observations on epizootiology and distribution of elaeophora schneideri in montana ruminants.seventy-four moose, 111 elk, 20 mule deer, 8 white-tailed deer, 26 prong-horn antelope, 42 domestic sheep and 3 bighorn sheep from montana or northwestern wyoming were examined post-mortem for evidence of elaeophora schneideri infection in 1973-74. fifteen percent of the mule deer and four percent of the moose were positive for adult arterial worms. this constitutes the first report of e. schneideri in mule deer in montana. no gross signs of blindness or other neurologic disorder were evident in ...1975127848
epizootiology of bluetongue: the situation in the united states of america.bluetongue was first reported in the united states in 1948 in sheep in texas. the virus has now been isolated from sheep in 19 states. when the disease first occurs in a flock, the morbidity may reach 50 to 75% and mortality 20 to 50%. in subsequent years, the morbidity may be only 1 to 2% with very few deaths. difference in breed susceptibility has not been observed. natural bluetongue infection has not been observed in angora or dairy goats. bluetongue virus was first isolated from cattle, in ...1975169793
chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in perianal fat of desert bighorn sheep. 1978415775
transplacental movement of organochlorine pesticide residues in desert bighorn sheep. 1979444690
paratuberculosis (johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a rocky mountain goat in colorado.between may, 1972 and february, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (johne's disease) caused by mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and one rocky mountain goat (oreamnos americanus) on or near mt. evans in colorado. diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of m. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. the clinical signs and pathologic changes se ...1979480512
isolation of a chlamydial agent from rocky mountain bighorn sheep.a total of 53 clinical specimens from both healthy and diseased rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) were examined for chlamydia. an agent consistently lethal for chicken embryos was recovered from a nasal swab taken from a normal ewe. this agent, designated bhs-15, possesses antigens which fix complement in the presence of anti-chlamydial serum, is susceptible to chlortetracycline, and is resistant to sodium sulfadiazine and streptomycin. attempts to culture the isolate in quality con ...1979522218
transplacental transmission of protostrongylus sp. in california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana) in oregon.transplacental transmission of protostrongylus sp. was documented for the first time in california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana) by recovery of third stage larvae from two fetuses.1979522227
birth weights and gestation in a captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 1977557522
chronic frontal sinusitis and osteolysis in desert bighorn sheep.chronic frontal sinusitis and osteolysis in a herd of desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) in zion national park, utah, was attributed to bacterial infection secondary to aberrant nasal bot migration. analysis of skulls and live adult sheep (equal to 1 year old) showed that 9 to 22 animals were affected. one ram and 1 ewe were treated by trephination and irrigation. treatment was successful for the ewe, but not for the ram. radiography, thermography, and blood profiles were used in an ...1978738941
winter bioenergetics of rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 1978751706
an epizootic of pneumonia in captive bighorn sheep infected with muellerius epizootic of pneumonia in 20 captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) is described. the sheep were maintained in large paddocks for about 9 months after which, in the late summer, the entire herd died within a three week period. large numbers of muellerius adults, eggs and larvae were in the lungs of all sheep. first stage larvae were widely disseminated throughout the lungs and apparently elicited a granulomatous pneumonia. pasteurella sp. and other bacteria were isolated from ...1977864843
helminth parasites of bighorn sheep in oregon.the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts from 18 hunter-killed bighorn rams (ovis canadensis californiana) were examined in total or in part for helminth parasites during a two-year study of three separate herds in eastern oregon. prevalence was 100% with the lungworm protostrongylus stilesi. the gastrointestinal fauna from 11 rams comprised cooperia oncophora, marshallagia marshalli, nematodirus oiratianus, oesophagostomum spp., ostertagia occidentalis, o. ostertagi, skrjabinema ovis, trichostrong ...1977864844
three new eimeria spp. (protozoa, eimeriidae) from muskoxen, ovibos moschattus, with redescriptions of e. faurei, e. granulosa, and e. ovina from muskoxen and froma rocky moutain bighorn sheep, ovis canadensis. 1977884633
prenatal infection of the rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis c. canadensis) of alberta with the lungworm protostrongylus spp.first- and third-stage (infective) larvae of protostrongylus spp. were recovered from the livers of four fetuses of the rocky mountain bighorn sheep of alberta. this record suggests a more cosmopolitan distribution of prenatal infection with lungworms in bighorn sheep than suspected previously.1977916136
further studies on trypanosomers in game animals in wyoming.blood samples were collected from captive and free-ranging elk (cervus canadensis), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer, (odocoileus virginianus), black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (antilocapra americana), moose (alces alces), and bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) for cultural evidence of trypanosoma sp. infection. eleven of 188 (12%) hunter-killed elk, 22 of 37 (59%) free-ranging elk, and 79 of 119 (66%) captive elk were culture positive in 1973-74. par ...1976933315
contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western canada.contagious ecthyma (ce) is reported in bighorn sheep (ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western canada and in moutain goat (oreamnos americanus) from kootenay national park, british columbia. (this is the first report of ce in mountain goat.) diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. the infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. most inf ...19751113436
lymphoid cell adherence in protostrongylus (nematoda: metastrongyloidea) infections of rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19751131742
wyominia tetoni (cestoda: thysanosomatinae) from bighorn sheep in washington, eitht california bighorn sheep, ovis canadensis californiana, were necropsied to ascertain age and general physical condition. four were found to harbor wyominia tetoni.19751142552
electrocardiogram of a big-horn sheep (ovis canadensis). 19751162880
influence of rainfall on lungworm infections in bighorn sheep.from 1959 through 1968, lungs from 124 rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis c. canadensis) from the sun river herd in western montana were examined for lungworm infections. all lungs were infected with protostrongylus stilesi and 104 (84%) contained concurrent infections of p. stilesi and p. rushi. significant correlations were observed between levels of lungworm infection and total rainfall during april, may, and june of each year. an explanation of this in terms of terrestrial snail (intermediat ...19761255913
using ribosomal rna gene restriction patterns in distinguishing isolates of pasteurella haemolytica from bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis).pasteurella haemolytica isolates (n = 31) from two isolated captive herds of rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) were characterized and compared phenotypically (biotype, serotype, hemolytic activity) and by a genomic fingerprinting method known as ribotyping. seven to nine distinct phenotypes were observed. depending on the method used for serotyping, one to three phenotypes were common to both herds. eighteen isolates, recovered from both herds, were non-hemolytic, biotype ...19921324994
culicoides boydi (diptera: ceratopogonidae): a potential vector of hemorrhagic disease viruses to desert bighorn sheep in southern california.culicoides boydi new species is described from riverside county, ca. a taxonomic key, table of numerical characters, and female wing photographs are presented to distinguish it from the three other species of the culicoides pusillus species group of the subgenus avaritia. brief notes are presented on its biology and distribution and suspected vector potential in the transmission of bluetongue virus to desert bighorn sheep in california.19921334151
lymphosarcoma in a desert bighorn sheep. 19921457563
exposure to psoroptes sp. mites is common among bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) populations in california.sera (n = 806) from 50 populations of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in california (usa) were evaluated for antibodies to psoroptes sp. mites using a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). test values for each sample were determined to be either positive or negative at each of two elisa cutoff values that provided either 100% sensitivity (low cutoff) or 100% specificity (high cutoff), respectively. one hundred sixty-eight (20.8%) sera were seropositive at the low cutoff value, and 8 ...19921474651
serologic survey for brucellosis in feral swine, wild ruminants, and black bear of california, 1977 to 1989.a retrospective analysis of brucellosis serologic testing results in eight wildlife species in california from 1977 to 1989 was done. samples were collected from 5,398 live-captured or hunter-killed animals and tested by combinations of up to six serologic tests for antibodies to brucella spp. twenty-three of 611 (3.8%) feral swine (sus scrofa), one of 180 (0.6%) black bear (ursus americanus), one of 355 (0.3%) california mule deer (odocoileus hemionus californicus), and one of 1,613 (0.06%) bla ...19921512866
insects feeding on desert bighorn sheep, domestic rabbits, and japanese quail in the santa rosa mountains of southern california.desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates), a domestic rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus), and japanese quail (coturnix japonica) were used as bait animals to collect blood-feeding flies in an area of active blue-tongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus transmission. precipitin tests were used to confirm the blood source where feasible. eight species of culicoides, members of the leptoconops kerteszi group, simulium spp., anopheles franciscanus, and stomoxys calcitrans were collected f ...19921512887
freemartinism in a captive herd of rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis).freemartinism in two animals from a captive herd of rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) at the denver zoological gardens (denver, colorado, usa) is described. a young ewe had female external genitalia, a masculine appearance, and demonstrated male behavior as she matured. another ewe with female external genitalia died as a yearling. necropsy revealed a non-patent vagina and internal male genitalia. both females were chimeric with karyotypes containing xx and xy sex chromosomes.19921512891
on capturing bighorn sheep. 19921512895
susceptibility of two rocky mountain bighorn sheep to experimental infection with anaplasma north america, the role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of anaplasmosis has not been clearly defined. such information is particularly meager in regard to bighorn sheep. we report the susceptibility of two rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to experimental infection with a well characterized field isolate of anaplasma ovis obtained from domestic sheep in idaho. both bighorn sheep developed infection resulting in severe clinical disease, with relatively high parasi ...19921548791
chlamydial-caused infectious keratoconjunctivitis in bighorn sheep of yellowstone national epizootic of infectious keratoconjunctivitis occurred in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in yellowstone national park during the winter of 1981-82. the causative organism was identified as chlamydia sp. mortality related to the epizootic was approximately 60% of an estimated 500 bighorn sheep in the northern range population. the infection probably affected all sex and age classes, but field surveys of live animals and mortality suggested that mature rams died disproportionately. limited fiel ...19921602566
spatial and seasonal distribution of potential vectors of hemorrhagic disease viruses to peninsular bighorn sheep in the santa rosa mountains of southern california.blood-feeding midges (culicoides sp. and leptoconops sp.) were sampled in the santa rosa mountains, riverside county, california (usa), to determine which species might be involved in the transmission of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses to peninsular bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates). host-seeking midges were sampled with co2-baited suction traps over a period of 30 mo. nineteen species of culicoides and seven of leptoconops were collected. five of the culicoides sp ...19921602570
blood gas and catecholamine levels in capture stressed desert bighorn sheep.forty-seven bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) were captured within a 3-day period in december, 1989 as part of a california department of fish and game effort to repopulate historic ranges in california. they were captured on the mojave desert in the kelso mountains near old dad peak, san bernardino county, california. venous blood gases measured at the site of capture demonstrated a severe metabolic acidosis (base deficit, 23 meq/liter), with no evidence of respiratory acidosis. there wer ...19921602576
spontaneous pasteurellosis in captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis): clinical, laboratory, and epizootiological observations.we observed clinical signs, compared adrenal responses, and performed diagnostic tests on 12 captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) during a spontaneous outbreak of pasteurellosis. cortisol in urine and feces was measured for bighorns sampled three times between 20 october and 1 november 1986. by 6 november, four of these had developed pneumonia, four showed only mild rhinitis, and four remained clinically normal. bighorns that ultimately developed pneumonia showed ele ...19911758018
on the use of xylazine for field immobilization of bighorn sheep. 19911758046
comparison of arachidonate metabolism by alveolar macrophages from bighorn and domestic sheep.we have defined the metabolites of arachidonic acid (aa) secreted by alveolar macrophages (ams) of bighorn sheep and domestic sheep in response to three agents: calcium ionophore a23187, phorbol myristate acetate (pma), and opsonized zymosan. cells were labeled with [3h]aa prior to stimulation and 11 tritiated metabolites, including prostaglandins (pgs), thromboxanes (txs), leukotrienes (lts), and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (hetes), were detected and quantitated by high-performance liquid chr ...19911905271
antigenic characterization of psoroptes spp. (acari: psoroptidae) mites from different hosts.immunoblotting with defined antigens and antisera revealed extensive and nearly complete antigenic cross-reactivity between psoroptes spp. mites from a bighorn sheep, a mule deer, a cow, and a rabbit. antigenic differences were not detected between mites from the sympatric bighorn sheep and mule deer. however, minor antigenic differences between mites from the cow and rabbit suggested that these mites were distinct from each other, as well as from the mites from the bighorn sheep and mule deer. ...19911919912
kinetic elisa for detection of antibodies to psoroptes sp. (acari: psoroptidae) in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis).a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed using antigenic extracts prepared from psoroptes cuniculi mites and sera from 37 psoroptes sp.-infested and 43 uninfested bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis). serial dilutions of these serum samples, representing 3 bighorn sheep subspecies and 9 geographic areas, gave parallel responses when plotted as log dilution versus log kinetic rate. therefore, all 80 samples were run at a single dilution (1:100) and positive/negative cutoff val ...19911919915
squamous cell carcinoma in a free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana).an oral squamous cell carcinoma which invaded maxillary bones with metastasis to the right retropharyngeal lymph node was diagnosed in a free-ranging california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana) from washington. much of the maxillae had been replaced with tumor and reactive tissue, and many teeth were missing or loose. the tumor was predominantly confined to the shape of the maxillary bones and was unusual because it was bilaterally symmetrical.19911920679
field immobilization of bighorn sheep with xylazine hydrochloride and antagonism with idazoxan.xylazine hydrochloride was used to immobilize 124 rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) between 1983 and 1988. doses of xylazine for free-ranging lambs ranged from 70 to 130 mg with amounts increasing with lamb age. average doses for 11 free-ranging adult males and 21 adult females darted from the ground were (means +/- se) 363 +/- 16 and 251 +/- 7 mg, respectively. adult females captured in "stevenson's " box traps (n = 7) could be immobilized with significantly (p less than ...19901979085
serodiagnostic antibody responses to psoroptes sp. infestations in bighorn sheep.the antibody responses of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) infected with psoroptes sp. mites were investigated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay on western blots of p. cuniculi antigens. serum from 20 psoroptes sp.-infested bighorn sheep (o. canadensis mexicana, o. canadensis nelsoni, o. canadensis canadensis) from new mexico, nevada, california, and idaho reacted strongly with mite antigens ranging from 12 to 34 kd. serum from 35 psoroptes sp.-free bighorn sheep of unknown tick infestation st ...19912023305
detecting nonhemolytic pasteurella haemolytica infections in healthy rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis): influences of sample site and handling.effects of sampling procedures on ability to culture pasteurella spp. from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) were examined experimentally. sample site influenced (p less than 0.0001) recovery of p. haemolytica in adult bighorn sheep. we isolated nonhemolytic p. haemolytica from 18 of 19 tonsillar swabs and 18 of 19 tonsillar biopsies from adult sheep, yet only four of 19 nasal swabs yielded isolates. sample handling also affected (p less than 0.0001) recovery of p. haemol ...19912023328
development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.from 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 o c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha inte ...19912032914
slip-shod or safely shod: the bighorn sheep as a natural model for research.over a million injuries caused by slipping of footwear are believed to require treatment by doctors every year in the united kingdom and many domestic animals are injured by slipping. recent research has revealed that surface roughness of solings and floors is an important determinant of grip on lubricated surfaces and it is also known that soling friction is affected by hardness. the bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) an animal species which has adapted to a slippery environment, was studied to el ...19902250262
psoroptic scabies in rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) from wyoming.thirteen rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) with clinical signs of psoroptic scabies were captured in wyoming. signs included droopy ears, depilation on the head and neck, and exudate in the ears. mites were identified as either psoroptes cervinus or p. equi. two ewes with scabies at the time of original capture had no clinical signs of mite infection 1 and 2 yr later.19902250336
morphometric analysis of psoroptes spp. mites from bighorn sheep, mule deer, cattle, and rabbits.a morphometric study of psoroptes spp. mites was conducted to address difficulties encountered in species identification and to provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships between mites found on different hosts. a discriminant analysis employing 9 morphologic characters revealed that the lengths of the outer opisthosomal setae and the lateral margins of the opisthosomal knobs were the 2 most important characters for grouping mites according to host species. this analysis clearly separat ...19902254816
isolation of pasteurella haemolytica from tonsillar biopsies of rocky mountain bighorn sheep.isolations of pasteurella haemolytica were compared from tonsillar biopsies versus nasal passages for 29 free-ranging rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) from central idaho. overall, p. haemolytica was isolated from 11 (38%) of 29 sheep. two (18%) of the 11 positive samples were from only nasal passages compared to eight (73%) from tonsillar biopsies. pasteurella haemolytica biotype t was isolated from tonsils of nine sheep and from nasal biopsies. pasteurella haemolytica b ...19902338725
osteoporosis and cranial asymmetry in a mountain sheep (ovis canadensis).the skull of a mountain sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates) exhibiting osteoporosis was recovered from san diego county, california. this specimen also exhibited lateral asymmetry of the cranium and rostrum, malocclusion of molars, and mandibular asymmetry. investigators are cautioned about potentially confusing lesions associated with chronic frontal sinusitis with lesions of osteoporosis in mountain sheep. to our knowledge this is the first report of osteoporosis in this species.19902388359
susceptibility of a fetal tongue cell line derived from bighorn sheep to five serotypes of bluetongue virus and its potential for the isolation of viruses.a cell line (bhfte) was derived from a tongue explant of a bighorn sheep fetus (ovis canadensis nelsoni). the cells have been maintained through 23 serial passages, and the modal number of chromosomes was calculated to be 55. monolayer cultures were shown to be susceptible to various viruses, including bluetongue virus (btv). of 5 btv serotypes (2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) tested, each produced a cytopathic effect (cpe) on initial passage at 33 c. a field isolate (serotype 10) of btv from a black-tai ...19892562198
[nematodirinae (nematoda:trichostrongyloidea) of antilocapra and ovis in alberta, canada].in this first note, the trichostrongyloidea belonging to the nematodirinae parasites of ruminants from alberta are identified. new morphological data were given on nematodirella antilocaprae (price, 1927) parasite of antilocapra americana. nematodirus andersoni n. sp. is described from ovis canadensis. because of the deep indentation of the dorsal lobe, the species is similar to n. bioccai rossi, 1983 parasite of ovis aries in iran. however, it is different in the reduced number of cuticular rid ...19892624376
comparison of pulmonary defense mechanisms in rocky mountain bighorn (ovis canadensis canadensis) and domestic sheep.alveolar macrophages were obtained from rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) and domestic sheep for the purpose of comparing pulmonary host defense mechanisms in the two species. specific variables studied included (1) characterization of the cell types present in the lung, (2) alveolar macrophage phagocytic and bactericidal functions, (3) measurement of protein levels in lavage fluid, and (4) measurement of cortisol levels in lavage fluid. while phagocytic cell populations ...19892810551
susceptibilities of 14 cell lines to bluetongue virus infection.the effect of bluetongue virus (btv) infection was investigated in 14 cell lines. the cell lines included the following vertebrate cells: baby hamster kidney, african green monkey kidney (vero), rabbit kidney, bovine kidney, canine kidney, bovine turbinate, bovine endothelium (cpae), bighorn sheep tongue, equine dermis, gekko lung, rainbow trout gonad, and mouse fibroblast (l929); they also included the following invertebrate lines: mosquito and biting midge. comparisons between the cell lines w ...19882853175
fatal pasteurella haemolytica pneumonia in bighorn sheep after direct contact with clinically normal domestic sheep.six rocky mountain bighorn sheep were raised in captivity from birth (n = 5) or taken from the wild as a lamb (n = 1). after the bighorn sheep were in captivity for over a year, 6 clinically normal domestic sheep were placed on the 2 ha of pasture on which the bighorn sheep were kept. nasal swab specimens were obtained from all sheep at the time the domestic sheep were introduced. pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from swab specimens obtained from 4 of 6 domestic sheep, but not from specimens ...19892930021
epidemiology of two orbiviruses in california's native wild ruminants: preliminary report.between 1978 and 1983 we collected more than 1,500 serum samples from california's native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 4 races of mule deer (o. h. sp.), tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes), roosevelt elk (c. e. roosevelti), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana), peninsular bighorn sheep (o. c. cremnobates) and desert bighorn sheep (o. c. nelsoni) and analyzed them for agar gel precipitating (agp) antibodies to b ...19852989899
use of a quadrivalent modified-live bluetongue virus vaccine in wildlife species.three hundred and twenty-seven animals comprised of deer, mouflon sheep and bighorn sheep were vaccinated with an experimental quadrivalent, modified-live, bluetongue virus (btv) vaccine. no untoward effects due to the vaccine were noted nor were abortions observed in vaccinated pregnant mouflon sheep. precipitating antibodies to btv and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (ehd) virus were identified in the serum of several animals prior to vaccination. virus neutralizing antibodies to 3 of the 5 sero ...19852989912
experimental contact transmission of pasteurella haemolytica from clinically normal domestic sheep causing pneumonia in rocky mountain bighorn sheep.two rocky mountain bighorn lambs (ovis canadensis canadensis) were held in captivity for 120 days before being housed with two domestic sheep. the lambs were clinically normal and had no pasteurella spp. on nasal swab cultures. the domestic sheep were known to carry pasteurella haemolytica biotype a in the nasal passages. after being in close contact for 19 days. p. haemolytica biotype a was cultured from nasal swabs of one of the bighorn lambs. by 26 days, both bighorn sheep developed coughs, w ...19883193561
haemolytic effect of pasteurella haemolytica on blood from young mammals.on agar plates containing young lamb blood, pasteurella haemolytica produces a wide outer zone of partial haemolysis in addition to the narrow zone of complete clearing seen on adult sheep blood agar. to determine whether this phenomenon was limited to lamb blood, samples from young animals of 20 mammalian species were examined. two species--the barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia) and scimitar horned oryx (oryx tao)--possessed blood that gave this effect provided that the samples were taken from y ...19883194597
susceptibility of rocky mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of pasteurella haemolytica.bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic pasteurella haemolytica biotype t (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic p. haemolytica biotype t (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing p. haemolytica biotype a (10(5) organisms). the bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal sep ...19883196974
response of vaccinated and unvaccinated bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) to experimental respiratory syncytial virus challenge.five rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis), approximately 5 mo old and without detectable antibody titers to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), were assigned to two groups to study the effects of rsv challenge inoculation in vaccinated (n = 3) and unvaccinated (n = 2) bighorns. the three lambs vaccinated with a modified live bovine rsv vaccine developed a detectable antibody response to the vaccine. vaccinated and unvaccinated lambs challenged with an ovine isolate of rsv dev ...19883373644
experimental infections of free-ranging rocky mountain bighorn sheep with lungworms (protostrongylus spp.; nematoda: protostrongylidae).twelve free-ranging rocky mountain bighorn lambs (ovis canadensis canadensis), each exposed experimentally to 125-1,000 infective third-stage larvae of protostrongylus stilesi and p. rushi, shed significantly more first-stage larvae in their feces than did control lambs, but showed no clinical signs of illness and had equivalent summer and overwinter survival as control lambs. two adult ewes, each exposed to 925 infective larvae, showed no increase in numbers of first-stage larvae in their feces ...19873625896
capture methods in five subspecies of free-ranging bighorn sheep: an evaluation of drop-net, drive-net, chemical immobilization and the net-gun.six hundred thirty-four bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) were captured in the western united states between 1980 and 1986, using four different methods: drop-net (n = 158), drive-net (n = 249), chemical immobilization (n = 90) and net-gun (n = 137). the net-gun was found to have considerable advantages over the use of ground nets and chemical immobilization methods for capturing bighorn sheep. evaluation of specific outcome categories for individual sheep, including normal, compromised (stress-in ...19873682090
effects of capture on biological parameters in free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis): evaluation of drop-net, drive-net, chemical immobilization and the net-gun.blood samples and physiological data were collected from 634 bighorn sheep captured between 1980 and 1986 in the western united states. bighorn sheep were evaluated for physiological parameters (temperature, pulse and respiration), selected biochemical parameters (cortisol, creatine phosphokinase (cpk), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sgot), lactic dehydrogenase (ldh), alkaline phosphotase (ap), potassium, sodium, chloride, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (bun), selenium, glucose, total ...19873682091
effects of capture on biological parameters in free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis): evaluation of normal, stressed and mortality outcomes and documentation of postcapture survival.blood samples and physiological data were collected from 634 bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) captured by four different methods between 1980 and 1986 in the western united states. these parameters were evaluated for selected physiological, biochemical and hematological values. postcapture biological parameters were compared among bighorn sheep according to four different outcomes; normal, stressed or compromised, capture myopathy (cm) mortality, and accidental mortality. significant differences ...19873682092
isolation and serologic evidence of a respiratory syncytial virus in bighorn sheep from colorado. 19863735590
psoroptes ovis (acarina: psoroptidae) in a rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) in idaho. 19853841164
seroprevalence of respiratory syncytial virus in free-ranging bighorn sheep.sera from 187 (42%) of 447 free-ranging bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) in 9 western states had antibody titers to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). titers were from 1:5 to 1:640, as determined by the standard virus neutralization test. results of the survey indicated that rsv is widespread in free-ranging bighorn sheep populations and that rsv may be an important factor in the bighorn sheep pneumonia-complex.19853878355
survey of desert bighorn sheep in california for exposure to selected infectious diseases.from february 1983 to june 1985, 188 desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni, = 161 and oc cremnobates, = 27) from 18 herds in 17 mountain ranges and one captive herd were caught, marked, and had blood, fecal, and nasal mucus samples collected. nasal swab specimens were cultured bacteriologically and virologically specifically for parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus. bacterial flora differed from herd to herd. pathogenic pneumophilic bacteria (eg, pasteurella sp) seldom were found. parainfluenza- ...19853878356
the role of wild north american ungulates in the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis: a review.published reports of brucella abortus infections in wild north american ungulates and domestic cattle herds were reviewed to determine if infection in these species was related. bison (bison bison) were frequently found infected, but are probably a minor threat to livestock due to their current limited distribution. most elk (cervus elaphus) were free of infection except where their range was shared with infected bison or livestock. deer (odocoileus spp.), pronghorns (antilocapra americana), moo ...19853908724
lymphocyte blastogenesis, complement fixation, and fecal culture as diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in north american wild ruminants and domestic sheep.the efficacy of the lymphocyte blastogenesis and complement-fixation tests and fecal culture for detection of mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was assessed in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o virginianus), bighorn x mouflon (o musimon) hybrid sheep, and domestic sheep. spontaneously infected bighorns were tested at the time of capture; experimentally infected animals were tested monthly for 12 months or p ...19854073642
yohimbine antagonism to xylazine in free-ranging mule deer and desert bighorn sheep. 19854077656
immobilization of free-ranging desert bighorn sheep, tule elk, and wild horses, using carfentanil and xylazine: reversal with naloxone, diprenorphine, and yohimbine. 19854077657
cell adherence reactions in lungworm (protostrongylus) infections of the rocky mountain bighorn sheep.the immunological response of captive naturally-infected rocky mountain bighorn sheep to the lungworm, protostrongylus stilesi, was examined throughout the seasonal cycle of parasite activity using a cell adherence assay for circulating antibody. the net effect of all stable serum factors on cell adherence was examined by exposure of normal cells to larvae in the presence of test serum (decomplemented-serum test). homocytotropic antibody was examined by exposure of washed normal cells to larvae ...19724258549
parainfluenza-3 virus infection in rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19724341395
a serological survey for selected viral infections of rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19744363568
vaccination trials in desert bighorn sheep against bluetongue virus. 19744367519
transplacental transmission of protostrongylus spp. in bighorn sheep. 19724634531
redescription of trichuris (equals trichocephalus) schumakovitschi (savinkova, 1967) from canadian rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis). 19734687486
mortality in captive bighorn sheep--clinical, hematological, and pathological observations. 19734694583
serum protein electrophoresis in bighorn sheep with chronic pneumonia. 19734694594
stress and in vitro lymphocyte stimulation by phytohemagglutinin in rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19734705538
lungworms in the rocky mountain bighorn sheep of western canada. 19734750282
further observations on protostrongylus sp. infection by transplacental transmission in bighorn sheep. 19744810213
size reduction in bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) at the close of the pleistocene. 19744854302
identification and characterization of mycoplasma arginini from bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and goats. 19725058544
helminths of the rocky mountain bighorn sheep in western canada. 19715106578
the transferrins and hemoglobins of bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis), dall sheep (ovis dalli) and mouflon (ovis musimon). 19715120310
immunoglobulin response of the rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19715156483
comparative physiologic values in captive and wild bighorn sheep. 19715163727
coccidia of rocky mountain bighorn sheep in western canada. 19715167146
physiologic values in wild bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) at capture, after handling, and after captivity. 19705452079
mycoplasma isolates from pneumonia in captive rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19705463793
in vitro detection of homocytotropic antibody in lungworm-infected rocky mountain bighorn sheep. 19715573426
defensive behavior in female bighorn sheep. 19695813254
rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis) milk. i. gross compositon and fat constitution. 19655829180
the occurrence of oestrus ovis l. (diptera: oestridae) in the bighorn sheep from wyoming and montana. 19665942536
parasites of ovis canadensis canadensis in montana, with a checklist of the internal and external parasites of the rocky mountain bighorn sheep in north america. 19676066758
negative contrast electron microscopic techniques for diagnosis of viruses of veterinary importance.negative contrast electron microscopy (ncem) was utilized as a routine tool in the diagnosis of viral infections of domestic and wild animals. viruses identified by this technique were observed in infected culture systems or clinical specimens from several species including horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, pigs, deer, rocky mountain bighorn sheep, antelope, and several avian species. viruses were identified by ncem based on their size, morphology, and symmetry and consisted of adenoviruses, he ...19806157508
morphological and histochemical observations on the duodenal glands of eight wild ungulate species native to north america.the duodenal glands of the species examined (alces alces, ovis canadensis, cervus canadensis, oreamnos americanus, bison bison, antilocapra americana, odocoileus virginianas, odocoileus heminous) are confined primarily to the submucosa of the small intestine. in one species, the moose, a significant population of secretory tubules also is observed in the mucosa. the ducts of the duodenal glands pierce the overlying muscularis mucosae to empty most often independently into the intestinal lumen. t ...19816171158
serologic survey for selected microbial agents in mammals from alberta, 1976.blood samples were taken from humans and several species of free-ranging wild mammals from five different geographic areas of alberta, canada. sera were tested for antibody to eastern equine encephalitis (eee) virus, western equine encephalitis (wee) virus, st. louis encephalitis (sle) virus, powassan (pow) virus, the snowshoe hare (ssh) strain of the california group (cal) of viruses, northway (nor) virus, klamath (kla) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (ibr) virus, and two bacteria, bru ...19816273600
prevalence of antibodies of selected infectious disease agents in the peninsular desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis cremnobates) of the santa rosa mountains, california. 19826285010
muellerius capillaris (mueller, 1889) (nematoda: protostrongylidae): an unusual finding in rocky mountain bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis shaw) in south dakota.lungs and fecal samples from nine hunter-killed rocky mountain bighorn sheep were examined for lungworms. all samples contained adults and/or larvae of muellerius capillaris (mueller, 1889). protostrongylus spp., the lungworms commonly reported from bighorn sheep, were not present in any samples. larvae of m. capillaris bear a spine on the dorsal side of the posterior end and are shorter than dorsal-spined larvae of other lungworms recorded from north american ungulates. larvae similar in shape ...19846530714
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