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growth inhibitory effect of juvenile hormone analogues on epimastigotes of trypanosoma cruzi.several compounds, structurally related to the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb, exhibited interesting inhibition action to control proliferation of trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for chagas' disease. some of these drugs were shown to be potent growth inhibitors of this parasite. all of these drugs had previously presented juvenoid activity on several non-related bug species such as tenebrio molitor, galleria mellonella, dysdercus cingulatos, and pyrrhocoris apterus.19989873713
ttagg telomeric repeats in chromosomes of some insects and other arthropods.we studied the occurrence of the ttagg telomere repeats by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (fish) and southern hybridization in ten insect species and two other arthropods. (ttagg)n-containing telomeres were found in three lepidoptera species, the silkworm bombyx mori (in which the telomeric sequence was recently discovered), the flour moth ephestia kuehniella, and the wax moth galleria mellonella, in one species of hymenoptera, the honey bee apis mellifera, in one species of coleoptera, the ...199910560968
neuropeptides in heteroptera: identification of allatotropin-related peptide and tachykinin-related peptides using maldi-tof mass spectrometry.recently, the peptidomic analysis of neuropeptides from the retrocerebral complex and abdominal perisympathetic organs of polyphagous stinkbugs (pentatomidae) revealed the group-specific sequences of pyrokinins, capa peptides (capa-periviscerokinins/pvks and capa-pyrokinin), myosuppressin, corazonin, adipokinetic hormone, and short neuropeptide f. in this study, we used mass spectrometric profiling of nervous tissue from the species-rich taxon hemiptera to identify products of two previously uno ...200919084564
study of the pest community of velvetleaf (abutilon theophrasti medic.).velvetleaf (abutilon theophrasti medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in hungary. researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of ...201122696962
metabolic phosphorylation and excretion of some nucleoside analogues in insects.after oral administration to the hemipteran insect pyrrhocoris apterus l. (fireburg), the l-enantiomers and certain open-chain analogues of the nucleosides are rapidly converted into the corresponding monophosphates, which are then excreted. this metabolic phosphorylation is almost quantitative; it occurs at the primary as well as at the secondary hydroxylic groups. the process is abolished when the respective nucleoside analogues contain a free carboxylic group. by contrast, the phosphorylating ...20144026989
autonomous regulation of the insect gut by circadian genes acting downstream of juvenile hormone signaling.in temperate regions, the shortening day length informs many insect species to prepare for winter by inducing diapause. the adult diapause of the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus, involves a reproductive arrest accompanied by energy storage, reduction of metabolic needs, and preparation to withstand low temperatures. by contrast, nondiapause animals direct nutrient energy to muscle activity and reproduction. the photoperiod-dependent switch from diapause to reproduction is systemically transmitte ...201323442387
common and distinct roles of juvenile hormone signaling genes in metamorphosis of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.insect larvae metamorphose to winged and reproductive adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or through an intermediary pupal stage (holometaboly). in either case juvenile hormone (jh) prevents metamorphosis until a larva has attained an appropriate phase of development. in holometabolous insects, jh acts through its putative receptor methoprene-tolerant (met) to regulate krüppel-homolog 1 (kr-h1) and broad-complex (br-c) genes. while met and kr-h1 prevent precocious metamorphosis in pre-final la ...201122174880
the 70 kda heat shock protein assists during the repair of chilling injury in the insect, pyrrhocoris apterus.the pyrrhocoris apterus (insecta: heteroptera) adults attain high levels of cold tolerance during their overwintering diapause. non-diapause reproducing adults, however, lack the capacity to express a whole array of cold-tolerance adaptations and show relatively low survival when exposed to sub-zero temperatures. we assessed the competence of non-diapause males of p. apterus for responding to heat- and cold-stresses by up-regulation of 70 kda heat shock proteins (hsps) and the role of hsps durin ...200919229329
a role for taiman in insect metamorphosis.recent studies in vitro have reported that the methoprene-tolerant (met) and taiman (tai) complex is the functional receptor of juvenile hormone (jh). experiments in vivo of met depletion have confirmed this factor's role in jh signal transduction, however, there is no equivalent data regarding tai because its depletion in larval or nymphal stages of the beetle tribolium castaneum and the bug pyrrhocoris apterus results in 100% mortality. we have discovered that the cockroach blattella germanica ...201425356827
the systemic effects of juvenoids on the red firebug pyrrhocoris apterus and on the pea aphid acyrthosiphon pisum with data on life table response.a series of juvenoid alcohols and their glycosidic derivatives (juvenogens), synthesized at the institute of organic chemistry and biochemistry in prague, commercially used juvenoids and the natural derivatives of juvabione were evaluated for their systemic juvenilizing effect on the red firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus l., and on the pea aphid, acyrthosiphon pisum harris. a life table response experiment was designed, and demographic characteristics were computed for a cohort of a. pisum following ...200717724791
karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative fish mapping of 18s ribosomal dna and telomeric (ttagg) n repeat in eight species of true bugs (hemiptera, heteroptera).eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using dapi/cma3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) with telomeric (ttagg)n and 18s rdna probes. standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for deraeocoris rutilus (herrich-schäffer, 1838) (2n=30+2m+xy) and deraeocoris ruber(linnaeus, 1758) (2n=30+2m+xy) from the family miridae. using fish, the location of a 18s rdna cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: megaloceroea ...201124260641
corazonin and corazonin-like substances in the central nervous system of the pterygote and apterygote insects.antisera against corazonin were used to investigate distribution of immunoreactive cells in the central nervous system (cns) of representatives of six insect orders: ctenolepisma lineata (zygentoma), locusta migratoria (orthoptera), oxya yezoensis (orthoptera), gryllus bimaculatus (orthoptera), pyrrhocoris apterus (hemiptera), arge nigrinodosa (hymenoptera), athalia rosae (hymenoptera), bombyx mori (lepidoptera) and anomala cuprea (coleoptera). corazonin-like immunoreactive (cli) cells were dete ...200312733057
insect cold tolerance and repair of chill-injury at fluctuating thermal regimes: role of ion homeostasis.adults of the bug pyrrhocoris apterus and the beetle alphitobius diaperinus developed chill-injury slower and survived longer when they were exposed to fluctuating thermal regimes (ftrs, where periods of low temperature were alternated with periods of higher temperature on a daily basis) rather than to constant low temperatures. the extracellular (haemolymph) concentrations of potassium ions increased with significantly higher rates in the insects exposed to constant low temperatures than in tho ...200717275375
cosmopolitan distribution of a trypanosomatid leptomonas pyrrhocoris.a trypanosomatid species, designated as typing unit 1 (tu1) by sequences of sl rna gene repeats, has been found in the intestine of pyrrhocorids (insecta: heteroptera) in europe, mediterranean, central america and some parts of asia and africa. phylogenetic analysis of the sl repeat sequences has shown that the isolates group in the tree according to their geographic origin. the maximal sequence divergence was observed in parasites from neotropics suggesting the origin within and subsequent migr ...201222341645
geographical and ecological stability of the symbiotic mid-gut microbiota in european firebugs, pyrrhocoris apterus (hemiptera, pyrrhocoridae).symbiotic bacteria often play an essential nutritional role for insects, thereby allowing them to exploit novel food sources and expand into otherwise inaccessible ecological niches. although many insects are inhabited by complex microbial communities, most studies on insect mutualists so far have focused on single endosymbionts and their interactions with the host. here, we provide a comprehensive characterization of the gut microbiota of the red firebug (pyrrhocoris apterus, hemiptera, pyrrhoc ...201223017151
actinobacteria as essential symbionts in firebugs and cotton stainers (hemiptera, pyrrhocoridae).actinobacteria engage in defensive symbioses with several insect taxa, but reports of nutritional contributions to their hosts have been exceptionally rare. cotton stainers (dysdercus fasciatus) and red firebugs (pyrrhocoris apterus) (both hemiptera, pyrrhocoridae) harbour the actinobacterial symbionts coriobacterium glomerans and gordonibacter sp. as well as firmicutes (clostridium sp. and lactococcus sp.) and proteobacteria (klebsiella sp. and a rickettsiales bacterium) in the m3 region of the ...201323078522
complete genome sequence of coriobacterium glomerans type strain (pw2(t)) from the midgut of pyrrhocoris apterus l. (red soldier bug).coriobacterium glomerans haas and könig 1988, is the only species of the genus coriobacterium, family coriobacteriaceae, order coriobacteriales, phylum actinobacteria. the bacterium thrives as an endosymbiont of pyrrhocorid bugs, i.e. the red fire bug pyrrhocoris apterus l. the rationale for sequencing the genome of strain pw2(t) is its endosymbiotic life style which is rare among members of actinobacteria. here we describe the features of this symbiont, together with the complete genome sequenc ...201323961308
role of methoprene-tolerant (met) in adult morphogenesis and in adult ecdysis of blattella germanica.juvenile hormone (jh) represses metamorphosis of young instars in insects. one of the main players in hormonal signalling is methoprene-tolerant (met), which plays the role of jh receptor. using the polyneopteran insect blattella germanica as the model and rnai for transcript depletion, we have confirmed that met transduces the antimetamorphic signal of jh in young nymphs and plays a role in the last nymphal instar moult in this species. previously, the function of met as the jh receptor had bee ...201425072526
folk knowledge of invertebrates in central europe - folk taxonomy, nomenclature, medicinal and other uses, folklore, and nature conservation.there is scarce information about european folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. we have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in romania, slovakia and croatia. we provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation.201627729074
effects of prolonged exposure to cold on the spontaneous activity of two different types of filiform sensilla in pyrrhocoris apterus.we recorded the spontaneous activity of t1 and t2 filiform sensilla from october to may in pyrrhocoris apterus acclimatized to outdoor conditions. the aim of the study was to determine how prolonged exposure to cold affects two closely related mechanosensitive sensilla. we recorded the activity at seven temperatures from 5 to 35 °c. in both sensilla types the activity level was reduced during winter, which correlated to changes in acclimatization temperature (r = 0.7), the reduction was greater ...201323913186
steroid conjugates: synthesis and preliminary biological testing of pro-juvenoids.a series of 10 new pro-juvenoids (juvenogens, insect hormonogenic compounds, pro-drug-like agents) was synthesized using isomeric synthetic juvenoids (insect juvenile hormone analogs) and steroid molecules as patterns modifying parts of the complex hormonogenic molecules. in addition, several new synthons were prepared, which were required by the designed synthetic protocol to achieve the target molecules. these pro-juvenoids were subjected to the topical screening tests and to the drinking assa ...201021036621
localization and transmission route of coriobacterium glomerans, the endosymbiont of pyrrhocorid bugs.endosymbiotic gut bacteria play an essential role in the nutrition of many insects. most of the nutritional interactions investigated so far involve gammaproteobacterial symbionts, whereas other groups have received comparatively little attention. here, we report on the localization and the transmission route of the specific actinobacterial symbiont coriobacterium glomerans from the gut of the red firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus (hemiptera: pyrrhocoridae). the symbionts were detected by diagnostic ...200919583787
activation of insect anti-oxidative mechanisms by mammalian glucagon.resembling the main function of insect adipokinetic hormones (akhs), the vertebrate hormone glucagon mobilizes energy reserves and participates in the control of glucose level in the blood. considering the similarities, the effect of porcine glucagon was evaluated in an insect model species, the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus. using the mouse anti-glucagon antibody, presence of immunoreactive material was demonstrated for the first time in the firebug cns and gut by elisa. mammalian (porcine) gluca ...200919095076
endocrine-dependent expression of circadian clock genes in insects.current models state that insect peripheral oscillators are directly responsive to light, while mammalian peripheral clock genes are coordinated by a master clock in the brain via intermediate factors, possibly hormonal. we show that the expression levels of two circadian clock genes, period (per) and par domain protein 1 (pdp1) in the peripheral tissue of an insect model species, the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus, are inversely affected by contrasting photoperiods. the effect of photoperiod on ...200818239853
dynamism in physiology and gene transcription during reproductive diapause in a heteropteran bug, pyrrhocoris apterus.reproductive diapause was characterized in females of pyrrhocoris apterus using physiological parameters (diapause intensity, photoperiodic responsiveness, oxygen consumption, mass and hydration) and changes in relative abundance of mrna transcripts of eight different genes coding for proteins implemented in energy metabolism, cryoprotectant biosynthesis, biological clocks, and hormonal receptors. changes in diapause intensity served as a basis for distinguishing successive phases of diapause de ...200817880995
wing morph-related differences in developmental pattern of accessory gland proteins in adult males of pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) and their endocrine control.the study showed that the amounts of the total proteins and 53 kda protein in male accessory glands (ags) of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) increased with age of the adult life. the 53 kda protein, the most abundant polypeptide detected in the secretion of the ags, and some other smaller peptides were identified as glycoproteins. changes in the amounts of the total proteins and 53 kda protein in ags were found to be wing morph-dependent and their levels were significantly higher in 1-10 da ...200415518657
structure and properties of the glandular surface in the digestive zone of the pitcher in the carnivorous plant nepenthes ventrata and its role in insect trapping and retention.carnivorous plants of the genus nepenthes grow in nutrient-poor habitats and have evolved specialised trapping organs, known as pitchers. these are composed of different surface zones serving the functions of attraction, capture and digestion of insects, which represent a main source of nitrogen. to investigate the role of the glandular digestive zone in the trapping mechanism of the pitcher, structural, mechanical and physico-chemical studies were applied to n. ventrata and combined with insect ...200415277550
on the nature of pre-freeze mortality in insects: water balance, ion homeostasis and energy charge in the adults of pyrrhocoris apterus.three acclimation groups [i.e. non-diapause (ld), diapause (sd) and diapause, cold-acclimated (sda)] of the adult bugs pyrrhocoris apterus differed markedly in their levels of chill tolerance. survival time at a sub-zero, but non-freezing, temperature of -5 degrees c (lt50) extended from 7.6 days, through 35.6 days, to >60 days in the ld, sd and sda insects, respectively. the time necessary for recovery after chill-coma increased linearly with the increasing time of exposure to -5 degrees c, and ...200415037645
conservation of ecdysis-triggering hormone signalling in insects.pre-ecdysis- and ecdysis-triggering hormones (peth and eth) from endocrine inka cells initiate ecdysis in moths and drosophila through direct actions on the central nervous system (cns). using immunohistochemistry, we found inka cells in representatives of all major insect orders. in most insects, inka cells are numerous, small and scattered throughout the tracheal system. only some higher holometabolous insects exhibit 8-9 pairs of large inka cells attached to tracheae in each prothoracic and a ...200312624163
differential infectivity of two pseudomonas species and the immune response in the milkweed bug, oncopeltus fasciatus (insecta: hemiptera).pseudomonas aeruginosa and pseudomonas putida show a profound differential infectivity after inoculation in oncopeltus fasciatus. whereas p. putida has no significant impact on nymphs, p. aeruginosa kills all experimental animals within 48 h. both pseudomonas species, however, induce the same four hemolymph peptides in o. fasciatus. also injection of saline solution and injury induced these peptides. in general peptide induction was stronger in nymphs than in adult males. a significantly higher ...200111812116
prevention of metamorphosis by exposure of insect eggs to juvenile hormone analogs.metamorphosis of the bugs pyrrhocoris apterus and oncopeltus fasciatus is blocked by the application of juvenile hormone analogs to the eqgs 4 weeks earlier. one or more supernumerary larval molts occur to form "giant" larvae which routinely die without undergoing netamorphosis. when the corpora allatta were excised at the outset of the fifth larval stage, the entire phenomenon vanished and all individuals underwent normal metamorphosis. the inhibition of metamorphosis can therefoore be attribut ...197017734449
juvenile hormone signaling during reproduction and development of the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus.juvenile hormone (jh), a sesquiterpenoid produced by the insect corpus allatum gland (ca), prevents metamorphosis in larvae and stimulates vitellogenesis in adult females. whether the same jh signaling pathway regulates both processes is presently unknown. here, we employ the robust jh response during reproduction and development of the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus, to compare the function of key jh-signaling genes encoding the jh receptor, methoprene-tolerant (met), its binding partner taima ...201424361539
tissue signaling pathways in the regulation of life-span and reproduction in females of the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus.molecular studies on drosophila melanogaster do not provide consistent results with regard to the hormonal regulation of a trade-off between life-span and fecundity. to unravel the physiological basis of the cost of reproduction without affecting animal's genotype, a new insect model, pyrrhocoris apterus, was employed. reproduction was manipulated by surgical ablations of tissues implicated in reproductive endocrinology, namely the pars intercerebralis (pi) of the brain, the corpus allatum (ca) ...200818206160
cost effective, robust, and reliable coupled separation techniques for the identification and quantification of phospholipids in complex biological matrices: application to insects.the quantification of phospholipid classes and the determination of their molecular structures are crucial in physiological and medical studies. this paper's target analytes are cell membrane phospholipids, which play an important role in the seasonal acclimation processes of poikilothermic organisms. we introduce a set of simple and cost-effective analytical methods that enable efficient characterization and quantification of particular phospholipid classes and the identification and relative d ...201424799084
through experience to boldness? deactivation of neophobia towards novel and aposematic prey in three european species of tits (paridae).european tits (paridae) exhibit species-specific levels of initial wariness towards aposematic prey. this wariness may be caused by neophobia, dietary conservatism or innate bias against particular prey traits. we assessed the contribution of these three mechanisms to the behaviour of juvenile tits towards novel palatable prey and novel aposematic prey. we compared levels of initial wariness in great tits (parus major), blue tits (cyanistes caeruleus) and coal tits (periparus ater), and tested h ...201627474371
the effect of social learning on avoidance of aposematic prey in juvenile great tits (parus major).social learning plays an important role in acquiring new foraging skills and food preferences in many bird species but its potential role in learning to avoid aposematic prey has never been studied. we tested the effect of social learning on the acquisition of avoidance of aposematic insect prey (firebug pyrrhocoris apterus; heteroptera) in juvenile, hand-reared great tits (parus major). behaviour towards aposematic prey was compared between two groups of birds: (1) the observers that were, prio ...201728639012
personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey.variation in reactions to aposematic prey is common among conspecific individuals of bird predators. it may result from different individual experience but it also exists among naive birds. this variation may possibly be explained by the effect of personality--a complex of correlated, heritable behavioural traits consistent across contexts. in the great tit (parus major), two extreme personality types have been defined. 'fast' explorers are bold, aggressive and routine-forming; 'slow' explorers ...201019889698
photoperiodic plasticity in circadian clock neurons in insects.since bünning's observation of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism in the runner bean phaseolus multiflorus in 1936, many studies have shown that photoperiodism is based on the circadian clock system. in insects, involvement of circadian clock genes or neurons has been recently shown in the photoperiodic control of developmental arrests, diapause. photoperiod sets peaks of period (per) or timeless (tim) mrna abundance at lights-off in sarcophaga crassipalpis, chymomyza costata and protophormia ...201323986711
juvenile hormone: identification of an active compound from balsam fir.a sesquiterpenoid ester with high juvenile hormone activity for pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) was isolated from balsam fir, abies balsamea (l.) miller, and identified as the methyl ester of todomatuic acid.19665919750
importance of juvenile hormone signaling arises with competence of insect larvae to metamorphose.juvenile hormone (jh) postpones metamorphosis of insect larvae until they have attained an appropriate stage and size. then, during the final larval instar, a drop in jh secretion permits a metamorphic molt that transforms larvae to adults either directly (hemimetaboly) or via a pupal stage (holometaboly). in both scenarios, jh precludes metamorphosis by activating the kr-h1 gene through a jh receptor, methoprene-tolerant (met). removal of met, kr-h1, or jh itself triggers deleterious precocious ...201424662045
reactions of green lizards (lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by graphosoma lineatum (heteroptera: pentatomidae).the chemical defence of heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. we tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (e)-hex-2-enal, (e)-oct-2-enal, (e)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (e)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion ext ...201525869384
juvenoids cause some insects to form composite cuticles.metamorphosing insects treated with juvenoids may secrete composite cuticles which combine morphological features of two metamorphic stages within the area secreted by an individual epidermal cell. characters found combined were pigmentation, tanning, surface sculpturing, and microtrichiae. neighbouring cells frequently form different types of cuticle. composite cuticles should not be confused with the more common mosaic cuticles, which are composed of discrete areas with different stage-specifi ...19827153697
hypermetabolic conversion of plant oil into water: endothermic biochemical process stimulated by juvenile hormone in the european firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus l.the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. the study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of o2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. the experiments were done on the european firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exc ...201627790049
unexpected geographic variability of the free running period in the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus.circadian clocks keep organisms in synchrony with external day-night cycles. the free running period (frp) of the clock, however, is usually only close to-not exactly-24 h. here, we explored the geographical variation in the frp of the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus, in 59 field-lines originating from a wide variety of localities representing geographically different environments. we have identified a remarkable range in the frps between field-lines, with the fastest clock at ~21 h and the slow ...201627708112
decrease in methoprene tolerant and taiman expression reduces juvenile hormone effects and enhances the levels of juvenile hormone circulating in males of the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus.juvenile hormone (jh) produced by the corpus allatum (ca) stimulates vitellogenesis and reduces the synthesis of hexamerin proteins in adult females of pyrrhocoris apterus. at present it is unknown whether the signaling pathway involving the jh receptor gene methoprene tolerant (met) and its binding partner taiman (tai), regulates the synthesis of accessory gland proteins (acps) and hexamerin proteins or effects male survival. knockdown of genes by injecting met dsrna or tai dsrna, reduced the a ...201727570150
photoperiod regulates growth of male accessory glands through juvenile hormone signaling in the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus.adult reproductive diapause is characterized by lower behavioral activity, ceased reproduction and absence of juvenile hormone (jh). the role of jh receptor methoprene-tolerant (met) in female reproduction is well established; however, its function in male reproductive development and behavior is unclear. in the bean bug, riptortus pedestris, circadian genes are essential for mediating photoperiodically-dependent growth of the male accessory glands (mags). the present study explores the role of ...201626826599
personality and ectoparasitic mites (hemipteroseius adleri) in firebugs (pyrrhocoris apterus).individuals of the same species often consistently differ in their behaviour across time and context. these stable differences are usually termed 'animal personality'. parasitism is known to significantly influence the evolution of animal personality at least in part because more explorative individuals may meet parasites more frequently than less explorative ones. previously, we have demonstrated that consistent individual differences (i.e. boldness, activity, exploration) can be measured in fi ...201626569455
[homoxenous trypanosomatids from true bugs pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) in the north of the pskov region].in the north of the pskov region (58 degrees 35' n, 28 degrees 55' e) the appearance of a single colony of true bugs pyrrhocoris apterus has been recorded. dissection of 95 individuals from this colony revealed 100% prevalence of infection with homoxenous trypanosomatids. in 3% of the cases intestinal infection was accompanied by hyperinvasion into the salivary glands and hemolyph of the hosts. analysis of trypanosomatid morphotypes demonstrated mixed infections in all studied p. apterus individ ...201525936172
why is the number of days required for induction of adult diapause in the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus fewer in the larval than in the adult stage?adult females of pyrrhocoris apterus, programmed for diapause by short-day (sd) photoperiod and those programmed for reproduction by long-day (ld) retain photoperiodic information in continuous darkness (dd) until death. however, if the interruption of sd by dd is made in the course of diapause programming in adults, then the incidence of diapause depends on the number of sd cycles received before dd, with no evidence that the photoperiodic clock is free-running at dd to complete diapause induct ...201525891916
molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and ultrastructural localization of adipokinetic hormones in the cns of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera, insecta).adipokinetic hormones (akhs) are a group of insect metabolic neurohormones, synthesized and released from an endocrine retrocerebral gland, the corpus cardiacum (cc). small amounts of akh have also been identified in the brain, although their role in this organ is not clear. to address this gap in the knowledge about insect brain biology, we studied the nucleotide sequence, tissue distribution, and subcellular localization of akhs in the brain and cc of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus. this inse ...201525449136
life cycle of blastocrithidia papi sp. n. (kinetoplastea, trypanosomatidae) in pyrrhocoris apterus (hemiptera, pyrrhocoridae).blastocrithidia papi sp. n. is a cyst-forming trypanosomatid parasitizing firebugs (pyrrhocoris apterus). it is a member of the blastocrithidia clade and a very close relative of b. largi, to which it is almost identical through its ssu rrna gene sequence. however, considering the sl rna gene these two species represent quite distinct, not even related typing units. morphological analysis of the new species revealed peculiar or even unique features, which may be useful for future taxonomic revis ...201728073072
brain norepinephrine identified by mass spectrometry is associated with reproductive status of females of the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus.several biogenic amines, including controversial presence of norepinephrine (ne), were identified by the high performance liquid chromatography equipped with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in brain complexes of adult females of pyrrhocoris apterus. quantitative analysis was performed by the high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detector. levels of ne, dopamine (da), octopamine (oa) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-ht) in brain complexes were measured in reproduct ...201424239678
adipokinetic hormone exerts its anti-oxidative effects using a conserved signal-transduction mechanism involving both pkc and camp by mobilizing extra- and intracellular ca2+ stores.the involvement of members of the adipokinetic hormone (akh) family in regulation of response to oxidative stress (os) has been reported recently. however, despite these neuropeptides being the best studied family of insect hormones, their precise signaling pathways in their os responsive role remain to be elucidated. in this study, we have used an in vitro assay to determine the importance of extra and intra-cellular ca(2+) stores as well as the involvement of protein kinase c (pkc) and cyclic ...201323845878
seasonal changes in minor membrane phospholipid classes, sterols and tocopherols in overwintering insect, pyrrhocoris apterus.ectotherm animals including insects are known to undergo seasonal restructuring of the cell membranes in order to keep their functionality and/or protect their structural integrity at low body temperatures. studies on insects so far focused either on fatty acids or on composition of molecular species in major phospholipid classes. here we extend the scope of analysis and bring results on seasonal changes in minor phospholipid classes, lysophospholipids (lpls), free fatty acids, phytosterols and ...201323845405
endocrine regulation of non-circadian behavior of circadian genes in insect gut.the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus exhibits a robust diapause response to photoperiod. photoperiod strongly affected basal levels of circadian gene transcripts in the gut, via the neuroendocrine system. cryptochrome 2 (cry2) mrna level was much higher in diapause promoting short days (sd) than in reproduction promoting long days (ld), while par domain protein 1 (pdp1) mrna level was higher in ld than in sd. the effect of photoperiod on gene expression was mediated by the neurosecretory cells of ...201323811190
next-generation sequencing sheds light on intricate regulation of insect gut microbiota.next-generation sequencing (ngs) technologies are getting cheaper and easier and hence becoming readily accessible for many researchers in biological disciplines including ecology. in this issue of molecular ecology, sudakaran et al. (2012) show how the ngs revolution contributes to our better and more comprehensive understanding of ecological interactions between gut symbiotic microbiota and the host organism. using the european red firebug pyrrhocoris apterus as a model system, they demonstrat ...201223355979
the effect of adipokinetic hormone on midgut characteristics in pyrrhocoris apterus l. (heteroptera).digestive processes and the effect of adipokinetic hormone (pyrap-akh) on the amount of nutrients (lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates), and on the activity of digestive enzymes (lipases, peptidases, and carbohydrases) were studied in the midgut of the firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus. the analyses were performed on samples of anterior (am), middle (mm) and posterior (pm) midgut parts. the results revealed that the digestion of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins take place in the acidic milieu. the ...201222119443
seasonal changes of free amino acids and thermal hysteresis in overwintering heteropteran insect, pyrrhocoris apterus.overwintering adults of pyrrhocoris apterus do not tolerate freezing of their body fluids and rely on a supercooling strategy and seasonal accumulation of polyols to survive at subzero body temperatures. we sampled the adults monthly in the field during the cold season 2008-2009 and found active thermal hysteresis factors (thfs) in hemolymph of winter-sampled adults. the hysteresis between the equilibrium melting and freezing points ranged from 0.18°c to 0.30°c. no signs of thfs activity were fo ...201121729762
comparative analysis of volatile defensive secretions of three species of pyrrhocoridae (insecta: heteroptera) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method.the true bugs (hemiptera: heteroptera) have evolved a system of well-developed scent glands that produce diverse and frequently strongly odorous compounds that act mainly as chemical protection against predators. a new method of non-lethal sampling with subsequent separation using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was proposed for analysis of these volatile defensive secretions. separation was performed on rtx-200 column containing fluorinated polysiloxane stationary phase. va ...201627997627
role of adipokinetic hormone in stimulation of salivary gland activities: the fire bug pyrrhocoris apterus l. (heteroptera) as a model species.the effect of adipokinetic hormone (pyrap-akh) in stimulating the function of insect salivary glands (sgs) in extra-oral digestive processes was studied in the firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus l. (heteroptera). the analyses were performed on samples of sgs and extracts of linden seeds, a natural source of the bug's food. the sgs from 3-day old p. apterus females (when the food ingestion culminates), primarily contained polygalacturonase (pg) enzyme activity, whereas the level of lipase, peptidase, a ...201424269343
species specificity of aldehyde and fatty acid profiles of four family group representatives within the insect infraorder pentatomomorpha (hemiptera: heteroptera).reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, including 4-oxoalk-2-enals, are known to be present in volatile secretions of numerous heteropteran insect species. because the aldehydes are likely to originate from metabolism of fatty acids (fas), the present study aimed to examine and compare the aldehyde and fa profiles of four model heteropteran species. the model species consisted of adult family group representatives within the infraorder pentatomomorpha (hemiptera: heteroptera): seed bug (lygaeus eque ...201728027605
the ability of lizards to identify an artificial batesian mimic.birds are usually considered the main predators shaping the evolution of aposematic signals and mimicry. nevertheless, some lizards also represent predominately visually oriented predators, so they may also play an important role in the evolution of aposematism. despite this fact, experimental evidence regarding the responses of lizards to aposematic prey is very poor compared to such evidence in birds. lizards possess very similar sensory and cognitive abilities to those of birds and their resp ...201728716358
beneficial effect of adipokinetic hormone on neuromuscular paralysis in insect body elicited by braconid wasp venom.the effect of habrobracon hebetor venom and the role of the adipokinetic hormone (akh) in poisoned adult females of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus were studied 24 and 48h after treatments. venom application elicited total neuromuscular paralysis in firebugs, but the co-application of venom and pyrap-akh significantly reduced paralysis (up to 3.2 times) compared to the application of venom only. although the mechanisms of their action are unknown, both agents might affect neuromuscular junctions ...201728257925
adipokinetic hormone activities in insect body infected by entomopathogenic nematode.the role of adipokinetic hormone (akh) in the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus adults infected by the entomopathogenic nematode (epn) steinernema carpocapsae was examined in this study. it was found that co-application of epn and akh enhanced firebug mortality about 2.5 times within 24h (from 20 to 51% in epn vs. epn+akh treatments), and resulted in metabolism intensification, as carbon dioxide production in firebugs increased about 2.1 and 1.6times compared to control- and epn-treated insects, respe ...201728254268
glycosidic juvenogens: derivatives bearing alpha,beta-unsaturated ester functionalities.a series of the protected alkyl glycosides 5a/5b-12a/12b was synthesized from the parent isomeric alcohols (insect juvenile hormone bioanalogs; juvenoids), 4-[4'-(2''-hydroxycyclohexyl)methylphenoxy]-3-methyl-but-2-enoic acid ethyl ester (1a/1b-4a/4b; racemic structures) and (1a-4a; enantiopure structures). cadmium carbonate was used as a promoter of this koenigs-knorr reaction, and the products were obtained in 82-92% yields. deprotection of the carbohydrate functionality of 5a/5b-12a/12b was c ...200717825568
photoperiodic and food signals control expression pattern of the clock gene, period, in the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus.the temporal expression pattern of the circadian clock gene period was compared between heads of the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus , kept under diapause-promoting short days (sd) and diapause-preventing long days (ld) using a real-time pcr quantification. diapause or reproduction was programmed by photoperiod during the larval stage, but the first difference in per mrna abundance between sd and ld insects was observed only after adult ecdysis. the expression level of per mrna was markedly high ...200717660450
20-hydroxyecdysone prevents oxidative stress damage in adult pyrrhocoris apterus.injections of 38 pmol paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bypyridilium) into adult pyrrhocoris apterus (average body weight 29.6 mg in males and 36.9 mg in females) caused a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and a decline of membrane fluidity in the microsomal brain fraction. another manifestation of oxidative stress was a depletion of the reduced glutathione pool and reduction of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the brain extracts. the damaging action o ...200717570141
adipokinetic hormone-induced enhancement of antioxidant capacity of pyrrhocoris apterus hemolymph in response to oxidative stress.the in vivo effects of oxidative stress on adipokinetic hormone (akh) titer in short-winged (brachypterous) males of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus were tested using paraquat (pq), a bipyridilium herbicide. pq undergoes a cyclic redox reaction with oxygen during microsomal and electron transfer reactions forming free radicals in the insect body. oxidative insult (40 pmol pq) resulted in enhanced protein carbonylation (a biomarker for oxidative stress) and a depletion of glutathione (gsh) pool i ...200717512258
novel roles for the corpus allatum hormone in the cost of sexual interactions in the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus.the cost of sexual interactions, usually expressed as a reduction of life-span, is a fundamental but poorly understood aspect of life. according to a widely accepted view, a rise in the "pro-aging" juvenile hormone (jh) might contribute to the decrease of life span caused by sexual interactions. we tested this hypothesis using the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus by removing the corpus allatum (ca), the source of jh. if jh is causally involved in the cost of sexual interactions, then the absence o ...201121315724
oxidative stress elicited by insecticides: a role for the adipokinetic hormone.adipokinetic hormones (akhs) are insect neuropeptides responding to stress situations including oxidative stress. two insecticides - endosulfan and malathion - were used to elicit oxidative stress conditions in the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus, and the physiological functions of akhs and their ability to activate protective antioxidative reactions were studied. the insecticide treatments elicited only a slight increase of the akh level in cns, but more intensive increase in haemolymph, which indi ...201121185291
individual behaviour in firebugs (pyrrhocoris apterus).the concept of animal personalities has recently become of major interest as researchers began to wonder why animals within a given population show consistent behaviour across situations and contexts, what led to the evolution of such behavioural inflexibility and what mechanisms might underlie the phenomenon. a recent model explains individual differences in a population as the result of trade-off between present and future reproduction. we tested this model on the two wing morphs, i.e. short-w ...201120826482
adipokinetic hormone (pyrap-akh) enhances the effect of a pyrethroid insecticide against the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus.adipokinetic hormones (akhs) are insect neuropetides controlling stress situations including those elicited by insecticide treatment. the effect of pyrap-akh on the mortality of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) treated with the insecticide permethrin (ambush 25 ec) was studied.201020013955
insect cold tolerance and repair of chill-injury at fluctuating thermal regimes: role of 70 kda heat shock protein expression.expression of heat shock proteins has been proposed as an underlying mechanism of increased cold tolerance in insects exposed to fluctuating thermal regimes (ftrs) in comparison to constant low temperatures (clts). we found that the levels of pahsp70 mrna increase by up to 3 orders in the linden bugs, pyrrhocoris apterus exposed to ftr -5 degree c (22h) and 25 degree c (2h). the 2h-long warm pulses, however, were not sufficient for accumulation of pahsp70 protein and thus no significant differen ...201719946654
juvenile hormone-stimulated synthesis of acyl-glycerols and vitamin e in female accessory sexual glands of the fire bug, pyrrhocoris apterus l.secretory cells of the female accessory sexual glands (ag) of p. apterus grow and produce yellow oily exocrine secretion in response to stimulation by endogenous juvenile hormone (jh) or exogenous treatments by jh analogues. the secretion determines the property of future egg shells by coating the chorion surface of the oocytes that are passing individually through the common uterus during oviposition. diapausing females with a physiologically inhibited endocrine system or females with artificia ...200919557854
multiple mechanisms generate the resting activity of filiform sensilla in the firebug (pyrrhocoris apterus l.; heteroptera).the resting activity was studied in filiform sensilla of the firebug (pyrrhocoris apterus). three functional types (t(1), t(2) and t(3)) were detected on the abdomen. a resting discharge of nerve impulses is present in all-always in types t(1) and t(2) and occasionally in type t(3). in t(1) the mean rate is 57, in t(2) 3.3 and in t(3) 0.5 imp/s. shortening the hair length had a negligible effect on the resting discharge, which indicates an intrinsic origin. the resting activity is highly tempera ...200919381645
[study of intrapopulation variability of duration and thermal norms of development of the linden bug pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera, pyrrhocoridae)].the existence of significant variability in duration and temperature norms of development has been shown for the first time between families within insect populations. this variability is infer-family and therefore has genetic basis. revealed for the first time is the statistically significant positive correlations between the regression coefficient of the rate of development for temperature and the threshold of temperature for development of eggs and larvae from different families. the greater ...200919198159
stimulatory effects of bioamines norepinephrine and dopamine on locomotion of pyrrhocoris apterus (l.): is the adipokinetic hormone involved?in the present paper we studied the effects of five biogenic amines - norepinephrine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin and histamine - on the locomotory activity and mobilization of lipids in the adult females of the firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus (l.). we tested the hypothesis (1) whether the stimulation of walking activity in the bugs injected with the bioamines is associated also with their hyperlipaemic effects, like in the case of adipokinetic hormones (akhs), and (2) whether these effects are ...200818707014
[the first proof of a possibility of change of temperature norms of insect development as a result of artificial selection for rapid or slow development by the example of the red soldier bug pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera: pyrrhocoridae)].for 3-4 generations, selection of the most rapidly and slowly developing nymphs at 28 degrees c was performed on four families of the red soldier bug pyrrhocoris apterus l. in each generation, duration of development of nymphs was determined at 5 constant temperatures from 20 degrees c to 28 degrees c. from these data there were calculated the linear regression coefficient of the development rate for temperature (the coefficient of the thermolability of development) and the temperature developme ...200918669278
differential allocation of protein resources to flight muscles and reproductive organs in the flightless wing-polymorphic bug, pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) (heteroptera).differences in the growth of dorsolongitudinal flight muscles and gonads in 1-28 days old long-winged (macropterous) and short-winged (brachypterous) adults of the firebug (pyrrhocoris apterus l.) and the resource allocation to these organs were studied by means of total protein analysis. we found predominant allocation of food resources to flight muscles compared to reproductive organs in both macropterous males and females during the first 5 days of adult life. subsequent histolysis of develop ...200817901960
seasonal acquisition of chill tolerance and restructuring of membrane glycerophospholipids in an overwintering insect: triggering by low temperature, desiccation and diapause progression.adults of the insect pyrrhocoris apterus acquire chill tolerance through the process of autumnal acclimatization. field and laboratory experiments were conducted to separate the triggering effects of low temperatures, desiccation and diapause progression on the physiological characteristics related to chill tolerance with emphasis on the restructuring of glycerophospholipid (gpl) composition. changes in relative proportions of major molecular species of glycerophosphoethanolamines (gpetns) and g ...200617023604
flight muscles polymorphism in a flightless bug, pyrrhocoris apterus (l.): developmental pattern, biochemical profile and endocrine control.the flightless bug pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) is polymorphic for both wing length and flight muscle development. the developed flight muscles of macropterous adults of both sexes first enlarge their volume during the first 5 days after adult emergence, but are then histolyzed in all males and females older than 10 and 14 days, respectively. the flight muscles of brachypterous adult males and females are underdeveloped due to their arrested growth. the total protein content of histolyzed dorsolongi ...200616388820
photoperiodic regulation of the phospholipid molecular species composition in thoracic muscles and fat body of pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera) via an endocrine gland, corpus allatum.in the conventional view, the winter adaptation of membrane lipids is induced by temperature decrease. we propose that winter remodelling of membranes in pyrrhocoris apterus is triggered by short-day photoperiod before the temperature decrease and changes caused by cold temperature represent the later phase of adaptation. the induction of diapause by short-day photoperiod results in an accumulation of phosphatidylethanolamine (pe) molecular species with c(16:0)/c(18:2) acyl chains esterified to ...200212770024
developmental and diel changes of adipokinetic hormone in cns and haemolymph of the flightless wing-polymorphic bug, pyrrhocoris apterus (l.).we have used an enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) for determination of the akh content in cns (brain + corpora cardiaca + corpora allata) and haemolymph of adult macropterous and brachypterous females of the bug pyrrhocoris apterus. the tests revealed that the akh content fluctuates between 1 and almost 4 pmol/cns during the first 14 days of adult life and significantly increased in order diapausing brachypters<reproductive brachypters<macropters. the titre of akh in haemolymph is detectable mos ...200312770016
identification of the cockroach neuropeptide pea-cah-ii as a second adipokinetic hormone in the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus.a new member of the akh/rpch family was isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus. it is the second adipokinetic peptide identified in this species. the peptide was characterized and its structure was deduced from the multiple ms(n) electrospray mass spectra as that of an octapeptide with the sequence pglu-leu-thr-phe-thr-pro-asn-trp-nh(2.) the peptide differs from the original p. apterus akh (pya-akh) by one amino acid in position 3. topical application and/or inject ...200211836011
regulation of corpora allata in females of pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera) (a mini-review).mechanisms for the transduction of photoperiodic and food signals to the corpus allatum (ca) are described. the focus of this paper is on the control of the ca by the brain in adult females of the firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus. by using surgical interventions to the neuroendocrine complex of brain-subesophageal ganglion-corpora cardiaca-ca (br-sg-cc-ca) in vivo and in vitro we were able to identify two regulatory pathways. (1) slow regulation of the ca activity (stimulation or inhibition) needs a ...200111710430
wing morph-specific differences in the metabolism and endocrine control of reserve mobilization in adult males of a flightless bug, pyrrhocoris apterus (l.) (heteroptera).the differences in the metabolism and endocrine control of reserve mobilization in long-winged (macropterous) and short-winged (brachypterous) males of a flightless firebug (pyrrhocoris apterus) were studied. we found that protein content in the gut was significantly lower in 5-10 day-old macropterous males due to their fasting and higher in 28 day-old ones than in the same aged brachypterous counterparts as the result of renewed food intake. overall protease activity was significantly lower in ...200516088393
is period gene causally involved in the photoperiodic regulation of reproductive diapause in the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus?earlier experiments demonstrated a strong up-regulation of per mrna in wild-type (wt) females of pyrrhocoris apterus reared under diapause-inducing short days, while per mrna levels were low in females of two non-diapause mutant strains (nd), irrespective of photoperiod. in the present study, different sequences of per dna in two strains of geographically different origin enabled us to analyse genetic linkage between the per gene and the nd phenotype. crosses between wt females originating from ...200515993130
the effect of insecticide on adipokinetic hormone titre in the insect body.the effect of an insecticide, permethrin (ambush 25 ec), on the titre of two adipokinetic hormones in the central nervous system (cns) and haemolymph of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus (l) was tested. doses of 2.5, 12.5 and 25 ng of the insecticide elicited no significant effect on the titre of the adipokinetic peptides in cns, but caused their dramatic elevation in the haemolymph of both macropterous and reproductive brachypterous bugs. changes in diapausing brachypterous bugs were minimal and ...200515966049
ectoparasitic mite hemipteroseius adleri (acari: otopheidomenidae) on the red firebug pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera: pyrrhocoridae). 200515792104
cyclization of pyrrhocoricin retains structural elements crucial for the antimicrobial activity of the native peptide.pyrrhocoricin is a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide from the european fire bug pyrrhocoris apterus. it has submicromolar activity against a range of gram-negative bacterial strains and has created recent interest as a lead for the development of novel antibiotic compounds. in this study, we have used nmr spectroscopy to determine the solution structures of pyrrhocoricin and a synthetic macrocyclic derivative that has improved in vivo pharmaceutical properties. native pyrrhocoricin is la ...200415478127
adjustments of the enzymatic complement for polyol biosynthesis and accumulation in diapausing cold-acclimated adults of pyrrhocoris apterus.the capacity to accumulate winter polyols (mainly ribitol and sorbitol) during cold-acclimation in pyrrhocoris apterus is restricted only to the adults that have previously entered diapause. the enzymatic complement involved in polyol biosynthesis was found to differ in a complex manner between diapause and non-diapause adults. nearly 100% of glycogen phosphorylase (gpase) was present in its active form in non-diapause adults irrespective of their acclimation status. in contrast, less than 40% o ...200415081823
photoperiodic regulation of diapause in linden bugs: are period and clock genes involved?although photoperiodism is undoubtedly one of the most important functions of the circadian system, the role of circadian clock genes remains unclear. we compared the expression of period and clock genes in the head of the linden bug, pyrrhocoris apterus, kept under diapause promoting short days (sd) and diapause-preventing long days (ld), using an rnase protection assay. there was only a weak diurnal rhythm in both period and clock mrna under ld and no rhythm under sd. under sd, however, the le ...200314625693
a quantitative study of adipokinetic hormone of the firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus.the development of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (elisa) for the adipokinetic neuropeptide hormone, pya-akh, from the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus l. is described. the elisa measures as little as 20 fmol of pya-akh. tested against a range of synthetic peptides, the assay has a high sensitivity for peptides containing the c-terminal motif ftpnwamide. the amounts of pya-akh in the brain, corpora cardiaca, suboesophageal ganglia, and fused thoracic and abdominal ganglionic mass are very small, with o ...200212770033
capillary electrophoresis of pterin derivatives responsible for the warning coloration of heteroptera.a new capillary electrophoretic (ce) method has been developed for analysis of 10 selected derivatives of pterin that can occur in the integument (cuticle) of true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera), specifically l-sepiapterin, 7,8-dihydroxanthopterin, 6-biopterin, d-neopterin, pterin, isoxanthopterin, leucopterin, xanthopterin, erythropterin and pterin-6-carboxylic acid. pterin derivatives are responsible for the characteristic warning coloration of some heteroptera and other insects, signa ...201424602308
insect pest management agents: hormonogen esters (juvenogens).the chemical part of this investigation focused on designing structures and synthesizing a series of six new esters (juvenogens), derived from biologically active insect juvenile hormone bioanalogues (juvenoids, jhas) and unsaturated short-chain linear and branched fatty acids for possible application as biochemically targeted insect hormonogen agents. the structures of the new compounds were assigned on the basis of a detailed nmr analysis of their (1)h and (13)c nmr spectra. the biological par ...200717691805
characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor of the anautogenous flesh fly, sarcophaga crassipalpis.adipokinetic hormone (akh) is an insect neuropeptide mainly involved in fat body energy mobilization. in flies (phormia regina, sarcophaga crassipalpis), bugs (pyrrhocoris apterus) and cockroaches (periplaneta americana) akh was also demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of digestion. this makes akh an important peptide for anautogenous female flies that need to feed on a supplementary protein meal to initiate vitellogenesis, the large scale synthesis of yolk proteins and their uptake by ...201627063262
cryoprotective role of polyols independent of the increase in supercooling capacity in diapausing adults of pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera: insecta).diapausing cold-acclimated adults of the bug pyrrhocoris apterus accumulate four 'winter' polyols, ribitol, sorbitol, mannitol and arabinitol, in total concentrations of up to 100 mm. the accumulation started only when the temperatures dropped below a threshold of +5 degrees c in laboratory acclimated insects. the supercooling capacity (scp) was not affected by polyol accumulation and remained constant at approximately -17 degrees c. cold hardiness, measured as survival time (lt50) at -15 degree ...200111567899
effect of thermoperiod on diapause intensity in pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera pyrrhocoridae).the intensity of adult diapause in pyrrhocoris apterus was measured in two series of experiments as the duration of pre-oviposition period at a constant temperature of 25 degrees c after transfer from short (12l:12d) to long day conditions (18l:6d). higher diapause intensity was induced with a thermoperiod than at constant temperatures. after the induction throughout larval instars 3-5 and during 4 weeks of adult life at short days and a thermoperiod of 25/15 degrees c the pre-oviposition period ...200111033167
overwintering strategy in pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera): the relations between life-cycle, chill tolerance and physiological adjustments.seasonal dynamics of ecophysiological parameters are described which are relevant to overwintering in field-collected adults of a czech population of the red firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus. five life-cycle phases were distinguished using the duration of pre-oviposition period as a criterion: reproductive activity (spring-early summer), intensification of reproductive diapause (rd) (peak of summer), maintenance of rd (late summer-early autumn), termination of rd (late autumn-early winter), and low ...200010844151
a new member of the akh/rpch family that stimulates locomotory activity in the firebug, pyrrhocoris apterus (heteroptera).a new member of the akh/rpch family was isolated and identified from the corpora cardiaca of the firebug pyrrhocoris apterus. the peptide was isolated in a single step by reversed phase hplc and the structure deduced from the multiple ms (ms(n)) electrospray mass spectra and amino acid analysis as that of an octapeptide with the sequence pglu-leu-asn-phe-thr-pro-asn-trp-nh(2): this sequence was confirmed by synthesis. the synthetic peptide induced lipid mobilisation and stimulated locomotory act ...200010802240
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