parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. xii. artificial transmission of nematodes from blesbok and impala to sheep, goats and cattle.sheep were successfully infested artificially with the larvae of haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus axei, trichostrongylus falculatus and impalaja nudicollis, cultured from the faeces of blesbok naturally infested with these nematodes. haemonchus placei, longistrongylus sabie, trichostrongylus colubrifomis, t. falculatus, impalaia tuberculata and cooperia hungi likewise became established in sheep, goats and calves dosed with larvae cultured from the faeces of infested impala. sheep and goat ...1979460820
the mating behaviour of the tsessebe (damaliscus lunatus lunatus) in the kruger national park.the mating behaviour of tsessebe was observed in the kruger national park. a description of the typical sequences in the mating behaviour is given which includes the "nose and neck stretch" posture of the courtship display of the bull when approaching a cow, the role of olfactory stimuli which are derived from either smelling at the base of a cow's tail or from the ground where a cow had been laying down or urinated, the spontaneous ejaculation of the bull in response to such stimuli and mountin ...19751170697
acute monensin toxicosis in stone sheep (ovis dalli stonei), blesbok (damaliscus dorcus phillipsi), and a bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus).accidental monensin toxicosis developed in 5 stone sheep (ovis dalli stonei), 5 blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), and a bactrian camel (camelus bactrianus) at the st louis zoological park. eight animals died acutely and 1 was euthanatized because of chronic hind limb paresis. all affected animals had clinicopathologic evidence of severe muscle necrosis, serum electrolyte disturbances, and hemoconcentration.19902295548
the use of haloperidol as a long-acting neuroleptic in game capture operations.haloperidol (r1625, serenace) a potent, long-acting butyrophenone neuroleptic, was shown to be very effective in game capture operations for the neuroleptization of several species of african wild herbivores, especially the medium and small antelopes. with a rapid onset of action following intravenous injection and a duration of action of 10-12 h in the majority of cases, haloperidol produced profound pyschomotor effects and remarkable tractability in red hartebeest, blesbok, springbok, duiker, ...19816122740
helminth and arthropod parasites of blesbok, damaliscus dorcas phillipsi, and of bontebok, damaliscus dorcas dorcas.the helminth burdens of 8 blesbok shot in the north-eastern orange free state, 8 from the eastern cape province, 28 from the eastern transvaal and 3 from the central transvaal were determined. in addition, the arthropod burdens of 11 of these animals were ascertained. twenty-one nematode species, 2 cestode species, 6 ixodid ticks, 2 lice and the larvae of 5 oestrid flies were recovered. three of the nematode species, 2 of the oestrid flies and 4 of the tick species had apparently not previously ...19827177591
swayback in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and a black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou).ataxia associated with myelopathy and low liver copper concentrations is described in a blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) from the karoo nature reserve, graaff-reinet. this syndrome, which occurs in neonatal and delayed forms, has been described in sheep, goats, pigs and domesticated red deer, but reports in other ungulates, including antelope, are very rare and generally unconfirmed by histopathological examination. the 2 animals examined exhibited a ...19968765071
production of salami from beef, horse, mutton, blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and springbok (antidorcas marsupialis) with bacteriocinogenic strains of lactobacillus plantarum and lactobacillus curvatus.lactobacillus plantarum 423, producer of bacteriocin 423, lactobacillus curvatus df38, producer of curvacin df38, and a bacteriocin-negative mutant of l. plantarum 423 (423m) were evaluated as starter cultures in the production of salami from beef, horse, mutton, blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) and springbok (antidorcas marsupialis). growth of l. plantarum 423 and l. curvatus df38 was best supported in blesbok salami, as revealed by the highest growth rate during sweating, cold smoking and ...200722061794
development of transgenic sweet potato with multiple virus resistance in south africa (sa).multiple infections of sweet potato feathery mottle virus (spfmv), sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (spcsv), sweet potato virus g (spvg) and sweet potato mild mottle virus (spmmv) cause a devastating synergistic disease complex of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam.) in kwazulu-natal, south africa. in order to address the problem of multiple virus infections and synergism, this study aimed to develop transgenic sweet potato (cv. blesbok) plants with broad virus resistance. coat protein gene seg ...201424158330
characterization of epididymal spermatozoa motility rate, morphology and longevity of springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), impala (aepyceros melampus) and blesbok (damaliscus dorcus phillipsi): pre- and post-cryopreservation in south africa.cryopreservation of antelope epididymal spermatozoa could play a vital role in future breeding by developing a successful protocol for cryo-conserving them. the aim of this study was to characterize morphology, motility rates and longevity of epididymal spermatozoa from springbok, impala and blesbok. cauda epididymal spermatozoa were collected post-mortem from both testicles of free-ranging springbok (n=18), impala (n=21) and blesbok (n=21), and divided into two groups (pre- and post-cryopreserv ...201121640527
impact of season on the fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) muscles.this study quantified the impact of season on fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok muscles (longissimus thoracis et lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus). eight mature blesbok were harvested per season (winter and spring). gender and muscle type influenced (p<0.05) the fatty acid profiles of blesbok muscles, while season only influenced the c18:3ω3 (α-linolenic acid, ala) percentages and therefore the total omega-3 poly-unsaturated ...201425089783
lead isotope ratios in bone ash of blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi): a means of screening for the accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks.this study was done to determine whether blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) from the krugersdorp game reserve (kgr) in gauteng province, south africa have higher concentrations of (238)u and higher (206)pb/(204)pb and (207)pb/(204)pb ratios in their bone ash than blesbok from a nearby control reserve that is not exposed to mine water and has no outcrops of uraniferous rocks. eight blesbok females from the kgr and seven from the control site, all killed with a brain shot, were used. a thermo ...201424967558
impact of season on the chemical composition of male and female blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) muscles.the harvesting and consumption of game meat in south africa is not limited to season. the study was thus aimed at investigating the seasonal impact on the chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash contents) of male and female blesbok muscles (n = 32; longissimus dorsi, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus and supraspinatus).201423794364
characterization of major histocompatibility complex drb diversity in the endemic south african antelope damaliscus pygargus: a comparison in two subspecies with different demographic histories.major histocompatibility complex (mhc) class ii locus drb was investigated by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (sscp) and sequence analysis in the endemic south african antelope, damaliscus pygargus, of which there are two subspecies. greater polymorphism was found in the blesbok (d. p. phillipsi) subspecies (n = 44; 22 alleles) than in the bontebok (d. p. pygargus) subspecies (n = 45; 6 alleles). erosion of allelic diversity in bontebok was most likely the result of two severe b ...200111472536
comparison of the milk composition of free-ranging blesbok, black wildebeest and blue wildebeest of the subfamily alcelaphinae (family: bovidae).the proximate composition of milk from free ranging blesbok, black wildebeest and blue wildebeest is reported, with detailed analysis of fatty acid composition and protein identification by electrophoresis. the milk of the blesbok, black- and blue wildebeest contain respectively 5.6 +/- 0.3, 4.3 +/- 0.7 and 4.1 +/- 0.9 g/100 g protein, 8.6 +/- 1.1, 5.5 +/- 1.5 and 7.5 +/- 2.1 g/100 g fat, and 4.9 +/- 0.4, 4.1 +/- 0.6 and 5.3 +/- 1.6 g/100 g lactose, and are comparable with ovine milk. the milk c ...200919426824
identification of myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle of four southern african wild ruminants.the aim was to separate and characterize the myosin heavy chain (mhc) isoforms of four southern african wild ruminants, namely blesbuck (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros), black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) and blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus). longissimus dorsi muscle samples were subjected to sds-page and western blot analyses using antibodies raised against mhc isoforms. the specificity of these antibodies was assessed using immunohistochemistry combined w ...200717631404
acaricide efficiency of amitraz/cypermethrin and abamectin pour-on preparations in game.the efficacy of an amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on preparation (1% w/v each) was tested against natural tick infestations of buffaloes, eland and blesbok in three separate trials. the eland were also treated with a 0.02% abamectin (w/v) acaricidal pour-on preparation. the amitraz/cypermethrin pour-on was effective against amblyomma hebraeum, rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, rhipicephalus appendiculatus and hyalomma marginatum rufipes on the buffaloes. both acaricides were effective against r. appendi ...200516562734
postthaw evaluation of in vitro function of epididymal spermatozoa from four species of free-ranging african improved understanding of reproductive physiology in nondomestic bovids is necessary for the development of assisted reproductive technologies (arts) for use in the conservation of endangered bovids. in this study, epididymal spermatozoa were recovered from blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), african buffalo (syncerus caffer), springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), and black wildebeest (connochaetes gnou) following organized culls in south africa. our objectives were 1) to characterize the qu ...200415151928
plant compositional constituents affecting between-plant and animal species prediction of forage intake.the purpose of the study was to identify plant compositional constituents that influence forage intake. emphasis was put on the ratio in vitro digestibility of organic matter (ivdom):ndf because preliminary work with cattle and a limited number of forages showed the ratio to account for more variation in intake than either ivdom or ndf alone. the compositional constituents were tested in intake prediction models using local and published data (n = 302) on grass pastures, silages, hays, straws, l ...19958567482
identification of p and q arms of the blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi, alcelaphinae) rbg-banded chromosomes with comparison to other wild and domestic bovids.the rbg banded karyotype (2n = 38) of the blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi) comprises 8 pairs of metacentric, 3 pairs of submetacentric and 7 pairs of acrocentric autosomes. the x and y chromosomes are acrocentric. the 11 pairs of biarmed chromosomes correspond to robertsonian translocations involving the chromosomes equivalent to goat and cattle chromosomes: 1;10, 4;5, 8;17, 7;9, 6;14, 13;15, 12;16, 20;22, 3;19, 2;27 and 11;23. the comparison of blesbok karyotype with that of other species ...19957789187
quantitative evaluation of hybridization and the impact on biodiversity conservation.anthropogenic hybridization is an increasing conservation threat worldwide. in south africa, recent hybridization is threatening numerous ungulate taxa. for example, the genetic integrity of the near-threatened bontebok (damaliscus pygargus pygargus) is threatened by hybridization with the more common blesbok (d. p. phillipsi). identifying nonadmixed parental and admixed individuals is challenging based on the morphological traits alone; however, molecular analyses may allow for accurate detecti ...201728070295
a description of the immature stages of kirkioestrus minutus (rodhain & bequaert, 1915) (diptera: oestridae), and the life cycle and seasonal prevalence of this fly in blue wildebeest.descriptions of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae and the puparium of kirkioestrus minutus are gives. first instar larvae, which have not previously been described, can be distinguished from other oestrid larvae by the ventral spinulation of segments iv-xii and the spinulation of the anal protuberance. of 55 blue wildebeest examined in the kruger national park all but two 1-month-old and one 2-month-old animals were infested. first stage larvae are probably deposited in or on the nostrils and m ...19807454232
host specificity and the distribution of the helminth parasites of sheep, cattle, impala and blesbok according to climate.the helminth parasites recovered from sheep, cattle, impala and blesbok during several surveys conducted in the republic of south africa are listed as definitive, occasional or accidental parasites of their respective hosts. their distribution according to the various climatic zones of the republic are also listed.19817310791
[comparative study of the chemical composition of excrement from some large african herbivorous mammals].in the course of an ecological and comparative study concerning the beetle and fly communities inhabiting the droppings of some large african grass-eating mammals, we analysed the chemical composition of fresh dung dropped in winter 1977-1978 and in spring 1978. the mammals concerned are : blesbok (damaliscus pygargus albifrons pallas), impala (aepyceros melampus licht.), bongo (boocerus euryceros ogilby), nyala (tragelaphus angasi angas), eland from cap (taurotragus oryx pallas), eland of lloyd ...19807258040
the seasonal incidence of the major nematode genera recovered from sheep, cattle, impala and blesbok in the transvaal.the seasonal incidence of helminth infestation in sheep, cattle, impala and blesbok was determined from fluctuations in the worm burdens of these animals exposed to natural infestation at particular localities in the transvaal and slaughtered at various fairly regular intervals. the nematodes considered to be of major importance were haemonchus spp. and trichostrongylus spp. in all four hosts, ostertagia spp. in sheep, longistrongylus spp. in impala, cooperia spp. in sheep, cattle and impala, co ...19817198149
evaluation of lh-rh stimulation of testosterone as an index of reproductive status in rams and its application in wild rams a positive correlation (p less than 0.001) existed between average testosterone levels from 30-min blood sampling for 18 h and average testosterone levels of samples taken 0, 1 and 2 h after injection of lh-rh administered 90 min after anaesthesia. attempts were therefore made to assess testosterone status by lh-rh challenge and limited blood sampling in animals immobilized in their natural habitat. in impala (aepyceros melampus) territorial males had higher plasma testosterone values th ...19836341575
trials with rafoxanide. 4. efficacy against the larvae of the oestrid fly gedoelstia hässleri in the blesbuck (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi harper, 1939). 19724656094
seasonal activity and hosts of the vectors of crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever in south africa.the seasonal activity and hosts of two species of hyalomma, h. marginatum rufipes and h. truncatum, were studied in a crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (cchf) zone near bloemhof in the western transvaal. the study was conducted at the s.a. lombard nature reserve, where a child had died from this disease. it was found that adults of the two species are very common during summer while the immature stages were active during winter and also demonstrated a second peak of activity in november. h. margi ...19863961619
yersiniosis in captive exotic mammals.within a 2 1/2-month period, yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection occurred in 3 blesbok (damaliscus dorcas), 1 dik-dik (madoqua kirkii), and 1 giant anteater (myrmecophaga tridactyla) at the national zoological park, washington, dc. lesions consisted of fibrinonecrotic enteritis and peritonitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and embolic pyogranulomatous lesions in the liver, spleen, and lungs. feed contaminated with the feces of wild rats and pigeons was thought to be the source of infection.1977336591
parasites of domestic and wild animals in south africa. ix. helminths in blesbok.four blesbok culled in the rietvlei nature reserve during may 1972 were each infested with trichostrongylus axei and impalaia nudicollis. some of these animals also harboured haemonchus bedfordi, haemonchus contortus, trichostrongylus falculatus, skrjabinema alata and avitellina centripunctata. thirty-two blesbok were culled in pairs at approximately 4-5 week-intervals in the percy fyfe nature reserve from july 1972 to november 1973. adult h. contortus were recovered in fair numbers from buck sl ...1978714392
muscle-specific colour stability of blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) meat.the increasing demand for meat from alternative species, such as blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), gives rise to the need for characterizing the quality attributes of fresh meat from these species. while muscle-specific colour stability has been extensively studied in conventional livestock, limited information is available on this phenomenon in game meat. therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the colour stability of three major blesbok muscles, infraspinatus (is), longiss ...201627136392
effects of copper oxide wire particle bolus therapy on trichostrongyle fecal egg counts in exotic artiodactylids.four species of artiodactylids (scimitar-horned oryx [oryx dama]), roan antelope [hippotragus equinus], blackbuck [antilope cervicapra]), and blesbok [damaliscus pygargus phillipsi]) totaling 13 animals were treated with a one-time 12.5-g dose of copper oxide wire particles (cowps) in a bolus form. pretreatment, individual trichostrongyle fecal egg counts (fecs) were performed using the mcmaster technique. individual posttreatment fecs were performed every 7 days for 35 days beginning 7 days aft ...200819110710
effect of rooibos extract (aspalathus linearis) on lipid oxidation over time and the sensory analysis of blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) and springbok (antidorcas marsupialis) droëwors.the study objective was to investigate the addition of rooibos extract (rbe) in blesbok and springbok droëwors, a dried meat sausage with added beef fat, to improve oxidative stability. after a storage period of two weeks, inhibition of lipid oxidation showed to be successful with rbe 1.0% addition. no differences (p>0.05) in heme-iron results within the raw, dried or stored samples were seen. however, a positive correlation between lipid oxidation and heme-iron was noted. the fatty acid profile ...201525617707
computer assisted sperm analysis of motility patterns of postthawed epididymal spermatozoa of springbok (antidorcas marsupialis), impala (aepyceros melampus), and blesbok (damaliscus dorcus phillipsi) incubated under conditions supporting domestic cattle in vitro fertilization.the need for information on the reproductive physiology of different wildlife species is important for ex situ conservation using such methods as in vitro fertilization (ivf). information on species reproductive physiology and evaluation of sperm quality using accurate, objective, repeatable methods, such as computer-assisted sperm analysis (casa) for ex situ conservation has become a priority. the aim of this study was to evaluate motility patterns of antelope epididymal spermatozoa incubated f ...201222541326
sperm-egg interaction and functional assessment of springbok, impala and blesbok cauda epididymal spermatozoa using a domestic cattle in vitro fertilization system.the study assesses the possibility to estimate the potential fertility of post-thawed antelope (antidorcas marsupialis), impala (aepyceros melampus) and blesbok (damaliscus dorcus phillipsi) epididymal sperm using homologous and heterologous ivf and the functioning of cattle ivf system to produce antelope embryos. cauda epididymal sperm were collected from the antelope and cryopreserved under field conditions. in vitro matured domestic cow, blesbok and springbok oocytes were co-incubated in modi ...201324284137
the effect of acid drinking water on rumen protozoa in the blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi).rumen contents were collected from ten adult female blesbok, five from a mine area with only acid drinking water available and five from a control group consuming normal, non-polluted drinking water. the mean concentration of total protozoa in the normal water group was almost double that in the acid drinking water group, 24.9 x 10(3) versus 14.7 x 10(3). percent of entodinium was higher and diplodinium lower in those animals drinking the acid water. the number of different protozoa species pres ...201526701455
insights into the skeletal muscle characteristics of three southern african antelope species.skeletal muscle fibre type, cross-sectional area (csa), maximum enzyme capacities and fibre oxidative capacities were investigated in three southern african antelope species. muscle samples from blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), mountain reedbuck (redunca fulvorufula) and greater kudu (tragelaphus strepsiceros) were collected post mortem from the vastus lateralis and analysed for myosin heavy chain (mhc) isoform content, citrate synthase (cs), 3-hydroxyacyl co a dehydrogenase (3-had), pho ...201425326514
comparison of various extenders for freeze-preservation of semen from selective captive wild ungulates.semen collected by electroejaculation from selected captive wild ungulates was used to evaluate the cryoprotective ability of 4 semen diluents. three species of ungulates were used: blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi), dorcas gazelle (gazella dorcas), and onager (equus hemionus onager). fresh semen was immediately evaluated for the percentage of motility and the progressive motility, and an aliquot was fixed for evaluation of the acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa. the remaining volume of ejac ...19817327998
the effect of storage conditions on samples for the evaluation of copper status in blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi).investigaltions to determine the effect of sample storage on the concentration of copper in liver tissue and on the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase were undertaken in preparation for a study of blesbok (damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) that were suspected to be suffering from copper deficiency. two liver samples were collected from each of 20 culled blesbok in a manner that simulated the collection of biopsies from the live animal. these samples were stored either in 10% formalin or f ...200212515296
allozyme divergence among four representatives of the subfamily alcelaphinae (family: bovidae).we used protein gel electrophoresis to study genetic diversity within and between blue wildebeest (connochaetes taurinus), black wildebeest (c. gnou), red hartebeest (alcelaphus buselaphus caama) and blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsi). twenty-nine protein encoding loci were resolved, average heterozygosity ranged from 3.25-5.36% and between population gene diversity accounted for the major share of the total relative gene diversity (69.34%). genetic distance values ranged from 0.021 to 0.132 ...19957584860
the effects of xylazine and fentanyl on various hormones and metabolites in karakul sheep and a blesbok.xylazine and fentanyl are commonly used in combinations for immobilisation of wild antelope. in order to ascertain the effects of the combination of these drugs on certain metabolites and hormones in ruminants, blood was sampled from 8 karakul sheep (4 experimental and 4 control) and one tame blesbok (damaliscus dorcas phillipsii) for 30 min before and after immobilisation. the samples were assayed for glucose, free fatty acids, insulin, thyroxine, triidothyronine, progesterone and oestrogen. si ...19912051442
host-parasite list updating of ciliates and fermentation in the digestive tract of wild miscellaneous herbivores in south africa (rsa).this article is dedicated to the author, burk dehority, who became very ill with cancer. fortunately he confirmed or corrected all identifications on ciliates in this article. this paper was 80% finished when he became ill. he unfortunately passed away in february 2016.201728609902
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