19921457506
the absence of tat sequences in tissues of hiv-negative patients with epidemic kaposi's sarcoma.tat, an essential regulatory protein of hiv, acts as a growth factor for kaposi's sarcoma (ks)-derived cells in culture. we tested the hypothesis that hiv-negative epidemic ks patients who are also at high risk for hiv disease might have been infected with a defective hiv-1 virus that retained the ability to express tat.19921466845
[bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis in aids. two cases].bacillary angiomatosis is a newly recognized multisystem opportunistic infection seen in the human immunodeficiency virus infection. the disease is marked by papular and nodular vascular skin lesions that clinically resemble kaposi's sarcoma. histologically, the lesions are different and show clusters of bacteria showing the structure of gram negative bacilli staining with warthin-starry stain. transmission electron microscopy shows that the organisms (1 to 2 microns) have a trilamellar wall str ...19921470624
recognizing the oral manifestations of aids.the first sign of hiv infection may be an unusual or rapidly progressive condition of the oral cavity, including malignancies such as kaposi's sarcoma. early diagnosis of these oral conditions can lead to early diagnosis of hiv infection and subsequent treatment with antiretroviral agents that may improve the prognosis. this illustrated review outlines the presenting signs and symptoms of the most common oral manifestations of the aids virus, including hairy leukoplakia, candidiasis, kaposi's sa ...19921449978
kaposi's sarcoma: a review of gene expression and ultrastructure of ks spindle cells in vivo.the ultrastructural features and the gene expression pattern of kaposi's sarcoma (ks) spindle cells in vivo suggest that ks is a tumor of the mixed cell type. the expression pattern of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the tumor lesion, together with the results obtained from in vitro characterization of ks-derived cells, provide evidence that paracrine mechanisms of growth factor action are important for the maintenance of ks. the reports on virus infection of ks cells suggest an indirect rol ...19921457189
malignancy in autoimmune diseases.rheumatoid arthritis (ra) represents the autoimmune disease that has been most studied in relation to malignancy. an examination of all published cohort studies has indicated a 9.7-fold increase of non-hodgkin's lymphoma among ra patients after immunosuppressive therapy, and a 2.5-fold increase in the absence of such treatment. corresponding data for sjögren's syndrome point to a similar contrast. these findings are inseparable from the hypothesis of impaired immunosurveillance which implies tha ...19921503633
eight year prospective study of hiv infection in a cohort of homosexual men--clinical progression, immunological and virological markers.three hundred and fourteen homosexual/bisexual men at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection (170 seroprevalent hiv-positive, 144 seronegative) were prospectively studied over 8 years to assess rates of hiv infection and disease progression, in conjunction with cellular and hiv serological markers. in hiv-positive subjects, cd4+ lymphocyte counts rose strikingly during the period surrounding seroconversion, then fell progressively over the intervening period to a mean level of 300 ...19921504157
endocrine complications associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.the causes and management of endocrine disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection are reviewed. endocrine disorders observed in hiv-positive patients include adrenal abnormalities, hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism, pituitary insufficiency, pancreatic abnormalities, thyroid and parathyroid disorders, and testicular abnormalities. opportunistic pathogens implicated in these disorders include cytomegalovirus, cryptococcus, toxoplasma, mycobacteria, candida, and aspergillu ...19921511543
pulmonary function in human immunodeficiency virus infection. a prospective 18-month study of serial lung function in 474 patients.to investigate the development of a reduced dlco in patients with hiv-related disease, we studied 474 hiv-seropositive patients and performed serial lung function measurements over 18 months. the mean values of dlco at presentation were lower in patients with more advanced hiv disease compared with asymptomatic hiv-seropositive patients (dlco 88% of predicted). when compared with the dlco in asymptomatic hiv-seropositive patients, the dlco had reduced values in patients with persistent generaliz ...19921519857
correlation of oral disease with the walter reed staging scheme for hiv-1-seropositive patients.this study correlates the prevalent oral disease findings in 390 patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) with their level of staging (walter reed) and depletion of peripheral helper t lymphocytes (cd4+). chronic lymphadenopathy of the head and neck was a common finding (59.2%) that occurred early in staging progression and did not correlate with depression of helper t-cell levels. of the three prevalent oral disease findings (oral hairy leukoplakia (ohl), candidiasi ...19921532056
auditory brain stem responses in patients with human immunotropic virus infection of different stages.thirty patients (26 men, 4 women) with human immunotropic virus infection of different stages were examined. eleven patients had a history of i.v. drug abuse, nine patients had a history of treated lues infection, and one patient suffered from kaposi's sarcoma. at the time of the examination, opportunistic infections or acute encephalitis were not apparent in any patient. all patients underwent otoneurological examinations, including pure-tone audiometry, caloric vestibular testing, and recordin ...19921541374
identification of a major growth factor for aids-kaposi's sarcoma cells as oncostatin m.conditioned medium from human t cell leukemia virus type 2 (htlv-ii)-infected t cells supports the growth and long-term culture of cells derived from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids)-associated kaposi's sarcoma lesions (aids-ks cells). a protein of 30 kilodaltons was purified from conditioned medium that supports the growth of aids-ks cells. the amino-terminal sequence of this protein was identical to the amino-terminal sequence of oncostatin m, a glycoprotein that inhibits the growth o ...19921542792
hiv infection in patients over 55 years of age.we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in patients greater than 55 years of age at the time of diagnosis and make comparisons with younger hiv-infected patients. patients were selected by stratification according to age (greater than 55 years and less than 40 years) from a large cohort, and information was obtained by review of charts. three samples of younger patients were used for general comparison (sample 1), for analysis ...19921548571
hiv disease and aids in women: current knowledge and a research agenda.the study of the clinical manifestations, progression, and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection in women has begun in earnest. aids-defining diseases that are more common in women than in men include wasting syndrome, esophageal candidiasis, and herpes simplex virus disease, whereas kaposi's sarcoma is rare. non-aids-defining gynecological conditions such as vaginal candida infections and cervical pathology are prevalent among women at all stages of hiv infection. associations ...19921453325
[bacteremia caused by non-typhoid salmonellas during an infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in the african adult].infection caused by non-typhous salmonellae during the course of hiv infection is known since 1983. the authors report on 103 bacteremiae of this type found in one year. diagnosis has been based on hemocultures. 86 patients out of 103 were hiv+. all of them were febrile. 67 suffered from digestive disorders, 33 with diarrhoea. splenomegalia was noted in 16 cases and consciousness troubles in 13 cases. at the admission, 8 complications were observed. other infections were associated in 86 cases p ...19921494316
aids acquired by drug consumption and other noncontagious risk factors.the hypothesis that human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) is a new, sexually transmitted virus that causes aids has been entirely unproductive in terms of public health benefits. moreover, it fails to predict the epidemiology of aids, the annual aids risk and the very heterogeneous aids diseases of infected persons. the correct hypothesis must explain why: (1) aids includes 25 previously known diseases and two clinically and epidemiologically very different epidemics, one in america and europe, the ...19921492119
hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of aids-related sclerosing cholangitis.twenty human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive patients were studied who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, with or without abnormal biochemical liver function tests, in whom aids-related sclerosing cholangitis (asc) was suspected. the results obtained from hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99tcm-iodida were compared with data from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ercp), ultrasound and histological data from liver biopsy or post mortem. 99tcm-iodida was abnorma ...19921557214
increasing impact of hiv infection on hospitalizations in the united states, 1983-1988.during 1983-1988, hospitalizations of patients with a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection increased from 1.3 to 33.7 per 100,000 persons. we used the national hospital discharge survey, which is based on a representative sample of discharges from nonfederal short-stay hospitals, to describe illnesses among hospitalized patients with hiv infection. of 222,200 such hospitalizations during 1983-1988, most occurred among persons who were 25-44 years of age (79%), white (66%), a ...19921560347
an animal model of kaposi's sarcoma. i. immune status of cd1 mice undergoing dimethyl hydrazine treatment to induce angiosarcomas and other malignancies.dimethylhydrazine (dmh) induces colonic cancer and angiosarcomas in mice. in order to determine pertinence of mouse angiosarcoma as a model to aids associated kaposi's sarcoma (ks), we investigated if immune dysfunction occurred during tumor development by dmh. outbred cd1 male mice received once weekly dmh a 20 mg/kg body weight dose s.c. for 33 weeks. every two weeks initially and then every week groups of dmh-treated and control animals were sacrificed to determine a) peripheral blood and spl ...19921567154
human t-lymphotropic virus type i-associated myelopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.we describe two cases of serologically confirmed human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i)-associated myelopathy involving north american men coinfected by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1. our first patient suffered from a gradually progressive spastic paraparesis for 10 years prior to presenting with kaposi's sarcoma, while our second patient developed subacutely progressive spastic paraparesis in the setting of full-blown acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. autopsy examination of the ...19921568747
the concurrent presence of systemic disease pathogens and cutaneous kaposi's sarcoma in the same lesion: histoplasma capsulatum and kaposi's sarcoma coexisting in a single skin lesion in a patient with aids.the concurrent presence of infectious organisms within cutaneous lesions of kaposi's sarcoma (ks) in persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) has been demonstrated. we report the first patient with aids in whom both ks and histoplasma capsulatum were documented within the same cutaneous lesion. pathogenic organisms of other fungal, mycobacterial, and viral diseases in ks lesions in other patients seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus are reviewed. possible explanations ...19921569241
detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus in mononuclear cells by in situ polymerase chain reaction.studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) infection have attempted to quantitate the viral load correlate it with the degree of immune deficiency. in one study, only about 1 in 10,000 peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) expressed hiv-1, but in other studies, at least 1 in 100 cd4-positive cells was infected and harbored the hiv-1 provirus.19921569974
radiology of aids in the pediatric patient.the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) has involved the pediatric age group and is especially prevalent in babies born of mothers who are intravenous drug abusers or prostitutes. approximately 30% of children born to mothers who are seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) will develop hiv infection. there are several important differences in children and adults with aids. the incubation period of the disease is shorter, and initial clinical manifestations occur earlier in ...19921576831
survival of hemophilic males with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with and without risk factors for aids other than hemophilia.between january 1, 1981, and june 30, 1990, 1,514 hemophilia-associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) cases in males were diagnosed in the united states. in 1,394, hemophilia was reported as the sole risk factor. for an additional 120, other risk factors were reported: of 101 of these, 40 had homosexual/bisexual activity, 53 had a history of intravenous drug use, and 8 had both of these risk factors. we examined the demographic data and the survival data of two principal groups: male ...19921553956
hepatobiliary complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection has been associated with a number of hepatic and biliary tract disorders. case reports, series of liver biopsies, and postmortem studies that examined the hepatobiliary system were retrieved with a medlars search and form the basis of this review. the liver and biliary tract are frequently involved with opportunistic infections (most commonly mycobacteria and cytomegalovirus) and neoplasms (mainly kaposi's sarcoma) in patients with hiv infection. the ...19921558086
cluster analysis of the metastatic patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated kaposi's sarcoma.kaposi's sarcoma (ks) is a pleomorphic spindle cell lesion whose incidence has markedly increased among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), especially among those whose primary risk factor is homo/bisexual transmission. the question as to whether ks is even a true neoplasm still remains largely unsettled due to the body of epidemiologic and histologic evidence suggesting an infectious etiology of the lesion. accordingly, very few studies have been published regarding s ...19921555840
kaposi's sarcoma associated with adult t-cell leukaemia. 19921581223
aspiration cytology of lymphocyte-depleted hodgkin's lymphoma in a man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. a case report.we describe the case of a 39-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-positive man who was noted to have a chest wall mass on physical examination. fine needle aspiration of the mass showed atypical spindle cells. excisional biopsy of the mass revealed hodgkin's lymphoma with areas of lymphocyte depletion consisting of a proliferation of myofibroblastic cells. the myofibroblastic, lymphocyte-depleted areas in the hodgkin's lymphoma mass corresponded to the spindle cells seen in the aspirate. ...19921580125
perineal manifestations of hiv infection.individuals who are seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) frequently have disorders affecting the anorectum, yet little has been reported on this subject. we reviewed our initial experience with patients with hiv referred to the division of colon and rectal surgery. forty patients (age range, 19-45 years; mean, 32.2 years) were seen between 1985 and 1989. the mean duration of symptoms was six months (range, one week to six years). in 25 patients (63 percent), more than one anor ...19921582350
aids-associated kaposi's sarcoma and the mechanisms of interferon alpha's activity; a riddle within a puzzle.as yet, the pathogenesis of kaposi's sarcoma in the context of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) is not completely understood; this is also true for the mechanisms of action of interferon-alpha against this tumour. the present review focuses on recent developments that may provide some further insight into these issues. these include the angiogenesis of the tumour and the possible role of growth factors, such as the hiv-transactivating (tat) gene product and interleukin-6, the possib ...19921588254
recent development of studies on traditional chinese medicine in prophylaxis and treatment of aids.who statistics indicated that as of october 1, 1991 there were 418,403 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) patients in the world, and an estimated 5-10 million persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) were at risk of developing aids. 50% of aids victims have died. it has been reported that after 1 year of clinical use hiv could develop resistance to azt (azidothymidine), the only effective drug used worlwide and recommended for clinical use by the us government. aids ...19921597994
[the clinico-pathogenetic characteristics of kaposi's sarcoma].the paper is concerned with clinicomorphological characteristics of endemic, immune and epidemic (aids-associated) forms of kaposi's sarcoma (ks). recent experimental and clinical evidence suggests pathogenic contribution to ks of virus-induced depression of sex-linked genes and immunosuppression. combined action of these factors should be regarded when specifying current presentation of ks.19921608201
occult alveolar haemorrhage in bronchopulmonary kaposi's sarcoma.evidence of occult alveolar haemorrhage was sought by perls's staining of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to detect haemosiderin laden macrophages in 63 human immunodeficiency virus positive (hiv-1) men who underwent bronchoscopy. twenty three patients had bronchopulmonary kaposi's sarcoma; occult alveolar haemorrhage was present in 16 of these (including two in whom no tracheobronchial lesions were evident at bronchoscopy, but in whom the diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy). forty patients had ot ...19921624606
[pulmonary lesions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--analysis of 24 japanese autopsy cases with aids].the pulmonary lesions were studied in 24 autopsy cases of japanese patients with aids. the major pathological findings were opportunistic infections, which were the major clinical symptoms in some patients. the pathogens identified were as follows; pneumocystis carinii (pc) in 10, cytomegalovirus (cmv) in 14, atypical mycobacterium in 5, cryptococcus in 2, candida in 2, and nocardia in 1. pc pneumonia was prominent in 8 cases and was the cause of death. in such patients, the lung were heavy and ...19921630037
interferon-alpha, zidovudine, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: a phase i aids clinical trials group study in patients with kaposi's sarcoma associated with aids.to increase the hematologic tolerance of interferon-alpha (ifn alpha) and zidovudine combination therapy by the addition of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (gm-csf), and to evaluate the safety, tolerance, and potential efficacy of the combination in patients with kaposi's sarcoma and aids.19921634925
multicentric kaposi's sarcoma in a 5-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative renal allograft recipient.we describe the clinical and pathologic features of a case of pediatric multicentric kaposi's sarcoma (ks) associated with allograft transplantation in a human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-negative child. a lethal polyadenopathic and visceral ks occurred in a 5-year-old caribbean boy who had undergone an allogenic renal transplantation for diffuse mesangial sclerosis with end-stage renal failure 4 months previously. the hiv-1 and hiv-2 serologies were negative. despite its rarity, ks must be con ...19921644441
granulomatous vasculitis occurring after cutaneous herpes zoster despite absence of viral genome.granuloma annulare, sarcoidal and other granulomatous dermatitides, pseudolymphoma, lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma, and kaposi's sarcoma have been described as sequelae of herpes zoster. we report a new postzoster reaction, granulomatous vasculitis, that caused flat-topped papules restricted to the affected dermatome. polymerase chain reaction failed to detect varicella-zoster virus in a biopsy specimen. these results suggest that granulomatous vasculitis occurs without persistence of the viral gen ...19911648109
surgical pathology of the liver in hiv infection.in the 6-year period 1984-1989, 101 liver biopsies or 'needle necropsies' from human immunodeficiency virus positive patients were examined histologically. of these, only nine showed no abnormality whatsoever. the commonest histological findings were either fatty change or changes related to co-existent chronic viral hepatitis. granulomas were seen in 15 cases, four of which were positive for acid-fast bacilli. a range of organisms were recorded: cytomegalovirus (4); histoplasma capsulatum (1); ...19911653181
anorectal lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.in a prospective study, we analysed the anorectal lesions observed in 148 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and compared the data with those reported in the literature. the majority of the patients (97.3%) were homosexual or bisexual men. the mean age of the population was 34.2 years. a history of previous sexually transmitted diseases was found in 79.7% of the male patients. the stage of hiv-related disease, according to the centers for disease control classification, could be dete ...19921588221
basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma and kaposi's sarcoma.the mortality rate of nonmelanoma skin cancer is higher than generally considered. an actual nonmelanoma skin cancer is a risk factor not only for other skin cancers but also for cancers in other organs. the recurrence rate can, according to the method of calculation, yield surprisingly diverging results. statistical mapping of subclinical tumor growth in basal cell carcinoma supplies the margins for tumor-free excision. an even better but more expensive tool for therapy planning is tumor imagin ...19921591311
evidence for a sexually transmitted cofactor for aids-related kaposi's sarcoma in a cohort of homosexual men.we examined factors associated with the subsequent development of aids-related kaposi's sarcoma in a cohort of 353 homosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). cumulative incidence curves for the development of kaposi's sarcoma and opportunistic infection were stratified over a wide range of variables at enrollment, including those related to demographics, sexual behavior, illicit drug use, and medical history. we found no strong associations between any of these variables an ...19921591318
oral manifestations of recently described viral infections, including aids.oral viral diseases secondary to human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection are not commonly observed, except for epstein-barr virus infection. for the most part, members of the herpes virus group and the human papilloma viruses are involved. with the introduction of techniques like the polymerase chain reaction, the level of detection has been changed considerably. however, the application of these techniques may also result in difficulties of interpretation, such as is the case with the detectio ...19911666307
a phase i study of recombinant human interferon-alpha 2a or human lymphoblastoid interferon-alpha n1 and concomitant zidovudine in patients with aids-related kaposi's sarcoma.to determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose, and preliminary efficacy of concomitant interferon-alpha and zidovudine therapy in aids-related kaposi's sarcoma (ks), 56 patients with biopsy-proven ks and documented human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv) infection were enrolled into a phase i study. interferon-alpha was given intramuscularly at a dose of 9, 18, or 27 mu once a day and zidovudine was administered as 100 or 200 mg every 4 h for 8 weeks followed by a 48-week maintenance period. ...19911670585
human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) transcripts identified in hiv-related psoriasis and kaposi's sarcoma lesions.persons with hiv infection sometimes develop aggressive psoriasis or kaposi's sarcoma (ks) not usually seen in other immunosuppressed patients. however, a specific and direct pathophysiological role for hiv-1 in these aids-associated disorders remains unclear since hiv has not been easily detected in these skin lesions. by combining in situ hybridization with the sensitive detection technique of confocal laser scanning microscopy, we have demonstrated hiv rna transcripts in 5 of 15 lesional skin ...19911676036
human t-cell leukemia virus infection in non-intravenous drug using hiv seropositive men in los angeles.sera from 634 homosexual men with western blot-confirmed human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection were subjected to radioimmunoprecipation assay (ripa) using an htlv-i-infected human t-cell line (slb-i). sera obtained from japanese adult t-cell leukemia patients, noninfected healthy individuals served as positive and negative controls. hiv-infected groups were comprised of asymptomatic homosexuals (n = 131), aids-related complex (n = 115), kaposi's sarcoma (n = 300), aids-defining opportunis ...19911676593
predictive value of cd4 lymphocyte numbers for the development of opportunistic infections and malignancies in hiv-infected persons.infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) results in progressive depletion of the cd4 subset t-lymphocytes and the development of opportunistic infections and certain malignancies. charts were reviewed for 185 hiv-infected individuals with 265 aids-defining illnesses (adis) who had t-lymphocyte subset analyses performed within 2 months prior to or 1 month following the diagnosis. also included were 22 hiv-infected patients with oral candidiasis and 20 with asymptomatic infection. sig ...19911677419
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with aids in central africa.over a period of 11 months, 37 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) presenting with symptoms of bronchopulmonary disease were investigated. patients presented with cough, weight loss, fever and dyspnoea. investigations included fibreoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. in eight patients (22%) pneumocystis carinii was found. pulmonary infiltrates were found on chest radiographs of six patients, while in the remaining two patients chest ...19901699254
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related malignancies: a topical overview.as we enter the second decade of confronting human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-induced disease, progress in the prophylaxis and treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids)-related opportunistic infections is encouraging. while the infectious manifestations of hiv become more manageable, aids-related malignancies remain problematic. in the era of infection prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of kaposi's sarcoma (ks) and aggressive non-hodgkin's lymphoma (nhl) appears ...19911658943
interferon and other biologic agents for the treatment of kaposi's sarcoma.interferon-alpha is an effective treatment for a subset of patients with aids-associated kaposi's sarcoma. when given at high doses to patients who lack systemic signs, symptoms, and opportunistic infections associated with advanced hiv infection and who maintain some degree of cell-mediated immune function, tumor regression may be observed in a high proportion of patients. although the addition of chemotherapy to ifn-alpha appears to confer no added benefits, the combination of ifn-alpha with z ...19911708760
hiv infection of human gastrointestinal submucosal cells: an in vitro model that mimics kaposi's sarcoma.infection of human gastrointestinal submucosal mesenchymal cells with hiv-1 led to cell populations with abnormal growth properties, increased synthesis of endothelial cell and angioblast markers, and release of angiogenic factors. this system may be the first in vitro model for hiv-induced kaposi's sarcoma.19911713204
the interferons. mechanisms of action and clinical applications.the interferons (ifn) are one of the body's natural defensive responses to such foreign components as microbes, tumors, and antigens. the ifn response begins with the production of the ifn proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma), which then induce the antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions of ifn. recent advances have led to food and drug administration approval of five clinical indications for ifn. interferon alfa is approved for hairy-cell leukemia, condyloma acuminatum, k ...19911715409
phase i/ii trials of alpha-interferon alone or in combination with zidovudine as maintenance therapy following induction chemotherapy in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related kaposi's sarcoma.kaposi's sarcoma (ks) is a malignant neoplasm that develops in 20% to 30% of all acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) cases. kaposi's sarcoma primarily involves the skin, but can progress to involve the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. alpha-interferon alone or in combination with zivoduvine has activity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related ks, especially in patients with limited disease and cd4 lymphocyte counts over 400/mm3. patients with progressive or symptomatic visce ...19911719642
kaposi's sarcoma: its 'oncogenes' and growth factors.viral genes capable of inducing vascular tumors in the skin of transgenic mice are the tat gene of hiv-1 and polyoma virus' middle t antigen gene. instead of vascular tumors, the tat gene of htlv-i causes thymic atrophy and mesenchymal tumors in transgenic mice. no proof exists that any of these genes contribute to the induction of ks but hiv-1 tat is a strong suspect. the gene product k-fgf of the oncogene k-fgf/hst (int) uses bfgf receptors, is homologous with bfgf and acts as a mitogen for fi ...19911657029
the use of interferon-alpha in virus infections.the interferons (ifn) act too slowly to arrest acute viral infections, but interferon-alpha (ifn alpha) preparations have proved useful in some chronic infections and will clearly be used increasingly in these in the future. in the preparations derived from human leucocytes or cultured b lymphoblastoid cells, which are in routine clinical use, mixtures of a number of distinct subtypes of human ifn alpha have been identified. there are also 3 slightly different versions of the same single subtype ...19911723372
[the reticuloendothelial system in immunodeficiency].the concept of the mononuclear phagocyte system (mps) as advanced by van furth et al. does not embrace other cell types which by virtue of their accessory cell function are inextricably linked to the immune response. therefore, a modified functional definition of reticuloendothelial system (res) encompassing the non-lymphatic effector and accessory cells of the immune response, i.e. monocytes/-macrophages, follicular and interdigitating reticulum cells as well as endothelial cells is proposed. i ...19911724832
role of interferon in clinical practice.interferons are currently the most widely used biological response modifiers. they are of high clinical value in haematological malignancies (chronic myelogenous leukaemia, multiple myeloma, non-hodgkin lymphoma), in solid tumours (malignant melanoma, hypernephroma, pancreas neoplasms, carcinoid tumours, kaposi's sarcoma, glioma, in ovarium, cervix and bladder carcinoma, and in basalioma) and in infectious diseases (chronic hepatitis b, chronic non-a/non-b hepatitis, chronic delta hepatitis, aid ...19911725832
technetium-99m-dtpa aerosol and gallium-67 scanning in pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection.we retrospectively compared the results of 67ga chest scans and 99mtc-dtpa aerosol clearance measurements with those of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in 88 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. of 100 investigations, a pulmonary infection was diagnosed in 39, mainly pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and a noninfectious disorder was found in 42, mainly kaposi's sarcoma and lymphocytic alveolitis. gallium scans and dtpa clearance were abnormal respectively in 74% and 92% of infectious co ...19921731002
incidence of lymphomas and other cancers in hiv-infected and hiv-uninfected patients with hemophilia.to determine the types and rates of cancers occurring in excess in the presence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1).19921735926
malignancies in children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. the italian multicenter study on human immunodeficiency virus infection in children.cancer has been closely associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection but this is less frequent in children. non-hodgkin's lymphomas represent the most frequently reported single tumor. the authors report seven cases of malignant tumors resulting from the analysis of all (n = 1321) children enrolled in the italian register for hiv infection in children. tumors were distributed as follows: non-hodgkin's b-cell lymphoma (four cases); and kaposi's sarcoma, hepatoblastoma, acute b-cel ...19911657358
liver cancer in transgenic mice carrying the human immunodeficiency virus tat gene.patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are at risk to develop a variety of different cancers. based on epidemiological data, kaposi's sarcoma and non-hodgkin's lymphoma have been clearly associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). additional cancers such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, melanoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma have also been reported to be associated with a diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. a direct causal role of hi ...19911742742
use of recombinant interferons and hematopoietic growth factors in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.the recombinant cytokines are increasingly important therapeutic agents for patients with aids. recombinant interferon-alpha has demonstrated antitumor and antiretroviral activities in patients with kaposi's sarcoma. limited studies with interferon-beta suggest that it also has antitumor effects in patients with kaposi's sarcoma, but interferon-gamma appears to be ineffective in controlling this tumor. the hematopoietic growth factors, including erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating fac ...19911720567
hiv infection: clinical features and treatment of thirty-three homosexual men with kaposi's sarcoma.the clinical findings of patients with oral kaposi's sarcoma are reviewed. these oral findings commonly included candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, gingivitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), periodontitis, and other symptoms, including xerostomia. the other common symptoms of hiv disease that may be of importance in leading to a diagnosis are reviewed in this patient group. treatment by local radiotherapy or by intralesional vinblastine of these oral kaposi's sarcomas resulted i ...19911704495
hla-b35 is associated with accelerated progression to aids.to investigate the influence of hla specificities on the rate of progression and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, we performed (a) a case-control study in 1989-1990 of hiv-seropositive individuals stratified by both risk behavior and ethnic background, (b) a longitudinal cohort study of hiv-infected male homosexuals enrolled in 1981-1982, and (c) an analysis of individuals with a diffuse infiltrative cd8 lymphocytosis syndrome. in the case-control study, there was a signi ...19921738086
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