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in vitro fertilization of gonadotropin-stimulated leopard cat (felis bengalensis) follicular oocytes.based on techniques developed for the domestic cat, in vitro fertilization (ivf) studies were conducted in the taxonomically related leopard cat (felis bengalensis). adult females received pregnant mares' serum gonadotropin (pmsg) followed 80 or 84 h later by human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) on two to four occasions over a 40-day to 27-month interval. oocytes were collected laparoscopically from ovarian follicles 25-27 h after hcg and co-cultured with processed, homologous spermatozoa (37 degr ...19892809537
helminths of the tsushima leopard cat (felis bengalensis euptilura).three tsushima leopard cats (felis bengalensis euptilura) in japan were collected as road kills. three species of trematodes (pharyngostomum cordatum, paragonimus sp. and dicrocoeliidae gn. sp.), one species of cestode (spirometra erinacei) and nine species of nematodes (arthrostoma hunanensis, uncinaria felidis, uncinaria sp., ancylostoma tubaeforme, molineus springsmithi, toxocara cati, capillaria aerophila, capillaria felis-cati, and capillaria sp.) were found. among these helminths, arthrost ...19938445779
seroepidemiological survey of feline retrovirus infections in domestic and leopard cats in northern vietnam in 1997.the prevalence of infections with three feline retroviruses (feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv), feline leukemia virus (felv) and feline syncytial virus (fsv)) was examined in northern vietnam in 1997. we collected a total of 77 blood samples from 69 domestic and 8 leopard cats, and examined the presence of anti-fiv and fsv antibodies and felv p27 antigen in the plasma samples by the indirect immunofluorescence and/or two commercial kits. none of the samples was positive for fiv and felv. the o ...19989853314
comparison of prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1, calicivirus and parvovirus infections in domestic and leopard cats in vietnam.a serosurvey of feline herpesvirus type 1 (fhv-1), feline calicivirus (fcv), and feline parvovirus (fpv) in cats from ho chi minh city area in southern vietnam was conducted in december 1998, and we compared the results with our previous results in northern vietnam (hanoi area). the positive rate of fhv and fcv in domestic cats were 44% and 74%, respectively. they were rather higher than those in hanoi area, while the seropositivity of fpv (44%) was similar to that in hanoi area. in leopard cats ...199910651052
genetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates (cpv-2) from dogs in italy.genetic and antigenic properties of 62 field isolates of canine parvovirus (cpv-2) collected from 1994 to 2001 in italy were investigated. antigenic characterisation was conducted using specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs). the vp1\vp2 gene was amplified by pcr and characterised with restriction endonucleases to detect the 297 and 265 variant. the vp2 gene of 16 isolates was sequenced and molecular genetic analysis was conducted. the antigenic type prevalent among our isolates is type 2a as wel ...200211864747
cytochrome b gene for species identification of the conservation animals.a partial dna sequence of cytochrome b gene was used to identify the remains of endangered animals and species endemic to taiwan. the conservation of animals species included in this study were: the formosan gem-faced civets, leopard cats, tigers, clouded leopards, lion, formosan muntjacs, formosan sika deers, formosan sambars, formosan serows, water buffalo, formosan pangolins and formosan macaques. the control species used included domestic cats, domestic dogs, domestic sheeps, domestic cattle ...200111587860
genetic analyses of feline foamy virus isolates from domestic and wild feline species in geographically distinct areas.to know the genetic diversities and phylogenetic relationship among feline foamy virus (fefv) isolates from domestic cats (felis catus) and fefv-related viruses from the iriomote cats (felis iriomotensis) and leopard cats (felis bengalensis) in geographically distinct areas, we sequenced a partial gag-pol region of 17 strains and a partial env region of nine strains, and the u3 region of long terminal repeat of three strains of the viruses. fefv-related viruses from the feral cats were quite sim ...200111410316
contrastive prevalence of feline retrovirus infections between northern and southern vietnam.the prevalence of infections with three feline retroviruses; feline leukemia virus (felv), feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) and feline foamy virus (fefv), was examined in domestic cats (felis catus) and leopard cats (felis bengalensis) in southern vietnam in 1998. we then compared this data with our previous study in northern vietnam in 1997. none of the cats had felv antigens in both the northern and southern areas. in contrast, there is a great distinction in the seropositivity of fiv. twen ...200010993195
osmotic effects on feline spermatozoa from normospermic versus teratospermic donors.effects of osmolality stresses on the sperm of normospermic (>60% normal sperm/ejaculate) versus teratospermic (<40% normal sperm) domestic cats and the normospermic leopard cat and the teratospermic clouded leopard were studied. spermatozoa were exposed to various anisotonic solutions in a single step or returned to near isotonic conditions in a single step after exposure to anisotonic solutions. the percentage of sperm motility was measured subjectively, and dual fluorescent stains were used t ...200010788313
a genetic linkage map of microsatellites in the domestic cat (felis catus).of the nonprimate mammalian species with developing comparative gene maps, the feline gene map (felis catus, order carnivora, 2n = 38) displays the highest level of syntenic conservation with humans, with as few as 10 translocation exchanges discriminating the human and feline genome organization. to extend this model, a genetic linkage map of microsatellite loci in the feline genome has been constructed including 246 autosomal and 7 x-linked loci. two hundred thirty-five dinucleotide (dc. da)n. ...199910191079
shedding of toxoplasma gondii oocysts by felidae in zoos in the czech republic.in 1995 and 1996, the shedding of toxoplasma gondii oocysts was monitored in the faeces of felidae in six zoos in the czech republic. in all, 2287 samples of faeces from 19 species of felidae were examined. in ostrava zoo, four episodes of shedding of toxoplasma-like oocysts were identified, using a flotation examination, in a pair of wild cats (felis silvestris), six episodes in a wild cat held separately, and three episodes in a pair of amur leopard cats (f. euptilurus). after the passage of s ...19989493305
regulation of sperm function by protein tyrosine phosphorylation in diverse wild felid species.protein tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction in several mammalian species. changes in phosphorylation of a 95-kda protein in human, mouse, and domestic cat spermatozoa are known to be influenced by capacitation and exposure to zona pellucida (zp) proteins. we previously reported diminished phosphorylation of 95- and 160-kda proteins in spermatozoa from teratospermic cats, compared with normospermic domestic cats. to determine if these proteins ...19989876019
integration of the feline radiation hybrid and linkage maps.the recent development of genome mapping resources for the domestic cat provides a unique opportunity to study comparative medicine in this companion animal which can inform and benefit both veterinary and human biomedical concerns. we describe here the integration and order comparison of the feline radiation hybrid (rh) map with the feline interspecies backcross (isb) genetic linkage map, constructed by a backcross of f1 hybrids between domestic cat (felis catus) and the asian leopard cat (prio ...200111353390
parasites of wild felidae in thailand: a coprological survey.ninety-two fecal samples were collected from leopards (panthera pardus, n = 54), tigers (p. tigris, n = 19), and leopard cats (felis bengalensis, n = 3) in huai kha wildlife sanctuary, thailand; four samples that may have come from clouded leopards (neofelis nebulosa) or asian golden cats (felis temminicki) were identified as from small to medium cats. twelve samples were identified as from large cats. samples preserved in 10% formalin were examined for parasite eggs, larvae, cysts, and oocysts ...19947933301
two japanese wildcats, the tsushima cat and the iriomote cat, show the same mitochondrial dna lineage as the leopard cat felis bengalensis.we previously revealed, based on mitochondrial dna sequence analysis, that the iriomote cat is very closely related to the leopard cat felis bengalensis, which is widespread in asia [24]. in this study, in order to understand the phylogenetic status of the tsushima cat which is the other wildcat in japan, partial sequences (402 bases) of the mitochondrial cytochrome b region were determined and compared with those of the iriomote cat and other feline species. the phylogenetic tree of the cytochr ...19958590833
molecular phylogenetic status of the iriomote cat felis iriomotensis, inferred from mitochondrial dna sequence analysis.to investigate the molecular phylogenetic status of the iriomote cat felis iriomotensis, partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12s rrna gene (373 bases) and the cytochrome b gene (402 bases) were determined by using the polymerase chain reaction-product direct sequencing technique and then compared with those of seven other feline species. six iriomote cats examined in this study showed no intraspecific variation for both genes. the sequence comparisons and the molecular phylogenetic trees indi ...19947765500
helminth survey of wildcats in japan.two iriomote cats (felis iriomotensis) and 2 tsushima leopard cats (felis bengalensis euptilura) killed probably by traffic accidents were submitted to the helminthological examination. in iriomote cats, 8 species of parasites (spirometra erinacei, toxocara cati, molineus springsmithi, uncinaria maya, capillaria aerophila, c. felis-cati, larvae of an unidentifiable lung worm and one species of acanthocephala) were found. in tsushima leopard cats, 10 species of parasites (pharyngostomum cordatum, ...19947696394
phylogenetic relationship between the iriomote cat and the leopard cat, felis bengalensis, based on the ribosomal dna.we analyzed the restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the spacer regions of ribosomal dna (rdna), using twelve restriction enzymes, to examine whether the iriomote cat is related to the leopard cat (felis bengalensis). a restriction map for each taxon was constructed and the major taxon-specific types of repeating unit (repetypes) were characterized on the basis of the arrangements of restriction sites. the iriomote cat and the leopard cat share a common repetype but this repetype is diff ...19947946460
two new nematodes from the iriomote cat, prionailurus iriomotensis, from okinawa: uncinaria (uncinaria) maya n. sp. (ancylostomatoidea) and molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (trichostrongyloidea).uncinaria (uncinaria) maya n. sp. (nematoda: ancylostomatidae) and molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (nematoda: molineidae) are described from the iriomote cat, prionailurus iriomotensis, on iriomote island, okinawa, japan. uncinaria (u.) maya resembles uncinaria (uncinaria) felidis maplestone, 1939, from prionailurus bengalensis of india but is distinguished in that the body is much smaller, the ventral rays are set closely with the lateral rays, and the externolateral ray is much sho ...19892614598
ejaculate-hormonal traits in the leopard cat (felis bengalensis) and sperm function as measured by in vitro penetration of zona-free hamster ova and zona-intact domestic cat oocytes.electroejaculate traits and circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh), luteinizing hormone (lh), and testosterone concentrations were analyzed in adult leopard cats (felis bengalensis), a rare felid species indigenous to east asia. the ability of leopard cat sperm to bind and penetrate zona-free hamster ova and zona-intact domestic cat oocytes in vitro was examined as a means of testing sperm function. the influence of culture media [biggers, whitten, whittingham (bww) vs. modified krebs ri ...19902115344
sperm capacitation in the domestic cat (felis catus) and leopard cat (felis bengalensis) as studied with a salt-stored zona pellucida penetration assay.the ability of domestic cat or leopard cat spermatozoa to penetrate zonae pellucidae (zp) of salt-stored, domestic cat oocytes was examined as an assay for sperm capacitation. ovarian oocytes were recovered after ovariectomy and matured in vitro for 18-36 h. following removal of cumulus cells, the oocytes were used fresh, or stored (4 degrees c, 0.5-24 weeks) in a hepes-buffered hypertonic salt solution. electroejaculated, washed sperm (2-4 x 10(6) sperm/ml) were preincubated for 1.0 h (38 degre ...19921554505
segregation of rd-114 and fel-v-related sequences in crosses between domestic cat and leopard cat. 1975170535
ticks (acari: ixodidae) parasitizing wild carnivores in phu khieo wildlife sanctuary, thailand.ixodid ticks were collected and identified from 8 wild carnivore species in phu khieo wildlife sanctuary, northeastern thailand. six tick species belonging to 4 genera were recovered and identified from 132 individuals. these included amblyomma testudinarium (n = 36), haemaphysalis asiatica (n = 58), h. hystricis (n = 31), h. semermis (n = 3), rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides (n = 3), and ixodes granulatus (n = 1). leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis) (n = 19) were infested with 4 tick species, ...200415270119
interspecies transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat to the tsushima cat (felis bengalensis euptilura) in the wild.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) was isolated from a wild-caught tsushima cat (felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (f. bengalensis). phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the fiv from the tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype d fivs from domestic cats. fivs from both the tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two sp ...199910438892
serosurvey for selected virus infections of wild carnivores in taiwan and vietnam.serum samples from two leopard cats (felis bengalensis) and four formosan gem-faced civets (paguma larvata taivana) in taiwan, september 1995, and nine leopard cats in vietnam, august and december 1997, were examined for the prevalence of antibodies against feline parvovirus, feline herpesvirus type 1, feline calicivirus and feline immunodeficiency virus. all civets and nine of 11 leopard cats were shown to have antibodies against feline parvovirus (fpv), and fpv's were isolated from mononuclear ...199910479095
phylogenetic reconstruction of the felidae using 16s rrna and nadh-5 mitochondrial genes.the felidae family represents a challenge for molecular phylogenetic reconstruction because it consists of 38 living species that evolved from a relatively recent common ancestor (10-15 million years ago). we have determined mitochondrial dna sequences from two genes that evolve at relatively rapid evolutionary rates, 16s rrna (379 bp) and nadh dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nadh-5, 318 bp), from multiple individuals of 35 species. based on separate and combined gene analyses using minimum evolution, ...19979071018
detection of toxolasma gondii in captive wild felids.toxoplasma gondii can infect all species of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and causes serious diseases in immunocompromized hosts. live tachyzoites derived from serial passage in hela culture were used in the sabin-feldman dye test for detection of toxoplasma gondii antibody in serum samples of 21 captive wild felids including one fishing cat (prion nailurus viverrina), one leopard (panthera pardus), two flat-headed cats (prion nailurus planiceps), 6 tigers (panthera tigris), two leopar ...200617547043
predominance of canine parvovirus (cpv) in unvaccinated cat populations and emergence of new antigenic types of cpvs in cats.serological, sequence, and in vitro host range analyses of feline parvovirus (fpv) isolates in vietnam and taiwan revealed that more than 80% of the isolates were of the canine parvovirus (cpv) type, rather than feline panleukopenia virus (fplv). although parvovirus isolates from three vietnamese leopard cats were genetically related to cpv type 2a or 2b, they had a natural mutation of vp2 residue 300 gly to an asp, resulting in remarkable changes in their antigenic properties. these results ind ...200011112475
comparative aspects of steroid hormone metabolism and ovarian activity in felids, measured noninvasively in feces.noninvasive fecal assays were used to study steroid metabolism and ovarian activity in several felid species. using the domestic cat (felis catus) as model, the excretory products of injected [14c]estradiol (e2) and [14c]progesterone (p4) were determined. within 2 days, 97.0 +/- 0.6% and 96.7 +/- 0.5% of recovered e2 and p4 radioactivity, respectively, was found in feces. e2 was excreted as unconjugated estradiol and estrone (40%) and as a non-enzyme-hydrolyzable conjugate (60%). p4 was excreted ...19947819459
hepatozoonosis in two species of japanese wild cat.hepatozoon sp. infections were detected in two species of japanese wild cat, iriomote wild cat (felis iriomotensis) and tsushima leopard cat (felis bengalensis euptilura), between april 1993 and october 2005. the prevalence was 56.7% (17/30) and 14.3% (6/42), respectively. the most affected organ was the heart; all infected animals had organisms in their hearts. the parasitizing form was schizont and various developmental stages were observed. the size of schizont and merozoite was 22.3 +/- 3.1 ...200616953084
second-generation integrated genetic linkage/radiation hybrid maps of the domestic cat (felis catus).we report construction of second-generation integrated genetic linkage and radiation hybrid (rh) maps in the domestic cat (felis catus) that exhibit a high level of marker concordance and provide near-full genome coverage. a total of 864 markers, including 585 coding loci (type i markers) and 279 polymorphic microsatellite loci (type ii markers), are now mapped in the cat genome. we generated the genetic linkage map utilizing a multigeneration interspecies backcross pedigree between the domestic ...200312692169
monoclonal antibodies that distinguish antigenic variants of canine parvovirus.canine parvovirus (cpv) is classified as a member of the feline parvovirus (fpv) subgroup. cpv isolates are divided into three antigenic types: cpv type 2 (cpv-2), cpv-2a, and cpv-2b. recently, new antigenic types of cpv were isolated from vietnamese leopard cats and designated cpv-2c(a) or cpv-2c(b). cpv-2c viruses were distinguished from the other antigenic types of the fpv subgroup by the absence of reactivity with several monoclonal antibodies (mabs). to characterize the antigenicity of cpv- ...200314607871
characterization of blood cells in the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis).the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) is the most frequently encountered wild cat in most of southeast asia. limited hematologic investigation exists for this species.201020230574
seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among felidae and hyaenidae species.feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv). species-specific strains of fiv have been described for domestic cat (felis catus), puma (puma concolor), lion (panthera leo), leopard (panthera pardus), and pallas' cat (otocolobus manul). here, we employ a three-antigen western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion fiv antigens) and pcr analysis to sur ...200515956574
comparative immobilization of wild felids in thailand.we immobilized individuals of four free-ranging felid species, leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis), clouded leopard (neofelis nebulosa), asiatic golden cat (catopuma temminckii), and marbled cat (pardofelis marmorata) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride (kh-xh) and with tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride (th-zh) between march 1998 and july 2002. mean (+/-sd) dose of kh and xh was 26.51+/-5.71 mg/kg and 1.89+/-0.43 mg/kg, respectively (n=25), and mean dose ...200415465729
molecular characterization of hepatozoon species in a leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) from thailand.hepatozoon gamonts were observed by light microscopy in neutrophils of a male, wild-caught leopard cat. complete blood counts at presentation and 6 months later were unremarkable. serologic tests were negative for both fiv and felv. a partial sequence of the 18s rrna gene from the hepatozoon found in the cat indicated that, compared with all species examined, the protozoan had the closest relationship (99.2% sequence similarity) with the hepatozoon of the water python (stegonotus cucullatus). th ...201020230573
genetic diversity in domestic cats felis catus of the tsushima islands, based on mitochondrial dna cytochrome b and control region nucleotide sequences.nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial dna (mtdna) of 50 domestic cats (felis catus) obtained from the tsushima islands were determined and the genetic diversity was analyzed. in the cats, six haplotypes of the complete cytochrome b sequences (1,140 base-pairs, bp) and ten haplotypes of the partial control region sequences (350 bp) were identified. haplotypes obtained from both genes showed existence of at least 11 maternal lineages of domestic cats in tsushima. mean values of polymorphic site nu ...200515988156
nuclear and microtubule remodeling and in vitro development of nuclear transferred cat oocytes with skin fibroblasts of the domestic cat (felis silvestris catus) and leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis).the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis), a member of the felidae family, is a threatened animal in south korea. in terms of protecting endangered felids, nuclear transfer (nt) is a potentially valuable technique for assuring the continuation of species with dwindling numbers. in the present experiment, nuclear and microtubule remodeling and the in vitro developmental potential of enucleated domestic cat oocytes reconstructed with nuclei of somatic cells from either domestic cat fibroblast (dc ...200616310987
abnormalities in the transcription of reprogramming genes related to global epigenetic events of cloned endangered felid embryos.the present study examined transcription levels of the oct4, dnmt1, dnmt3a, dnmt3b, hat1 and hdac1 genes in cloned felid embryos developing from single one-cell to blastocyst stages. ivf, cloned domestic and leopard cat embryos had low oct4 and hat1 levels during the early stages, but transcript expression increased at the eight-cell and blastocyst stages. in contrast, expression in the cloned marble cat embryos was low at all stages. transcription patterns of hdac1 were altered in cloned embryo ...201020353721
in vitro production and initiation of pregnancies in inter-genus nuclear transfer embryos derived from leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) nuclei fused with domestic cat (felis silverstris catus) enucleated oocytes.the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis), a member of the felidae family, is currently listed as threatened by the ministry of environment in south korea. in exotic or endangered species, the lack of oocytes and recipients precludes the use of traditional somatic cell nuclear transfer, and an approach such as inter-genus nuclear transfer may be the only alternative for producing embryos and offspring. in the present study, we used the leopard cat as a somatic cell donor to evaluate the in vivo ...200616384598
fecal dna analysis for identifying species and sex of sympatric carnivores: a noninvasive method for conservation on the tsushima islands, japan.fecal analysis is a useful tool for the investigation of food habits and species identity in mammals. however, it is generally difficult to identify the species based on the morphological features and contents of feces deposited by mammals of similar body size. therefore we developed noninvasive dna analysis methods using fecal samples for identification of the species and sex of four small sympatric carnivores living on the tsushima islands of japan: the leopard cat (felis bengalensis), japanes ...200516267168
deficiency of cytosolic arylamine n-acetylation in the domestic cat and wild felids caused by the presence of a single nat1-like gene.the purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis for a relative deficiency in the cat of cytosolic arylamine n-acetyltransferase (nat), an enzyme family that is important in the metabolism of xenobiotics and that normally consists of at least two related enzymes, nat1 and nat2. n-acetyltransferase in feline liver showed high affinity (mean km = 2.1 microm) for p-aminobenzoic acid, an nat1 selective substrate in humans and rabbits, but showed a very poor affinity (mean km > 10 mm) f ...199810022754
isolation of feline leukemia virus from a leopard cat cell line and search for retrovirus in wild felidae.a strain of feline leukemia virus (felv), subgroup a, was isolated in early subpassage of a testicular fibroblast culture obtained from a captive asian leopard cat. neither felv nor rd-114 virus was recovered from cultured tissues of 15 other animals, representing eight species of wild felidae.19816268887
pneumonia associated with eugonic fermenter-4 bacteria in two chinese leopard cats. 198817423167
detection of a novel and highly divergent coronavirus from asian leopard cats and chinese ferret badgers in southern china.since an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (sars) was averted in 2004, many novel coronaviruses have been recognized from different species, including humans. bats have provided the most diverse assemblages of coronaviruses, suggesting that they may be the natural reservoir. continued virological surveillance has proven to be the best way to avert this infectious disease at the source. here we provide the first description of a previously unidentified coronavirus lineage detected fro ...200717459938
risk analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in tsushima leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) and domestic cats using a geographic information system.in this study, based on the data from fiv screening surveys of captive cats conducted by the kyushu veterinary union and collaborators as part of the infection control program for tsushima leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus), we elucidated the spatial distribution of fiv-positive individuals among leopard cats and domestic cats using a geographic information system. data from fiv screening surveys carried out among 86 leopard cats (1996-2006) and 713 captive domestic cats (2001-20 ...201020379084
fecal steroid metabolites and reproductive monitoring in a female tsushima leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus).although the tsushima leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) is one of the most endangered mammals in japan, its reproductive physiology and endocrinology have been not elucidated. the objective was to establish the non-invasive monitoring of reproductive endocrinology in a female tsushima leopard cat and to identify the types of fecal reproductive steroid metabolites in this species. fecal concentrations of estrogen and progestin were determined by enzyme immunoassays, from 60 d befo ...201020615533
coprology of panthera tigris altaica and felis bengalensis euptilurus from the russian far east.fecal samples from the siberian tiger (panthera tigris altaica) and the amur cat (felis bengalensis euptilurus) from far eastern russia, were examined for parasites. a natural sedimentation methodology was used and a complete examination of all the sediment was performed. this fecal investigation allowed us to isolate and identify several developmental stages of gastrointestinal, hepatic, and respiratory parasites. five parasites were found from p. t. altaica: 11 trematodes (platynosomum fastosu ...200717918383
development of y chromosome intraspecific polymorphic markers in the felidae.y chromosome haplotyping based on microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) has proved to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies of humans. however, the promise of the approach is hampered in the majority of nonhuman mammals by the lack of y-specific polymorphic markers. we were able to identify new male-specific polymorphisms in the domestic cat felis catus and 6 additional felidae species with a combination of molecular genetic and cytogenetic approaches including 1 ...200717646273
molecular diversity and phylogeography of the asian leopard cat, felis bengalensis, inferred from mitochondrial and y-chromosomal dna sequences.to investigate genetic diversity and phylogeography of the asian leopard cat (felis bengalensis), mitochondrial dna (mtdna) sequences were determined for 39 individuals from various areas. sequences combining the complete cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) with the partial control region (646-810 bp) were classified into 24 haplotypes: 21 types from 21 animals, one from eight animals from tsushima islands, one from eight animals from iriomote island, and one from two animals from southeast asia. phylo ...200818533746
comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus.in this territory-wide molecular epidemiology study of coronaviruses (covs) in hong kong involving 1,541 dead wild birds, three novel covs were identified in three different bird families (bulbul cov hku11 [bucov hku11], thrush cov hku12 [thcov hku12], and munia cov hku13 [mucov hku13]). four complete genomes of the three novel covs were sequenced. their genomes (26,396 to 26,552 bases) represent the smallest known cov genomes. in phylogenetic trees constructed using chymotrypsin-like protease ( ...200918971277
an autosomal genetic linkage map of the domestic cat, felis silvestris catus.we report on the completion of an autosomal genetic linkage (gl) map of the domestic cat (felis silvestris catus). unlike two previous linkage maps of the cat constructed with a hybrid pedigree between the domestic cat and the asian leopard cat, this map was generated entirely with domestic cats, using a large multi-generational pedigree (n=256) maintained by the nestlé purina petcare company. four hundred eighty-three simple tandem repeat (str) loci have been assigned to linkage groups on the c ...200919059333
standardization of some electrocardiographic parameters of captive leopard cats (leopardus tigrinus).thirty-three captive leopard cats, leopardus tigrinus, were anesthetized with xylazine (1-2 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg), and electrocardiograph (ecg) tests were recorded in all leads with 1 cm = 1 mv sensibility and 25 mm/sec speed repeating dii lead at 50 mm/sec speed with the same sensibility. results expressed by mean and standard deviation were: heart rate (hr) = 107 +/- 17 (bpm); p-wave = 0.048 +/- 0.072 (s) x 0.128 +/- 0.048 (mv); pr interval = 0.101 +/- 0.081 (s); qrs compound = 0.053 ...200919746854
the first report of hepatozoon species infection in leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis) in korea.hepatozoon species infections were detected in 4 of 5 heart samples from leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis) in korea examined by light microscopy and pcr. microscopically, the schizonts of the hepatozoon species were observed within the parasitophorous vacuoles of unidentified host cells that were located between myocytes. the schizonts were approximately 31 +/- 4 x 19 +/- 3 microm in size; 3 mature schizonts contained approximately 24, 25, and 35 merozoites. in analyses of the partial 18s ...201019891517
cephalopagus conjoined twins in a leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis).case reports of conjoined twins ("siamese twins") in wild mammals are scarce. most published reports of conjoined twins in mammals concern cases in man and domestic mammals. this article describes a case of cephalopagus conjoined twins in a leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) collected on the island of sumatra, indonesia, in the period 1873-76. a review of known cases of conjoined twinning in wild mammals is given.200818263837
enhanced histone acetylation in somatic cells induced by a histone deacetylase inhibitor improved inter-generic cloned leopard cat blastocysts.the objective was to determine whether alterations of histone acetylation status in donor cells affected inter-generic scnt (igscnt)-cloned embryo development. leopard cat cells were treated with trichostatin a (tsa; a histone deacetylase inhibitor) for 48 h, and then donor cells were transferred into enucleated oocytes from domestic cats. compared to non-treated cells, the acetylated histone 3 at lysine 9 (ach3k9) and histone 4 at lysine 5 (ach4k5) in the tsa group increased for up to 48 h (p < ...201020708232
a case of iriomote cat (prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis) with hepatozoon felis parasitemia.we herein present clinical findings of an iriomote cat with hepatozoon felis parasitemia. a male iriomote cat was captured for ecological analyses three times from january 2010 to january 2011. although this cat did not show any hematological abnormalities at the time of the first capture, h. felis parasitemia and increased serum creatine kinase levels were detected at the second and third captures. h. felis infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, and amplified 18s ribosomal rna ge ...201121685717
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Amur leopard cat, Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus.The total length of the Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus genome is 16,990 bp, with a total base composition of 33% A, 27.4% T, 26% C, and 13.5% G. The base compositions present clearly the A-T skew, which is most obvious in the tRNA genes (64%).201122040073
molecular survey of arthropod-borne pathogens in ticks obtained from japanese wildcats.the iriomote cat (ic), prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis, and the tsushima leopard cat (tlc), prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, are endangered subspecies of leopard cats in japan. in addition to habitat destruction and road kills, infectious diseases may threaten their populations, and infection with arthropod-borne pathogens has been reported in both subspecies. infestations with ectoparasites, especially ticks, have frequently been observed in ics and tlcs. in the present study, ticks c ...201525682495
molecular epidemiologic survey of bartonella, ehrlichia, and anaplasma infections in japanese iriomote and tsushima leopard cats.the iriomote cat (ic; prionailurus iriomotensis) and the tsushima leopard cat (tlc; prionailurus bengalensis euptilura) are endangered wild felids in japan. as a part of ongoing conservation activities, we conducted a molecular, epidemiologic survey of bartonella, ehrlichia, and anaplasma infections in wild ic and tlc populations. blood samples (47 from 33 individual ic; 22 from 13 tlc) were collected between august 2002 and january 2011. using pcr analysis, we confirmed the presence of bartonel ...201323778615
ecology driving genetic variation: a comparative phylogeography of jungle cat (felis chaus) and leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) in india.comparative phylogeography links historical population processes to current/ecological processes through congruent/incongruent patterns of genetic variation among species/lineages. despite high biodiversity, india lacks a phylogeographic paradigm due to limited comparative studies. we compared the phylogenetic patterns of indian populations of jungle cat (felis chaus) and leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis). given similarities in their distribution within india, evolutionary histories, body s ...201021060831
genetic identification of prey species from teeth in faeces from the endangered leopard cat prionailurus bengalensis using mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequence.to understand the dietary ecology of the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis), dna analysis was performed to identify prey species using dna isolated from teeth harvested from the faeces of this feline species. from 70 dna samples, a total of 52 mitochondrial dna (mtdna) cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequences of mammals were identified. the results of a sequence identity test indicated that those sequences were derived from four rodent species (apodemus agrarius, apodemus peninsulae, eothenomys re ...201728093009
[new evidence for the spread of thelazia callipaeda in the far east].thelazia callipaeda nematodes parasitize in the eyes of domestic and wild carnivorous mammals (more often in canidae). numerous cases of human infestation are also known. the nematode spreads in south and east asia although in the last decade this has been reported from dogs, cats and wolves in south and central europe as well. in the russian federation, t. callipaeda was earlier observed in dogs, cats, foxes and raccoon dogs in some regions of the russian far east. two cases of human infestatio ...201525850318
anaplasma sp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) from korea.this study examined the occurrence of anaplasma spp. and hemoplasma infection in leopard cats, prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, in korea. twenty-nine biological samples were tested by molecular analysis. two (6.9%) and eight (27.6%) tested specimens were positive for anaplasma bovis and hemoplasma infection, respectively. based on our results, anaplasma/ehrlichia spp. and hemoplasma are regularly infecting leopard cat populations of korea. considering their endangered status, regular monitor ...201526040618
molecular identification of avian haemosporidia in wild birds and mosquitoes on tsushima island, japan.we investigated for the first time the prevalence of avian haemosporidia of genera plasmodium, haemoproteus and leucocytozoon among birds and mosquitoes on tsushima island of japan, which is located between japan and the korean peninsula. of 55 wild birds belonging to 33 species, 16 (29.1%) tested positive for haemosporidia as follows: plasmodium spp. (11/55; 20.0%); haemoproteus spp. (2/55; 3.6%); and leucocytozoon spp. (3/55; 5.5%). a genetic lineage isolated from the eurasian sparrowhawk (acc ...201323123824
molecular dietary analysis of two sympatric felids in the mountains of southwest china biodiversity hotspot and conservation implications.dietary information is lacking in most of small to mid-sized carnivores due to their elusive predatory behaviour and versatile feeding habits. the leopard cat (lpc; prionailurus bengalensis) and the asiatic golden cat (agc; catopuma temminckii) are two important yet increasingly endangered carnivore species in the temperate mountain forest ecosystem in southwest china, a global biodiversity hotspot and a significant reservoir of china's endemic species. we investigated the vertebrate prey of the ...201728195150
sympatric asian felid phylogeography reveals a major indochinese-sundaic divergence.the dynamic geological and climatological history of southeast asia has spawned a complex array of ecosystems and 12 of the 37 known cat species, making it the most felid-rich region in the world. to examine the evolutionary histories of these poorly studied fauna, we compared phylogeography of six species (leopard cat prionailurus bengalensis, fishing cat p. viverrinus, asiatic golden cat pardofelis temminckii, marbled cat p. marmorata, tiger panthera tigris and leopard p. pardus) by sequencing ...201424629132
genetic relationships among wild felidae in thailand using aflp markers.the cytogenetics of eight felidae species in thailand were investigated by the colchicines-hypotonic fixation-air drying technique followed by a conventional technique. all species studied have an identical number of 38 diploid chromosomes, indicating a close genetic relationship among species. at a deep study level, the genetic relationships of eight felidae species were accessed by the aflp method. blood samples were collected from sources locating in their original regions for dna extraction. ...200719070075
comparison of fecal microbiota of three captive carnivore species inhabiting korea.this study aimed at characterizing fecal microbiota of three captive carnivore species of leopard cats prionailurus bengalensis, eurasian otters lutra lutra and raccoon dogs nyctereutes procyonoides. we used dna barcoding sequencing to analyze 16s rrna genes of uncultured bacteria in the feces collected in the seoul zoo. the sequencing analyses revealed that: 1) firmicutes was the most dominant phylum for all three animals; 2) bacterial genus-rank compositions were distinct across species of the ...201728049922
spatial co-occurrence and activity patterns of mesocarnivores in the temperate forests of southwest china.understanding the interactions between species and their coexistence mechanisms will help explain biodiversity maintenance and enable managers to make sound conservation decisions. mesocarnivores are abundant and diverse mid-sized carnivores and can have profound impacts on the function, structure and dynamics of ecosystem after the extirpation of apex predators in many ecosystems. the moist temperate forests of southwest china harbor a diverse community of mesocarnivores in the absence of apex ...201627723772
occurrence of gnathostoma spinigerum in a leopard cat from wayanad wildlife sanctuary, kerala.the post-mortem examination of a leopard cat from wayanad wildlife sanctuary, kerala, died in a road accident, revealed presence of gastric tumours containing worms which were identified as gnathostoma spinigerum based on morphological characteristics.201627413340
an epidemiological survey of hemoplasma infection in iriomote cats (prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis).an epidemiological survey of iriomote cats (prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis) was conducted to understand the prevalence and molecular characteristics of hemotropic mycoplasma (hemoplasma). a series of ecological surveys of iriomote cats were performed between november 2003 and september 2010. during this period, 31 iriomote cats were captured or found, and 39 blood samples were collected. polymerase chain reaction screening for hemoplasmas and blast searches revealed that 4 of the 31 cats ...201222785566
using pgfm (13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin f2α) as a non-invasive pregnancy marker for felids.understanding the complex endocrine interactions that control reproduction in felids is essential for captive breeding management. the most important demand is a quick and reliable pregnancy diagnosis. however, the occurrence of pseudopregnancies in felids complicates matters. we investigated whether the fecal prostaglandin metabolite (pgfm) recently suggested for pregnancy diagnosis in the lynx is suitable for all felid species. we found that increased levels of pgfm during the last trimester i ...201122192399
epidemiological survey of tick-borne protozoal infection in iriomote cats and tsushima leopard cats in japan.this epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of hepatozoon, babesia and theileria infection in the iriomote cat (ic) and the tsushima leopard cat (tlc). blood samples from 43 ics and 14 tlcs were collected between november 2002 and january 2012. polymerase chain reaction and dna sequencing analyses detected a hepatozoon felis infection prevalence of 72.0% (31/43 cats) and 100% (14/14 cats) in ics and tlcs, respectively. the degree of hepatozoon parasitemia observed on bl ...201323449464
earliest "domestic" cats in china identified as leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis).the ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in south-west asia. a recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in china some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (f. silvestris). the application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from china dating between 5,500 to 4,900 bp, instead reveal these and othe ...201626799955
tiger, bengal and domestic cat embryos produced by homospecific and interspecific zona-free nuclear transfer.the aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iscnt) using bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of felis silvestris and prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (panthera tigris) donor cells. in experiment 1, zona-free (zp-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that invol ...201526332056
the presence of tick-borne diseases in domestic dogs and cats living on iriomote-jima and tsushima islands.the iriomote cat and tsushima leopard cat are endangered wildcats in japan and inhabit only iriomote-jima and tsushima islands, respectively. domestic dogs and cats living on iriomote-jima and tsushima islands were surveyed to clarify the interrelationship between wildcats and domestic animals regarding tick-borne disease transmission. pathogen-derived dna in blood samples was detected by polymerase chain reaction. babesia gibsoni was detected in dogs of iriomote-jima, and hepatozoon felis and h ...201728484147
origin, evolution, and virulence of porcine deltacoronaviruses in the united states.a novel porcine deltacoronavirus (pdcv) was first discovered in ohio and indiana in february 2014, rapidly spread to other states in the united states and canada, and caused significant economic loss in the swine industry. the origin and virulence of this novel porcine coronavirus are not known. here, we characterized u.s. pdcv isolates and determined their virulence in gnotobiotic and conventional piglets. genome analyses revealed that u.s. pdcv isolates possess unique genetic characteristics a ...201525759498
visceral smooth muscle α-actin deficiency associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a bengal cat (felis catus x prionailurus bengalensis).an adult bengal cat (felis catus × prionailurus bengalensis) with a prolonged history of partial anorexia, regurgitation, and weight loss and a clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic diagnosis of persistent megaesophagus and gastrointestinal ileus was submitted for necropsy. the intestinal tract was diffusely distended by gas and fluid with appreciable loss of muscle tone and an absence of luminal obstruction, consistent with the clinical history of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. h ...201423774747
who's behind that mask and cape? the asian leopard cat's agouti (asip) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the bengal cat breed.coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with mendelian inheritance. a 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (asip) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and asian leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. the complete coding region of asip was directly sequenced in asian leopard, domesti ...201425143047
ebstein anomaly in the tsushima leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus).ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart disease that has been described in domestic dogs, a meerkat, a pygmy goat, and a lion. an 11-mo-old tsushima leopard cat presented to osaka prefecture university veterinary hospital for diagnosis and treatment of right-sided congestive heart failure. echocardiography showed a dilated right atrium and ventricle with an enlarged tricuspid valve annulus and apical displacement of the tricuspid valve leaflets. the cat was diagnosed with ebstein anomaly. to ...201728749297
epidemiologic survey of feline leukemia virus in domestic cats on tsushima island, japan: management strategy for tsushima leopard cats.the tsushima leopard cat (tlc) prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, a subspecies of p. bengalensis, is designated a national natural monument of japan, and lives only on tsushima island, nagasaki prefecture, japan. tlcs are threatened by various infectious diseases. feline leukemia virus (felv) causes a serious infectious disease with a poor prognosis in cats. therefore, the transmission of felv from tsushima domestic cats (tdcs) to tlcs may threaten the tlc population. we investigated the felv ...201728782421
molecular identification of the trematode paragonimus in faecal samples from the wild cat prionailurus bengalensis in the da krong nature reserve, vietnam.conventional identification of paragonimus species and their natural definitive hosts is based on the morphological features of adult parasites isolated from the lungs of wild mammalian hosts. however, wild animals are protected by strict regulations and sampling is not always possible. recently, molecular techniques have been developed to identify the internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of paragonimus eggs in faeces/sputum of human patients. also, mammalian hosts can be identified using ...201626388560
alterations in selected serum biochemistry values of free-ranging bornean leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis) captured by box traps.box-traps for capturing wild cats are widely used by researchers since it is one of the most effective methods for trapping these species. although they are extensively utilised, the effects on the physiology of trapped felids remain unclear. researchers frequently make judgements regarding the safety of such capture devices by examination of external injuries but often fail to take into consideration other physiological parameters. to assess the effects of capture events on selected serum bioch ...201424839119
metabolism of prostaglandin f2alpha in eurasian lynx (lynx lynx) and asian leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis euptilura).methods for monitoring endocrine status are useful tools for reproduction management. in particular, successful captive breeding of endangered feline species requires reliable methods for pregnancy diagnosis. in many species, uterine and placental prostaglandin-f2α (pgf2α) is involved in the regulation of reproductive processes. pgf2α is metabolized to 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-pgf2a (pgfm) during the first passage through the lungs. immunoreactive pgfm is elevated in pregnant felids during the last ...201728111808
scotopic electroretinography in fishing cat (prionailurus viverrinus) and leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis).to establish baseline normal scotopic electroretinograpic (erg) parameters for two wild cat species: fishing cats (fc) and leopard cats (lc).201727471166
[research advances in the porcine deltacoronavirus].the deltacoronavirus is a new member of the subfamily coronaviridae of the family coronaviridae. deltacoronaviruses can infect birds and mammals. deltacoronaviruses were detected in early 2007 in asian leopard cats and chinese ferret badgers. in 2014, porcine deltacoronavirus (pdcov) infection spread rapidly in the usa. moreover, cell culture-adapted pdcov has been obtained from infected piglets. animal experiments have confirmed that the isolated pdcov is highly pathogenic and causes severe dia ...201627396171
neurofibrillary tangles and the deposition of a beta amyloid peptide with a novel n-terminal epitope in the brains of wild tsushima leopard cats.beta amyloid (aβ) deposits are seen in aged individuals in many of the mammalian species that possess the same aβ amino acid sequence as humans. conversely, neurofibrillary tangles (nft), the other hallmark lesion of alzheimer's disease (ad), are extremely rare in these animals. we detected aβ deposits in the brains of tsushima leopard cats (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) that live exclusively on tsushima island, japan. aβ42 was deposited in a granular pattern in the neuropil of the pyrami ...201223056312
genetic structure and phylogeography of the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) inferred from mitochondrial genomes.the leopard cat prionailurus bengalensis is a habitat generalist that is widely distributed across southeast asia. based on morphological traits, this species has been subdivided into 12 subspecies. thus far, there have been few molecular studies investigating intraspecific variation, and those had been limited in geographic scope. for this reason, we aimed to study the genetic structure and evolutionary history of this species across its very large distribution range in asia. we employed both p ...201728498987
variations in leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) skull morphology and body size: sexual and geographic influences.the leopard cat, prionailurus bengalensis (kerr, 1792), is one of the most widespread asian cats, occurring in continental eastern and southeastern asia. since 1929, several studies have focused on the morphology, ecology, and taxonomy of leopard cats. nevertheless, hitherto there has been no agreement on basic aspects of leopard cat biology, such as the presence or absence of sexual dimorphism, morphological skull and body differences between the eleven recognized subspecies, and the biogeograp ...201526500818
the complete mitochondrial genome of leopard cat, prionailurus bengalensis chinensis (carnivora:felidae).the full-length of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of prionailurus bengalensis chinensis was first determined in this study and consisted of a 16,990 bp fragment, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rrna genes, 22 trna genes, a control region (cr), and an origin of l-strand replication (olr). the total base composition of the heavy strand was a, 33.0%; g, 13.6%; c, 26.0%; and t, 27.4%, with a slight at bias of 60.4%. the complete mitogenomic data of p. b. chinensis may provide an important data ...201625629472
carnivore diet analysis based on next-generation sequencing: application to the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) in pakistan.diet analysis is a prerequisite to fully understand the biology of a species and the functioning of ecosystems. for carnivores, traditional diet analyses mostly rely upon the morphological identification of undigested remains in the faeces. here, we developed a methodology for carnivore diet analyses based on the next-generation sequencing. we applied this approach to the analysis of the vertebrate component of leopard cat diet in two ecologically distinct regions in northern pakistan. despite b ...201222250784
low genetic variation in the mhc class ii drb gene and mhc-linked microsatellites in endangered island populations of the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) in japan.isolated populations of the leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis) on tsushima and iriomote islands in japan are classified as subspecies p. b. euptilurus and p. b. iriomotensis, respectively. because both populations have decreased to roughly 100, an understanding of their genetic diversity is essential for conservation. we genotyped mhc class ii drb exon 2 and mhc-linked microsatellite loci to evaluate the diversity of mhc genes in the tsushima and iriomote cat populations. we detected ten and ...201728689276
intrauterine insemination with fresh semen in amur leopard cat (pionailurus bengalensis eutilura) during non-breeding season.equine and human chorionic gonadotropins were administered to two female amur leopard cats to induce estrus and ovulation during non-breeding season. fresh semen collected from male cats was surgically inseminated into the uterine horn of the females. in one animal, two fetal sacs without heartbeats were observed on abdominal ultrasonography 31 days after insemination, which indicated that embryo death had occurred. in the other animal, fetal heartbeats were detected in two fetal sacs 29 days af ...201727733725
a trial of semen collection by transrectal electroejaculation method from amur leopard cat (prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus).we collected semen from a male amur leopard cat using the transrectal electroejaculation method and investigated the semen qualities for about four years. in addition, the influence of the season on the spermatogenic function of the amur leopard cat was investigated with regard to the semen qualities, testicular volume and serum testosterone level. as a result, we could collect semen with good sperm qualities that would be useable for artificial insemination. some seasonality was noted in the te ...201626935841
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