nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the matrix (m) and fusion (f) protein genes of cetacean morbilliviruses isolated from a porpoise and a dolphin.morbilliviruses have been isolated from stranded dolphins and porpoises. the present paper describes the cloning and sequencing of the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) f gene and of the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) m and f genes and their flanking regions. the gene order of the dmv genome appeared to be identical to that of other morbilliviruses. a genomic untranslated region of 837 nucleotides was found between the translated dmv m and f gene regions. the predicted dmv m protein were highly conserve ...19947531923
nucleic acid hybridization analyses confirm the presence of a hitherto unknown morbillivirus in mediterranean 1990 an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus was noticed among mediterranean dolphins. rna was extracted from the tissues of dolphins and from cell cultures infected with a corresponding dolphin morbillivirus isolate. by nucleic acid hybridization this rna was compared to rna extracted from animal tissue or cell cultures infected with canine distemper virus (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv) or measles virus (mv). the presence of morbillivirus rna in the dolphin tissue was demonstrated. morbi ...19947801536
comparative analysis of the gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus reveals its distant evolutionary relationship to measles virus and ruminant morbilliviruses.a morbillivirus of uncertain origin recently killed hundreds of mediterranean dolphins. this is the first report of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) gene. the sequence of the nucleocapsid (n) gene including boundaries was determined. when the dmv n gene coding region was compared with the corresponding sequences of other morbilliviruses a distant evolutionary relationship between these viruses and dmv was apparent. phylogenetic analysis of the seque ...19947931174
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals.infections with morbilliviruses have caused heavy losses among different populations of aquatic mammals during the last 5 years. two different morbilliviruses were isolated from disease outbreaks among seals in europe and siberia: phocid distemper virus-1 (pdv-1) and phocid distemper virus-2 (pdv-2) respectively. pdv-1 was characterized as a newly identified morbillivirus, most related to canine distemper virus (cdv), whereas pdv-2 most probably is a strain of cdv. morbilliviruses were also isol ...19938343804
characterization of morbilliviruses isolated from dolphins and porpoises in europe.a previously unidentified morbillivirus was isolated from two harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) that had died in the dutch waddensea (north sea) in 1990. this porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), which had recently caused a heavy mortality in mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba), were compared antigenically with other members of the genus morbillivirus, including the newly recognized phocine distemper virus type 1. dmv and pmv proved to be similar ...19938468554
dolphin morbillivirus infection in different parts of the mediterranean sea.morbillivirus were isolated from mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) dying along the coasts of italy and greece in 1991. they were antigenically identical to the morbilliviruses isolated from striped dolphins in spain in 1990.19938470952
prevalence of morbilliviruses among pinniped and cetacean species.since 1987, morbillivirus infections have caused serious disease outbreaks with high mortality among aquatic mammals. baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were involved in an outbreak caused by a virus closely related to canine distemper virus (cdv) in 1987. harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in north-western europe were struck by a newly recognised morbillivirus of seals (pdv1). a serological survey has indicated that these morbillivirus infections frequently ...19938518442
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
morbillivirus infections of aquatic mammals: newly identified members of the genus.several disease outbreaks, which have caused the deaths of many thousands of seals and dolphins during the last decade, have now been attributed to infections with newly identified morbilliviruses. outbreaks in the late eighties amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and grey seals (halichoerus grypus) in northwestern europe and amongst baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia were caused by the newly discovered phocine distemper virus and by a strain of canine distemper virus, respectively. alt ...19958588316
morbilliviruses in aquatic mammals: report on round table discussion.a workshop was organised to ascertain the current situation with regard to morbillivirus infections in aquatic animals. the great interest generated by the discovery of these new virus infections in 1988 has to some extent abated but much high quality research has continued in this field as the workshop showed. there is some serological evidence that the viruses have continued to circulate in most areas since the initial epizootics. as to their origin, it appears that the most likely source of t ...19958588320
postmortem diagnosis of morbillivirus infection in bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) in the atlantic and gulf of mexico epizootics by polymerase chain reaction-based assay.lung tissue from 39 bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) found dead off the u.s. atlantic and gulf of mexico coasts from 1987 to 1994 was examined for the presence of morbillivirus using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) technique. of the atlantic cases examined, six of six were positive using this assay; 18 of 25 gulf of mexico cases with amplifiable rna also were found to be positive, and eight additional specimens had no amplifiable rna. the rt-pcr allowed the dia ...19958592367
comparative analysis of the attachment protein gene (h) of dolphin morbillivirus.dmv, dolphin morbillivirus, a paramyxovirus of uncertain origin recently emerged in mediterranean dolphins. this study presents the complete nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (h) gene including the gene boundaries. the single open reading frame of the dmv h gene encodes a protein of 604 residues which exhibits overall sequence characteristics similar to the h genes of other morbilliviruses. when compared to its closest homologues, measles virus (mv) and rinderpest virus (rpv), dmv has, re ...19968725120
the phosphoprotein gene of a dolphin morbillivirus isolate exhibits genomic variation at the editing site.the nucleotide sequence of the phosphoprotein (p) gene of a dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) isolate was determined. like those of other morbilliviruses the dmv p gene encoded p and c proteins in overlapping open reading frames and v protein by editing the p gene transcript. among p mrna based clones the editing site variants gggc, gggg, gagc and ggggggc predicting a p protein, and the variants ggggc and gggggg predicting a v protein, were found. surprisingly, the three variants gggc, gggg and gagc w ...19958847510
viral serologic survey of bowhead whales in alaska.serum samples from 21 of 36 eskimo harvested bowhead whales (balaena mysticetus) were positive by virus neutralization (50% endpoint titer > or = 1:28 and/or 100% endpoint titer > or = 1:20) for antibodies to at least one virus serotype from the calicivirus family, vesicular exanthema of swine virus (vesv) and san miguel sea lion virus (smsv). many animals were positive to more than one serotype when using the spearman-karber (s-k) method for calculating antibody titers. the most common serotype ...19989476224
serological evidence of morbillivirus infection in small cetaceans from the southeast pacific.the presence of morbillivirus-specific serum antibodies was examined by an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ielisa) and virus neutralization tests in serum samples from 30 dusky dolphins (lagenorhynchus obscurus), 8 long-snouted common dolphins (delphinus capensis), 2 inshore and 6 offshore bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) and 20 burmeister's porpoises (phocoena spinipinnis) taken in fisheries off central peru in 1993-1995. the sera from six dusky dolphins, one common dolphin ...19989549850
monk seal mortality: virus or toxin?during the past few months, more than half of the total population of about 300 highly endangered mediterranean monk seals (monachus monachus) on the western saharan coast of africa, died in a mysterious disease outbreak. epizootiological and postmortem findings were reminiscent of similar outbreaks amongst pinniped and cetacean species in recent years, which were caused by an infection with newly discovered morbilliviruses (for review see osterhaus et al.). virological, as well as toxicological ...19989682347
dolphin morbilliviral infection from the mediterranean sea did not spread into the adriatic july of 1990, a mass mortality of striped dolphins due to morbillivirus infection had begun in the western mediterranean. by 1992, the infection had spread to the eastern mediterranean and the aegean sea. other dolphin species in the mediterranean were not found to have died due to this infection, although it is possible for many species of marine mammals to be infected. in 1994, it was published that morbillivirus infection had caused atlantic bottlenose dolphin mortality in the usa. althoug ...19989704517
morbillivirus downregulation of cd46.there is evidence that cd46 (membrane cofactor protein) is a cellular receptor for vaccine and laboratory-passaged strains of measles virus (mv). following infection with these mv strains, cd46 is downregulated from the cell surface, and consequent complement-mediated lysis has been shown to occur upon infection of a human monocytic cell line. the mv hemagglutinin (h) protein alone is capable of inducing this downregulation. some wild-type strains of mv fail to downregulate cd46, despite infecti ...19989811778
morbillivirus infection in stranded common dolphins from the pacific ocean.from august 1995 to august 1997, six of 18 common dolphins (delphinus delphis) that stranded along beaches of southern california (usa) tested antibody positive for dolphin morbillivirus (dmv). titers ascertained by virus neutralization ranged from 1:50 to 1:910 while those determined by elisa ranged from 1:80 to 1:195. the first individual to strand survived and was released back into the pacific ocean 14 mo later. histopathologic examination of tissues from the other five dolphins did not reve ...19989813847
dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 atlantic bottlenose dolphin morbilliviral epizootic.dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) atlantic bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. the lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. in one dolphin, there was an associated lympha ...199910098649
the matrix protein gene sequence analysis reveals close relationship between peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and dolphin morbillivirus.the gene encoding the matrix protein of peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence determined. this gene is 1466 nucleotides long and contains an open reading frame (orf) capable of encoding a basic protein of 335 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 38,057 da. this orf starts at position 33-35 and ends with the codon taa at position 1038-1040 thus leaving a long untranslated region (426 nucleotides) at the 3' end of the messenger rna. ...199910500284
bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) and dichlorodiphenylethane (dde) methyl sulfones in tissues of seal and dolphin morbillivirus epizootic victims.polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) and dichlorodiphenylethane (dde) methyl sulfone (msf) metabolites possess high affinities for binding two homologous 16,000 da homodimeric receptor proteins in the lung (clara cell secretory protein, ccsp) and the uterus (uteroglobin, ug), leading to selective bioaccumulation of msfs in these tissues. as marine mammals are highly exposed to organochlorines, concentrations of pcbs, pcb msfs, ddt, and dde msf were analyzed in blubber, lung, and uterus samples from ha ...200111205532
monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of morbillivirus antibody in marine mammal sera.a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa), using two monoclonal antibodies (mabs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (vnt) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (cdv) and phocine distemper virus (pdv) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. the test depends on the blocking of mab binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. test conditions were optimized by using control vnt-negative and - ...200111326007
an insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide.serum samples from 288 cetaceans representing 25 species and originating from 11 different countries were collected between 1995 and 1999 and examined for the presence of dolphin morbillivirus (dmv)-specific antibodies by an indirect elisa (ielisa) (n = 267) or a plaque reduction assay (n = 21). a total of 35 odontocetes were seropositive: three harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena) and a common dolphin (delphinus delphis) from the northeastern (ne) atlantic, a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops trunc ...200111390111
molecular evolution of viral fusion and matrix protein genes and phylogenetic relationships among the paramyxoviridae.phylogenetic relationships among the paramyxoviridae, a broad family of viruses whose members cause devastating diseases of wildlife, livestock, and humans, were examined with both fusion (f) and matrix (m) protein-coding sequences. neighbor-joining trees of f and m protein sequences showed that the paramyxoviridae was divided into the two traditionally recognized subfamilies, the paramyxovirinae and the pneumovirinae. within the paramyxovirinae, the results also showed groups corresponding to t ...200111603943
rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants viruses exhibit neurovirulence in mice.members of the morbillivirus genus, canine distemper (cdv), phocine distemper virus (pdv), and the cetacean viruses of dolphins and porpoises exhibit high levels of cns infection in their natural hosts. cns complications are rare for measles virus (mv) and are not associated with rinderpest virus (rpv) and peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) infection. however, it is possible that all morbilliviruses infect the cns but in some hosts are rapidly cleared by the immune response. in this study, ...200211847591
emerging morbillivirus infections of marine mammals: development of two diagnostic the last 13 years, four viruses belonging in the morbillivirus genus of the paramyxoviridae family have emerged as significant causes of disease and mortality in marine mammals. the viruses involved are canine distemper virus (cdv) in seals and polar bears, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) in cetaceans, and phocine distemper virus (pdv) in pinnipeds. the two cetacean morbilliviruses (dmv and pmv) are now considered to be the same viral species, named cetacean morbi ...200212381563
sequence analysis of the phosphoprotein gene of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus: editing of the gene transcript.the gene encoding the phosphoprotein of the vaccine strain of peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus (nigeria 75/1 vaccine strain) has been cloned and its nucleotide sequence been determined. this gene is 1655 nucleotides long and encodes two overlapping open reading frames (orfs). translation from the first aug would produce a polypeptide of 509 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 54.9 kda, the longest of the published morbillivirus p proteins. translation from the second aug ...200312951268
changes in the receptorbinding haemagglutinin protein of wild-type morbilliviruses are not required for adaptation to vero cells.we examined the consequences of isolation and adaptation to vero cells for the receptorbinding haemagglutinin (h) gene of four syncytia-forming isolates of canine distemper virus (cdv) and of a dolphin morbillivirus isolate. a vero-adapted cdv isolate exhibited biased hypermutation, since 11 out of 12 nucleotide differences to other isolates from the same epidemic were u-c transitions. most of these transitions appeared to have taken place during in vitro cultivation. previously, biased hypermut ...200314501193
antibodies to selected pathogens in free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mammals in canada.antibody titres to selected pathogens (canine adenovirus [cav-2], feline herpesvirus [fhv], phocine herpesvirus [phv-1], canine distemper virus, dolphin morbillivirus [dmv], phocine distemper virus [pdv], parainfluenza virus type 3 [pi3], rabies virus, dolphin rhabdovirus [drv], canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, feline leukaemia virus, borrelia burgdorferi and toxoplasma gondii) were determined in whole blood or serum samples from selected free-ranging terrestrial carnivores and marine mam ...200415338705
morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals: a brief overview.since 1987, at least eight morbillivirus infection (mi) epidemics have caused mass mortality of several free-living pinniped and cetacean populations around the world. the responsible agents, all belonging to the genus morbillivirus (family paramyxoviridae), have been characterized as either "canine distemper virus" strains, infecting pinnipeds, or as three new morbilliviruses, namely "phocid (phocine) distemper virus" , "porpoise morbillivirus" and "dolphin morbillivirus" . the last two agents ...200515737178
cetacean morbilliviruses are phylogenetically divergent.we performed a phylogenetic comparison of porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) isolates from porpoises and dolphins respectively according to criteria adopted by the world health organization for the phylogenetic comparison of measles viruses. pmv and dmv were more divergent than the most distantly related measles virus strains, thus challenging the classification of pmv and dmv as two strains of a single species, cetacean morbillivirus.200415747165
full genome sequence of peste des petits ruminants virus, a member of the morbillivirus genus.peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) causes an acute febrile illness in small ruminant species, mostly sheep and goats. pprv is a member of the morbillivirus genus which includes measles, rinderpest (cattle plague), canine distemper, phocine distemper and the morbilliviruses found in whales, porpoises and dolphins. full length genome sequences for these morbilliviruses are available and reverse genetic rescue systems have been developed for the viruses of terrestrial mammals, with the excepti ...200515845262
morbilliviral infection in a pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps) from taiwanese waters.morbilliviral infection was diagnosed in an adult male pygmy sperm whale (kogia breviceps) from southwestern taiwan on the basis of pathological findings, immunohistochemical staining, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. the whale was found alive stranded on the beach and died after 5 days of medical care. it was thin and had dozens of nematode in the first stomach. the lungs were dark red and heavy. histopathological examination revealed diffuse, moderate bronchointerstitial pn ...200616644147
does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (lontra canadensis)?the investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. to identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-r ...200717347401
involvement of morbilliviruses in the pathogenesis of demyelinating disease.two members of the morbillivirus genus of the family paramyxoviridae, canine distemper virus (cdv) and measles virus (mv), are well-known for their ability to cause a chronic demyelinating disease of the cns in their natural hosts, dogs and humans, respectively. both viruses have been studied for their potential involvement in the neuropathogenesis of the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (ms). recently, three new members of the morbillivirus genus, phocine distemper virus (pdv), po ...200717410634
a dna vaccine against dolphin morbillivirus is immunogenic in bottlenose dolphins.the immunization of exotic species presents considerable challenges. nevertheless, for facilities like zoos, animal parks, government facilities and non-profit conservation groups, the protection of valuable and endangered species from infectious disease is a growing concern. the rationale for immunization in these species parallels that for human and companion animals; to decrease the incidence of disease. the u.s. navy marine mammal program, in collaboration with industry and academic partners ...200717706293
sequence of the nucleocapsid gene and genome and antigenome promoters for an isolate of porpoise morbillivirus.we have determined the first complete sequence of the nucleocapsid (n) gene of the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) as well as the genome leader and trailer sequences which encode the genome and antigenome promoters, respectively. the pmv n gene is 1686 nucleotides long with a single open reading frame (orf) encoding a protein of 523 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 57.39kda. the nucleotide sequence of the n gene shows the closest identity (89%) to that of another cetacean morbillivi ...200818166241
dolphin morbillivirus epizootic resurgence, mediterranean july 2007, > 100 striped dolphins, stenella coeruleoalba, were found dead along the coast of the spanish mediterranean. of 10 dolphins tested, 7 were positive for a virus strain closely related to the dolphin morbillivirus that was isolated during a previous epizootic in 1990.200818325265
morbillivirus and pilot whale deaths, mediterranean outbreak of a lethal morbillivirus infection of long-finned pilot whales occurred in the mediterranean sea from the end of october 2006 through april 2007. sequence analysis of a 426-bp conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicates that the virus is more closely related to dolphin morbillivirus than to pilot whale morbillivirus.200818439363
real-time rt-pcr assays for the rapid and differential detection of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses.real-time rt-pcr (rtrt-pcr) assays for identifying and differentiating infections caused by dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) and porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) were developed by targeting the hypervariable c-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid (n) gene. total dmv and pmv rna extracted from infected vero cells expressing the canine signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (slam) produced positive cycle threshold (c(t)) values after the 17th and 25th cycles, respectively. the assays were then validated u ...200919084557
reassessing conflicting evolutionary histories of the paramyxoviridae and the origins of respiroviruses with bayesian multigene phylogenies.the evolution of paramyxoviruses is still poorly understood since past phylogenetic studies have revealed conflicting evolutionary signals among genes, and used varying methods and datasets. using bayesian phylogenetic analysis of full length single and concatenated sequences for the 6 genes shared among paramyxovirus genera, we reassess the ambiguous evolutionary relationships within the family, and examine causes of varying phylogenetic signals among different genes. relative to a pneumovirus ...201019900582
expression from baculovirus and serological reactivity of the nucleocapsid protein of dolphin morbillivirus.the nucleocapsid (n) protein of dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) was expressed from a baculovirus (autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus) vector and shown by sds-page and western blot analysis to be about 57 kda. transmission electron microscopy revealed fully assembled nucleocapsid-like particles (nlps) exhibiting the typical helical herringbone morphology. these nlps were approximately 20-22 nm in diameter and varied in length from 50 to 100 nm. purified dmv-n protein was used as antige ...201020005643
phylogenetic analysis of a new cetacean morbillivirus from a short-finned pilot whale stranded in the canary islands.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is considered the most pathogenic virus in cetaceans. three strains have been already described: the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), the porpoise morbillivirus (pmv) and the tentatively named pilot whale morbillivirus (pwmv). this study describes the molecular characterization of a strain of cemv detected in the brain of a short-finned pilot whale that had stranded in the eastern atlantic ocean around the canary islands and that showed lesions compatible with morbilliv ...201120576281
morbillivirus and toxoplasma exposure and association with hematological parameters for southern beaufort sea polar bears: potential response to infectious agents in a sentinel species.arctic temperatures are increasing in response to greenhouse gas forcing and polar bears have already responded to changing conditions. declines in body stature and vital rates have been linked to warming-induced loss of sea-ice. as food webs change and human activities respond to a milder arctic, exposure of polar bears and other arctic marine organisms to infectious agents may increase. because of the polar bear's status as arctic ecosystem sentinel, polar bear health could provide an index of ...201020607348
systemic herpesvirus and morbillivirus co-infection in a striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba).during 2007 a dolphin morbillivirus epizootic affected the western mediterranean and several striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the catalonian coasts. one of those animals had severe lymphoid depletion, necrosis and syncytial formation in lymph nodes and spleen, with large basophilic nuclear inclusions compatible with herpesvirus detected by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination. non-suppurative encephalitis with associated morbillivirus antigen and morbillivirus ...201121601871
epizootic of dolphin morbillivirus on the catalonian mediterranean coast in 2007. 201121697191
fatal cetacean morbillivirus infection in an australian offshore bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus).a juvenile offshore bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) was found stranded with neurological signs and unable to swim or float unassisted. it subsequently died, succumbing to a combination of severe pneumonia and encephalitis. morbillivirus serum neutralisation test serology was positive (titre 1:16) for cetacean morbillivirus and negative for both phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus. there was concurrent thymic and lymph node lymphoid depletion and necrosis, together with int ...201122008125
genetic comparison among dolphin morbillivirus in the 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 mediterranean 1990, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) killed thousands of striped dolphins in the mediterranean. subsequently, the prevalence of the infection declined in this species. in 2006-2008, the virus killed not only numerous striped dolphins but also long-finned pilot whales. all partial sequences of the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes obtained thus far from different host species during the 2006-2008 outbreak show 100% identity, suggesting that a single virus was involved, and these sequences ar ...201121888991
Post-epizootic chronic dolphin morbillivirus infection in Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba.Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused 2 epizootics with high mortality rates on the Spanish Mediterranean coast, in 1990 and 2006-07, mainly affecting striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Following the first epizootic unusual DMV infections affecting only the central nervous system of striped dolphins were found, with histological features similar to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis, the chronic latent localised infections caused by defective forms of measles viru ...201122132497
clinicoimmunopathologic findings in atlantic bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus with positive cetacean morbillivirus antibody titers.sera from free-ranging atlantic bottlenose dolphins tursiops truncatus inhabiting the indian river lagoon (irl), florida were tested for antibodies to cetacean morbilliviruses from 2003 to 2007 as part of a multidisciplinary study of individual and population health. a suite of clinicoimmunopathologic variables were evaluated in morbillivirus-seropositive dolphins (n = 14) and seronegative healthy dolphins (n = 49). several important differences were found. serum alkaline phosphatase, creatine p ...201122303627
a systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the kwazulu-natal coast, south africa.coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 indian ocean bottlenose dolphins (tursiops aduncus) and five indo-pacific humpback dolphins (sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the kwazulu-natal coast, south africa, between 2010 and 2012. parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thora ...201425203143
western blot expression of 5-lipoxygenase in the brain from striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) with or without encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis of infectious nature.dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), toxoplasma gondii and brucella ceti are pathogens of major concern for wild cetaceans. although a more or less severe encephalitis/meningo-encephalitis may occur in striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) infected by the aforementioned agents, almost no information is available on the neuropathogenesis of brain lesions, including the neuronal and non-neuronal cells targeted during infection, along with the mechanisms unde ...201525864766
infectious disease and toxicological monitoring of stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardsi) in cook inlet as surrogates for monitoring endangered belugas (delphinapterus leucas).pacific harbor seals ( phoca vitulina richardsi) and belugas ( delphinapterus leucas ) eat many of the same prey species, occupy the same geographic area, and demonstrate site fidelity in cook inlet, alaska. although most direct research involving the critically endangered belugas is currently prohibited, studying harbor seals may provide important information about this beluga population. in recent years, harbor seal populations in alaska have declined for unknown reasons. as part of its strand ...201627691941
new insight into dolphin morbillivirus phylogeny and epidemiology in the northeast atlantic: opportunistic study in cetaceans stranded along the portuguese and galician coasts.screening atlantic cetacean populations for cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is essential to understand the epidemiology of the disease. in europe, portugal and spain have the highest cetacean stranding rates, mostly due to the vast extension of coastline. morbillivirus infection has been associated with high morbidity and mortality in cetaceans, especially in outbreaks reported in the mediterranean sea. however, scarce information is available regarding this disease in cetaceans from the north-eas ...201627566667
commentary: initial characterization of novel beaked whale morbillivirus in hawaiian cetaceans. 201627538363
molecular analysis of dolphin morbillivirus: a new sensitive detection method based on nested rt-pcr.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) has been identified as the most pathogenic virus for cetaceans. over the past three decades, this rna virus has caused several outbreaks of lethal disease in odontocetes and mysticetes worldwide. isolation and identification of cemv rna is very challenging in whales because of the poor preservation status frequently shown by tissues from stranded animals. nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nested rt-pcr) is used instead of conventional rt-pcr wh ...201627220282
initial characterization of novel beaked whale morbillivirus in hawaiian cetaceans.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) is a causative factor in epizootics that have resulted in thousands of deaths throughout the atlantic and mediterranean since 1987, but less is known of its presence and significance in the pacific. the first case of cemv reported in hawai'i was in a longman's beaked whale that stranded in 2010. the initial cemv sequence from this individual indicated the possibility of a novel strain. to address this, archived samples from cetaceans that stranded in hawai'i between ...201626758655
diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus: a sensitive one step real time rt fast-pcr method based on sybr(®) green.cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) (family paramyxoviridae, genus morbillivirus) is considered the most pathogenic virus of cetaceans. it was first implicated in the bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) mass stranding episode along the northwestern atlantic coast in the late 1980s, and in several more recent worldwide epizootics in different odontoceti species. this study describes a new one step real-time reverse transcription fast polymerase chain reaction (real-time rt-fast pcr) method based on ...201526454114
unusual striped dolphin mass mortality episode related to cetacean morbillivirus in the spanish mediterranean the last 20 years, cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) has been responsible for many die-offs in marine mammals worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) epizootics of 1990-1992 and 2006-2008, which affected mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba). between march and april 2011, the number of strandings on the valencian community coast (e spain) increased.201323702190
simultaneous diagnosis of cetacean morbillivirus infection in dolphins stranded in the spanish mediterranean sea in 2011 using a novel universal probe library (upl) rt-pcr assay.a highly sensitive and specific real-time (rt) rt-pcr assay has been developed for rapid, simultaneous detection of three strains of cetacean morbillivirus (cemv). in this assay, two pcr primers and a hydrolysis probe from a commercially available universal probe library (upl) are used to amplify a highly conserved region within the fusion protein gene. rt-pcr is carried out on the same sample using two primer sets in parallel: one set detects the more virulent strains, dolphin morbillivirus (dm ...201323380457
dolphin morbillivirus in a cuvier's beaked whale (ziphius cavirostris), italy.dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) has caused several mortality events in mediterranean striped (stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (phoca vitulina). very recently, a calf cuvier's beaked whale (ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the southern italian coastline wit ...201728197145
genomic and structural investigation on dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) in mediterranean fin whales (balaenoptera physalus).dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) has been deemed as one of the most relevant threats for fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) being responsible for a mortality outbreak in the mediterranean sea in the last years. knowledge of the complete viral genome is essential to understand any structural changes that could modify virus pathogenesis and viral tissue tropism. we report the complete dmv sequence of n, p/v/c, m, f and h genes identified from a fin whale and the comparison of primary to quaternary stru ...201728134317
saxitoxin increases phocine distemper virus replication upon in-vitro infection in harbor seal immune cells.several marine mammal epizootics have been closely linked to infectious diseases, as well as to the biotoxins produced by harmful algal blooms (habs). in two of three saxitoxin (stx) associated mortality events, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) or phocine distemper virus (pdv) was isolated in affected individuals. while stx is notorious for its neurotoxicity, immunotoxic effects have also been described. this study investigated the role of stx in altering immune function, specifically t lymphocyte pr ...201628003064
dolphin morbillivirus associated with a mass stranding of sperm whales, september 2014, seven sperm whales were stranded along italy's adriatic coastline. postmortem investigations on 3 female adult whales and 1 male fetus carried by the largest female revealed molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of dolphin morbillivirus infection. a possible role of the virus in the stranding event was considered.201727983493
mediterranean fin whales (balaenoptera physalus) threatened by dolphin morbillivirus.during 2011-2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the mediterranean sea. nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006-2007 epidemic in the mediterranean. dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales.201626812485
partially observed epidemics in wildlife hosts: modelling an outbreak of dolphin morbillivirus in the northwestern atlantic, june 2013-2014.morbilliviruses cause major mortality in marine mammals, but the dynamics of transmission and persistence are ill understood compared to terrestrial counterparts such as measles; this is especially true for epidemics in cetaceans. however, the recent outbreak of dolphin morbillivirus in the northwestern atlantic ocean can provide new insights into the epidemiology and spatio-temporal spread of this pathogen. to deal with uncertainties surrounding the ecology of this system (only stranded animals ...201526577594
demographic clusters identified within the northern gulf of mexico common bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncates) unusual mortality event: january 2010-june 2013.a multi-year unusual mortality event (ume) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncates) was declared in the northern gulf of mexico (gom) with an initial start date of february 2010 and remains ongoing as of august 2014. to examine potential changing characteristics of the ume over time, we compared the number and demographics of dolphin strandings from january 2010 through june 2013 across the entire gom as well as against baseline (1990-2009) gom stranding patterns. year ...201525671657
review of historical unusual mortality events (umes) in the gulf of mexico (1990-2009): providing context for the multi-year northern gulf of mexico cetacean ume declared in unusual mortality event (ume) was declared for cetaceans in the northern gulf of mexico (gom) for franklin county, florida, west through louisiana, usa, beginning in february 2010 and was ongoing as of september 2014. the 'deepwater horizon' (dwh) oil spill began on 20 april 2010 in the gom, raising questions regarding the potential role of the oil spill in the ume. the present study reviews cetacean mortality events that occurred in the gom prior to 2010 (n = 11), including causes, durations ...201425449327
cetacean strandings in italy: an unusual mortality event along the tyrrhenian sea coast in unusual mortality event involving cetaceans, mainly striped dolphins stenella coeruleoalba (meyen, 1833), occurred along the tyrrhenian sea coast of italy during the first 3 mo of 2013. based on post-mortem analyses carried out according to body condition on 66 dolphins (54% of stranded animals), several hypotheses to explain the causes of this mortality event were proposed. although no definitive conclusions can be drawn, dolphin morbillivirus was deemed the most likely cause, although other ...201424781797
fatal systemic morbillivirus infection in bottlenose dolphin, canary islands, spain.a systemic morbillivirus infection was diagnosed postmortem in a juvenile bottlenose dolphin stranded in the eastern north atlantic ocean in 2005. sequence analysis of a conserved fragment of the morbillivirus phosphoprotein gene indicated that the virus is closely related to dolphin morbillivirus recently reported in striped dolphins in the mediterranean sea.201424447792
is dolphin morbillivirus virulent for white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris)?the virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. in 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. in 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. in these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphi ...201424399208
dolphin morbillivirus: a lethal but valuable infection model.dolphin morbillivirus (dmv), which has caused at least four epidemics in the western mediterranean during the last 20-25 years, may dramatically impact the health and conservation of striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba) living in this area. the viral and host factors driving the host-dmv interaction, along with those related to the climate change that underlie the occurrence of dmv epidemics, warrant further investigation.201326038442
dolphin morbillivirus infection in a captive harbor seal (phoca vitulina).during the second morbillivirus epidemic (2007 to 2011) in cetaceans along the italian coastline, dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) was detected by molecular analyses in a captive harbor seal (phoca vitulina), with pathological findings consistent with morbillivirus infection. this report confirms interspecies dmv transmission from cetaceans to pinnipeds.201323224101
morbillivirus infection in cetaceans stranded along the italian coastline: pathological, immunohistochemical and biomolecular findings.morbilliviruses are recognized as biological agents highly impacting the health and conservation status of free-ranging cetaceans worldwide, as clearly exemplified by the two dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) epidemics of 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 among mediterranean striped dolphins (stenella coeruleoalba). after these two epidemics, morbilliviral infection (mi) cases with peculiar neurobiological features were reported in striped dolphins stranded along the spanish coastline. affected cetaceans showed ...201322921372
dolphin morbillivirus and toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a mediterranean fin whale (balaenoptera physalus).although morbillivirus and toxoplasma gondii have emerged as important pathogens for several cetaceans populations over the last 20 years, they have never been identified together in a mysticete. in particular, morbilliviral infection has been never described in the mediterranean fin whale population.201222397492
dolphin morbillivirus in a fin whale (balaenoptera physalus) in denmark, 2016.we studied the etiology of encephalitis in a fin whale (balaenoptera physalus) that stranded in 2016 on the coast of denmark. dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) was detected in the brain and other organs. phylogenetics showed close relation to dmv isolated from a striped dolphin (stenella coeruleoalba) from spain in 2012.201728513327
detection of morbillivirus infection by rt-pcr rflp analysis in cetaceans and carnivores.morbillivirus genus comprises several members related to specific hosts, such as canine distemper virus (cdv) and cetacean morbillivirus (cemv) in which the dolphin morbillivirus (dmv) is included. both cdv and dmv are able to cause serious outbreak associated with high morbidity and mortality representing an important conservation threat for terrestrial and aquatic mammalian species. this paper describes a new rt-pcr rflp technique based on a rt-pcr with degenerate primers targeting a 287 bp fr ...201728528278
dolphin morbillivirus in eurasian otters, italy.we report biomolecular evidence of dolphin morbillivirus in 4 wild eurasian otters (lutra lutra) from southern italy; 2 animals showed simultaneous immunohistochemical reactivity against morbilliviral antigen. these cases add further concern and support to the progressively expanding host range of dolphin morbillivirus in the western mediterranean sea.201930666943
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